MUS APPRECIATION MUS 1751
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Catharine Reilly on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MUS 1751 at Louisiana State University taught by W. Delony in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see /class/222487/mus-1751-louisiana-state-university in Music at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Chapter 5 Early Music Middle Ages and before 1 539quot F 0quot The periods of music 18901918 Music is universal That is it is present in all cultures and in all periods of time There is a problem however with clearly describing our very earliest music For the Stone Age for example we gather a few facts about the time because of cave drawings but there is no counterpart in music to these visual images Even later when specific historical events could be recorded accurately in writing sounds of the time could not Of course there were no sound recorders and the beginning and evolution of musical notation were much behind that of the written word Before musical notation evolved our best source about early music came from images of instruments some of which have survived on vases and other such visual representations Also occasional artifacts such as bone fragments have been identified as portions of very early crudelymade instruments But because music is known to be quotuniversalquot we know that music was a part of the nature of quotmanquot who had a voice an imagination and a creative mind And we know the types of natural sounds which may be produced as well as the simplicity of constructing quotsoundquot instruments from animal skin and bones With the advent ofa crude musical notation which later evolved into our present system the music of the Middle Ages and after is adequately documented So we will be able in this class to listen to authenticallyrepresented music as early as the 12th and 13th centuries For instance we are listening to Saltarello an Italian instrumental dance written in the 13th century This selection is representative of the secular music of the time Information from the internet about the 14thcentury composer Landini should provide a deeper understanding about early music Music written even as late as the 16th and 17th centuries when many works and composers are evident may sound strange to our ears And much of the music performed today was written after 1675 late Baroque Period This then is why the great majority of the music and composers selected for this class is from the 18th century and after But for the sake of knowing something of the history and evolution of music before the 18th century this short topic on quotearly musicquot is presented The label quotearly musicquot has not been coined here musicologists generally use the term for preBaroque works 6 The following hyperlink is very important to your understanding of music of the Middle Ages There is important content there that you may not find elsewhere in this textbook You might notice that it comes from a special quotInternet Public Libraryquot where you have already read a summary of all of the periods This reading is in more depth the hyperlinks for information on composers topics and terms should be pursued Listening to sound clips is not required 7 The following musical terms composers and topics are those ofwhich you should have specific knowledge Please return to the previous page and reread the related information The terms below are presented with a white background so you may easily copy this page Ordinary of the Mass G 39 h t regor39an C an five parts M achaut troubadours trouveres Pythagoras secular music in Leon39 the Middle Ages p0 iyphony Perot39 Greek modes Pope Gregory I organum Messe de Notre Dame h N t D Le Jeu de Robin et Marion monop onlc 0 re ame Adam de la Halle 8 After finishing this topic listen to the following works from your Listening Library found on CD2 tracks 5 and 6 They are short and have no listening guide so listen to each at least three times These selections are quite different musically from the music you have already heard As you listen try to describe them with common adjectives or with some of the musical terms you have learned Saltarello is an Italian instrumental dance written in the 13th century It is representative of the secular music of the time Venit dilectus is an example of sacred music of the early 12th century 9 Ifyou feel you now have a good grasp of the material presented in this topic go ahead to the next topic Ifnot go through this topic once again The practice quiz questions on the Middle Ages are grouped with the Renaissance and early Baroque topics They will be presented later This is the end of this topic You may continue to the next topic by clicking next topic above Renaissance 2 History books consider the 15th and 16th centuries as a great cultural awakeninga quotrebirthquot Because of this the period has been labeled the quotRenaissancequot There was a broad quot oweringquot of the arts and sciences And music39s evolution was rather dramatic developing over these two hundred years a notational system sophisticated compositional techniques and a freer musical expression less bound to Church traditions 3 Music became more complex more and more composers were writing in a contrapuntal texture Where the more simple monophonic chants and homophonic songs dominated both sacred and secular styles polyphonic sounds represented a freer and more open artistic expression Such expression was also the case in aspects of life other than music This evolving emphasis on intellectual and artistic pursuits linked to less restrictions brought about such notable figures as Martin Luther and William Shakespeare Notice that some of the terms which are in boldface may have been introduced on the internet rather than directly in this textbook Especially in these topics related to specific periods you should determine definitions of unfamiliar terms A good practice for defining most of the terms in this text is to use the Encarta link You are being introduced to a good number of musical terms that you have never heard Especially those that are not derivatives ofmore common terms should certainly be pursued For example you may use logic in determining what monophonic music is but you may struggle with contrapuntal Contrapuntal is a form of the term counterpoint which may already have use in your vocabulary and counterpoint and polyphonic are for our purposes synonymous ENCARTA monophonic monna fonnik adjective Definition using one channel to reproduce sound using only one channel to carry sound from the source to the loudspeaker contrapuntal kontra punt39l adjective Definition displaying counterpoint describes polyphonic music with very active and strongly differentiated parts Mid19th century lt Italian contrapunto quotcounterpointquot lt punto quotpointquot lt Latin punctum see point homophonic homma fonnik h ma fonnik Definition 1 relating