LDRSHP CONCPTSPRIN HRE 3723
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This 205 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brayan Harber on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HRE 3723 at Louisiana State University taught by E. Holton in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see /class/222507/hre-3723-louisiana-state-university in Human Resource Education at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Chapter 10 Video Notes Video 1 Nemo Team Work from Easy Pha max Scene when Dorie is stuck in a sh net and Nemo and Marlin get all of the sh to swim down together and break out of the net Video 2 Validation Story of a valet who validated everyone he spoke to He went to the DMV and couldn t make Veronica the woman who took license photos smile He then became distraught and didn t smile anymore He was later asked to take a couples picture while they were on vacation in which he was able to validate people again and take pictures of them with sincere smiles One day he validated a woman in a wheel chair who happened to be Veronica s mother who hadn t smiled since she became ill By making Veronica s mother smile Veronica found the strength to smile again They found each other and then lived happily ever after Video 3 Oprah Winfrey My Inspiration Pictures of Oprah Winfrey with awesome people and doing awesome things 7 the usual Listen to Your Heart is playing the whole time Video 4 What Matters Best Places to Work More than a Paycheck John Wheeler 7 President and CEO Wheeler Interests One of the ttest companies in America Create safe comfortable and healthy environment Nonsmoking company Free health screenings and healthy lunches No set vacation or sick days Flexible schedules Vanessa 7 HR and Corporate Countil Liberty Tax Service Casual dress in working environment Flexible hours Monitor their accomplishments not their hours working Commitment to community service Give awards to their employees Martha Taurman 7 Navy Federal Credit Union Empathetic to military families that must relocate often All respect the professionalism of their employees Takes time to create a culture of respect and professionalism Video 5 Navy Federal Fortune Top 100 Places to Work Easy to relocate Great bene ts Deep culture Flexibility with company hours and relocation Treat all members with world class service Company does the right thing for all customers and employees Provide worldhome life balance Flexible and supportive of educational opportunities and progression Great compensation and bonuses Opportunity for advancement Family atmosphere Video 6 Why we do what we do and 110w we can do it better Tony Robbins Emotion is the force of life What s important is the invisible thing that motivates us Effective leaders have the ability to consistently move themselves and others to action because they understand the invisible forces that shape us Master lessons 1 The science of achievement how to take your dream and make it happen 2 The art of fulfillment appreciation and contribution Decision is the ultimate power Reasons for failing to achieve goals no time money technology contacts or other claims to missing resources The defining factor of failure is a lack of resourcefulness not resources If we have the right emotion we can get ourselves to do anything Resourcefulness includes creativity determination lovecaring curiosity passion resolve Decisions shape destiny Three decisions we are making every moment of our lives 1 What am I going to focus on Focus feeling Pastpresentfuture Self or others 2 What does it mean Is it the end or the beginning Are you being punished or rewarded 3 What are you going to do Are you going to give up or move forward The two primary patterns The invisible forces that shape us 1 In the moment our state physicalemotional 2 Longterm our model of the worldworld View the shaper of MEANING EMOTION and ACTION 6 human needs 1 Certainty 2 UnceItainty 3 Signi cance 4 Connection and love 5 Growth 6 Contribute beyond ourselves First four can be found Last two lead to ful llment Video 7 How Coaching Works 1 Meet 2 Vision 3 The plan 4 Journey 5 Success Video 8 Coaching Employees 5 Coaching Power Words 1 Development 2 Relationships 3 Direction 4 Accountability 5 Results Chapter 1 1262011 23800 AM Chapter 1 Leadership o The ability to inspire confidence and support among the people who are needed to achieve organizational goals 0 Inspiration is key 0 Goal Directed o Inspire people to change Teach Leadership c As a position in organizations 0 Not necessarily an executive c As a role in organizations 0 Leadership is needed in all levels of the organization c As a skillset in organizations Leadership as a Partnership o Leadership is a longterm relationship or partnership between leaders and group members 0 Leadership is partnership not parent relationship o The power between leader and group members is approximately balanced 0 Followers are still needed they grant leaders power to lead Leaders vs Managers o Leadership involves more inspiration change o Management involves more rational analytical stability Leadership Matters o The research shows that leadership is responsible for between 15 45 of a company s performance however 0 Transactional leadership was not significantly related to performance 0 Charismatic leadership was slightly positively related to performance o In an uncertain environment charismatic leadership was more strongly related to performance In crisis times leadership has greater importance 0 Bad leadership can drag an organization down the world we live in now is often in the unstable stage where leadership is most needed Three Major Arguments Against the Importance of Leadership o Substitutes exist for leadership 0 Closely knit teams of highly trained individuals 0 Intrinsic Satisfaction 0 Computer Technology 0 Professional Norms o Leaders can be irrelevant people lead themselves and outside influences can overwhelm o Organizational systems are far too complex attribute success to leadership Leadership Roles o Figurehead Spokesperson Negotiator Coach Motivator Team Builder Team player Technical problem solver Entrepreneur Strategic Planner Sources of Leadership Satisfaction o A feeling of power and prestige o A chance to help others grow and develop o High income o Respect and status o Good opportunities for advancement o A feeling of being in on things o An opportunity to control resources Leader Frustrations o Too much uncompensated overtime o Too many headaches o Facing a performorperish mentality Not enough authority to carry out plans Loneliness Too many problems involving people Too much organizational politics The pursuit of conflicting goals Being perceived as unethical especially if you are a corporate executive Summary Leadership is a longterm relationship between leaders and group members When effective it inspires confidence and support among people who are needed to achieve organizational goals Although some research supports the theory leaders do affect organizational performance the concepts of substitutes leader irrelevance and complexity theory suggest otherwise Leadership involves carrying out at least nine different roles There are many sources of both satisfaction and frustration to leaders Leadership is a function of leader characteristics and traits leader behavior and style group member characteristics and the internal and external environments To be an effective leader one needs good followers Chapter 2 1262011 23800 AM Chapter 2 Leadership Characteristics o Personality Traits o Leadership Motives and Needs o Cognitive Factors and Intelligence General Personality Traits Seen in and out of the workplace o Selfconfidence o Humility o Trustworthiness o Authenticity o Extraversion o Assertiveness o Enthusiasm Optimism and Warmth o Sense of humor TaskRelated Personality Traits of Leaders o Passion o Emotional Intelligence 0 Selfawareness o Selfmanagement 0 Relationship Management Flexibility and Adaptability o Internal locus of control 0 Leaders believe that they can influence events o Courage Leadership Motives and Needs Leaders have an intense desire to occupy a position of responsibility for others and to control them This desire is evident in four needs or motives all of which can be considered task related Leadership Motives o Power Motive 0 Control resources o Drive and Achievement Motive o Strong Work Ethic o Tenacity 0 Resilience Cognitive Factors and Intelligence o Cognition refers to the mental process or faculty by which knowledge is gathered o Leaders must have problemsolving and intellectual skills to effectively gather process and store essential information o Six cognitive factors related to leadership effectiveness have been identified Cognitive Factors and Leadership o Cognitive or analytical intelligence o Knowledge of the business or group task o Creativity o Insight into people and situations o Farsightedness and conceptual thinking Influence of Heredity and Environment o Are leaders born or are they made Both o Individuals inherit a basic capacity to develop personality traits and mental ability that sets an outer limit on how extensively these traits can be developed o Environmental influences in turn determine how much of an individual s potential will be developed Summary o The traitbased perspective of leadership asserts that certain personality traits leader motives and cognitive factors contribute to leadership effectiveness Personality traits include both general traits and taskrelated traits o Leaders can often be distinguished by their needs or motives o Cognitive ability is important for leadership success Traits motives and cognitive ability derive from a combination of heredity and environment Traits do appear to distinguish leaders from nonleaders and effective leaders from less effective leaders Chapter 3 1262011 23800 AM Chapter 3 Charisma Defined o Charisma is a Greek word meaning divinely inspired gift o In leadership charisma is a special quality of leaders whose purposes powers and extraordinary determination differentiate them from others o In general use charisma is having a charming and colorful personality Charisma A Relationship Between the Leader and Group Members o Key to charismatic leader and group members o Charismatic qualities must be attributed to the leader by the group members o Charismatic leaders use impression management to cultivate their relationships with group members The Effects of Charisma o Group members Trust the leader s beliefs have beliefs similar to those of the leader accept the leader unquestioningly in the extreme have affection for the leader willingly obey the leader identify with and attempt to emulate the leader have emotional involvement in the mission have heightened goals feel that they will be able to accomplish or to contribute to the accomplishment of the mission 0 O O O O O O O 0 Five Types of Charismatic Leaders o Socialized charismatics o Restrain the use of power in the interest of others Followers have clear values and are independent and honest workers o Personalized charismatics 0 Use power to serve their own interests Followers have an obedient submissive and dependent work style o Officeholder charismatics o Attain their charisma chiefly from the position they hold President of the United States o Personal charismatics o Gain esteem from others faith in them as people independent of office or position held o Divine charismatics 0 Were once defined strictly by the theological concept of possessing divine grace but now qualities of mysticism narcissism and magnetism also characterize this type Characteristics of Charismatic Leaders o Visionary o Masterful Communication Skills o Ability to inspire trust o Able to make group members feel capable o Energy and action orientation o Emotional expressiveness and warmth o Romanticize risk o Unconventional strategies o Self promoting personality o Dramatic and unique The Vision Component o Vision is the ability to imagine different and better future conditions and ways to achieve them o Charismatic leaders inspire others with their visions which are often lofty longterm goals o Visionaries have unique brain activity suggests recent neuroscience research o A vision differs from a mission A mission defines and organization s purpose whereas a vision draws a picture of what the future will be o A strong and clear vision statement should have the following elements 0 A reason for being beyond making money 0 Timeless unchanging core values 0 Ambitious but achievable goals The Communication Component o Charismatic leaders communication style is typically colorful imaginative open and expressive o Management by Inspiration 0 Using metaphors and analogies to appeal to the intellect imagination and values of group members LSU uses the flagship moniker o Gearing language to different audiences o Management by Anecdote o Inspiring and instructing team members by storytelling Techniques for Developing Charisma o Create visions for others o Be enthusiastic optimistic and energetic o Be sensibly persistent almost neversayno o Remember people s names o Develop synchrony with others connect o Develop a personal brand and be polished o Be candid yet not insensitive and direct o If appropriate for your work display an inyourface attitude Transactional Leadership is the opposite of Transformational Leadership Transactional Leadership o Contingent Reward exchange for actions behaviors production o Management by Exception o Active closely watching to correct in the act 0 Passive correcting after the action Transactional Leadership Leader Exchanges Follower Exchanges Good job assignments Acceptance of work tasks Good evaluations Performance Recognition Dedication Raises Hard work results Promotions High performance Bass Transformational Leadership Charismatic Leadership idealized influence Inspirational motivation Intellectual stimulation Individualized consideration Conger Kanungo Charismatic Leadership Strategic vision and articulation Sensitivity to the environment Sensitivity to member needs Personal risk Unconventional behavior How a Leader May Make a Transformation The Leader Raises people s awareness Helps people look beyond selfinterest Helps people search for selffulfillment Helps people understand need for change Invests managers with sense of urgency Is committed to greatness Adopts a longrange broad perspective Builds trust Concentrates resources where most needed Attributes of a Transformational Leader Charismatic o Emotionally Intelligent o Extroverted o Creates and communicates a vision o Encourages the personal development of others o Provides supportive leadership o Practices empowerment o Thinks innovativer o Leads by example o Often employs moral reasoning Concerns About Charismatic Leadership o According to the concept of leadership polarity leaders are often either revered or vastly unpopular eg Martha Stewart o Charisma may not be necessary for leadership effectiveness o Charisma and its effects on leadership is a matter of perception one may not necessarily affect the other o Charismatic leadership may lead to unethical illegal or immoral actions o Some charismatic and transformational leaders neglect their social responsibility Summary Charisma is a special quality of some leaders that differentiates them from others Charismatic leaders often contribute to group members attribution of their charismatic qualities through impression management The effects of charismatic leadership can be organized into thee dimensions referent power expert power and job involvement There are 5 types of charismatic leaders socialized personalized officeholder personal and divine Charismatic and transformational leaders are able to articulate a vision in such a way as to inspire others Charisma can be developed There may be a dark side to charismatic leadership Chapter 4 1262011 23800 AM Chapter 4 Leadership Behaviors Attitudes and Styles Effective Leader o Is one who helps group members attain productivity including high quality and customer satisfaction as well as job satisfaction o Effective leadership is measured using 0 Objective data sales production safety costcutting etc o Subjective data ratings surveys Board of Director reviews Two Classic Dimensions of Leadership Behavior o Consideration the degree to which one is trusting and supportive a warm and personal management style o Initiating Structure the degree to which one is taskoriented a more procedural management style Leadership Behavior Consideration o This leader is friendly approachable looks out for the personal welfare of the group keeps the group abreast of new developments and does small favors o Proven to improve job satisfaction with the leader worker motivation and leader effectiveness Four Combinations of Initiating Structure and Consideration o High High Low Low High structure and low consideration High consideration and low structure RelationshipOriented Attitudes and Behaviors o Aligning people o Openness to worker opinions o Creating inspiration and visibility o Satisfying higherlevel needs o Giving emotional support and encouragement o Promoting principles and values o Being a servant leader 360Degree Feedback o A formal evaluation of superiors based on input from people who work for and with them including customers and suppliers o Often referred to as multisource feedback or multirater feedback o Most often used for leadership and management development Leadership Style Behaviors Attitudes o The relatively consistent pattern of behavior that characterizes a leader o Often based on the dimensions of initiating structure and consideration o Examples She s a commandandcontrol type He s a consensusbuilder Types of Leadership Style o Participative O O O O O O Encourages teamwork and participation Shares decision with group members Employs consultative behavior Emphasizes consensusbuilding Allows for democratic decisionmaking Can lead to macro management or laissezfaire style o Autocratic Retains authority for self Makes decisions confidently Assumes group members will comply Not concerned with popularity Highly taskoriented Can be effective in certain situations o Entrepreneurial 0 Driven to achieve and willing to take risks Uses enthusiasm and charisma to persuade Pushes self and group members to seize an opportunity Can transfer to group a feeling of hurry and impatience Works tenaciously to achieve the vision Dislikes and deemphasized rules regulations and bureaucracy o Prefers dealing with external customers rather than employees Looks toward future Eternal optimists O 0 Summary Two major dimensions of leader behavior are initiating structure and consideration Many taskrelated attitudes and behaviors as well as relationship related attitudes and behaviors of effective leaders have been identified Servant leaders are committed to serving others rather than achieving their own goals 360degree feedback is commonly used to today to provide leaders with feedback on their attitudes and behaviors There are several distinct leadership styles including participative autocratic and entrepreneurial Malefemale differences in leadership style have been observed Managers should diagnose the situation and then choose the appropriate leadership style to match Chapter 5 1262011 23800 AM Chapter 5 Contingency and Situational Leadership Contingency Approach to Leadership o Leaders are the most effective when they make their behavior contingent on situational forces including group member characteristics Evaluation of Fiedler s Contingency Theory o Fielder s work prompted others to conduct studies about the contingency nature of leadership o The model has alerted leaders to the importance of sizing up the situation to gain control o However contingency theory is too complicated to have much of an impact on most leaders PathGoal Theory Developed by Robert House o Specifics what the leader must do to achieve high productivity and morale in a given situation o Based on expectancy theory of motivation o The manager should choose a leadership style that takes into account the characteristics of group members and the demands of the task Chamclensllts a Group Members Crrnvmgeuw you as Cmmngintv worm Dnmands m Ihe Task Hn le39 v The Paqutheuvyattendersmp m dtmwe me nulmmEs m Avmtmmwly an mow mm Teanrmrm Myles nemuumg m rm um Hm Hem mm r 1 rm W m NA rm mmnnmnnu T mm m path GoaT Theorv Matchhg the Leadersth stwe to the Srtuatron T are uncTear gt DTrectwe 8w 5 Tasks are trustratron and stresstuT workers are apprehenswe gt Supportwe Stv e Tasks a re nonrrepetrtwe workers are capapTe and motwated gt partrcrpatwe stwe Tasks are unique or entrepreneurTaT workers are competent and committed gt Achievementaonented stwe Expectancv Theorv The amount otettort peopTe ekpend depends on how much reward thev expect to get Tn return It Ts cognrtwe because rt emphasrzes the thoughts judgments and desrres ot the person berng motwate It s a process theorv because rt attempts to ekaarn how motwatron takes pTace xpecianty 77 Situa onal Leadership 11SLII Developed by Kenneth H Blanchard Explains how to mamh leadership style to the capabilities of group me s on a given task SLII is designed to increase the frequency and quality of conversations about performance and professional development een managers and group members so that competence is developed commitment takes place and turnover among balenmd workers is reduced Effective leadership depends on two independent behaviors 0 Supporting behaviors lismning giving recognition communication encouraging coaching o Directing behaviors Giving explicit directions controlling supervising ruling regulating 3 52 Supporting Leadarship style coaching Leadership styie Law on direciiiig and high an Higri an direciing and high on supporting bahaviors sup 9 benawois B 3 D3 D2 Capable bul cauliuus Pa onnar Diaillusionod Lumen some Growing compexenca and variabis competence but iuw commiimani mmiimeni Supparling Rela nnshlp Behaviors 54 st Dalegnling Leadorsiiip Style Dimciing Leadership Style Low on dmaciing and 10w on High on diieisiing and low on supponing benawois suppamng behaviois D6 D1 Se n allanl Achiever Highest Enoiusiastia Beginnen Low ievei oi commiimoni and campeenca bi high cammiimeni competence Diieciing TaskRelaxed Behaviors Quadrant indicate the desired rnatcn or ieader s styie to group member s deveiopment ievei No one styie is b st An effective ieader uses aii tour styies depending on tne situation n e indiiiiduai group member cnaiienging to apin SLH consistendy because ieaders rnust stay mned and tasks snirt rapidiy Tine Norrnauve Modei Five DecisionnMakH ig styies Decide Leader rnailtes decision aione Consuit indiiiiduaiiy Leader rnailtes decision after consuiung entire group Faciiitate Leader de nes the probiern and decision boundaries en group makes decision dernocrabcaiiy Delegate Leader permits the group to make the decision without directly intervening Leader works behind the scenes providing resources and encouragement TimeDriven Model for Choosing a DecisionMaking Style Factors to Consider Decision Significance Importance of Commitment Leader Expertise Likelihood of Commitment Group Support Group Expertise Team Competence See text p 148 Fig 55 0 O O O O O O 0 Cognitive Resource Theory That stress plays a key role in determining how a leader s intelligence and experience affect outcomes Experience is more effective than intelligence in stressful situations Intelligence is more valuable when innovation is needed and stress is low Contingency Leadership in the Executive Suite Based on interviews with 163 top executives on six continents Reviewed 12000 pages of interviews to determine how these leaders delivered consistently extraordinary results Result Toplevel CEOs asses their companies needs then adapt their leadership style to fit the situation can LEADERSHIP APPROACH CDNTINGENCV FACTORS Haw i lrvaala V I anlrlp l nianlzr term strategy complexuy relenliuh anti uweiollmem programs qllartels to mate snategy i around Sigiliiicalii SUBUHC L Ximliise HCII advantage as iechnolugyi r ULll luau u and itnmpally inneneman conliliual reinvention slams this is unacceptable Leadership During a CrisisrAtiIibutes and Behaviors Lead with compassion Reestablish the usual work routine Avoid a circleatheawagons mentality Be a transformational leader Summary Leaders are more effective when they make their behavior contingent upon situational factors Fiedler s contingency theory proposes that the best style of leadership is demrmined by situational factors such as leaders member relations task structure and position power High and lowacontrol situations are best suited for taskamotivated leadership Moderatercontrol situations are best suimd for relationship motivated leadership The pathagoal theory of leadership effectiveness specifies the best leadership style based on the characmristics of the group members and the tasks The four styles in pathgoal theory are directive supportive participative and achievementoriented The situational leadership model explains how to match leadership style to the readiness of group members The normative decision model explains leadership as a decision making process The timedriven model of decision making is used when a decision must be made quickly Cognitive resource theory describes how a leader s intelligence and experience can influence performance under conditions of stress Successful CEOs assess their companies needs then adapt their leadership style to fit Leading through a crisis is a form of contingency leadership Leaders apply evidence and research to their behaviors and practices 1262011 23800 AM Chapter 9 Video Notes Video 1The Voca People The Voca People use teamwork to sing songs with no other instrument but their voices Their dedication and drive for teamwork help them sing songs like you re hearing them on the radio when in reality only their voices are created the sounds Video 2 River Dancing The river dancers must work together to keep the same tempo and make sure their clacking shoes don t go out of beat Every now and then the leaders of the river dance emerge to model the way Video 2 Blue Angels 44 yea rs of tradition Be the best you can be and challenge yourself to be