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by: Velma Toy


Velma Toy
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T. Cu

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T. Cu
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Velma Toy on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ISDS 2001 at Louisiana State University taught by T. Cu in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see /class/222498/isds-2001-louisiana-state-university in Info Systems & Decision Sciences at Louisiana State University.

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Date Created: 10/13/15
ISDS 2001 TEST 2 Chapter 1 11 CHANGING BUSINESS ENVIRONMENTS amp COMPUTERIZED DECISION SUPPORT A THE BUSINESS PRESSURES RESPONSES SUPPORT MODEL The Business Environment Learn the model developed by the authors as a means of explaining why companies are embracing IT support 1 Organizational Responses Be Reactive Anticipative Adaptive and Proactive 0 Business PressuresResponseSupport Model Describe the three components of the business pressureresponsesupport model see slides text and notes 0 Business pressures that result from today s business climate responses by companies to counter the pressure or to take advantage of the opportunities available in the environment and computerized support that facilitates the monitoring of the environment and enhances the response actions taken by organizations List the major pressuresfactors in today s business environment that facilitate change The factors that facilitate change are 1 Markets 2 Consumer Demands 3 TechnologyRelated 4Societalsee slidestext and notes 0 O O Markets7Strong competition expanding global markets booming electronic markets on the internet innovative marketing methods opportunities for outsourcing with information technology support need for real time on demand transactions Consumer demandsiDesire for customization desire for quality diversity of products and speed of delivery customers getting powerful and less loyal TechnologyiMore innovations new products and new services increasing obsolescence rate increasing information overload social networking web 20 and beyond SocietalgGrowing government regulations and deregulation workforce more diversi ed older and composed of more women prime concerns of homeland security and terrorist attacks necessity of Sarbanes Oxley Act and other reporting related legislation increasing social responsibility of companies greater emphasis on susainablility 0 List some of the major responses taken by organizations see slidestext and notes 0 Employ strategic planning use new and innovative business models restructure business processes participate in business alliances improve corporate information systems improve partnership relationships encourage innovation and creativity improve customer service and relationships more to electronic commerce move to make to order production and on demand manufacturing and services use new IT to improve communication data access and collaboration respond quickly to competitors actions automate many tasks of white collar employees automate certain decision processes especially those dealing with customers improve decision making by employing analytics Understand strategy gap One of the major objectives of BI is to reduce the gap between the CURRENT performance actual execution of an organization and its DESIRED performance business plan as expressed in its mission objectives and goals and the strategy for achieving them Understand a strategic imperative 12 A FRAMEWORK FOR BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE BI A DEFINITIONS OF BIAND KNOW ITS PURPOSE Business Intelligence BI is an umbrella term that includes architectures tools databases applications and other methodologies aimed at getting current historical and predictive views of business operations for purposes of making better business decisions B A BRIEF HISTORY OF BI Know the history of BI in the time periods 1970s 80s 90s and 2000s seeslides text and notes 0 70 siOriginal BI concept called Management Information Systems 0 80 siThe concept of executive information systems emerged This concept expanded the computerized support to toplevel managers and executives 90 sithe BI term was coined y the Gartner Group 2000 s7BI systems started to include arti cial intelligence capabilities as well as powerful analytical capabilities C THE ARCHITECTURE OF BI List and describe the four major components of BIsee slides text and notes 1 statistical tools 4 Data Warehousingicomerstone of any mediumtolarge BI system Originally only stored historical data recently began storing some current data also A physical repository where relational data are specially organized to provide enterprisewide cleansed data in a standardized form Business AnalyticsiThe application of models directly to business data Business analytics involve using DSS tools especially models in assisting decision makers It is essentially OLAPDSS Two major categories of BA 1 Reports and queries 2 Data text and web mining and other sophisticated mathematical and OApplication Case 11 Location Location Location Business Performance Management Also referred to as corporate performance management is an emerging portfolio