to homophony relating to part music in which the parts move together in simple harmonization 2 linguistics Same as homophonous sense 1 polyphonic pollee fonnik adjective Definition 1 with several melodies describes music consisting of two or more largely independent melodic lines parts or voices that sound simultaneously 2 with several possible pronunciations describes a letter or character that may be pronounced in several different ways 3 playing several notes together describes a ringtone on a cell phone that plays several notes or sounds simultaneously making it sound more musical 4 The output of musical masterpieces increased rapidly and wonderful works for the Church were written during this time Secular music thrived as well with works for vocal groups such as madrigals as well as music for instruments The choice ofinstruments however was limited and this led most composers when writing for them not to stipulate specific instruments For the most part instruments played in the vocal ranges and so the written music could be played by whatever instruments were available 5 Much more information on Renaissance music is available While the music is not performed today as much as music from later periods we do hear Renaissance sacred music frequently and quotearly musicquot groups today perform both sacred and secular Renaissance music Because it is different from music written after 1600 however we rarely hear Renaissance music as a part of a broader recital or concert In the early topic on the overview of the music periods you visited the Internet Public Library and read a brief summary of all the periods Now return there and read about the Renaissance in more detail Except for the music clips pursue the additional links that the IPL provides in this section on music of the Renaissance 6This is a reminder that the internet site from which you have just returned has important links Except for the listening clips you may need to revisit some or all of these sites before leaving this topic 7Now you should know something of the following musical topics terms and composers from the Renaissance If they are not familiar to you please again return and read the information provided English madrigal Iosqunl des Pres motet Palestrlna Martin Luther mass Michelangelo polyphony Pope M arce lbs NDaeeen Shakespeare 0 rlando Ellzabeth I Glbbons Identify com oser of En lish madri als types ofsecu Iar m usic ofihe Renaissance English madrigal lOSql n deS Pr s motet Palestrina mass Martin Luther polyphony Pope M arce lbs 0M1 ass MiChelangelo Ellzabethl Shakespeare 0 r lando Gibbons Identify composer of English madrigals types ofsecu Iar m usic ofih e R ena issance 8 As you listen to a short excerpt of sacred music by Palestrina consider that perhaps he is the greatest composer of the period Be sure that when considering who might be a representative musician of the late Renaissance you remember his name and something about him 9 The composers listed below have been recently introduced Ifyou have not already done so you should read a short biography of them on the Composer Master Index From it determine as a minimum their nationality the period of time in which they lived andthe names of one or more of their compositions Iosquin des Pres Composers39 Index under I Gibbons Palestrina 10 This is the end of this topic To continue in this textbook click next topic above rather than next page The practice quiz questions for this topic are grouped with the Middle Ages and early Baroque topics You may wait until after the next topic to use that practice quiz The early Baroque 2 The transition from the late Renaissance to the early Baroque is a good example of how period labels evolve It was during this turn of the century from the 16th to the 17th that opera was born That is not to say that earlier works specifically liturgical dramas were not similar to opera But opera as we know it today has its roots in the very early Baroque period 3 So a major change took place in music and with it came a more homophonic style Renaissance music had become increasingly compleX and polyphonic and such a shift in the preferred teXture of music was rather dramatic Of course homophony lends itself to opera where a single melody is sung with a supporting accompaniment 4 Note that this period of time 16001675 is not the time of Bach and Handel who are known as the greatest of Baroque composers The preferred teXture oflate Baroque composers would again be polyphonic just as with the late Renaissance This major contrast in teXture between early and late Baroque music is why the sub period labels seem important 5 The rise of opera dominates the first half of the 17th century in music history But it is also a time of continued evolution both of sacred and secular music This evolution would reach a climaX only in the late Baroque the first period when for the most part works were written which are widely performed today 6 Although the review of this subperiod may seem rather limited most of the related material deals with early opera A more complete understanding will come after the presentation of the neXt topic on the late Baroque 7This is a time of dominance ofItalian music an observation that can be made over and over again when related to opera The first great opera composer was an ItalianClaudio Monteverdi Monteverdi pictured below was composing at the beginning of the Baroque Period 8It is important that you again visit the Internet Public Library and read more detail about the Baroque Period Since this topic is only related to the period up to about 1675 you need to read only two topics at this site The Beginning of Opera and the composer Monteverdi 9 The internet site from which you have just returned also has important links You may need to revisit some or all of those links before leaving this topic Hyperlinks which provide sound clips normally need not be pursued but nevertheless Monteverdi39s examples should be heard 10 Ifyou know something about each of the following along with the boldfaced definitions used in this topic you probably have gained the basic information found in the Internet Public Library about this subperiod the Early Baroque Monteverdi Orfeo beginning of opera importance of Florence Italy 11Monteverdi especially is an important composer who has been introduced in this topic You may have missed his biograhy on an earlier page so return to it now From it determine as a minimum his nationality the period of time in which he lived the names of one or more of his compositions 12 This is the end of this topic Click neXt topic above to continue reading this textbook or depart from the textbook and take the related practice quiz There is an appropriate practice quiz Q14 which is rather important to take when you complete this topic It covers the last three topics from Middle Ages and Before through Early Baroque
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