the best Hard workers and super over achievers Do what it takes to be successful Without teamwork there isn t a team You can t have something amazing with cooperation from everyone Success is achieving something you ve set out to do It s about quality not quantity Be more knowledgeable than who you re competing against Know you have the ability and desire to be the best Success is in your heart and in your mind If you don t have it you won t be successful Increase your selfdiscipline determination and drive for success to succeed Practice makes perfect There shouldn t be any insignificant people on your team Video 4 Teamwork and Collaboration John T Chambers Cisco CEO T should enable business strategy Move from command and control to collaboration and teamwork Mistakes as a company because they moved too slowly Collaboration and teamwork with some command and control to implement what team has decided to do You must let the team come to the conclusion Give them time to come up with the best possible solution Leading at Cisco has become part of leading from the middle instead of from the top due to teamwork and collaboration Video 5 Patrick Lencioni The Five Dysfunctions ofa Team 1 Absence of trust 2 Fear of conflict 3 Lack of commitment 4 Unwillingness to hold each other accountable 5 Inattention to results Book targeted to executives of companies although many other leaders use its knowledge Stop backstabbing and politics by creating trust in organization New leaders try to be perfect overcome intimidation by being comfortable with your inabilities Meetings too often lack context and accomplish nothing they should have focus and clarity Over complication makes things difficult to overcome and practice Video 6 Patrick Lencioni on Building and Leading a High Performance Team Leader must be venerable and must be venerable first CEO at a certain company was not venerable He had a 360 degree feedback done and he would not admit his weaknesses By doing so he set a precedent of not being venerable and not addressing issues People will do more for a leader who is comfortable with their humanity Venerability is one of the secrets to building a good team Video 7 Tuckman s Model Fight Right Edward Muzio CEO of Group Harmonics Healthy conflict vs damaging conflict know team dynamics 4 stages of team development 1 Forming team members coming together for the first time what is goal what is purpose 2 Storming first sign of conflict 3 Norming people begin going in the same direction 4 Performing everyone works together to achieve collective goal Better performance as you move up the model 1 Set goals 2 Define roles 3 Roles and strategies agreed upon New phase added reforming changing people or purpose of the team Make sure storming is about roles not about insignificant things Video 8What are Belbin Team Roles Team role a tendency to behave contribute and interrelate with people in a certain way Different core personality traits intellects and behaviors make up the role a person plays on a team People don t play the same role in every situation It is important to understand one s own role and the roles of others on their team Video 9 Belbin Team Roles DVD Trailer Fire Toast and Teamwork Success of teams depends on how their contrasting behaviors fit into the team mix Success as team members and team as a whole is dependent on how we behave Roles Include 1 People personcoordinator 2 Ideas personplant 3 Monitorevaluator 4 Implementer 5 Resource investigator 6 Team worker 7 The shaper 8 The completerfinisher 9 The specialist Video 10 Belbin Team Roles Training Bite 9 team roles 1 Plant comes up with lots of bright ideas a Contributions creative imaginative unorthodox solves difficult problems b Weaknesses ignores incidentals ineffective communication 2 Resource Investigator a Contributions extrovert amp enthusiastic communicative explores opportunities develops contacts b Weaknesses overoptimistic loses interest over time 3 Coordinator a Contributions mature confident clarifies goals brings people together b Weaknesses seen as manipulative offloads personal work 4 Shaper a Contributions challenging dynamic thrives on pressure drive amp courage b Weaknesses offends others prone to provocation 5 Monitor Evaluator a Contributions serious minded strategic amp discerning sees all options judges accurately b Weaknesses lacks drive lacks ability to inspire 6 Team Worker a Contributions cooperative diplomatic listens averts friction b Weaknesses indecisive in crunch situations 7 Implementer a Contributions disciplined reliable conservative takes practical steps b Weaknesses inflexible slow to respond to change 8 Completer Finisher a Contributions painstaking conscientious searches our errors delivers on time b Weaknesses worries unduly reluctant to delegate 9 Specialist a Contributions single minded self starting dedicated provides rare skills b Weaknesses limited contribution dwells on specialism Three areas of focus 1 ideas plant monitor evaluator specialist 2 people resource investigator coordinator team worker 3 task shaper Implementer completer finisher Video 11 Leadership Tips Learn Tips to be a Good Team Leader First you are rewarded for doing As a leader you are rewarded for getting others to do things As a leader you paint the vision and divide tasks among people who can successfully complete them Delegation is a challenge As you progress in your career to leadership you move further from execution to leading Know where you are going be able to communicate it and deliver Once you get to the senior level you must work through other people and NOT do their job Video 12 Sherry Surratt and Wayne Smith Team Collaboration Teams being launched to start a church rather than one sole person or a couple Less formal training for team members Brining people from different backgrounds together to achieve greatest success for churches Skills and experience team members bring defines their role on the team How will teams affect the role of the senior pastor Senior pastor will still be visionary although he or she will now lean on team for decision making Chapter 5 Lecture 3112013 90400 PM Chapter 5 Contingency and Situational Leadership Effective leader needs to be able to adapt Continqencv Approach to Leadership o Leaders are most effective when they make their behavior contingent on situational forces including group members characteristics l quotl ll 7 1 o 3 key conclusions 0 Organizational effectiveness is affected by situational factors rol r lzl lquot 1 3x stronger an influence than personal characteristics 0 Situations influence the consequences of leader behavior Fiedler s Contingency Theory don t need to know much change situation to fit your leadership style lb Elliu slgvugwq ll ll i l to Ellell pile o Also said leadership style is impossible to change so you need t find situations that fit your style Evaluation of Fiedler o Prompted others to conduct studies about contingency nature of leadership o Model has alerted leaders to importance of sizing up situation to gain control o However contingency theory is too complicated to have much of an impact on most leaders gm Expectancy Theory effort put into performance depends on the reward PathGoal Theory of Leadership It L 11b gtl v is 7 in ii i e Based on expectancy theory of motivation E P o l m int i ell ill l Mimi mu V reward doesn t mean It s cognitive bc it emphasizes the thoughts judgments and desires of person being motivated It s a process theory bc it attempts to explain how motivation takes place Heav m in organizations Link performance goals with outcomes that the ppl value highly Process of motivating someone is 1 show them that they can accomplish goal 2 show them how accomplishing goal will lead them to outcomes they desire J Hil l wi i ll Requires dif styles for dif situations and be prepared to use any 0 Directive o Supportive o Participative o Achievementoriented o Achieves moral for individual and productivity for organization o Depends on characteristics of group members and tasks asked PathGoal Theory Matching Leadership Style to Situation o Tasks are uncleareDirective Tasks are frustratingstressful apprehensive workersesupportive Tasks are nonrepetitive workers are capable and motivated 9Participative Tasks are uniqueentrepreneurial workers are competentcommittedeAchievementoriented o Tasksteams could need combo of the above Situation Leadershi II SLII b Blanchard Explains how to match leadership style to capabilities of group members on a given task lll 39 lili a l a lw o Good learning tool for developing new leaders Effective leadership depends on 2 independent behaviors 0 Su ortin behaviors listening giving recognition communicating encouraging coaching like relationship behaviors Directing behaviors giving explicit directions controlling supervising ruling regulating like initiating structuretask related behaviors 0 Both can be shown on graph Directing on xaxis and Supporting on yaxis 0 D1 Enthusiastic Beginner High commitment but low competence Need high Directing and low Supporting O 0 D2 Disillusioned Learner Some competence but low commitment Need high Supportive amp high Directing 0 D3 Capable but Cautious Performer growing competence and variable commitment Need low Directing and High on Supporting 0 D4 SelfReliant Achiever Highest level of commitment amp competence Low Directing and low Supporting o Quadrants indicate the desired match of leader s style to group member s development level 0 No one style is best Allquot C l gilzti ilh ii iii 0 Challenging to apply SLII consistently because leaders must stay tuned and tasks shift rapidly Normative Model 5 DecisionMaking Styles Decide leader makes decision alone Consult individually leader makes decision after consulting group members Consult group leader makes decision after consulting entire group Facilitate leader defines problem and decision boundaries then group makes decision democratically via vote Delegate leader permits group to make decision wo directly intervening Leader works behind the scenes providing resources and encouragement Provides prescriptions for when leaders should adopt each of these dif styles TimeDriven Model for Choosing a DecisionMaking Style Decision significance is it a big deal or no Importance of commitment to decision vs just compliance wdecision Leader expertise is leader competent in subject or not Likelihood of commitment Group support extent to which group is supportive of each otherorganizationgoals Group expertise is group competent in subject or not Team competence ability to work together as a team Cognitive Resource Theory l needed and stress is low 3riquot 5 lequot i1 li ira l f39igi quot l39nif v i il39l o Understand when to draw upon experience or intelligence Contingency Leadership in Exec Suite o Based on interviews wtop 163 execs on 6 continents o Reviewed 12000 pages of interviews to determine how these leaders delivered consistently extraordinary results EOs assess their companies needs than o Result toplevel C gl win quotHi ill a El u l o 5 approaches 0 Strategic create test design longterm strategy 0 Human assets add value through hiring retention development programs 0 Expertise designimplement programs around significant specific expertise like technology 0 Box add value through controls that set boundaries for employee performance 0 Change agent create an environment of continual reinvention Leadership During a CrisisAttributes amp Behaviors o Be decisive o Lead with compassion Reestablish the usual work routine Avoid a circlethewagons mentality Display optimism Have a disaster plan Provide stable performance Be a transformational leader Summary Fiedler s contingency theory proposes that the best style of leadership is determined by situational factors like leadermember relations task structure and position power High and low control situations are best suited for taskmotivated employees Moderate control situations are best for relationshipmotivated leadership ii iquot Situational leadership explains how to match leadership style to readiness of group members Normative decision model explains leadership as a decisionmaking process decide consult facilitate delegate Timedriven model is used when decision must be made quickly Cognitive resource theory describes how a leader s intelligence and experience can influence performance under conditions of stress Leading through a crisis is a form of contingency leadership Leaders apply evidence amp research to their behaviors and practices Chapter 5 Videos 3112013 90400 PM Cartoon Video o Makes point that ppl don t always follow leaders need clear goal o Makes fun of those that say leaders are born and will have followers no matter what have it or you don t o Makes point that leaders can be developed and should motivate listen adapt o Directive supportive achievementoriented participative o Recognize full ability of subordinates Situational Leadership II o Styles should be done with followers as partners not to them o Increase frequencyquality of conversations with others about their performance o Was conversation useful o Most useful convos are about the subordinate not the manager o Doing it together as partners Global Leadership Fellows Program o Lot required of leaders today c We need global leaders who can act as a global community o 3 year leadership training involving lots of dif organizationscultures o Fellows lead lots of dif teams wlots of dif purposes to get experienceexposure to leadership situations o Global leaders need to be awarecreate awareness collaborate o Leaders must be able to constantly adapt based on longterm vision o Peer Coaching can be the coached and coach and receive feedback o Have mentors that you can observe shadow learn from o Help them understand their strengthweaknesses o Requires foresight vision resources o Learn through experience yourself o What do you believe in What do you want to achieve Want to have followed these by the time you re old o Always be learning curious trying to do more than you think you can do Speaking dif languages can help you understand dif cultures 5 lessons with i among gl uescountriescommuniti lazuliquot il 4 l393llilwl l Global Leadership Fellows Interviews Leaders should understand interconnectedness bt countriescommunities Address issues in allinclusive manner Global leaders should be transcultural worldly Have clear vision and want to create something positive for others How you use the resources you have in a positiveconstructive way Followers are necessary and you get them by strong interpersonal skills vision optimism Cultural Quotient ability to navigate through dif cultures Know how to get the best out of ppl Be decisive Avoid uniformity Learn from mistakes Help ppl understand selfinterest Enable teamworkcollaboration Be authentic Be deeply conscious of your social responsibilities Employee Motivation Expectancy Theory Helps understand why ppl do what they do and the thought process that gets them there Maximize pleasure minimize pain Behavior is rational from conscious choices o Effort 9 Performance 9 Outcome E P o o 2 types of expectancies o Effort to Performance EP expectancy perception that effort will result in particular level of performance 0 Performance to Outcome PO expectancy will level of performance get us something of value aka instrumentality 1 o Dif outcomes at work can be valued in 3 ways 0 Positive want outcome 0 Negative don t want 0 Neutral indifferent wild 39 0 Select ppl who have skills 0 Provide trainingresourcessimpler or fewer tasksexamples coaching E LEM liver 0 Measure job performance accurately 0 Clearly explain outcomes 0 Describe how employee s rewards are based upon past performance o Outcome Valences increase expected value of outcomes 0 Distribute rewards that ppl value tasty rewards o Individualize rewards same for all isn t always good 0 Eliminate contradictory outcomes GBZl 5 Motivation Project o Motivation individual s perception of perform a warq E ii glva39 ii quot tliili39li39h39 lii39iir39z39iillv quot oDi o Expectancy good effort leads to better performance o Have to enhance performance to get better outcomes Instrumentality belief that performance is related to rewards Chapter 4 LectureSlides 3112013 53600 PM Chapter 4 Leadership Behaviors Attitudes and Styles Couldn t find common set of traits so they started looking for behaviors An Effective Leader ll1rl llllrl l39wlqgll o Measured using 0 Objective data sales production safety costcutting etc concrete info and numbers 0 Subjective data ratings surveys Board of Director reviews opinions about leader Two Classic Dimensions of Leadership Behavior Ohio State Consideration Dimension o Leader is friendly approachable looks out for personal welfare of group keeps the group abreast of new developments does small favors o Proven to improve job motivation and leader effectiveness satisfaction wleader worker Initiating Structure o Leader assigns specific tasks specifies procedures to be followed schedules work clarifies expectations for team members o Proven to increase jobgrouporganization N satisfaction when done right 4 dif combos of the 2 dimensions just like on a graph o lowlow highhigh o low considerationhigh structure low structurehigh consideration Jim ll TaskRelated Leadership Attitudes and Behaviors 1 2 3 45 V901 Adaptability to situation Direction setting High performance standards 0 Pygmalion effect if you set high standards they ll perform better if you set low standards they ll sink to that level Concentrating on strengths of group members 0 StrengthsBased Approach Risk taking and execution of plans Handson guidance and feedback Ability to ask tough questions 0 Make ppl stop and think about what they re doing and why RelationshipOriented Attitudes and Behaviors 1 4500 IOXU39I Aligning ppl 0 Get everyone to believe in vision and align their goals with the organization s visionsyour visions Openness to worker opinions 0 Don t presume they always know best themselves Creating inspiration and visibility Satisfying higherlevel needs 0 Ex Need of achievement feel more confidentcapable serve others 0 Need other than just making Giving emotional support and encouragement Promoting principles and values Being a servant leader 0 Popularized by Green Leaf 0 Leader isn t there to have followers serve himher but vice versa 0 Not necessarily used by every highconsideration leader 360Degree Feedback o Used bc opinions of leaders differ based on who you ask ex employees boss peers customers suppliers or multirater feedback o Most often used for leadership and management development Leadership Styles Behaviors Attitudes o Relatively consistent pattern of behavior that characterizes a leader o Often based on the dimensions of initiating structure and consideration o Ex She s a commandcontrol type He s a consensusbuilder Types of Leadership Styles o Participative good 0 Encourages teamworkparticipation 0 Shares decision with group members 0 Employs consultative behavior Leader asks others for input 0 Emphasizes consensusbuilding Leader is still part of decision loop 0 Allows for democratic decisionmaking 0 Can lead to macro management or laissezfaire style leader is detached from what s going on o Slower style bc requires input from dif ppl 0 Can lead to more meetings 0 3types Consultative confer wgroup members before making decision Consensus group discussion decision reflects group opinions Democratic group takes a vote o Autocratic bad 0 Retains authority for self 0 Makes decisions confidently o Assumes group members will comply O O 0 Not concerned with popularity Highly taskoriented Can be effective in certain situations Entrepreneurial O O O O O O O O 0 Driven to achieve and wiling to take risks Uses enthusiasm and charisma to persuade Pushes self and group members to seize an opportunity Can transfer to a group a feeling of hurry and impatience Works tenaciously to achieve vision Dislikesdeemphasizes rules regulations bureaucracy Prefers dealing wexternal customers rather than employees Looks toward future Eternal optimists Gender Differences in Leadership M One researcher concluded that men tended toward a command andcontrol style while women tended toward a transformational style relying heavily on interpersonal skills While researchers found leadership style differences bt men amp Summary Servant leaders are committed to serving others rather than achieving their own goals 360 degree feedback is commonly used today to provide leaders wfeedback on their attitudes and behaviors Managers should diagnose the situation then choose the appropriate leadership style to match Chapter 4 Videos 3112013 53600 PM Steve Jobs Video Dropped out of college bc couldn t justify paying for it u gt r A l 5 L quot W A i ll l Ju l iL ti l3 doll lm o in my L PM Suit all iuil 39gl a w Got fired from his own company Says getting fired was best thing that happened to him made him a creative beginner again Started Pixa q E Uses I ll be dea as a motivator and to follow his heart Death is the destination we all share T39ii i39ie 1 l ll ll llliii l j ddr i li it li ul rm Follow heartintuition at w h l m i 7H7 yquot 7 511 11v int lwl l 0 Uses emotional intelligence mind resilience stick to values 0 Common sense but not common practice Ppl change when they want to change PM E Eli14ti jli39ri Negative emotions make it hard for us to change Ppl like change but have to be sparked in a certain way As leaders become the spark We operate on false assumptions on what it is to be a great leader Myths 0 Smart is good enough 0 Your mood doesn t matter 0 Great leaders are tough enough to take constant pressure Truths l39i li jll39z Ll i i iwil39 xu39v ll limgl Eo fl 2 we o Emotions are contagious o No one can sustain constant sacrifice o Emotions affect our ability to perceive and process info o Emotional Attractors 0 Positive open us up open cognitive categories 0 Negative close up down close cognitive categories hiding bad behavior unpleasantness o Link bt creativity emotion thinking o Mirror neurons mirror emotions of others o Resonance vs Dissonance o Need to be able to sustain effectiveness when time are tough ii i SW AEliijlhhl gluiu39i g quotE iji fir muck it i o Mindfulness Hope Compassion affect us psychologically cognitively physically 0 Understand how your mindemotions work 0 Mindfulness pay attention to your whole being 0 Hope belief that future will be better than past nervous system that handles emotions turns on counters effects of stress 0 Compassion feeling empathy for others helps you get through Live more consciously around your emotions Give ppl hope and show you care They will follow you with enthusiasm and passion and will share the best the best of themselves with you If you re having a hard time dealing with a difficult person Don t be a victim establish boundaries don t do it back get out Chapter 3 Charismatic amp Transformational Leadershi I 372013 65900 PM All i 39V ii39l39l39l iSljlll39tF traiv b 1 in ilfl iii have ii al vs Transformational Leadership mail rend air iii393 Mart 39 n twill 39m i l il39 7 fl o Behavioral skill set that you can learn and acquire th ies to be a transformational leader Transactional management Transformational leadership Charisma Defined o Charisma is a Greek word meaning Charisma A Relationship th Leader and Group Members quotlip ii the mm 5 quot o Charismatic qualities must be attributed to the leader by group members o Impression management taking action and doing things that lead group members to attribute a charismatic quality to them tilting timing that ringglue ilpl r l 2 l Ti Swill Effects of Charisma o Group members 0 Trust the leader s beliefs 0 Have beliefs similar to those of the leader or incorporate leader s beliefs into their own 0 Accept the leader unquestioningly can be controversial and problematic sometimes ex Hitler was charismatic Have affection for the leader Willineg obey the leader Identify wand attempt to emulate the leader Have emotional involvement in the mission Have heightened goals Feel that they will be able to accomplishcontribute to the accomplishment of the mission 0 O O O O 0 Dark Side of Charismatic Leadership o How can charisma be bad tgu i limb l39i Sizi39l 39 39iini i il l lmqll39lgl LilacquotLl l l sll 3quot Hitler cult leaders 5 Types of Charismatic Leaders DOPPS Socialized Charismatics restrains the use of power in the interest of others Followers have clear values and are independent and honest workers 39 39 39 H l to mi39hi39ini mirt J12 hi 1 3 umquot m quotquotL Jl l39il xll gin r x 0 Followers still have own clear sense of values Personalized Charismatics use power to serve their own interests Followers have an obedient submissive and dependent Iquot sill Smul l 39 Officeholder Charismatics 39139 9 loll iilquoti lil l w lilo it 0 Ex President of US CEO president of fraternitysorority 0 When they leave the office charisma may fade Personal Charismatics gain esteem from others faith in them as people independent of office or position held p are if39illili ii l i fr iyiiiiier admin m them if r their iaiiu i 0 Others want to be like him Divine Charismatics were once defined by strictly by the theological concept of possessing divine grace but now qualities of mysticism narcissism and magnetism Pquot divinely bestowed wcharisma Characteristics of Charismatic Leaders Visionary Masterful communication skills Ability to inspire trust Able to make group members feel capable of achieving things they wouldn t normally be able to achieve Energy and action orientation Emotional expressiveness amp warmth Romanticize risk to make it seem desirablenot scary Unconventional strategiesex Jobs originally proposing iPod iPhone Selfpromoting personality don t take it too far Dramatic amp uniqueEx Donald Trump The Vision Component Communication Component often lore lifti39i jyiE2 1 l391liiii l 2 Visionaries have quite unique brain activity suggests recent neuroscience research Vision differs from a mission A mission 9w 3 A strong and clea vision statement should have 0 A reason for being beyond making 0 Timeless unchanging core values 0 Ambitious but achievable goals l 39v l i l39ii l39ii Jillquot M Management by Inspiration 0 Using metaphors and analogies to appeal to the intellect