of applications within the BI framework that provides enterprises tools they need to better manage their operations The User Interface Dashboards and Other InformationBroadcasting Tools Provides a comprehensive graphicalpictorial view of corporate performance measures trends and exceptions D STYLES OF BI Not in the test E THE BENEFITS OF BI List the major bene ts of BIsee slides notes and text The ability to provide accurate information when needed including a realtime View of the corporate performance and its parts Know from Table 12 what analytical application answers what business question 9 Application Case 12 Alltel Wireless Delivering the Right Message to the Right Customers at the Right Time F AUTOMATED DECISION MAKING ADS 1 Automated Decision Systems ADS is a rulebased system that provides a solution in one functional area eg finance marketing manufacturing etc to a repetitive managerial problem usually in one industry Some examples are provide a credit score accept deny a loan application determine price of a store item recommend item to purchase 9 Application Case 13 Giant Food Stores Prices the Entire Store 2 Event driven alerts examples 13 INTELLIGENCE CREATION AND USE AND BI GOVERNANCE A A CYCLICAL PROCESS OF INTELLIGENCE CREATION AND USE Describe 4 components of BI governance see slides notes and text Create categories of projects de ne criteria for project selection determine and set a framework for managing project risk manage and leverage project interdependencies continuously monitor and adjust the composition of the portfolio B INTELLIGENCE AND ESPIONAGE Understand competitive intelligence vs espionage 14 TRANSACTION PROCESSING VERSUS ANALYTIC PROCESSING See chapter 2 text 15 SUCCESSFUL BI IMPLEMENTATION A THE TYPICAL BI USER COMMUNITY Includes all levels of the management hierarchy not just the top executives B APPROPRIATE PLANNING AND ALIGNMENT WITH BUSINESS STRATEGY Identify major factors are important in successful BI implementation for successful BI implementation seeslides notes and text Describe other issues to consider when implementing BI 1 Develop or Acquire BI SystemsiDeveloping everything from scratch buyingleasing a complete system using a shell BI system and customizing it 2Justify and Prioritize by way of CostBenefit Analysisilt is easier to quantify costs harder to quantify benefits most of them are intangibles 3 Security and Privacy of Employees Needs to be Protected7Still an important research topic in BI 4Integration of Systems and ApplicationsiBI must integrate into the existing IS Often sits on top of ERP SCM CRM systems Integration to outside partners of the extended enterprise via internetcustomers vendors government agencies etc 9 End of Chapter Case Vodafone New Zealand Ltd You should know how to apply BI modelframework for the following Case Studiesand in terms of problem definition solution and bene t and any other points we made in class Chapte 1 2 3 Chapte 1 2 r 1 Norfolk Southern Opening Vignette Wandsworth Primary Care Trust Case Hoyt Highland Partners Case 11 r 2 DirecTV Opening Vignette Enterprise Rental DW is built by Teradata Corp635 minutes 7 Posted on Moodle Enterprise Data Warehouse Delivers Cost Savings and Process Ef ciencies for NCR Case 21 First American Corporation Case 22 Alltel Wireless Case 12 Giant Food Stores Case 13 Vodafone End of Ch Case BP Lubricants Achieves BIGS Success Case 23 Hokuriku CocaCola Bottling Company Case 24 page 50 HP Consolidates Hundreds of Data Marts into a Single EDW Case 25 Continental Airlines End of Chapter Case 21 22 23 DATA A DATA Chapter 2 WAREHOUSING DEFINITIONS AND CONCEPTS WHAT IS A DATA WAREHOUSE WHY IS DW NEEDED The data warehouse is a collection of integrated subjectoriented databases designed to support DSS functions where each unit of data is nonvolatile and relevant to some moment in time CHARACTERISTICS OF DATA WAREHOUSING The four major characteristics of data warehousing and what each means Subj ect oriented integrated timevariant nonvolatile The three main types of Data Warehouses and their de nitions Data Mart Dependent or Independent Operational Data Stores ODS and Enterprise data warehouses EDW DATA MARTS A departmental data warehouse that stores only relevant data Dependent Data martiA subset that is created directly from a data warehouse Independent Data martiA small data warehouse designed for a strategic business unit or a department OPERATIONAL DATA STORES A type of database often used as an interim area for a data warehouse A type of database often used as an interim area for a data warehouse ENTERPRISE DATA WAREHOUSES EDW Application Case 21 Enterprise Data Warehouse Delivers Cost Savings and Process Ef ciencies METADATA Definition of metadata and be able to identify examples of three metadata types and two alternatives of metadata management Data about data In a data warehouse metadata describe the contents of a data warehouse its structure meaning syntax and the manner of it acquisition and use WAREHOUSING PROCESS OVERVIEW The major components of the data warehouse process and describe those components Data Sources ETL Enterprise Database with Metadata Data Marts Middleware Tools 9 Application Case 22 Data Warehousing Supports First American Corporation s