imagination and values of group members 0 Gearing language to different audiences o Management by Anecdote o Inspiring and instructing team members by storytelling Techniques for Developing Charisma o Create visions for others o Be enthusiastic optimistic energetic o Be sensibly persistent almost never say no o Remember peoples names o Develop synchrony with others connect o Develop a personal brand and be polished o Be candid yet not insensitive and direct o If appropriate for your work display an inyourface attitude Transformational Leadership u ii iii flu ii pkb iillfl i i i ii igla o Move group members beyond their selfinterests for the good of the group organization or society o More interested in results TV 39 i o Opposite of Transactional Leadership o Better than transactional when change is needed izjlelFi39nilh39iim viii l39 39 Transactional Leadership o About leading a transaction wfollowers uu l Z l ll 0 Management by Exception Active closely watching to correct in the act Passive correcting after the action quot v villi l39l lei Transactional Leadership Leader exchanges Good job assignments Good evaluations Recognition Praise Promotion Follower exchanges Acceptance of work tasks Performance Dedication Hard workresults High performance Bass Transformational Leadership has 4 characteristics CIII ConqerKanunqo Charismatic Leadership Charismatic leadership idealized influence Inspirational motivation o Inspiring vs controlling Moving beyond trans quot it ill Eh itquot Intellectual stimulation 0 Challenge people engage their minds Individualized consideration 0 Care about people Strategic vision and articulation 0 Vision Sensitivity to the environment Sensitivity to member needs Personal risk 0 Transformational leaders risk their credibility reputation jobs on line for their vision Unconventional behaviorstrategies 0 Think out of the box 3 Dimensions of Effects of Charismatic Leaders on Followers o Referent power ability to influence others bc of one s desirable traitscharacteristics o Expert power ability to influence others bc of one s specialized knowledgeskillsabilities o Job involvement ability to get group members excited about their work How Transformations Take Place Leader o Raises people s awareness o Helps ppl look beyond selfinterest o Helps ppl search for selffulfillment o Helps ppl understand need for change o Invests managers wsense of emergency change is necessary and needs to happen quickly o Committed to greatness o Adopts a longrange broad perspective be in it for the long run o Builds trust o Concentrates resources where most needed Attributes of a Transformational Leader Charismatic Emotionally intelligent Extroverted Creates amp communicates a vision Encourages the personal development of others Provides supportive leadership Practices empowerment Thinks innovatively Leads by example Often employs moral reasoning Concerns About Charismatic Leadership Charisma may not be necessary for leadership effectiveness Charisma and its effects on leadership is a matter of perception one may not necessarily affect the other Jami l5 an 115 I i39ia r i sidth l o Some charismatic and transformational leaders neglect their social responsibility Summary Charismatic leaders often contribute to group members attributions of their charismatic qualities through impression management The effects of charismatic leadership can be organized into 3 dimensions 0 Referent power 0 Expert power 0 Job involvement 5 types of charismatic leaders DOPPS Charismatic and transformational leaders are able to articulate a vision in such a way as to inspire others c There may be a dark side to charismatic leadership Chapter 3 Videos 372013 65900 PM Condoleezza Rice Why Democracy Matters 1 cl u L M US should remain staunch defender of democracy bc freedom is our best ally Everyone should have basic freedoms Some say democracy is controlled chaos Opponents o Cant impose democracy 0 Ppl who aren t ready for democracy 0 Some succeed with authoritarian capitalism China In the long run can it reach equilibrium Probs not 0 Sometimes wrongbad guys win elections Don t destroy the system reform it Doesn t matter where you came from matters where you re going Log Cabin aka American Dream Evelyn Lauder Social Entrepreneurship Estee Lauder Foundation that raises for breast cancer research Encourages persistence Huge help toward awarenessearly detection Employees enjoy their work bc they give back Tries to convince other companies to join in their fight Crossdimensional thinking Cultivates markets from Target to Cartier WEEK 2 Chapter 1 3112014 54800 AM Video 1 Qualities of Leadership o If your actions inspire others to o Dream more o Do more o Learn more o Do more o And become more you are a leader o Example is leadership o One does not discover new lands without consenting to lose sight of the shore for a very long time o Leadership is action not position o Don t wait for your ship to come in swim out to meet it o Most things are difficult before they are easy o Authority is a poor substitute for leadership o Honor people They will honor you c Fail to honor people and they will fail to honor you c The more you say the less they remember o Never tell people how to do things o Tell them what to do and they will surprise you with their ingenuity o Never discourage anyone who continually makes progress no matter how slow o Many people would rather you heard their story then granted their request o Real leaders are ordinary people with extraordinary determination o Leaders don t force people to follow they invite them on a journey o If the highest aim of a captain were to preserve his ship he would keep it in port forever o A leader is someone who believes in you and get you to believe in yourself o Leaders make the impossible possible o Leaders consider the past evaluate the present and create the future c We are what we repeatedly do o Excellence then is not an act but a habit Video 2 Mouths of Great Leaders Sir Winston Churchill o It is a mistake to look too far ahead The Chain of Destiny can only be grasped one link at a timequot o The price of greatness is responsibility Eleanor Roosevelt o Learn from the mistakes of others you cant live long enough to make them all yourself Ralph Nader o I start with the premise that the function of leadership is to produce more leaders not more followers Genghis Khan o One arrow alone can be easily broken but many arrows are indestructible Tom Peters o If you are not confused you are not paying attention Indira Gandhi o My grandfather told me there are two kinds of people workers and credit takers MLK Jr c We must learn to live together as brothers Or perish together as fools Napoleon Bonaparte o A leader is a dealer in hope Nelson Mandela o I am not a saint unless a saint is a sinner who keeps on trying Adolf Hitler o obstacles do not exist to be surrendered to but only to be broken Steve Jobs o Innovation Distinguishes between a leader and a follower Colin Powell o The day people stop bringing you their problems is the day you have stopped leading them Klingon Proverb o Act and you may eat dinner think and you may be dinner o Jesse Jackson o Leadership has a harder job to do than just choose sides It must bring sides together JFK o Leadership and leaning are indispensable to each other o Einstein o Whoever is careless with the truth in small matters cannot be trusted with the important matters o Hannibal c We will either find a way or make one FDR o If you treat people right they will treat you right 90 of the time o Henry V Shakespeare c We few we happy few we band of brothers For he today that sheds his blood with me shall be my brother o Brian Clough c We talk about it for 20 minutesand then we decide I was right Video 3 Pat Summit America s Best Leaders 2007 o Losing great thing long range o Blueprint for what we need to do in the future o Everyone has to step up to see how we can get better o Life is competitive o Okay to compete o Didn t work hard enough o I will help you but I will not start your engine o Fear of failure steps right in front of you Video 4 Nelson Mandela 22 o Bob McDonald o You must fight the battle of dignity the very first day you are born c It gave you courage to do better than your best o True humility wasn t me wasn t me o Include other people in the apartheid movement c We made the brain dominate the blood o Reconcile the conflict o Result of the domination of the brain is emotions o You have a limited time on earth you must try and use that period of the pebbles of transforming your country on what you desire it to be Video 5 Values Based Leadership Part 1 o Bob McDonald o Education experience leadership o Understanding your values as a leader o Understand where our beliefs come from o Beliefs 0 Culture o Education o Experiences o Family o Organizations o Like to work for leaders who are predictable o Over time it has become more and more valuable to lead larger organization o Leadership is storytelling o All of us were more deliberate about the circumstances we want to tell o Values of the company attract you c Ten Leadership Beliefs o Living a life driven by a purpose is more meaningful and more rewarding than simply meandering through life 0 What was my purpose in life 0 Spending enough time doing the things that are important 0 Touching and improving lives for generations to come 0 Purpose hallmark of everything we do 0 Purpose to a growth strategy o Trying to catch people doing things right o Putting people in the right jobs most important job of a leader 0 Right people on the bus and getting them on the right seats 0 Bemoan the fact that it took them too long AA Help me to choose the harder right than the easier wrong 0 The right thing is going to be harder to do 0 Easier wrong you are going to make a mistake Diverse groups of people are more innovative than homogenous groups of people 0 Workforce to look like our consumers 0 Female consumers female employees Ineffective strategies systems and culture are bigger barriers to achievement than the talents of people 0 Before I find someone to blame I blame myself Giving people the benefit of the doubt and blaming yourself first as leader there will be some people who wont make it on the journey 0 Commitment to those people is to them as individuals instead of employees Organizations must renew themselves biological organisms Recruiting is a top priority 0 Want to find the leaders of the future The true test in the performance of a leader is what happens in the organization when you are not there Video 6 Values Based Leadership Part 2 Our job as leaders is to help people succeed Task to a success Reward Small success into a larger task and reward Convince that person that they can be a success Nobody in this room woke up thinking they were going to fail Spend time catching people succeeding or failing Leadership is very time inefficient Force ourselves as to manage by exception You are time starved especially when you have a family Turn success into a contagious feeling When the team is doing well you want to wear their items How do you know what people are good at it o Ask them o Not happy at their job not good at what you have them doing Video 7 Values Based Leadership Part 3 o Character putting the needs of the organization before your own o Bill Collins Level 5 Leaders ambition is for the success of the organization and not for themselves o Really great leaders not publicly known o Ambition for the organization came first o Taking personal responsibility important trait of character o 4 answers to any situation o Yes sir o No sir o Sir I do not understand o No excuse sir 0 Take responsibility even when it is outside of your control o Leadership is applicable to the experience of parenting o Once someone takes responsibility not much to say o Innovation never happens in a straight line o Things never turn out how they were expected to o Change is constant c Innovation will occur when you connect two seemingly disconnected ideas o Diversity provides reasons to connect o Knowledge can help us provide the nodes and connections to be an innovative company o Diversity sparks innovation o Team is diverse you will get a better group than if you have a more homogenous team Video 8 Values Based Leadership Part 4 o Working in a diverse culture is difficult o Golden rule is no longer good enough o Platinum Rule treat other people the way they want to be treated o Get to know people so well that you know how they want to be treated o What we do as a leader we sometimes give them ineffectivestrategy system culture yell at them to work harder even though the task is impossible o Rather than blaming any particular person have you created a high performance organization o High performing organization technical competence sound strategies rouse systems passionate leadership high performing culture o Leader is a responsible for a high performing organization o Boiled frog parable o Keep the purpose and values the same but willing to change everything else in order to grow o If companies are going to succeed they have constantly be improving their productivity o Globalization technology Video 9 Values Based Leadership Part 5 o Ability to continue learning o Older you get the harder it is to learn new things o Make me uncomfortable make me learn something new o Did you build a clock or where you telling time o Like leaders who build clocks o Touch and improve more consumers lives o Sustainability take care of the environment o Responsibility socially to care of the people of the world o Getting in touch with your purpose o Tie those beliefs to the stories and experiences that you had in your life that bring those beliefs to life Video 10 The Biggest Mistake a Leader Can Make o What is the biggest mistake a leader can make o Self interest ahead of the interest of the institution 0 About responsibility o Betraying trust 0 Break this the rest wont matter Being certain 0 Things are constantly changing unpredictable 0 Leader to learn how to exploit the power of uncertainty Not to live up to their values Overly enamored with their vision that they lose all capacity of self doubt o Passion and a purpose to an obsession o What are the other ways Arrogance and huberos and confusing the size or success of the enterprise with the individuals persona o Creates greater social and power distance Demotivating o Increases the chances of making big mistakes Acting too fact executing before thinking 0 Step back and evaluate what you are doing 0 Harness the flow of issues and handle them 0 Seek advice and think through it then execute All about the leader 0 Has to be about something larger than yourself Trying to be something else inconsistency 0 Not being authentic Not being self reflective o Affect they have on other people 0 Bulldoze forward worst ones Chapter One o Leadership is more about inspiration than management o Leadership is about getting other people to do something o Leadership is goal directed o Holton s Def To inspire people to change o Leaders are inspiring people to do something different o Inspiring people toward change o Everybody in the org has the potential to be a leader c We need leadership at all levels of the organization o Study of leadership not the study of leaders Skillset that is found at all levels and needed at all levels Exhibiting leadership skills very early in your career to get big executive positions Leadership is about a partnership not parenting No leadership without followers Creates a balance of power between you and them Element of shared decision making Is a significant amount of power granted to the followers Followers stop following you have lost your power as a leader Planning directing controlling the organization management Inspiring others leadership No absolute dividing line between leadership and management Organizations need management AND leadership Managers resist change and want the organization to run smoothly as it is Leadership is about change not about stability All leaders must manage Most managers are leaders Higher you move up though the organization more leadership less management Both represent different roles and skillsets Management looks more and more like leadership Leading is very different than the structured process of management in an org Too much credit and blame to leaders Transactional leadership traditional management type of leading Charismatic leadership characteristics of the leadership chart In stable times leadership doesn t matter as much Turbulent times leadership matters more Leadership matters just not as much as you think Bad leadership can drag an org down significantly The world is constantly turbulent and uncertain Leadership is a more and more critical skill in orgs Substitutes for leadership Google employees lead themselves Leaders can only minimize the damage Leadership accounts for 1545 of the org success Leadership adds to that success The complexity of that entity makes it difficult for the leader to make a big impact and changes quickly Leaders struggle to have the big impact than in smaller orgs Harder to be effective Organizational complexity can moderate the effectiveness Leaders add value even in those complex situations Substitutes instances when leadership is less important Intrinsic basic satisfaction rather than extrinsic rewards don t need much leadership 0 Motivate themselves 0 Going to excel because they are passionate about it o Leaders need to get out of the way Work and perform to the norms no matter what the leader says These substitutes make the leader less relevant but not totally irrelevant Substitutes vary your leadership style when dealing with certain kinds of followers Leaders have a lot of different roles Figurehead o Celebrations they need to attend 0 Annual meetings Spokesperson o For that city state company Negotiator o Other companies different advocacy groups 0 Negotiate good agreements o Negotiate among conflicting demands Coach and motivator 0 Biggest role 0 Inspiration is motivation 0 Coach them towards that change so they feel successful Team builder 0 Most organizations are emphasizing team work 0 Collaborative skills are essential 0 Leader is responsible for building the team 0 Leader needs to be a team player not a leader all the time Technical problem solver 0 Less true as you move up the ranks 0 Early leadership roles because you are good at something technically 0 Go to person Entrepreneur 0 Every time you create a new initiative a new line of business 0 Leaders are moving towards change they are constantly in a position of start ups Strategic planner o If a leader is going to be visionary the leader has to be able to look toward the future 0 Help the org make strategic plans for how they are going to be successful Sometimes all at once playing the roles Need for power not bad Most effective leaders like helping others grow and develop Respect comes with that position of leadership feels good Internally driven towards achievement Advance to higher level positions You are in the inner circle Direct the resources to accomplish goals Don t produce attributed to you and you may lose your job Leaders in any sector carry the burden of being accountable for their performance Higher you go less control you have over things 9 working through people Don t have the authority to make things happen right off the bat Fewer and fewer people you can confide in Hardest part of a leaders job People Organization always have a push and a pull to conflicting goals Multiple agendas that you are going to have to deal with balance Perceived as unethical when they really aren t Being effective is an interaction between 4 characteristics Your effectiveness as a leader is aligning those 4 things The art of leadership is being able to choose the right leadership approaches that fit both your capabilities and are right to lead your group to be successful No such thing as one right leadership style Leadership is much more complex WEEK 3 Chapter Two 3112014 54800 AM Video 1 From Good to Great What Defines a Level V Leader o Jim Collins o Not about personality o Charisma bypass o Never confuse charisma with leadership o Key to great leaders HUMILITY o Absolute burning compulsion obsessed ambition that wasn t about them for a cause the company o Not about them translate it to a series of decisions o Lincoln had the ambition and the will to endure to the most brutal war of history and to lose his life Video 2 Level 5 Good to Great o 90 were insiders outsider can still do it o Charisma negatively correlated with companies going good to great o Comparison company genius with a thousand helpers o Hand in hand with charisma c When a charismatic leader dies the gene goes away o If you lead charisma you can convince everyone that you are right with your personality o Level 5 o Level 5 Executive Level 5 o Effective Leader o Competent Manager o Contributing Team Member o Highly Capable Individual Level 1 o Level 5 are ambitious for the cause the company the work not him or her self Have the will to do whatever is necessary to make good of the ambition for the cause o Search for answers infused with data and then great debate about the data o Level 5 s don t get a lot of credit without them nothing would get done Video 3 Mary Kay Ash o 1963 hit the glass ceiling and rose to the top o Pioneer for women o Never completed college excellent at her job o Fed up with inequality at her work o Wrote a book to help women get a leg up in the business world o 5000 good head on her shoulders and a great product first entrepreneurial adventure o Real success lives that have been touched and given hope o People should be praised to success o Devout more energy to critical problems in the world o Economic opportunity for women o Environmental protection o Fight against cancer Video 4 What is Personal Leadership Brand o Dave Ulrich and Norm Smallwood o What is a leadership brand o Personal strengths deliver value to someone else o Go beyond strengths o Brand is an identity o Personal identity becomes your reputation o Style that reflects the company o Go about making yourself a leadership brand o What am I good at doing o Who are the audiences that I am trying to serve o Be even better o Are my personal predispositions in the range of possibility of making that happen o Begins by understanding who we are and who we want to serve o You wear your brand through your behaviors everyday o The identity that I create can deliver value to those I serve o Brand applies at every level of the firm o Employees all the way through create their brand o Building on your strengths to give value c How do I access how affective it is o Look around o How are others responding to it o Listen and observe your own behaviors o Get people who will be honest with you to improve o Are the actions that I am taking consistent with the brand that I want to have and how I want to be known o Do I need to market my brand o Know what you stand for o Understand your values o 11 connection with my brand the company s brand Latitude to be different o Should be close with one another o Need to work where you are good at your strengths o Lowest performing employee in your competitor Video 5 Why Should Anyone be Led by You o Rob Goffee and Gareth Jones o Community belong to something o Community builder as a leader o Go to work and have a sense of authenticity o People they can trust o Want people comfortable revealing their differences o Shortcomings o Make people look more human o Get to know how others see you c Led by someone who expresses personality o Epicures Assumptions o Real men standing on the round earth breathing in and out all of the powers of nature o Problem trying to seek perfection o Want to be led by a person not the perfect being o How much followers want significance o Leader appreciated their contributions as a whole o Business of making people special o Giving people significance excellent performance o Europeans are not good at this o Source of energy and excitement as a leader o The buzz created by really good leaders want to work o The buzz creating a sense of edge energy and passion c When they come in the doorsare their employees happy or sad to see them o Comes from passion energy or devotion to the task they have o Good leaders know where their unique differences are and use that as a source to excite others o Followers want Community authenticity significance excitement and case o Who decides Video 6 Madeleine Albright on Women and Leadership o Secretary of state first women o No female role models for her to look up to o Idea about the women I want to become o Did not fully find by voice until she was really high up o Would like to see more women leaders o Don t want to see mediocre women o Represent us well and they are smart o Need a support system and cooperation o Want to see women who have a sense of who we are c Very critical of each other o No queen bee o Be helpful to one another o Proud when young women say she is a role model 0 Accomplished something Video 7 I Have a DreamMLK o Greatest demonstration of freedom in our history o Check that will give us our riches of freedom and security ofjustice o Now is the time to make real of the promises of democracy o Now is the time make justice a reality o 1963 is not an end a beginning c We must not guilty of wrongful deeds o Not seek to satisfy our thirst for from freedom by drinking out of the cup of bitterness and hatred o Not allow our creative protests to generate into physical violence c We must rise of leading physical force with soul force c We cannot walk alone c We should always march ahead we cannot turn back o Justice rolls down like waters and righteousness like a stream o Honoring and suffering is redemption I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed quotWe hold these truths to be selfevident that all men are created equalquot I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi a state sweltering with the heat of injustice sweltering with the heat of oppression will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character I have a dream today I have a dream that one day down in Alabama with its vicious racists with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of interposition and nullification one day right there in Alabama little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers I have a dream today I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted every hill and mountain shall be made low the rough places will be made plain and the crooked places will be made straight and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed and all flesh shall see it together This is our hope This is the faith that I go back to the South with With this faith we will be able to hew out of the mountain of despair a stone of hope With this faith we will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood With this faith we will be able to work together to pray together to struggle together to go to jail together to stand up for freedom together knowing that we will be free one day This will be the day when all of God39s children will be able to sing with a new meaning quotMy country 39tis of thee sweet land of liberty of thee I sing Land where my fathers died land of the pilgrim39s pride from every mountainside let freedom ringquot Chapter Two o Oldest questionWhat are the traits and characteristics that great leaders have o Great Man Theory of Leadership o Leaders were naturally born c Whole notion of leaderships is post WWII development c Trying to define those unique qualities of the leader o Weren t able to find any pattern that clearly define traits and characteristics o Org had to start develop new leaders after the deaths in WWII o Fell by the wayside o The trait approach has come back in have a more balanced view c We can develop all of these skills c Having a certain amount of the right stuff is necessary but not sufficient o Takes a lot of nurture taking that right stuff to develop further leadership skills 0 Develop a highly effective leader o Generalities where most leaders tend to have certain traits and characteristics o Define some directions of development c Pinpoint areas you need to work on o Very few leaders have all the traits and characteristics o Notable exceptions o Use this to match yourself to the right situations o Trait is unalterable o Motives and needs you develop o Due to your nurturing and environment o Cognitive factors are hard to alter General Personality Traits o Self Confidence 0 Self evident Reasonably confident about their decisions vision direction of the org 0 Don t want to be too arrogant 0 So confident and you don t listen to people 0 Listen to what other people think neglect them 0 Followers see you as arrogant lose your effectiveness 0 Delicate balancing act 0 Confidence that you are making the right calls 0 Only responsible for a little bit of the success team responsibility o Humility 0 Don t Want you so humble that you don t have confidence o Trustworthiness O O O O O 0 Crisis of leadership being able to trust our leaders Have leaders with integrity Walk the talk If you ever lose it will take you forever to try and get it back Most precious thing you have as a leader PAGE 35 Seven Ways to Keep Trust Make your behavior consistent with your intentions When your organization has a problem and move in a problem solving mode and not who to blame Honor confidences Maintain a high level of integrity Tell the truth in ways that people can verify o People appreciate those can be straight with them Admit mistakes o Everyone expects you to make some mistakes o Earn respect o Avoid admitting a mistake you avoid credibility Reward trust in your organization Sense of humor 0 Useful in the workplace 0 Break tensions 0 Healthy for the organization Authenticity 0 Certain way a leader has to be 0 Followers want a leader who is genuine 0 Be who you are and be genuine with people so they know they are getting the real you Enthusiasm Optimism and Warmth o Projecting enthusiasm and optimism 0 Followers don t like leaders who seem cold and unfriendly o Approachable and warm with them tend to follow the most Assertiveness o Goes with selfconfidence o Leaders are not afraid to speak their mind voice their opinion 0 Difference between assertiveness and aggression 0 People want leaders who will tell them like it is very assertive o Assertive to keep pushing on your agenda as a leader Extraversion o Introverts and extraverts where do they get their energy Extroverts gain their energy when they interact with people Introvert interacting with people drains them of energy Leadership is a people business More you interact with people the better Only logical when we survey leaders the majority are extroverts Only 23rds are extrovert Compensate when you are a introvert Michael Dell is an introvert becoming more extroverted Task Related Personality Traits of Leaders See in the workplace most often o Passion 0 Intense passion for their org that they are trying to lead 0 Working 12 hours doesn t feel like work feels like a hobby o Tendency to be a workaholic get out of balance in life o EQ Daniel Goldman o All leaders have a high EQ level 0 Self Awareness Understand your own emotional makeup In touch with who you are emotionally 0 Self Management Can manage your own emotions rather than letting your emotions manage you 0 Social Awareness Have a high degree of empathy Sense what their emotional needs are Read other peoples body language 0 Relationship Management Able to manage the relationship so that it is emotional healthy Good interpersonal relationship skills o Flexibility and Adaptability o Depend on our leaders to help us adapt to changing circumstances 0 Leaders have to be flexible 0 Help respond to crisis 0 Essence help us with events that we cant anticipate o Internal Locus of Control 0 To what or whom we attribute the cause of events 0 Believe that they can shape a lot of events and they can control or influence events to outcomes they think are positive for themselves and the org 0 External Locus largely view themselves as victims of circumstances Not very proactive to change their circumstances 0 Can create outcomes that are good for the org o Courage 0 Leaders live in a world of change Dealing with change means taking risks Creating visions and directions for an org Charter direction Inspire people to move in that direction Being a leader is entrepreneurial O O O O 0 Leadership Motives o Power Motive o Intense desire to control resources 0 Page 47 leaders with high power motive have three dominant characteristics Vigor and determination to exert power Alter the behavior and thinking of other people c To influence them Care about their personal standing with those around them o Whether their power is growing or shrinking Who uses power the right way or the wrong way Two labels Personalized Power Motive o Just want power for their ego o Donald Trump o Love the feel of it Socialized Power Motive o Want power to do good things with it o Think they know the right visions o Make the org more successful o Very critical of o Drive and Achievement Motive 0 Drive Driven Put a lot of energy into what they are passionate about 0 Achievement Goal oriented O O Driven to achieve them Achieving them feels good to these leaders Set goals and achieve them BHAG Big Hairy Audacious Goals Strong Work Ethic 0 Work as long as it takes to achieve those goals Tenacity 0 They don t let obstacles stop them 0 Keep trying and working and finding new solutions 0 Trying to achieve those goals the set 0 Resilience o Responding to change is a long process 0 To not want to give up Cognitive Factors and Leadership Cognitive or analytical Intelligence 0 O O O 0 Not many dumb leaders Certain type that leaders need to have Skilled at problem solving Cut through to find a solution to the problem Leaders usually have above average intelligence Knowledge of the Business or Group Task 0 O Comes with experience Sometimes experience isn t necessary Creativity O O O Innovativeness Have to be very adaptive and flexible Going to be a problem solver you have to be able to come up with creative or innovative answers Persons in an organization that are the most out of the box thinkers are the leaders Insight into People and Situations O Farsiqhtedness and Conceptual Thinkinq 0 Try and look out in the future and anticipate what is going to happen in the future and try and figure out how the organization is going to prepare 0 Can be learned o Environmental influence leadership development c Help people overcome some of the limitations they inherited genetically o Basic personality traits are a foundation o Exceptions to these trends everywhere you look among leaders o Once you have the right stuff you have to work hard to develop those skills Trait Approach o Can help in developing a developing plan for how you are going to move in leadership responsibility o Complex interaction between traits and situations that we don t have the research methods to capture o Cant flat out say that you must have a certain trait or characteristic or how much of it you need o Taken to an extreme can become detrimental o Too humble work against you c Biggest problem with the trait approach elite conception of leadership NOT TRUE WEEK 4 Chapter Three Charismatic amp Transformational Leadership 3112014 54800 AM Video 1 Prospective on Leadership Condoleezza Rice at the Ronald Reagan o 66th Secretary of state o Lead the development of global policy o People call on Rice for her leadership insight and deep expertise o One of the 100 most influential people 4 times c When times are hard go back to your values what guides you c Why Democracy Matters o Defend the proposition of democracy o Most controversial speak for the democracyfreedom agenda o Impractical o Not serving US interests to speak strongly and firmly for every man and child to live in freedom o Not practical to believe that people regardless of their station in life would want to enjoy the very rights we enjoy o Standing for democracy is practical and right o Universality of freedom and democracy right and moral thing to do o Reagan America must remain freedoms staunch defenderfreedom is our best ally o Ought to live that actually institutionalize and protect those freedoms o Freedoms are universal allowed for EVERY man woman and child o No one should live in tyranny o Cannot impose democracy o You have to impose tyranny o Choose to have a say in their future c We are ready but they are not o Blacks weren t ready for democracy but everybody is ready o Economic circumstance absence of tradition absence of civil society make democracy hard o Patronizing and insidious those not ready for democracy o Hard to tell people that they can think at work but not at home o Democracy is controlled chaos and accordion like If you don t like those who are governing you can throw those bums outquot If there is difference somebody suppresses somebody In the long run can it reach an equilibrium When you have democracy sometimes the bad guys win Extremists not done well at all Decent political forces the second time around are doing better Bad guys best organized and will win Wait until democracy naturally emerges Elections are not sufficient support democratically elected governments Expect more in the their governments Democracy is not a straight line Need support so their people can see they can deliver History has a long tail not a short one Headlines and history judgment are not the same Seemed impossible in retrospect seem inevitable Essence of Reagan our part is to do what is right for history and not today s headlines Long tail only comes out in our favor Cannot be neutral about what form of government is right Continue to work on our own democracy Know that it takes time US most freest most compassionate most generous and most powerful state on the Earth We stand for democracy because we are imperfect People love our national myth the log cabin o Doesn t matter where you came from its where you are going People seek to come to this country because of the great things they can do Make our national myth a reality we have to answer that other part c Americans who are here it has to matter not where you came from but where you are going o Pockets that it is not true in Transforming power of education Solutions come from the people We believe all of the people can reach their full potential Video 2 Leadership Speaker Series Evelyn Lauder All come together at The Kennedy School women and leadership leadership through corporatesocial responsibility and social entrepreneurship Leaders doing things for the public good in the future our generation Revenues of 6 billion dollars 4 products originally 26 brands More than 24000 employees Breast Cancer Awareness Campaign Start something new you cannot give up When you are familiar with it and tired of it people won t know what it is When you are sick maybe only 10 people have seen the ad 1992 pink ribbon No intentions of increasing sales with the pink ribbons Encouraged others to get mammograms 50 million ribbons in over 30 countries Breast cancer being detected with smaller lumps Increase in survival because of the ribbons Awareness to reduce fear and increase knowledge and compliance Sidebar benefits how this has glorified with our own employees People like working for a company that gives back 2500 Chapter Three Introduction Either you have charisma or you don t have charisma Transactional and transforming leadership Transformational leadership definition of leadership Transactional management Transformational essence of leadership in today s world Charisma o Learn to be more charismatic o Barack Obama very charismatic o Make people rally around them personality and characteristics o Bad news of thinking of charisma as charming is bringing it back to the saying you have it or you don t o Fundamentally charisma is something that the group attributes to you c Impression management taking actions and doing things that lead group members to attribute to them this charismatic quality Spend a lot of time on this Effects of Charisma Notes 0 Accept the leader unquestioningly controversial 0 Balance between certain amount of charisma and a certain amount of healthy skepticism 0 Dark Side of Charismatic Leadership o How can charisma be bad 0 Quite charismatic and not ethical or moral o Adolf Hitler Missing a moral compass 0 Can be very controversial 0 Cult leaders Wouldn t question Jim Jones and killed themselves 0 Charismatic leadership to accomplish good things steer clear of that dark side 0 Taking this charisma too far is bad Types of Charismatic Leaders o Socialized Charismatic 0 Use their charisma to enable the community to accomplish things that are good for everyone o Personalized Charismatic o Exactly opposite 0 Use their charisma for their own interest Office Holder Charismatic 0 President of the US 0 Doesn t matter what type of personality they have but once they are president they get a certain type of charisma o What happens once they leave office Does the charisma leave or stay 0 Then you know if it was just a phase in office Personal Charismatic 0 Want to be like this person 0 Great deal of personal charisma that is apart from the office they hold Divine Charismatic o The Pope 0 Has a great deal of charisma because he has been divinely bestowed with this charisma Characteristics of Charismatic Leaders Visionary Masterful Communication Skills Ability to Inspire Trust 0 Followers view these as having credibility Able to Make Group Members Feel Capable o If a leader enables us to do more than what we think we can do we want to follow them 0 Help others achieve things that they otherwise wouldn t Energy and Action Orientation 0 Like to get things done 0 Get results Emotional Expressiveness and Warmth 0 Be approachable 0 Not always telling people what they want to hear 0 High EQ Roma nticize Risk 0 Few great goals in org are achieved without taking on risks 0 Play it safe approach gets you to modest goals 0 Making that risks appear desirable to people Unconventional Strategies 0 Think outside the box 0 Get them to do things in ways they aren t used to 0 Steve Jobs SelfPromoting Personality o Careful of 0 Have a tendency to be self promotional 0 Building that impression of them as a charismatic leader 0 Take it to far people resent it Dramatic and Unique 0 Use these brands to stand out 0 Donald Trump The Vision Component Average person things you have to have naturally or not is vision Mystical capability Ability to think abstractly and conceptually genetics A lot of great visions come from hard work research states People with great vision tend to read very broadly across multiple industries Work at collecting information that influences their vision Tendency to engage a lot of people in seeing this vision You can develop the ability to be visionary takes work A vision defines what an organization aspires to be different from mission 0 CC s example A strong and clear vision 0 Most successful financially is to have a purpose beyond just making money Zappo s Inspires employees to a level of productivity want to give back 0 Set the standard in the industry 0 Needs to be a goal that the org can stretch and achieve If you set them too far out of the reach they no longer have meaning The Communication Component o Regarded as masterful communicators o Management by Inspiration o Management by Anecdote o Different audiences o Good at shifting their tone to fit the audience Techniques for Developing Charisma o Book Explains o A lot of what we consider charismatic is behavior and skills you can work on o No question if you apply yourself you can become more charismatic Transformational Leadership o In organizational life are more interested in the results that charismatic leaders can achieve o Transforming leader 9 Transformational leadership 0 Next evolution of charismatic leadership 0 Positive change o Change as episodic o Periods of stability and then periods of change 0 The reality today change is constant c Transactional Transformational Leadership 0 Both are valuable and necessary 0 Transformational better when change is needed Transactional Leadership o Leading via a transaction with the followers 0 Transaction contingent reward Relationship give and take Only results in a certain level of commitment Doesn t take you to greatness the org Intrinsically believe in what you are doing more rewarding Transform an org we need to reach farther than transactional leadership Bass Transformational Leadership Charismatic leadership idealized influence Inspirational motivation o Inspiring versus controlling Intellectual stimulation 0 You need to challenge people 0 Engage their minds Individualized consideration 0 Care about people 0 Care about their concerns and lives 0 Care about them as individuals Defining transformational leadership as having these 4 dimensions CongerKa nungo Cha rismatic Leadership Strategic vision and articulation Sensitivity to the environment Sensitivity to member needs Personal risk 0 Willing to put their own credibility on the line for the vision they are pursuing Unconventional behavior 0 Any lengths to achieve their vision How Transformations Take Place The Leader Raises people s awareness 0 About the potential for that org Helps people look beyond self interest 0 Better for them to help the team Helps people search for self fulfillment 0 Show people how they can find self fulfillment in the vision the leader is trying to articulate Helps people understand need for change 0 Leaders forget this 0 Staying at status quo is not an option 0 Spend a lot of time helping people understand why there change is necessary Invests managers with sense of urgency 0 Everyone 0 Not only change is necessary it needs to happen quickly Is committed to greatness 0 Organizational change is hard 0 Leader can put forth a vision of greatness than they can often accomplish things no one could have imagined 0 Have to be resilient o Greatness to a high level of performance Adopts a longrange broad perspective Builds trust 0 Among your followers 0 Vision is the right thing Concentrates resources where most needed Attributes of a Transformational Leader Charismatic EQ Extroverted Creates and communicates a vision Encourages the personal development of others Provides supportive leadership o Practices empowerment o Thinks innovativer o Leads by example 0 Walk the talk 0 Lead people through change build trust o Often employs moral reasoning o Help others get better o Give people a change to grow develop o Fundamental to inspiring others o Try and develop our skills further Concerns About Charismatic Leadership o Charisma without an ethical and moral concern can be dangerous o Transformational leadership in times of change more successful o Need to work on transformational skills WEEK 6 Chapter FOUR Leadership Behaviors Attitudes and Styles 3112014 54800 AM Video 1 Steve Jobs Stanford Commencement Speech 2005 First Story Connecting the Dots Why did I drop out o Put up for adoption o Adopted by college graduates Biological mother found out that neither of his adoptive parents went to coHege Promised to her that he would go to college Didn t see the value after 6 months of college Decided to drop out and trust that it would all work out okay Begin dropping in on the classes that I wanted to go to Followed his curiosity and intuition Decided to take a calligraphy class No hope of practical imagination Mac first computer with typography IfI had never dropped out than I would have never dropped in on that calligraphy class and PC s wouldn t be the way they are Impossible to connect the dots forward when I was in college Only connect them looking backwards Trust in something gut destiny karma Connecting the dots will allow you to follow your heart Second Story Love and Lose Started Apple when he was 20 Got fired from a company he started Board of directors sided with the new man at age 30 Thought he was a public failure still loved what he did Been rejected but I was still in love Getting fired best thing that could have happened Heaviness of being successful lightness of being a beginner again Then went on and created Pixar Next Apple bought Next returned to Apple Sometimes life will hit you in the head with a brick don t lose faith o Love for work and your lovers o Do what you believe is great work only way to do great work is to love what you do o Don t settle Third Story death o If you live each day as your last you will certainly be right c When the answer is NO change o Remembering that you are going to die is the best way to avoid the trap that you are going to lose something o No one wants to die even those that want to go to Heaven o Death is very likely the single best invention of life o Clears out the old and makes way for the new o Your time is limited so don t waste it living someone else s life o Don t be trapped by dogma o Don t let the noise of others opinions drown out the noise of yours o Have the courage to follow your heart and intuition o Everything else is secondary o Stay hungry stay foolish wished that for himself Video 2 Leading at Google Annie McKee o Leaders are everywhere in Google o Top advisor on leadership o Things have changed dramatically to how we relate to one another in the world o How do we work and live in our organizationstake ourselves and our company forward o Struggling how to live work and lead o Modeled on the Catholic church and the military o How to live work and lead in these new organizations o Resonant Leadership 0 EQ 0 Science behind it o Mind Body Heart and Spirit 0 You are recruited for your minds 0 Make the difference in leadership heart 0 Body resilient physically and psychologically 0 Spirit beliefs and values and how you live them o Resonant leaders look out for themselves and others o Resonant leaders inspire us to fid meaning in our lives today and hope in the promise of tomorrow o Ingredients are personal professional and group oriented o People change because somebody touches their hearts o Magic that releases talent and potential o See your life in a different way o Who helped you c How do people change Change when they want to Usually change when they are moving towards something that is positively attracted to their whole lives Positive emotions more willing to engage in the hard work of change Feeling like judged unfairly evaluated people don t change People like change but they have to be touched 0 Learn to do for other people We know these things can be learned o Resonant leadership is common sense not common practicewhy Only about 1015 be great leaders We operate on false assumptions of what it is to be a great leader Leave our emotions at the door false Bring our whole self to leadership Myth 1 Smart is good enough 0 Competencies related to EQ make the difference Myth 2 Emotions don t matter at work 0 Open up our minds or close them down Myth 3 You are a superhero 0 Good leaders are resilient o Pressures of the world or work can get the better of us Emotions affect our ability to perceive and process information we feel before we think 9 survival mechanism Emotions are contagious and you pick them up You feel then you act and then you think 9 feel think and act 0 Self awareness and self management Emotional attractors 0 Hope joy compassion excitement calm safety 0 Chaos theory to the interaction of human beings 0 Open up our cognitive categories 0 Take in more information Negative emotional attractors 0 Hate fear anger 0 Close down our cognitive categories 0 Less information gets through Competencies are skills with intentions behind them o Allow you to be more effective Energy transfers to other people Empathy o Understanding deeply what motivates other people o Makes them move o Underestimated Relationship Skills o Inspiration teamwork etc not possible without the other three Neurological Domains of Creativity o Emotion thinking and creativity 0 Creativity knowledge domain 0 Emotional domain not intuition process emotion and link with out thoughts o Creativity is a deliberate process We work in groups not alone We are mammals saddle up to each other Emotions are contagious Mirror neurons mirror the emotions of other human beings o Explanation for knowing what we do Emotions have power over us Transmission of emotion and understanding Dissonant leaders are dangerous People want to look up and find someone to blame When you become a victim