Corporate Strategy DATA WAREHOUSING ARCHITECTURES Understand threetiered and twotiered architectures and know the advantages and disadvantages of each Understand the architecture of webbased data warehousing Understand database server application server and client workstation Threetier architectureiData acquisition software the data warehouse that contains the data and so ware client software that allows users to access and analyze data from the warehouse Twotier architectureiFirst 2 tiers in threetier architecture is combined into one 24 25 A ALTERNATIVE DATA WAREHOUSING ARCHITECTURES The alternative data warehouse architectures and their basic conceptualizations independent data marts data mart bus hubandspoke centralized and federateddata warehouse Understand pros and cons of each architecture B WHICH ARCHITECTURE IS THE BEST The assessment on information quality data consistency and system quality The issues considered when deciding on the architecture to use a Which database management system DBMS should be used b Will parallel processing andor partitioning be used c Will data migration tools be used to load the data warehouse d What tools will be used to support data retrieval and analysis DATA INTEGRATION AND THE EXTRACTIONTRANSFORMATON AND LOAD ETL PROCESS A DATA INTEGRATION Data integration requires three major processes data access data federation change capture and what each means Concepts of enterprise application integration EAI and enterprise information integration EII EAliA technology that provides a vehicle for pushing data from source systems into a data warehouse EIliAn evolving tool space that promises realtime data integration from a variety of sources such as relational databases web services and multidimensional databases Application Case 23 BP Lubricants Achieves BIGS Success B EXTRACTION TRANSFORMATION AND LOAD Understand ETL process Extraction reading data from one or more databases Transformation converting data from their original form to whatever form the DW needs Loading putting the transformed data into the DW DATA WAREHOUSE DEVELOPMENT Application Case 24 Things Go Better with Coke s DataWarehouse A DATA WAREHOUSE DEVELOPMENT APPROACHES l The Inmon Model The EDW Approach 2 The Kimball Model The Data Mart Approach 3 Differences bw the two approaches 9 Application Case 25 HP Consolidates Hundreds of Data Marts into a Single EDW B REPRESENTATION OF DATA IN DATA WAREHOUSE Star schema consists of a central FACT table surrounded by several DHVIENSION tables de nition description and examples of both the fact table and the dimensional table vs Snow ake schema an extension of star schema where the diagram resembles a snow ake in shape Star SchemaiThe most commonly used and the simplest style of dimensional modeling Contain a fact table surrounded by and connected to several dimension tables Fact table contains the descriptive attributes numerical values needed to perform decision analysis and query reporting Dimension tables contain classification and aggregation information about the values in the fact table Hosted Data Warehouses Outsourcing 27 28 C OLAP VERSUS OLTP Comparison bw OLAP and OLTP OLAP Online analytical processingiA system is designed to address the need of information extraction by providing effectively and efficiently ad hoc analysis of organizational data The main focus is on effectiveness OLTP Online transaction processingiA system that is primarily responsible for capturing and storing data related to daytoday business functions such as ERP CRM SCM POS The main focus is on ef ciency of routine tasks D OLAP OPERATIONS Know basic OLAP Operations SliceiA subset of a multidimensional array DiceiA slice on more than two dimensions Drill downupiNavigating among levels of data ranging from the most summarized up to the most detailed down Roll upiComputing all the data relationships for one or more dimensions PivotiUsed to change the dimensional orientation of a report or an ad lroc querypage display See slides for an example Variations of OLAP ROLAP MOLAP HOLAP E MASSIVE DATA WAREHOUSES AND SCALABILITY De nition of scalability the ability to accommodate increases in activityvolume without major changes to the process efficiency REALTIME DATA WAREHOUSING Realtime or active DW is the process of loading and providing data by way of a data warehouse as they become available Enterprise decision evolution Traditional vs realtime DW Application Case 27 Egg Plc Fries the Competition in NearRealTime ADMINISTRATION SECURITY ISSUES AND FUTURE TREND Data warehouse administrator7Should have the knowledge of highperformance software hardware and networking technologies possess solid business knowledge and insight be familiar with the decisionmaking processes so as to suitably designmaintain the data warehouse structure possess excellent communication skills Security and privacy information7Safeguarding the most valuable assets Government regulations Must be explicitly planned and executed Future trend of DW7SourcingOpen source software SaaS software as a service cloud computing DW appliances InfrastructureRealtime DW data management practivestechnologies inmemory processing new DBMS advanced analytics


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