you are not a leader Right thing is to step up and take responsibility A lot of impact on people around you But what if YOU are the problem o How does this happen c We often expect ourselves to be superheroes c We need coping mechanisms and need to know how to handle it o Start to find yourself sinking under pressure o Dissonance is the default power stress o Sacrifice syndrome given too much o Stay in the zone of resonant leadership o Make sure you can sustain your effectiveness when things are tough o Mindfulness hope and compassion o Mindfulness cognitive psychology how we organize it in our brains o The work of taking in information becomes less systems are more open Clear your mind calm your mind o Basis for understanding what is going on around you c Basis to manipulate your emotions work for you c Basis to face situations neurologically and psychologically remain resilient Mindfulness whole being o Foundation for good leadership Mind body heart and spirit together informed by mindfulness cause us to have our feet on the ground Deal with the situations that we can then embrace Hope o The belief that the future will be better than the past o Not only about how it makes us it changes our neurophysiology c When we are experiencing hope a key is turned and our parasympathetic neuro system how we respond to emotion is turned on o Countering the effects of our sympathetic nervous system c Compassion o Drawn to feel empathy for other people o Basis for how we interact with other people o Little acts such as greeting each other and waiting for the response o Mentoring someone compassionate o Don t have to turn this on don t have to do much o Live more consciously around your emotions o Give people the opportunity to learn from you 0 Chapter Four Introduction c Find that right trait for all leaders not successful o No traits maybe a set of behaviors o Post WWII management education began to flourish An Effective Leader o is one who helps group members attain productivity including high quality and customer satisfaction as well as job satisfaction o Satisfied workers high productivity o Sustained effectiveness have to balance the need for productivity with keeping their followers engaged Two Classic Dimensions of Leadership Behavior o Consideration 0 People orientation o Initiating Structure 0 Task vs People o All leadership behaviors could be classified along 2 dimensions o These 2 dimensions have significant affect on leadership effectiveness Leadership Behavior Consideration Very approachable Informed about what is going in their personal lives Small favors for the group High consideration job satisfaction motivation 9 influence leader effectiveness Leadership Behavior Initiating Structure o Focusing on how the task gets done o Increase performance at all levels o And job satisfaction Figure 41 Task Related Leadership Attitudes and Behaviors o Not mutually exclusive DIAGRAM o Possible to be both o High structure and high consideration is not the right thing all the time o The situation is going to dictate the right combination o Best leaders are able to flex their style not be locked in one style o Adaptability to the Situation o Direction Setting o High performance standards Pushing people for more Setting standards that cause people to reach Pygmalion effect rise to the level of expectations set for them Most people don t know what they are capable of Vote on confidence for our followers 0 O O O O Concentrating on Strengths of Group Members 0 Positive Psychology Movement Strengths Based Approach Lets quit focusing on what people need to fix Focus on what they are good at Roles that capitalize on their strengths Focusing on the strengths and capitalizing them better as an organization Risk taking and execution of plans Hands on guidance and feedback Ability to ask tough questions 0 Have a knack for being able to ask the hard question that nobody wants to ask 0 Stop and makes people think about what they are doing 0 O O 0 Table 4 2 Relationship Oriented Attitudes and Behaviors Aligning People 0 Leaders biggest jobs 0 Getting everyone to work for the same purpose same page very challenging task 0 Getting everyone in the organization to believe in it Openness to Worker Opinions 0 High consideration leaders 0 Want to take input 0 Not always agree with them willing to listen to people Creating Inspiration and Visibility Satisfying Higher Level Needs 0 Essentially to get people to work for some reason other than their paycheck o Fulfills some higher level need 0 Need to help and serve other people Giving Emotional Support and Encouragement 0 High consideration have no problem giving emotional support 0 Personal issues do come into the workplace 0 Leader will be much more respected Promoting Principles and Values Being a Servant Leader 0 Robert Greenleaf o Radical 0 Leader is not there to have followers serve him or her but the other way around Leader is there to serve the followers Leaders with high consideration care about their followers a lot 0 O 360 Degree Feed back People that work for a leader would see one side of him or her and have their opinions Peers may see another side of that person and have their own opinions Bothered people who were trying to measure people s behaviors These people have different relationships with an individual Multi source or multi rater feedback Try to use these for formal performance evaluations promotionraise and they didn t work Competency model of leadership individuals are asked to rate their leader on these competencies Look at how the subordinates rated the individuals and compare it to peers and their boss Individual rating himself or herself too low Leadership Style Behaviors and Attitudes Style captures our conversation in leadership How do you characterize a style Like to pigeon hole people Initialing structure and people versus staff characterizes Types of Leadership Styles Pa rticipative Style Lowest level of decision making consultative 0 Come to you for input 0 Still my decision Consensus building 0 Has to be agreed to by everybody on the team 0 Still part of the decision loop Democratic 0 Turn it over to the team and let them make the decision Front line workers know how to handle problems better than management Takes time to be a team Slower more committee meetings Laissez faire pulled back and detached Engage the organization into enough participative to get all the benefits Most quality initiatives get all the people involved in the org takes a lot of time and resources Participative style is good Be careful to not let it get too far Autocratic Style Hardly any one wants this with their leader Low consideration high initiating There are some times when it is the right style Bobby Jindal Entrepreneurial Style Special type of person to be an entrepreneur Hardest working leaders Believe in their vision wholeheartedly Externally focused Looks toward the future and eternal optimists Special breed of leader Gender Differences in Leadership Style Popular paper topic in women Nature or nurture Overall effectiveness sexes are perceived the same No right or wrong way to lead matching behaviors to the style with the people you are involved with WEEK 7 Chapter 5 3112014 54800 AM Video 1 Leadership Trait vs PathGoal o People follow if they believe they will get a certain outcome o Wont follow if you don t have your sights set on a clear goal o You must meet the subordinates needs o Leader thinks he is the loudest and followers don t matter o Born with leadership o Not motivating others o Adapt themselves to the situation o Effective leader o Directive o Ambiguous and dogmatic o Supportive 0 Provide nourishments o Participative 0 Divide them into task teams o Achievement oriented 0 Establish a high standard of work excellence o Loudest generally alone o Style does not promote dependency Video 2 Ken and Scott Blanchard Situational Leadership 11 o Don t delegate and disappear o Done to them rather than with them situational leadership o Do leadership with them as a partner o Hard to find more time o How useful are your conversations to the people you are talking to o Effective leadership about having useful conversations with people about their performance o Focused on who are you what are you up to how can I serve you Video 3 Global Leadership Fellows Creating Global Leaders 2009 Wayne Cascio Leaders of tomorrow will have to collaborate and operate where they can navigate cultural and regional and political differences lasting success Force for reflection Recognized the need to develop new leaders Global leaders who can act as a global community All of us have opportunities to be global leaders The Global Leadership Fellows o Work with the best professors and thinkers o Put together in a melting pot o Exposed to people of different walks of life o Have a global mindset o Help them to do their self assessment as leaders o Clear and regular exposure to leaders o 5 or 10 years to see phenomenal leaders Why do we need global leaders o Cant be solved by governments alone o Recognize interdependencies Need for collaboration What a global complexity Global responsibility Broadening Leadership Competencies Great deal of dynamic complexity Have to adapt constantly to the changes in your environment Adaptability Cannot solve problems alone A leadership incubator o Interact in face to face meetings o Share their insights Peer coaching o Coach and the coachee o Put on your advisor hat drawn on your own experiences o Emulate what other people are doing o Fellows coach each other peer coaching groups o Honesty conspiracy and integrity are key values Executive Coaching and Mentoring Creating an environment for people to think and reflect Coaching internal approach Helping the fellow to reflect and ask questions Needs for development Mentoring gives advice Regular meetings with them Show them how they lead Fellows can shadow their mentor o Advice to Orgs Rotation in terms of tasks Show different cultures Accept facts of diversity Dedication to a particular way of acting Helping young people understand what their strengths and weaknesses are Requires foresight vision and resources o Advice to Future Global Leaders China or Asia is here get exposed to Asia Learn from experiences go out and travel Have a conversation with themselves Can say honestly they are acting and implementing those values from when they are younger Use to have 20002million competitors know you have 6 billion 0 O O O O O O O O 0 Very well trained adaptive successful and hungry Achieve more than what you think you can do Always be learning and curious A nature of curiosity World today is transparent Your ethics they form your reputation No compromises Learn more about cultures Learn a language that does not belong to our culture Need corporation of all stakeholders of global society o Five Lessons Seize opportunities to learn about different cultures values and perspectives Get a coach and a mentor early in your career To lead leaders be authentic and genuine o Recognize the interdependence among global issues countries communities and people o Practice collaborative leadership Video 4 Global Leadership Fellows Interviews with Leaders Interconnectedness of global challenges Interdependence between countries and communities Take into account what is good for the region and world Move up the global chain Dependent on investment Transcultural o Worldly o Future leaders have to have exposure to a lot of places Consider their ecological and social footprint Growing your company and earning money is a means to an end Have a clear vision of the world positive Increasing other peoples dignity You are already a leader Showing your attitudes and aspirations Not how you have that you can give away its about how use the resources you actually have Putting your efforts into creating a better world Leaders need followers o Strong people skills o Motivate and excite our workforce o Have to have vision and optimism CQ o Cultural quotient o Ability to navigate through other cultures People need focus Best out of people serious EQ Alex the Great Have to make decisions Open to experience Exposure to other cultures early in life Start to see how other people behave o Two features o Avoid uniformity 0 Ability to asses with his own mind o Ability to learn from mistakes 0 Take the best out of it o Everyone will go with the CayCare o Completely inappropriate c We need leaders who can help people understand their selfinterest o Set the context whereby human capital can become unleashed o Knowledge is important o Leaders who are others people want to follow o Leader has to have authenticity sincerity o Deeply Conscience of his or her social responsibility o More tolerant word o Communication skills will b e essential Video 5 Employee Motivation Expectancy Theory o Ben Baran o Expectancy theory helps us understand the thought process behind how people choose to behave o Maximize pleasure minimize pain o Behavior is rational 0 Choose the alternative that has the greatest force o Motivational Force MF Expectancy effort to performance expectancy X Instrumentality performance to outcome E X Valance value we place on a particular outcome o Effort that needs to be exerted 9 performance 9 outcome o Two types of expectancies o Effort to Performance Expectancy o Perception that his or her effort will result in a particular level of performance o Performance to Outcome Expectancy 0 Probability in our heads 0 Get us something that we value c Outcomes have different levels of values valance Outcomes at work take several forms we can value them in three ways o Pay Promotion Praise Ridicule o AAA Positive negative or neutral o Effort to performance expectancies together with outcome valence determine our motivational force o MF Expectancy EP XI PO X Valence 0 Motivation can reduce if one of these suffer o Rational way to think about behavior and employee motivation o For managers expectancy theory has a number of implications o EPe select people training coaching 0 Increase the belief that employees will success o PO 9 measure job performance clearly explain outcomes describe how employees rewards are based on past rewards 0 Increase the belief that performance is going to get them an outcome o Outcome Valences 9 distribute rewards that people value tasty rewards individualizing rewards minimizing the presence of outcomes that might contradict other 0 Increase the expected value of those outcomes that come from desired performances 0 Consistency in the rewards being offered Video 6 Motivation Project Expectancy Theory o Motivation drives us o All individual s perception of the performance process o Expectancy Theory Motivation thought on how badly someone wants something and how they are going to achieve it o Person puts an effort will lead to performance o Valence 0 Function of a persons specific needs goals and values 0 Each outcome has related valence of either negative or positive 0 Negative outcome they don t want o Expectancy o Effort leads to performance Work harder will get better at it Midway point Getting the right mindset Don t enhance your performance wont get the reward you want o Instrumentality 0 Performance is related to rewards o Reward most important Value the most Performance leads to rewards Rewards is what motivates you In the working environment 0 O O O WEEK 8 Chapter 6 Leadership Ethics and Social Responsibility3112014 54800 AM Video 1 How Leaders Go Wrongquot with Bennis and Kellerman About how people are reacting to the leader What they do that makes them go wrong Lose touch to reality Followers are less tolerant Ben Franklin would be celebrated for his virtues but judged for the rest of his life Much harsher on leaders Is it the climate of the press Systemic bias in the press towards bad news Kellerman Book Bad Leadership Have been struck how the leadership field has been incredibly biased to good leadership Don t really study bad leaders Leadership is a purely functional term one person to get one other person to point A to B o Out of the barrel of the gun leadership is a web with different strands flowing through it tangled web Exercise power authority and influence in ways that do harm Harm is not deliberately inflicted carelessness or neglect Typology taking a whole group of things and breaking them up into different groups or types Cover the spectrum from the slightly bad to the really bad Broken the universe of bad leaders 7 types 2 groups o Group 1 Inadequate 0 Falls to produce the desired change 0 Weak skills 0 Falls short of its intention o Incompetent Lack the will or skill to sustain effective action Do not demonstrate the continuing capacity to create positive change 0 Rigid Stuff unyielding Stay stuck Unable to adapt to new ideas new information to the changing times 0 Intemperate Lack self control or even self restraint Unwilling to moderate their appetites they violate conventional standards of good behavior o Group 2 Immoral 0 Falls to distinguish between right and wrong 0 Leadership process is defiled o Callous Insensitive to their followers Followers are a means to an end rather than an end to themselves Corrupt Dishonorable Moral fiber is thin Lie or cheat or steal Self interest before public interest 0 Tribal Insular They discount the welfare of the other Many people suffer many lives are lost 0 Evil Commit atrocity s Pain as power Harm done is severe rather than slight Physical or psychological or both o Leadership is not just about leaders about the followers o Leaders do not act alone 0 Bennis Only thing that matters in art is what cant be explained No central paradigm Face some of the challenges Most of the writings about leadership are written by CEO s Seem to be held up as objects leaders Fall from grace Rushmorian statues If it doesn t bleed it doesn t lead Endanger of wrecking the concept of the corporation Wealth for success and image for leadership misinterpreting Many leaders have failed Andy Groves He was ashamed to be a CEO of today s news SOB Caesar bad leadership The most fatal flaw arrogance not listening Hearing and listening and getting differences Caesar was a good man and knew a bit about leadership When Cicero spoke people marveled Caesar knew about PR Caesar wasn t picking up certain signals His most trusted assistant tires to get him to read a letter he had written to beware of Brutas Answer is not in the stars Tired ears What didn t they know and when didn t they want to know it Bliley arrogant or irraplecibly self confident wearing a panama hat on the subway Why do leaders self construct with their tired ears Some of the signsexamples o Imperious arrogance o Cognitive dissonance o Underestimated the significance of dangerous inflection points o Unable to listen 0 Culture o Character issues of the leader that doesn t want to get the news o Caesar and Howell Reign were good men and their successes took their information and perfected Video 2 James MacGregor Burns on Moral Leadership o The need for us to translate great terms into working ideas o Even though we talk about values they are in conflict and most interesting in conflict o Break leadership down into component parts hierarchy o I put public values at the top o Public values have caused transactional and transforming leadership o Drawn from history o Many people discourage the emphasis on values there is no form to American values o Long way from the values we connect with moral leadership o Should not let them become cheated o Contrary to those who say we have no coherent philosophy or values o Dec of Ind with those moral phrases o Life liberty and the pursuit of happiness dissilimentation of the Enlightenment o Order to these terms o Life is exactly what they wanted to start off as the key term 0 Life of a nation o Liberty brought up talking about liberty o Pursuit of happiness most fascinating aspect 0 Many different interpretations o Equality was essential to the pursuit of happiness o These ideas were not separate ideas o How each of these concepts modifies the other o Must be modified by liberty o Exploiting freedom as individualism modified by liberty o Ideas in conflict o These ideas are still dominant they may be put in different terms o Continuing impact of the phrase o Public values are the essence of history o Ethical Values o Not part of our great history o They get the headlines o These ideas fade away in the history o Remember them as unique occasions o Actual impact on history is limited great lessons can be learned o Role of Private Virtue o Thing that really counts is the day to day behavior his mom o Rate these at the bottom o Lincoln c When the chips were done what did Lincoln do o Put security ahead of liberty through judicial actions o Cut off those liberty s o The life of the nation was protected carry our liberty FDR o Public values o Recreating the Bill of Rights c He was not very ethical deceived people o Interventionism o Never informed the people on what he was doing o Truthfulness in hierarchy o Clinton o In the end not his infidelity private virtue that people remember it was his ethical failure o Trying to make moral leadership understandable in terms of bad news that are in conflict Video 3 Academy of Achievement Colin Powell o Greatest act of social entrepreneurship was creating jobs o Became a philanthropist o Social entrepreneurs none of them stated out that way and wanted to change the world c We want kids to learn about the problems of their cities o In order for a society to thrive and lift up people out of poverty is a job o Parents worked hard so he and his sister could have a dignified life o Trough wealth your create jobs and jobs create wealth o Social entrepreneurship has to include building up the entire society c As you can that success you have such an obligation to give back o Can maybe save a little piece of the world not all of it o The creation of wealth is what is driving the world o Why do we keep focusing on wealth creation o The most powerful political force the connection of the world to the Internet o If we create wealth they will reelect us o Energy economics environment and education all come together o 50 of minorities don t finish high school o 13rd don t finish high school o minority communities in one generation will become the majority Video 4 Bill Gates Speech at Harvard part 2 o Reducing inequity is the highest human achievement c We can finally take on and solve these inequities o Where would you spend that money o Most good with the greatest number of resources that we have o Save these children world would catch on and get the medicine o Some lives are seen as worth saving and others are not priority of our giving o How can the world let these children The market did not reward saving the lives of these children and govt s did not subsidize it o Develop a more creative capitalism o Spend tax payer money of the vales of the people who pay the taxes c We can find approaches who meet the needs of the poor sustainable way to reduce inequity in the world Chapter 2 Traits Motives amp Characteristics Of Leaders 352013 30000 AM lquotl ll No set principles that every leader possesses Postwar9 we needed more leaders due to large 5 of deaths so we learned people could be developed into leaders Pre WWII nature Post WWII development Leaders are BOTH born AND made observable both wI and outside the context of work UCL 3 r f jif pl jm w39 539 M ii 3 quot39 f 51 mli 3 o Selfconfidence but not becoming arrogant project it to group o Humility give credit to others involve others don t abuse power careful not to seem unsurenot confident o Trustworthiness have integrity E d llil lli quotL lquot3 iiJquotll EiI in Make your behavior consistent with your intentions practice what you preach Move into problemsolving mode not blaming mode Honor confidences Maintain a high level of integrity what s morallyethically right Tell truth in ways that ppl can verify Admit mistakes Reward trust in your organization Sense of humor Authenticity know who you are and demonstrate it genuine Enthusiasm optimism and warmth Assertiveness forthright in expressing demands opinions feelings attitudes Extraversion be outgoing and upbeat i Core selfevaluations broad personality trait that captures bottomline selfassessment that s composed of selfesteem locus of control generalized selfefficacy and emotional stability li u iE l39ilu j l 7 if trivia ll 39F l i illiwi 3l 73 l7l 3 quotl l quot39 l i i i Q litquot i i il quoti339 o Passion o Flexibility and adaptability o Internal locus of control whatwhom we attribute the cause of events believe YOU personally can shapecontrolinfluence events to create positive outcomes 0 Closely related to selfconfidence o Courage o Emotional intelligence necessary to be a great leader 0 Selfawareness know your emotions o Selfmanagement manage your emotions 0 Social awareness aka empathy can sense others emotional needs Relationship management manage relationships wothers o Emotional contagion automatic amp unconscious transfer of emotions bt and among individuals 0 2 Leadershi Motives ampNeeds o This desire is evident in four needs or motives all of which can be considered taskrelated TaskRelated Leadership Motives STPD like stupid o Power motive it 4 o Leaders whigh power motives have 3 dominant characteristics Act with vigordetermination to exert their power Invest lots of time in thinking about ways to alter behaviorthinking of others to influence them They care about their personal standing wothers around them 0 Personalized ower motive wants power just for hisher O power to use it to improve organizationcommunity o Drive and achievement motive put all their energy into their cause iquot 7 7 anvil i39ElTil i i finding joy in accomplishment for its own sake o BHAG Big Hairy Audacious Goal 0 Consistent desire to Achieve through their efforts and take responsibility for successfailure Take moderate risks that can be handled through their own efforts Receive feedback on their level of performance Introduce novel innovative or creative solutions Plan and set goals Tenacity leaders don t let obstacles stopdiscourage them keep trying i 71l39llill39l f can take a setback and bounce back 3 Cognitive Factors amp Intelliqence problemsolving and intellectual skills xi lfll r L i o Leaders must have problemsolving and intellectual skills to effectively gatherprocessstore essential info o 6 cognitive factors related to leadership effectiveness have been identified a i i i i39i i il pi i 6 Cognitive Factors amp Intelliqence PFKICC o Practical intelligence street smart common sense o Farsightedness and conceptual thinking anticipate future and put together a strategy to prepare your organization o Knowledge of businessgroup task o Insight into peoplesituations o Cognitive analytical intelligence o Creativity Influence of Heredity amp Environment o Are leaders born or made BOTH l Pll39i l1 u I Trait Approach o Strengths o Serves as a guide to leader selection 0 Can guide individuals in preparing for leadership responsibility o Limitations 0 Doesn t identify which characteristics are absolutely needed 0 Doesn t specify how much of a trait or characteristic is needed 0 Can breed an elitist conception of leadership only the great ppl are capable of being leaders you ve either got it or you don tamp might discourage ppl from trying to lead Summary u Personality traits include both general traits and taskrelated traits Leaders can often be distinguished by their needsmotives Cognitive ability is important for leadership success Traitsmotivescognitive ability derive from a combo of heredity and environment Traits do appear to distinguish leaders from nonleaders and effective leaders from lesseffective leaders Chapter 2 Videos 352013 30000 AM Video 1 Jim Collins l l l Lilli mpulsive ambition that wasn t about themselves o Charisma is different from personality o Be ambitious and have the will to endure 0 Burning co Video 2 Jim Collins iii li l i l lus i o No charisma must win based on factsperformance o Charisma can win based on deliveryattitude 3 u 7 r u 5 l v l L quotbigquot u ul39T mm l1lnr quotli Video 3 Hero s Journey Mary Kay Ash cosmetics o Paved way for women entrepreneurs o Sets example for businesses Video 4 Personal Leadership Brand Dave amp Norm H 39 M J 39l39li l39lill Build personal leadership brand in mind of those who could use your strengths they recognize you by your leadership abilities Start by finding out what you re good at doing amp identify the audiences that you re trying to serve 0 From there you can changedevelop your brand luau m l m hm LlLJlT Lil u u la 2 Observe how others respond to what you do listen and observe to see how it affects others Get feedback from those who will be honest Are the actions you take consistent with the brand you want others to know Video 5 Why Should Anyone Be Led By You o Ppl want to belong to something ifilsli 7 ill um NEE I 7 4 y o Followers want sense of significance and that their leader appreciates their contributions o Leaders need to be a source of energy and excitement should lift and inspire people o Leaders know their distinct differences to inspire others o Followers want community authenticity significance followers decide if you qualify Video 6 Madeleine Albright o Know who you are respect others choices o Don t have a queen bee complex Video 7 MLK o gt V VV V V v Chapter 1 Leadership Leadership I The ability to inspire confidence and support among the people who are needed to achieve organizational goals Key Themes I Ability to inspire o More about inspiration rather than just managing I Getting other people to do something I Goal directed o Leaders help others achieve their goals Inspire people to change Leadership I As a position in organizations 0 We aren t talking about this 0 This isn t leadership I As a role in organization I As a skill set in organizations 0 Everyone in the community has the potential to be a leader We need leadership at all levels of an organization Leadership as Partnership I Leadership is a partnership rather than a parenting 0 We aren t the director in charge who commands and tells people to do things I Leadership is a longterm relationship or partnership between leaders and group members I The power between leader and group members is approximately balanced 0 It s not always exactly balanced I You can only be a leader is someone wants to follow you Look at table 11 leader versus managers I No absolute dividing line I At the extremes it is easy to see I Management 0 Directing o Controlling Leadership 0 Inspiring people towards goals I We need both 0 One is not better than the other I Managers are about stability 0 They resist change I Leaders are more idealists 0 They encourage change I Most managers are also leaders Most leaders manage As we talk about positions in organizations The weighting of manager vs leaders shift They both are important They do different things Our perception of management looks more and more like leadership gt Leadership matters The research shows that leadership is responsible for between 1545 of a company s performance however Transactional leadership was not significantly related to performance O Think of this as management type leadership Charismatic leadership was slightly positively related to performance O The leadership type of leadership In an uncertain environment charismatic leadership was more strongly related to performance O Look at the economy the people in leadership positions made a lot of difference Bad leadership can drag an organization down significantly gt Leadership does not matter V Three major arguments against the importance of leadership include Substitutes exist for leadership Leaders can be irrelevant people lead themselves and outside influences can overwhelm them Q At google employees are known to lead themselves O Leaders cant control everything Organizational systems are far too complex to attribute success to leadership O Much more that accounts tan just leadership Q But leadership adds to that success Q There is an element of truth but our research shows that leaders add value Figure 11 substitutes for leadership Instances where leadership is less important In closely knit teams of highly trained individuals They look to each other for help They don t need a whole lot of leadership People who work with a high level of intrinsic satisfaction They don t need awards They motivate themselves Computer technology Social networking Internet helps find info O People don t need leaders so much anymore Professional norms Certified public accountants O They will work and perform to those norms regardless of the leader I Substitutes make leaders less relevant but not irrelevant gt Leadership roles V V I An expected set of activities or behaviors stemming from one s job I They switch roles from time to time Figurehead O Ceremonies they need to attend O Annual meetings Spokesperson O They speak for the company Negotiator O They get involved in many negotiations Coach and motivator O One of the biggest roles for a leader Team builder O In todays world organization promote team work Q Employers show a great love for teams O Leaders make sure everyone works together Team player O Know how to be just one of the team Technical problem solver O Less true as you move up the ranks in n organization O All your followers ask you for help when they have a problem Entrepreneur O Even if working for a company every time you create a new initiative or line of business you are being entrepreneurial Strategic planner O Needs because of visions O Interpret trends in order to make plans to achieve goals Sources of leader satisfaction I A feeling of power and prestige I A chance to help others grow and develop I High income I Respect and status I Good opportunities for advancement I A feeling of being in on things I An opportunity to control resources Leader frustrations I Too much uncompensated overtime I Too many headaches V Figure 12 a f 0 Problems with people and taking on their problems Facing a performorperish mentality 0 You have to produce whether its out of your control or not Not enough authority to carry out plans 0 Higher you go the less control you have because you have so many people to work through to get things down Loneliness o The fewer colleagues you have as your rise to the top 0 You have to reach out to other organizations leaders in order to connect Too many problems involving people 0 The hardest part of a leaders job Too much organizational politics The pursuit of conflicting goals 0 Could be avoided if organizations could agree on goals 0 But they always have a push and pull of conflicting goals 0 Exxon example Being perceived as unethical especially if you are a corporate executive 39 for 39 quot U 39 39 39 39 Being affective as a leader is an interaction between four key components 0 Your characteristics and traits Q You are born with these 0 Your behaviors and style that are learned Q Can be changed 0 Group member characteristics Q Your followers characteristics 0 Internal and external environment O Things that affect your ability to lead which you cannot control gt Summary Leadership is a longterm relationship between leaders and group members When effective it inspires confidence and support among people who are needed to achieve organizational goals Although some research supports the theory leaders do affect organizational performance 39 and I 39 39 theory suggest otherwise the conceptsof 39 39 leader39 gt Key terms Leadership 0 The ability to inspire confidence and support among the people who are needed to achieve organizational goals Partnership 0 A relationship between leaders and group members in which power is approximately balanced Substitutes for leadership o gt V V V 0 Factors in the work environment that provide guidance and incentives to perform making the leader s role almost superfluous Leadership effectiveness 0 Attaining desirable outcomes such as productivity quality and satisfaction in a give situation v Video Notes Pat Summit Look at our loses to see how we can improve Nelson Mandela Video on his story of influencing people Value Based Leadership Understand our values People like leaders with predictable values Leadership is storytelling 0 Be deliberate in what we want others to learn 10 beliefs of leadership Live a life full of purpose Q What is your purpose in life O Spend time on achieving your goals rather than external events Ourjob as leaders is to help others succeed 0 Spend time catching people succeeding Put people in the rightjobs o Humans like doing what they are good at Choose the harder right than the easy wrong o If it feels easy it is probably wrong Diverse people groups are more innovative 0 Innovation never happens in a straight line 0 Provides separate ideas to connect Diversity sparks innovation 0 Treat other people the way they want to be treated Ineffective strategies are greater barriers than errors of people There will be some people who wont make it through the journey You have to constantly be changing Recruiting is a top priority The true test of a leader is what happens when you are not there 0 Did you build a clock or are you telling time Q Leaders are good when they build clocks 0 Where are your footprints If you don t have a purpose find one The biggest mistake a leader can make Don t Put your self interest above the institution you run 0 Leadership is a responsibility Don t betray trust Don t be certain 0 Things always change 0 You don t know everything Live up to your values 0 Live out your values Don t become so interested in your vision that you neglect everything else Don t be arrogant and hubris 0 Don t confuse the success of the enterprise with the persona of the individual o It increases the chance of mistake Don t act too fast 0 Think before you act Its not all about you 0 Character is putting the needs of others above yourself 0 Level 5 leadership O Ambition is for the success of others not yourself Taking personal responsibility 0 Don t pass the blame Don t be inconsistent 0 Have integrity 0 Don t be dr Jekyll and Hyde Be self reflective 0 Review your own behavior 0 How does that behavior impact others HRE 3723 Chapter 13 Videos Video 1 2010 CES Ford Keynote Presentation Alan Mulally Alan Mulally President and CEO of Ford Motor Company Innovative technology has led to better Ford products Facebook and Twitter changing the world TeXting is the favorite form of communication for every age group Mobile apps created for platforms that didn t exist years ago Reached goal of 1 million sync d cars in 2010 Vision of innovation embraced by all in the company Value of technology 7 Ford s commitment to innovation 0 Be best in class in quality safety fuel efficiency and smart technologies National partnership with Best Buy to raise awareness for Sync Allowed people to test Sync at Best Buy Creating independent customer clinics to show people how Sync and other technologies work Customer driven features are provided by Ford Delivering the cars of tomorrow today Video 2 CES 2010 Ford Motor Company Video Alan Mulally Ford not using tax dollars to innovate Bringing intemet to automobile Ford giving access to all things available in smart phone Ford wants to be the preferred car app Ford is a technology and car company Want highest quality most fuel efficient safest and smartest technologies Ford wants to operate off of customer desires to provide best products Ford supported other automobile companies during the recession to keep the US automobile industry from collapsing Ford is part of the solution My Ford Touch 7 focus on market and customers creating an interface to be led by smart phones gives customers access to all technology in a safe and efficient way 3 Purse Party Small Business Success Story 3 of women hit the million dollar mark Lisa Henderson and Sandra Masters owners of B s Purses Attribute success to direct sales model they chose to use Create custom designed purses Design your style design your life Have direct sales representatives to provide grassroots effort 85 of shoppers are women Purses are 1 accessory Women can pick their purse design FauX leather sets their company apart Have a micro ber collection for womanonthego Video 4 Maroaret Lomas Interview with Naomi and Peter Simson Skve Business Property Success To take a make idea oat what kinds of risks does it involve Naomi and Peter do property investing 7 own Red Balloon Balloon is a symbol of happiness and reminds us of childhood No template for entrepreneurial businesses you must come up with it yourself Challenges faced great number of generalists when they needed specialists Need respect for others and leadership vision to succeed Wants to teach the world to say thank you Video 5 Employees Talk About Why LifeBridge Health is Named a Fortune 100 Best Company to Work For 2005 7 goal to be a great place to work Support starts with top managers Must take care of employees Administration is willing to do a lot for employees Make employees feel valuable and provide great incentives Opportunity for learning training and growth Recognize leadership qualities and promote based upon them Have great jobperson frt Always trying to find new ways to satisfy individual employees Give an LB Buck as a reward to recognize successful employees People stay for up to 45 years Have a team spirit Video 6 The Importance of Learning in Organizations David Garvin and Amy Edmondson CoAuthors Is Yours a Learning Organization Learning organization skilled at two things 0 Creating acquiring interpreting transferring and retaining knowledge 0 Acting and modifying its behavior to fit environment Three building blocks 0 Learning processes 0 Learning environment 0 Leadership that fosters and inspires the learning Important to be a learning organization the rate at which companies learn may become the ONLY competitive advantage More global environment deregulation Challenges of being a learning organization 0 Early discussions of learning organization were abstract 0 Concept was aimed at Clevel positions instead of all employees especially managers who do most of the daily work Lack of standards and tools in which managers could assess how well their organization was doing at learning 0 Video GE meets test of being a learning organization To contribute to companies learning managers can 0 Help teams have supportive learning environment 0 Respect others 0 Be straightforward and honest be open Practices to put into place to create learning organization 0 Create a supportive learning environment 0 Have concrete processes and procedures 0 Forms for sharing knowledge 0 Forms for creativity and innovation Generate ideas form new knowledge and react What did we set out to do What actually happened Why was there a difference What do we do next time What do we sustaincontinue What do we do differently Start a learning organization by starting with your own group lead by example 7 The New Science of Human Capital John Boudreau CoAuthor of Beyond HR The New Science of Human Capital 2 step process 0 Where talent has the biggest impact 0 How to improve the quality and quantity of that impact Strategy questions relate to how we compete and keep competitive advantage Disney s problem is line waiting 7 need to solve this pivotal issue possibly have characters go to long lines and entertain customers Determine pivotal people 0 What is pivotal in our process or strategy 0 Where could talent improvements make the biggest difference Interview employees to nd pivot points Employees have greatest insight on what s pivotal in organization Navy s pivotal point is moving toward hearts and minds 7 must teach people how to deal with public not just the way to wage war To continue development of pivotal players without inhibiting promotion 0 Let pivotal players know they are important by involving them in the process sweepers at Disney involved in the park design process HRE 3723 Midterm Notes 7242012 90500 PM Week1 llj39ilf 1 Qualities of Leadership Leadership Quotes Leadership is 0 example 0 action don t wait for your ship to come in swim out to meet it o Leaders are 0 someone who believes in you and gets you to believe in yourself someone who makes the impossible possible someone who consider the past evaluate the present and create the future o Leadership is NOT 0 Position Authority is a poor substitute for leadership Fail to honor ppl and they will fail to honor you Never tell ppl how to do things Never discourage any one who makes progress no matter how slow 2 Exclusive From the Mouths of Great Leaders o My Grandfather told me there are two kinds of people Workers amp Credit Takers Be a Worker he said as there is less competition Indira Gandhi o I am not a saint unless a saint is a sinner who keeps on trying 3 Pat Summitt America s Best Leader o Tennessee Coach of Women s Basketball How can we get better so we can be champions o Winning matters o Son was cut realized he didn t work hard enough asked mom to help him she said I ll teach you but I can t start your engine 0 O 4 Nelson Mandela Oprah interviews him Mandela was insistent that it was not just him but all others who helped in the movement Oprah How is there no bitterness when you come out of prison Mandela You have to be how ever you want your country to be 5 ValuesBased Leadership by Procter amp Gamble Part 1 o It is important for each individual each organization to get in touch with their education experiences culture family heritage and organizational 0 Spend some time writing down your beliefs and the experiences that led to them People like to work for leaders who are predictable It would be better for us to be more deliberate 10 Leadership Beliefs 1 Living a life driven by a purpose is more meaningful than just meandering through life a What is your purpose Think about your purpose a Is our purpose driving our calendar or are external events driving us a Procter amp Gamble s Purpose Purpose inspired growth have brands all over the world 2 Help other people a Help people succeed o Give people a small task Give people a small success Give people a larger task then a larger success a No one wakes up trying to fail o Do you spend your time catching people succeed or fail a Leadership is time inefficient U Turn success into a contagious feeling o People like to be a part of a winning team jersey example Putting people in the rightjobs O O O 9quot a You get your best grade in your favorite class People excel in things they like u Ask them what they like 4 Character is the most important trait of a leader a Character is putting the needs of the organization above your own Level 5 Leadership is when your ambition is for the success of the organization not yourself Taking personal responsibility is a good trait of character Help me to choose the harder right than the easy wrong 5 Diverse groups of people are more innovative than homogenous groups of people a Leadership challenge you have to get to know the people that you work with 7 Commitment to people as individuals 8 Must be willing to change a Have to change in order to increase productivity n Continue learning 9 Recruit 10 Determinant of the impact of a Leader is what goes on when he s not there a Did you build a clock or were you just telling time n n n 6From Good to Great What Defines a Level 5 Leader Mark Thompson Charisma is not Leadership Humility is the key to a great leader 0 Absolute obsessed burning ambition that wasn t about them but about a company organization or etc 0 With willful decisions endure 7Leve 5 Good to Great over90 of CEOs are found inside the company no such thing as outsiders who build companies charisma is like any other handicap o Charismatic Leaders are time tellers and when they leave a company their clock leaves with them o Good to Great Companies had leaders who built Clocks in Built to Last Companies o Samuel Walton was a charismatic leader that overcame his charisma o Level 5 0 search for answers infuse with data and debate that data 0 Want people who are loyal to the data not to the leader 0 Definition of a Level 5 Leader ambitious for the cause company the work not him or herself and they have the will to do whatever is necessary to make good for that cause 8Hero s Journey Mary Kay Ash o cosmetic pioneer o placing people before percentages o provides hope amp opportunity to those that desire it o Mary Kay Ash Charitable Foundation cancer research amp an end to Domestic Violence o Her influence lives on in her legacy 9 What is Personal Leadership Brand o Dave Ulrich and Norm Smallwood o A personal Leadership brand is when your personal strengths deliver value to someone else 0 Leadership brand becomes your reputation 0 Consider your predispositions and what audiences you are wanting to serve Begins by understanding who you are and how well that fits in with who you want to serve 10 Why Should Anyone Be Led By You o Research on what followers want 0 1 Community they want to belong to something 0 2 Authenticity they want leaders who know themselves and show themselves want to be led by a person not a perfect being 0 3 Significance they want their leader to appreciate their contribution to the whole 0 o 4 Energy they want to go to work at a place that is inspiring includes a sense of excitement and passion 11Madeeine Albright on Women amp Leadership 1St woman to serve as Secretary of State a women need a certain amount of support a good support system 0 she had one called it the G7 o Good women in leadership 0 Know who they are 0 Respectful of one another 0 Not have a Queen Bee complex but help other women along Chapter 1 The Nature amp Importance of Leadership o The Meaning of Leadership pp 230 0 Common characteristic of leaders is their ability to inspire and stimulate others to achieve worthwhile goals Definition of Leadership inspire confidence and support among the people who are needed to achieve organizational goals Leadership is needed at all levels in an organization and can be practiced by someone not assigned to a formal leadership position As a position in organizations As a role in organizations As a skillset in organizations Example Roadway Express Incamp shared leadership approach 0 Leadership is a Partnership Leadership is a longterm relationship or partnership between leaders and group members The power between leader and group members is approximately balanced Peter Block Shared decisionmaking O 0 Leadership as a Relationship 0 Leadership vs Management 4 things are necessary for a valid partnership n 1 Exchange of purpose leader articulates a widely accepted vision a 2 A right to say no a person can lose an argument but never a voice a 3 Joint accountability each person takes credit for the success or failure of the unit a 4 Absolute honesty Empowerment and team building support a partnership Leadership is a relationship between the leader and the people being led Ken Blanchard Leadership isn t something you do to people It s something you do with them Manager planning organizing directing controlling Leader change inspiration motivation influence Table 11 p 5 Leader Manager Visionary Rational Passionate Businesslike Creative Persistent Inspiring Toughminded Innovative Analytical Courageous Structured Imaginative Deliberative Experimental Authoritative Independent Stabilizing Shares knowledge Centralizes knowledge Trusting Guarded Warm and radiant Cool and reserved Expresses humility Rarely admits to being wrong Initiator Implementer Acts as coach consultant teacher Acts as a boss Does the right things Does things right Inspires through great ideas Commands through position Knows results are achieved through people Focuses on results John P Kotter managers must know how to lead as well as manage a Review p 6 o The Impact of Leadership on Organizational Performance 0 Leadership Matters 0 O O The research shows that leadership is responsible for between 1545 of a company s performance however a Transactional leadership was not significantly related to performance a Charismatic leadership was slightly positively related to performance a In an uncertain environment charismatic leadership was more strongly related to performance Attribution theory the theory of how we explain the causes of events Gary Yukl organizations are complex social systems of patterned interactions among people Most organizational successes are attributed to heroic leaders n Example The success of Southwest Airlines Co during the 905 is attributed to Herb Kelleher who initiated lowcost air service and built it into a profitable airline Leadership Does Not Matter 3 Major arguments against the importance of leadership are n 1 Substitutes for Leadership factors in the work environment that provide guidance and incentives to perform o Closely knit teams of highly trained individuals usually rely on one another or the team rather than a leader Intrinsic Satisfaction if the task itself grabs the worker s attention and energy o Computer Technology The computer provides productivity and quality data and directions for certain tasks are entered into the information system c Professional Norms n 2 Leadership Irrelevance factors outside the leader s control have a larger impact on business outcomes than do leadership actions o Jeffrey Pteffer o Jim Collins corporate leaders are slaves of much larger organizational forces o Shared leadership o The leader irrelevance argument would have greater practical value if it were recast as a leader constraint theory which would hold that leaders are constrained in what they can do but still have plenty of room to influence others a 3 Complexity Theory leaders and managers can do little to alter the course of the complex organizational system Forces outside the leader or manager s control determine a company s fate It is the system not leadership and management that dominates 9 Roles classifying Leadership Function of Management 0 1 Figurehead representative escort o 2 Spokesperson keeps five groups of people upperlevel management clients important outsiders professional O O O colleagues the general public informed about the unit s activities plans capabilities and possibilities 3 Negotiator bargaining with superiors for forms of support with other units for the use of staff facilities equipment etc 4 Coach and motivator recognizing providing feedback informing on how to improve inspiring 5 Team builder recognizing initiating holding periodic staff meetings 6 Team player conduct cooperation loyalty to superiors 7 Technical problem solver serving as an advisor performing individual contributor tasks on a regular basis 8 Entrepreneur keep up with what is happening maintaining awareness of changing needs getting involved outside for improving the inside 9 Strategic planner setting a vision helping deal with external environment helping develop policies o 7 Sources of Satisfaction O O O O O O O H A feeling of power and prestige A chance to help others grow and develop High income Respect and status Good opportunities for advancement A feeling of being in on things An opportunity to control money and other resources waeww 110 people in the work force is classified as a supervisor ministrator or manager o 9 Dissatisfactions and Frustrations of Leaders 0 O O O O O O O 1 Too much uncompensated overtime Too many headaches Facing a performorperish mentality Not enough authority to carry out responsibility Loneliness Too many problems involving people Too much organizational politics The pursuit of conflicting goals gtImv1 wzv o 9 Being perceived as unethical especially if you are a corporate executive o A Framework for Understanding Leadership p 21 0 Formula L fl gm s Bruce J Avolio leadership is a function of both the leader and the led and the complexity of the context 0 Key variables of leadership Leader characteristics and traits selfconfidence problemsolving ability Leader behavior and style characteristic approach activities involved in Group member characteristics attributes of the group members that determine how effective the leadership attempt will be Internal and external environment determines leadership effectiveness or what skills are necessary for the leader to have 0 Leadership effectiveness attaining desirable outcomes such as productivity quality and satisfaction in a given situation Whether or not the leader is effective depends on the four sets of variables in the box Chapter 2 Traits Motives amp Characteristics of Leaders pp 31 65 o Identify general amp taskrelated traits that contribute to leadership effectiveness 0 Mixing interpersonal skills with cognitive traits to attain company goals traits includeCognitive skills extraversion sense of humor charisma o The traitbased perspective acknowledges that the situation often influences which trait to emphasize 0 There is a close association between personal characteristics and leadership skills and behaviors Example Creative thinking ability a characteristic helps a leader formulate an exciting vision leadership behavior 0 Leadership Characteristics Classified Into 3 Broad Categories 1 Personality traits The leader s style must fit the situation well in order to be effective Personality Traits can be Divided into 2 1 Groups o 1 General Personality Traits a trait that is observable both within and outside the context of work 0 Selfcon dence A leader with confidence instills selfconfidence in team members Example A selfconfident team leader of a group facing a seemeingly impossible deadline might tell the group We are understaffed and overworked but I know we can get this project done on time I ve been through tough demands like this before If we work like a true team we can pull it off Evidence of selfconfidence n Using unequivocal wording a Good posture n Making appropriate gestures sa pointing an index finger outward n Maintaining composure as well as keeping others calm within a crisis Not just a personality trait but also a behavior and interpersonal skill o Humility Admitting you do not know everything and cannot do everything Admitting your mistakes to team members and outsiders Stephen G Harrison Great leadership is manifested or articulated by people who know how to understate it There is leadership value in humility the leadership that comes from putting people in the limelight not yourself Great leadership comes from entirely unexpected places It s understatement it s dignity it s service it s selflessness Jim Collins Level 5 Leaders are modest yet determined to accomplish their objectives 0 Trustworthiness Walk the talk consistency between actions and words Leaders must be trustworthy and trust group members Watson Whyatt WorkUSA study found that 72 of employees believe their immediate managers act with honesty and integrity in their work but only 56 believe that about company leadership Trust Builders p 35 n Behavior consistent with intentions a Move into problemsolving mode rather than blaming others a Honor confidences Integrity build a reputation for doing what you think is morally right in spite of the political consequences Tell the truth a Admit mistakes IBM evaluates its leaders on 10 key factors one of which is earning trust 0 Authenticity Being genuine and honest about your personality values and beliefs as well as having integrity Bill George Harvard Business School Professor amp Former chairman and CEO of Medtronic Authentic leaders demonstrate a passion for their purpose practice their values consistently and lead with their hearts as well as their heads They establish longterm meaningful relationships and have the selfdiscipline to get results They know who they II n n are Novartis culture cornerstones compassion competence amp competition Being authentic is the ONLY way to create longterm positive business results 0 Extra version MOST consistent personality factor related to leadership effectiveness and leadership emergence Mostly innate but can be learned 0 Assertiveness Letting others know where you stand Also contributes to Extraversion Confronting group members about their mistakes demanding high performance setting high expectations and making legitimate demands on higher management Reasonably tactful rather than being aggressive and obnoxious o Enthusiasm optimism amp warmth Helps build good relationships with team members Can be expressed verbally or nonverbally Optimism keeps the group in an upbeat mood and hopeful about attaining difficult goals a An optimistic leader is likely to bring about exceptional levels of achievement n CON may not take into account the possibility of failure or how to deal with it if it arises Warmth helps establish rapport with group members a Key component of charisma n Provides emotional support 0 Sense of humor Adds to approachability Relieves tension and boredom 2 Taskrelated Traits internal locus of control 0 Passion for the Work amp the People Obsession for achieving company goals Randy Komisar purpose can t simply be to make money has to be about drive Show passion by telling a Creation Story the story should inspire people to understand how your productcause will make the world a better place 0 Emotional Intelligence Understand one s feelings have empathy for others and regulate one s emotions to enhance one s quality of life According to Daniel Goleman without a high degree of emotional intelligence a person can have excellent training superior analytical skills and loads of innovative suggestions but he still will not make a great leader 4 Key Factors 1 Selfawareness the ability to understand your own emotions and know your strengths and limitations 2 Selfmanagement the ability to control one s emotions and act with honesty and integrity in a consistent and adaptable manner 3 Social Awareness having empathy for others and intuition about organizational problems 4 Relationship management able to communicate clearly and convincingly disarm conflicts and build strong personal bonds Steve Heyer former executive at CocaCola high congnitive intelligence but no emotional intelligence 0 Flexibility and Adaptability A leader is someone who facilitates change 0 Internal Locus of Control Believe that they are the prime mover behind events Takecharge person 0 Courage 2 Motives Need courage to face challenges and to take initiative Face up to responsibility and willing to put their reputations on the line Kathleen K Reardon courage in business is a special kind of calculated risk taking that comes about with experience Courage also comes with having a backup plan if the initial plan fails a Leaders have an intense desire to occupy a position of responsibility for others and to control them a 4 Motives o 1 The Power Motive A strong need to control resources 0 3 Dominant Characteristics 1 Act with vigor amp determination to exert their power 2 Invest time considering how to alter behavior and thinking of others 3 Care about personal standing with others around them 0 Power Motive is important because it means that the leader is interested in influencing others 0 Personalized Power Motive Seek power mostly to further their own interests Don t worry about everyone liking them Example Donald Trump n Names everything after himself 0 Socialized Power Motive Use power primarily to achieve organizational goals or help others Example H Ross Perot businessman social activist twotime candidate for president supporters say he has a genuine desire to help others and others say he s obsessed with power and self importance 2 The Drive amp Achievement Motive Putting forth high energy and finding joy in accomplishment o 3 Tenacity amp Resilience endurance to continue and withstand adversity o 4 Strong Work Ethic 3 Cognitive factors Problemsolving amp Intellectual skills a 6 Factors o 1 Cognitive or Analytical Intelligence 0 positive relationship between intelligence ampjob performance 0 most effective when the leader isn t vastly smarter than most of the group 0 Example Ratan N Tata o 2 Knowledge of the Business or Group Task 0 Having knowledge of the key task the group is performing Example Jim Press Toyota Gary Pruitt This is an era when CEOs have to be handson deeply engaged and knowledgeable about operations o 3 Creativity o arriving at imaginative and original solutions to complex problems 0 inspire group members to push forward with standard solutions to organizational problems o 4 Insight into People amp Situations o a depth of understanding that requires considerable intuition and common sense 0 Helps speed decisionmaking 0 Jeff Bezos Amazoncom bigger the decision greater the role of insight and intuition 0 Executive Intelligence cobination of analytical intelligence and insight cut throught conflicting data to create a solution that uniquely fits the situation at hand Example Andrea Jung CEO of Avon she consulted with amp cultivated Avon s direct sales force rather than simply forcing change through a topdown directive o 5 Farsiqhtedness amp Conceptual Thinking 0 understanding the longrange implications of actions and policies amp O O the ability to see the overall perspective 0 also a Systems Thinker understanding of how the external environment influences the organization and how different parts of the organization influence each other o 6 The WICS Model of Leadership in Organizations 0 by Robert J Sternberg 0 it s a systems model of leadership that provides an understanding of leadership as a set of decision processes that embodies wisdom intelligence and creativity Creativity generates ideas that a leader needs Intelligence decides whether these ideas are good or bad wisdom balances the interests of all stakeholders and ensures that the actions of the leader seek a common good 0 Influence of Heredity and Environment Mental and personality traits are inherited and environmental influences determine how much of the potential will be developed 0 Trait Approach Strengths n Serves as a guide Limitations n Can t identify which are definitely needed a Can t specify how much one trait is needed 0 HRE 3723 Midterm Notes 7242012 90500 PM Week2 Chapter 3 Perspectives on Leadership Condoleezza Rice 0 What guides you to move forward 0 Democracy matters US must stand for the universality of democracy and freedom because it s morally right It s not just that individuals should be free but to have a government that instills and protects that freedom 0 Objections You cannot impose Democracy n BUT you don t have to impose Democracy but impose Tyranny o If you ask anyone under tyranny if they would choose democracy or tyranny they would choose democracy Certain peoples are said to not care about Democracy n BUT everyone wants democracy o Saying democracy is hard and saying that someone is not ready for democracy are two separate things China is doing very well under Tyranny n BUT Democracy allows People to learn from mistakes o And if you don t like who s governing you you can throw them out n Unable to express themselves o If there is difference there is immediate suppression of that difference a Product safety issue O O O O O O O O O O o o Killed the guy in charge of product safety o No longterm solution because sooner or later no one will want to accept the responsibility of product safety What do you do when the bad guys win You continue in your pursuant of your values because that will enable those values to be chosen a There is choice allowed Must fight for democracy There will be ups and downs but we must remember never to lose heart Today s headlines and judgment are rarely the same WWII 9 Prosperity a History has a long tale So it is our part to do what is right for history not what is good for today s headlines a History will come out in our benefit as long as we remain true Don t destroy the system reform it US is the most free generous compassionate and powerful With only democratic institutions to point toward can we strive for the better It doesn t matter where you came from it only matters where you re going America should want the most ambitious and creative people to come and share our country Her grandfather was quick to think on his feet and that is what led to his education and thus his family s success Solutions come from the people And everyone should have the chance to reach their full potential If we continue to focus on our core strengths and remain standing with those who hold those core values we will be fine It is because of optimism of the people of this country that we have reached our ideal goals o Leadership Speaker Series Evelyn Lauder 0 Was very hesitant in starting Pink Ribbon of Breast Cancer Awareness because she was going out completely on her own and it was something completely different 0 People enjoy working for a company that gives back Chapter 4 o Steve Jobs Stanford Commencement Speech 0 CEO of Apple amp Pixar Animations o 3stories 1 n I N n n 1 Connecting the dots Dropped out but continued attending classes Followed his curiosity and intuition Attended a calligraphy class because it fascinated him Designed mac with beautiful typography bc he learned it in that one class Cannot connect the dots looking forward but can only connect them looking backwards o Have to trust Love amp Loss he loved what he was doing took it from a garage to a multimillion dollar co was fired by someone he hired bc of a disagreement in change apologized to those who rejected him decided to start over built NEXT which apple in turn bought sometimes life will hit you in the head with a brick but don t loose heart love what you do If you haven t found it yet keep looking and don t settle Death O n knows he needs to change something when he answers no to the selfasked question ifI were to die today would I die happy in what I m doing a diagnosed with cancer 36 months before he dies o had a surgery to remove his cancer and is cancerfree no one wants to die but is a destination we all share death is life s change agent takes away the old and brings in the new your time is limited so don t live someone else s life a have the courage to follow your own intuition The Old Catalog Made with typewriters Google in paperback form Back cover on final issue had the words stay hungry stay foolish n n n a Leading at Google Annie McKee O O O O o 0 With change comes challenges How to live work amp lead Emotional Intelligence Need to understand ourselves and relate to other people Mind body heart amp spirit You re recruited for your minds but the difference in leadership is made through Emotional Intelligence You need to be resilient Look out for everyone Hope in tomorrow Spirit beliefs amp values and how you stand up for them with things get tough Shows pictures and asks students to talk about them Nelson Mandella 0 Think about the people in your life who allowed you to open up and see your life in a different way or who you could be if you gave yourself a chance People only change because and when they want to We re more willing to engage in the hard work of change when we feel excitement hope and encouragement Resilient Leadership is sticking to who you are and understanding how to help others become who they are truly e Let go of myths of good leadership Myth 1 smarter people get the job Myth 2 emotions don t matter at work a Emotions can open or close our minds Myth 3 you re a superhero you can take anything the world dishes out n Even those who are very resilient will be brought down 0 Emotions affect our ability to perceive and process information Emotions are contagious a You feel act then think out of reflex a You can feel think then act with Emotional Intelligence 0 Competencies Observable behaviors that allow you to be a better leader Creativity Domains Knowledge Domain n Cognitive Domain n Emotional Domain Processing Mode Domain n Deliberate Domain n Spontaneous Domain Power Stress just feel you don t have anything left to give Sacrifice Syndrome feel we can t be our best Sustainability is important EQ allows for sustainability O O O Mindfulness n Understand how your mind works and be open to other things n Then manipulate your emotions for positivity a Live consciously be the change you want to see in the world 0 Hope Belief that future will be better than the past as long as we put one foot in front of the other Chapter 3 Charismatic amp Transformational Leadership o Charisma is a Greek word meaning divinely inspired gift o Charisma makes a leader s job easier o Charisma A Relationship Between the Leader Group Members amp Other Stakeholders 0 Relationship between the leader and the led 0 John Gardner leader has a gift of inspiration and nonrational communication amp the led feels awe reverence devotion or emotional dependence 0 Charismatic leaders use impression management to deliberately cultivate a certain relationship with group members A truly charismatic leader will work hard to create positive visions for group members 0 Charismatic and transformational leaders influence extends beyond the immediate work group and beyond reporting relationships Become the symbol for the organization 0 In order to be a success the led must share the same beliefs of the leader and have unquestioning acceptance of and affection for the leader o The Effects of Charisma o On group members Trust the leader s beliefs Have beliefs similar to those of the leader Accept the leader without question Have affection for the leader Willingly obey the leader Identify with and attempt to emulate the leader Are emotionally involved in the mission Have heightened goals Feel that they will be able to accomplish or to contribute to the accomplishment of the mission 0 John A Halpertamp 3 Dimensions of the Effects of Charismatic Leaders on Followers 1 Referent Power ability to influence others because of one s desirable traits and characteristics 2 Expert Power ability to influence others because of one s specialized knowledge sills or abilities 3 Job Involvement ability to get group members excited about their work 0 if you are wellliked you are less likely to be a political victim o 5 Types of Charismatic Leaders 0 Socialized Charismatics Leader who strains the use of power to benefit others Followers have more insight into who they are and a clear set of values Followers derive a sense of direction and selfexpression from the leader s message not from identifying with the leader 0 Personalized Charismatics Serve in their own interests and exercise few restraints on their use of power Impose selfserving goals on constituents Offer consideration and support to group members only when it facilitates their own goals Followers are typically obedient submissive and dependent I Followers identify more with the leader than the leader s message 0 Officeholder Charismatics Attain high status by occupying a valuable role 0 Personal Charismatics Gain very high esteem through the faith others have in them Example Former Sec of State Colin H Powell 0 Divine Charismatics Mystical narcissistic and personally magnetic savior who would arise to lead people through a crisis Transformational Leader brings about positive major changes in an organization 0 Many Charismatic Leaders are not also transformational leaders Although they inspire people they may not bring about major organizational changes Characteristics of Charismatic Leaders 0 Visionary offer an exciting image of where the organization is headed and how to get there Masterful Communication skills uses colorful language and exciting metaphors and analogies Ability to Inspire Trust Able to Make Group Members Feel Capable enable group members to achieve success on relatively easy projects then praise the group members and give them more demanding assignments 0 Energy ampAction Orientation energetic and serve as role models for getting things done on time o Emotional Expressiveness amp Warmth ability to express feelings openly o Romanticize Risk yearn to accomplish activities others have never done before 0 Unconventional strategies inspires others by formulating unusual strategies to achieve important goals 0 O O O O Anita Roddick of the Body Shop traveled around the world searching out natural beauty products Selfpromoting personality toot to their own drum Richard Branson chairman of the Virgin Group Dramatic and Unigue Oprah Winfrey o The Vision Component of Charismatic Leadership 0 Vision is the ability to imagine different and better future conditions and ways to achieve them Charismatic leaders inspire others with their visions which are often lofty longterm goals Arizona State University by Pierre Balthazard Studies Visionaries showed much higher levels of brain activity in the areas of the brain associated with visual processing and the organization of information occipital lobe Vision vs Mission A mission defines an organization s purpose a vision draws a picture of what the future will be Peter M Senge a mission is a purpose and reason for being a vision is a picture of the future we seek to create Jim Collins amp the 3 Elements of a Vision Statemet 1 A reason for being beyond making money 2 Timeless unchanging core values 3 Ambitious but achievable goals Examples 3M encourages scientists to spend 15 of their time on whatever they want this policy supports the company vision of being a world class innovator Google To make nearly all information accessible to everyone all the time Microsoft to enable people throughout the word to realize their potential Sun Microsystems Inc The Network is the Computer Blacksonte Group LP To become the preeminent global lodging company in the world Estee Lauder Companies bring the best to everyone we touch Progressive Insurance to reduce the human trauma and economic costs associated with automobile accidents 0 Review p 76 for how to create a vision o The Communication Component of Charismatic Leaders 0 Charismatic leaders communication style is typically colorful imaginative open amp expressive o Charismatic leaders regularly solicit constituents viewpoints on critical issues they encourage twoway communication with team members while still promoting a sense of confidence 0 2 Aspects of Communication Style of Charismatic leaders 1 Management by inspiration n Using Metaphors amp Analoges o appeals to intellect imagination and values o Mary Kay amp the bumble bee analogy pp77 78 n Gearing Language to Different Audiences o An executive s ability to speak on a colloquial level helps create appeal 2 Management by Storytelling n inspiring and instructing team members by telling fascinating stories a Costco Story p 78 o The Development of Charisma 0 Charisma can be achieved through practice and selfdiscipline Enhance communication skills Become more emotionally expressive Take more risks Become more selfpromoting 0 Personal Magnetism a type of sparkle that attracts other people to you and that adds to your charisma 0 Techniques for Developing Charisma Create Visions for Others an effective vision is one that connects with the goals and dreams of constituents Be Enthusiastic Optimistic and Energetic review 4 steps on p 81 Be Sensibly Persistent almostneveracceptno attitude Remember Names of People Develop Synchrony with Others mimic their posture to become synchronized Develop a Personal Brand including Making an Impressive Appearance Be Candid although not insensitive the charismatic person is typically explicit in giving his or her assessment of a situation whether the assessment is positive or negative Display an inYourFace Attitude a tough attitude is attractive to people who themselves would like to be mean and aggressive o Transformational Leadership 0 The transformational leader helps bring about major positive changes by moving group members beyond their self interests and toward the good of the group organization or society OR developing and transforming people In contrast the transactional leader focuses on more routine transactions rewarding group members for meeting standards a Contingent Reward exchange for actions behaviors production a Management by Exception o Active closely watching to correct in the act o Passive correcting after the action a Leader exchanges o Good job assignments o Good evaluations o Recognition o Raises o Promotions n Follower exchanges o Acceptance of work tasks o Performance o Dedication o Hard work results o High performance Bass Transformational Leadership Charismatic leadership idealized influence Inspirational motivation Intellectual stimulation Individualized consideration CongerKanungo Charismatic Leadership Strategic vision and articulation Sensitivity to the environment Sensitivity to member needs Personal risk Unconventional behavior Example Greg Brenneman of Quiznos turned around Burger King and Continental Airlines and Pricewaterhouse Coopers International Limited How Transformations Take Place 1 Raising People s awareness makes group members aware of the importance and values of certain rewards and how to achieve them 2 Helping people look beyond selfinterest see the big picture 3 Helping people search for selffulfillment beyond a focus on minor satisfactions to a quest for self fulfillment 4 Helping people understand the need for change 5 Investing managers with a sense of urgency the leader assembles a critical mass of managers and imbues in them the urgency of change 6 Committing to greatness An emphasis on ethical leadership instills a desire for customer service and quality and fosters feelings of proprietorship and involvement 7 Adopting a longrange perspective and at the same time observing organizational issues from a broad rather than a narrow perspective 8 Building trust impose transparency on the entire organization that way everyone knew what everyone else is doing 9 Concentrating resources on areas that need the most change a Example Bill Bratton turned around the New York Police Dept in the mid905 by concentrating resources on the narcotics squad because so much crime is related to narcotics o Attributes of Transformational Leaders Charismatic Emotionally Intelligent Creates a vision Take time to encourage the personal development of their staff Provides supportive leadership giving positive feedback and recognizing individual achievements Practice empowerment involving team members in decision making Innovative thinking Lead by example Have a higher score in moral reasoning than transactional leaders 0 Concerns about Charismatic Leadership According to the concept of leadership polarity leaders are often either revered or vastly unpopular n Example Martha Stewart Charisma may not be necessary for leadership effectiveness Charisma and its effects on leadership is a matter of perception one may not necessarily affect the other Charismatic leadership may lead to unethical illegal or immoral actions Some charismatic and transformational leaders neglect their social responsibility The Dark Side a Robert Tucker charisma used for evil purposes o Political leaders n Some charismatic leaders are unethical and lead their organizations toward illegal and immoral ends o Example Garry Winnick of Global Crossing Ltd Chapter 4 Leadership Behaviors Attitudes and Styles o Effective Leader one who helps group members attain productivity including high quality and customer satisfaction as well as job satisfaction 0 Measured by 2 Criteria 1 Objective data sales production safety costcutting 2 Subjective data ratings surveys Board of Director reviews o 2 Classic Dimensions of Leadership Behavior 0 1 Consideration the degree to which one is trusting and supportive a warm and personal management style I making connections with people n Julia Steward president and CEO of IHOP talks to the 9 managers that report directly to her a Low standing on the consideration factor can be a predictor of CEO failure This leader is friendly approachable looks out for the personal welfare of the group keeps the group abreast of new developments and does small favors Proven to improve job satisfaction satisfaction with the leader worker motivation and leader effectiveness 0 2 Initiating Structure the degree to which one is task oriented a more procedural management style I production emphasis task orientation amp task motivation this leader assigns specific tasks specifies procedures to be followed schedules work and clarifies expectations for team members proven to increase job performance group performance and organization performance as well as satisfaction C High Low structure High structure 0 amp high amp high N consideration consideration S Low structure High structure I amp low amp low D I consideratiorL consideration E Low High R A INITIATING STRUCTURE T I O n o Taskrelated Attitudes and behaviors 0 Task related in this context means that the behavior attitude or skill focuses more on the task to be performed than on the interpersonal aspect of leadership 1 Adaptability to the situation 2 Direction setting given that a major responsibility of leadership is to produce change the leader must set the direction of that change 0 3 High performance standards Pygmalion effect when performance is measured against these high standards productivity is likely to O O O O O 0 increase since people tend to live up to the expectations of their superiors 4 Concentrating on the strengths of group members 5 Risk taking and execution of plans 6 Handson guidance and feedback 7 Ability to ask tough guestion tough question one that makes a person or group stop and think about why they are doing or not doing something o Relationshiporiented attitudes and behaviors O O O O O O 1 Aligning people getting people pulling in the same direction and collaborating smoothly 2 Openness to worker opinions Management openness set of leader behaviors particularly relevant to subordinates motivation to voice their opinion 3 Creating inspiration and visibility 4 Satisfying higher level needs 5 Giving emotional support and encouragement 6 Promoting principles and values 7 Being a servant leader Servant leader serves constituents by working on their behalf to help them achieve their goals no the leader s own goals a Place service before selfinterest n Listen first to express confidence in others a Inspire trust by being trustworthy n Focus on what is feasible to accomplish a Lend a hand a Provide emotional healing o 360Degree Feedback 0 is a formal evaluation of superiors based on input from people who work for and with them sometimes including Customers and suppliers also referred to multisource feedback or multirater feedback O O O the data from the survey can be used to help leaders fine tune their attitudes and behavior for best results it is extremely important that 360 degree surveys reflect those behaviors and attitudes that the organization values most highly most often used for leadership and management development Example of 360Degree Feedback Chart Ratings 10 is hi ghest Behavior or Attitude Self Rating Average Group Rating Gap 1 Gives right amount of structure 2 Considerate of people 3 Sets a direction 4 Sets high standards 5 Gives frequent feedback 6 Gets people pulling together 7 Inspires people 8 Gives emotional support 9 Is a helpful coach 10 Encourages people to be selfreliant Leadership Styles Is the relatively consistent pattern of behavior that characterizes a leader Often based on the dimensions of initiating structure and consideration Types of Leadership Styles Participative Leadership n Participative leaders share decision making with group members o Encourages teamwork and participation o Shares decision with group members a 3 subtypes o Consultative o confer with group members before making a decision o Consensus 0 encourage group discussion about an issue and then make a decision that reflects general agreement and that group members will support o Democratic 0 function as collectors of group opinion and take a vote before making a decision a Cons o Extensive and timeconsuming team meetings and committee work o Consensus and democratic leaders become macromanager provide too little direction 0 Laissezfaire leadership style Autocratic Leadership n Retain most of the authority make decisions confidently assume that group members will comply and are not overly concerned with group members attitudes toward a decision a Tell people what to do assert themselves and serve as model for team members n n a Highly taskoriented Can be effective in certain situations Not concerned with popularity Entrepreneurial Leadership n n n n n n An entrepreneur is a person who founds and operates an innovative business a task oriented and charismatic person Strong achievement drive and sensible risk taking High degree of enthusiasm and creativity Tendency to act quickly when opportunity arises Constant hurry combined with impatience Visionary perspective combined with tenacity Dislike of hierarchy and bureauCracy Preference for dealing with external customers Eye on the future 0 Gender Differences in Leadership Style Men tended toward a commandandcontrol style Women tended toward a transformational style relying heavily on interpersonal skills Both sexes are overall effective HRE 3723 Midterm Notes 7242012 90500 PM Week3 Chapter 5 1 Leadership Trait vs PathGoal O O O O o O O 0 Someone who has all the traits of a leader may not be able to lead others A leader is not just born into greatness People only follow If they think the leader is capable of doing the job If they believe it will result in a certain outcome If they believe the pay off is worth while People won t follow unless you have a clear goal You need to adapt your leadership traits to the demands the people want to accomplish You must meet the subordinate s emotional needs You must provide them with rewards that they find appealing in order to reach their goals A leader understands a leader s needs asks for their input believes that his subordinates matter 4 Styles Directive Supportive Participative amp Achievement Oriented used by a leader in various situations Example doll building corporation I Leader should support them by separating them into task teams Be sure your style doesn t support laziness 2 Ken amp Scott Blanchard Situational Leadership 0 Leaders must explain why they re implementing their style This allows leadership to be done with them rather than at them 9quot O useful are your conversations with people you re talking Does the person you re talking with feel better or worse at the end of the conversation Most useful conversations are how can I serve you rather than this is what I need Once the goals are clear a partnership is created Global Leadership Fellows Creating Future Global Leaders 0 O O O O o O O O O O O 0 Our society is interdependent Collaborate Not to make decisions but to to improve the state of the world Act as a global community The program is a leadership training that recruits high potential fellows Fellows come from many different backgrounds and are put together and learn together they have a global mindset Leaders must be aware and create awareness Leaders must be prepared and adapt constantly with the rapid ongoing change all in course with the longterm vision You cannot solve problems alone A leader incubator must have traits with a global mindset They have facetoface meetings with pioneers captains of industries and public figures that all share what makes them who they are weekly just asking and answering questions Peer Coaching you get to be both the coach and the coachee Fellows coach each other They have groups for peer coaching where they meet weekly to help each other improve a With feedback Diversity is an enrichment Leaders have the dedication to understanding foresight resources and continuing forward Must allow you to absorb and enjoy Your ethics form your reputation 5 Lessons 1 Seize opportunities to learn about different cultures values and perspectives I 2 Get a coach and a mentor early in your career I 3 To lead leaders be authentic and genuine I 4 recognize the interdependence among global issues countries communities and people I 5 Practice collaborative leadership 4 Global Leadership Fellows Interviews with Leaders by World Economic Forum 0 O O o O 0 Arthur GO Mutambara Deputy Prime Minister of Zimbabwe Young Global Leader I Interconnectedness amp interdependence I All challenges are interconnected Frank Brown Dean of INSEAD I Must have exposure to diverse settings HRH Crown Prince Haakon of Norway Young Global Leader I Consider ecological and social footprint on what they do I Have a clear vision and wanting to create something positive To increase others dignity Every single person is a leader because you are capable of inspiring anyone you come in contact with It s how you use the resources you already have not how many resources you have James Quigley Chief Executive Officer of Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu I Interpersonal skills I Motivate and excite our work force I Must have vision and optimism Kevin Kelly CEO of Heidrickamp Struggles I Not just important to have IQ and EQ but a sense of humor Manfred F R Kets De Vries Clinical Professor of Leadership Development Director of INSEAD Global Leadership Centre K Providing focus A sense of how to get the best out of people Decisiveness Open to experience Exposure to other cultures early in life is very good because you get to see how other people behave 0 Mario Monti President of University of Bocconi Avoid uniformity I Learn from mistakes 0 Don Tapscott Chairman nGenera Insight Author of Grown Up Digital amp Coauthor of Wikinomics Help people understand their own selfinterest Collaboration 0 Tom Robertson Dean of The Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania People have to want to follow you Authenticity Confidence 0 Victor L L Chu Chairman amp CEO of First Eastern Investment Group Deeply conscious of his responsibility Cooperative Interculture Communication skills a 5 RESILIENT hurricane Katrina Drew Brees 0 just a video showing that disaster doesn t mean it s over Chapter 6 o 1 How Leaders Go Wrong o we are much harsher on our leaders than we used to be 0 media has a systemic bias toward bad news 0 Barbara s book Bad Leadership I The word leadership is automatically associated with being good Barbara Leadership is defined as Power comes out of the barrel of a gun Leadership is a web with different strands running through it tangled web Typology breaking things up into different groups or types a The book is separated into slightly bad to horrible leaders 7 types in 2 major groups o Inadequate Leadership falls short of its intention o Incompetent Lack the will or skill to sustain affective action 0 Rigid Unable or unwilling to adapt to new ideas information or changing times 0 Intemperent Lack selfcontrol Unwilling to moderate their appetites Immoral leadership fails to distinguish between right and wrong 0 Callous Insensitive and inconsiderate to their followers 0 Corrupt Dishonorable Moral fiber is then Lie cheat or steal Put selfinterest ahead of public interest 0 Tribal Insolar Discount the health and welfare of those outside the group or organization for which they are directly responsible O 0 Evil Commit atrocities Use pain as an instrument of power Can be physical or psychological Leadership depends on followers Warren Bennis From a historical pov Talks about Caesar n Caesar runs off to a meeting and ignores his assistant s warning about Brutus on the morning of the assassination n Hubris arrogance Talks about Howard Rains n It s the Caesar story once again but more dramatic n Cognitive dissiveness n Inability to listen o 2 James MacGregor Burns on Moral Leadership 0 O O O O talks about values in moral leadership argument to those who say we have no coherent form Declaration of Independence life liberty and the pursuit of happiness equality is necessary the thing that really counts in this country is the day to day behavior of each other that s values FDR was not ethical didn t live up to promises etc o 3 Academy of Achievement Colin Powell 0 O Roberto Gazahaza social entrepreneur Greatest thing he ever did was create jobs for people Social Entrepreneurs don t grow up saying that their gonna be social entrepreneurs Life doesn t unfold like that Through social entrepreneurship you create wealth for organizations It s not just doing good works It s the building up of an economy 0 Barely achieved a 20 in college 0 Education gt job gt wealth gt philanthropy 0 Vision without excuse is nonsense 0 You can t save the whole world but you can save a piece at a time o The creation of wealth is what is driving the world o 4 Bill Gates Speech at Harvard part 2 o How can we do the most good for the greatest number with the resources we have 0 The market did not reward the saving of these children s lives But we can make the market reward what we want to achieve Chapter 5 Contingency amp Situational Leadership o Contingency approach to leadership leaders are most effective when they make their behavior contingent on situational forces including group member characteristics avoid clinging to old ideas that no longer fit the current circumstances o Victor H Vroom ampArthur G Jago identified 3 Conclusions Concerning the Role of Situations in Leadership 0 1 Organizational effectiveness is affected by situational factors not under leader control 0 2 Situations shape how leaders behave Contingency theorists believe that forces in the situation are 3 times as strong as the leader s personal characteristics in shaping hisher behavior 0 3 Situations influence the consequences of leader behavior o Fiedler s Contingency Theory of Leadership Effectiveness o The best style of leadership is determined by the situation in which the leader is working O O O O O 0 Leadership style may be relationshipmotivated or task motivated Leadership style is a relatively permanent aspect of behavior and thus difficult to modify Once leaders understand their particular leadership style they should work in situations that match that style Least Preferred Coworker LPC Scale A leader who describes the LPC in relatively favorable terms tends to be relationship motivated In contrast a person who describes this coworker in an unfavorable manner tends to be taskmotivated Classifies situations as high moderate and low control The more control that the leader exercises the more favorable the situation is for himher Ranked on 3 dimensions a 1 Leadermember relations measure how well the group and the leader get along a 2 Task structure measures how clearly the procedures goals and evaluation of the job are de ned a 3 Position power measures the leader s authority to hire fire discipline and grant salary increases to group members Leadership effectiveness depends on matching leaders to situations in which they can exercise more control The results of many studies indicated that the relationship motivated leader outperformed the taskmotivated leader in 38 situations but the reverse was true in the other 5 situations Evaluation of Fiedler s Contingency Theory Fiedler s work prompted others to conduct studies about the contingency nature of leadership The model has also alerted leaders to the importance of sizing up the situation to gain control However contingency theory is too complicated to have much of an impact on most leaders o The PathGoal Theory of Leadership Effectiveness O O O O Developed by Robert House Specifies what a leader must do to achieve high productivity and morale in a given situation Like the expectancy theory of motivation on which it is based The major proposition of pathgoal theory is that the manager should choose a leadership style that takes into account the characteristics of the group members and the demands of the task For Leaders to be effective they should engage in behaviors that complement subordinates environments and abilities They should engage in these behaviors in a manner that compensates for deficiencies and that enhances subordinate satisfactions as well as individual and work unit performance Example if our coffee shop owner found that one of her workers was fearful of losing his job because of Starbucks competition she would give him lots of encouragement and explain the survival plan of the coffee shop in detail 0 2 Key Aspects 1 Matching the Leadership Style to the Situation n Pathgoal theory emphasizes that the leader should choose among 4 leadership styles to achieve optimum results in a given situation o 1 Directive style 0 if tasks are unclear o 2 Supportive style 0 if tasks are frustrating and stressful workers are apprehensive o 3 Participative style 0 if tasks are nonrepetitive workers are capable and motivated o 4 Achievement oriented style n o if tasks are unique or entrepreneurial workers are competent and committed 2 important sets of contingency factors are 1 type of subordinates and 2 tasks they perform 3 broad classification of contingency factors in the environment are 1 the group members tasks 2 the authority system within the organization and 3 the work group 2 Steps the Leader Can Take to Influence Performance and Satisfaction n 1 Recognize or activate group members needs over which the leader has control 2 Increase the personal payoffs to team members for attaining work goals 3 Make the paths to payoffs easier by coaching and providing direction 4 Help group members clarify their expectations of how effort will lead to good performance and how performance will lead to a reward 5 Reduce frustrating barriers to reaching goals 6 Increase opportunities for personal satisfaction if the group member performs effectively 7 Be careful not to irritate people by giving them instructions on things they already can do well 8 To obtain high performance and satisfaction the leader must provide structure if it is missing and supply rewards contingent on adequate performance To accomplish this leaders must clarify the desirability of goals for the group members Characteristics of Group Members Contingency factors OUTCOMES 1 Productivity Morale Contingency factors Demands of the Task FIGURE 53 The PathGoal Theory of Leadership To achieve the outcomes of productivity and morale the manager chooses one of our leadership Styles depending on a the Characteristics of the Situation and D the O demands ofthe task a The Expectancy Theory of Motivation 0 The amount of effort people expend depends on how much reward they expect to get in return It is cognitive because it emphasized the thoughts judgments and desires of the person being motivated It is a process theory because it attempts to explain how motivation takes place Environment l I r Outcome Valence of 39 outcome 0 1 ED Ability O o Situational Leadership II SLII o Developed by Kenneth H Blanchard O O O Explains how to match leadership style to the capabilities of group members on a given task Places its primary emphasis on the characteristics of group members SLII is designed to inCrease the frequency and quality of conversations about performance and professional development between managers and group members so that competence is developed commitment takes place and turnover among talented workers is reduced Leaders are taught to use the leadership style that matches or responds to the needs of the situation Effective leaders adapt their behavior to the level of commitment and competence of a particular subordinate to complete a given task The combination of the subordinate s commitment and competence determines hisher developmental level a See D1 D2 etc under Basics of SLII pp 144 45 Effective leadership depends on 2 independent behaviors a Supporting behaviors listening giving recognition communicating encouraging coaching Directing behaviors giving explicit directions controlling supervising ruling regulating a See 51 etc under Basics of SLIIquot p 45 n Supporting Relationship Behaviors 53 Supporting Leadership Style Low on directing and high on supporting behaviors DS Growing competence and variable commitment Capable but Cautious Performer S2 Coaching Leadership Style High on directing and high on supporting behaviors DZ Disillusioned Learner Some competence but low commitment S4 Delegating Leadership Style Low on directing and low on supporting behaviors D4 SelfReliant Achiever Highest level of commitment and 1 Directing Leadership Style High on directing and low on supporting behaviors D1 Enthusiastic Beginner Low competence but high commitment competence Directing TaskRelated Behaviors Quadrants indicate the desired match of leader s style to group member s development level No one style is best An effective leader uses all four styles depending on the situation and the individual group member Challenging to apply SLII consistently because leaders must stay tuned and tasks shift rapidly o The Normative Model 5 DecisionMaking Styles 0 Leaders must choose a style that elicits the correct degree of group participation when making decisions The normative decision model views leadership as a decisionmaking process in which the leader examines certain factors within the situation to determine which decision making style will be the most effective When development of group members receives higher priority the leader or manager relies more on the group to make a decision even if the process is time consuming O O 1 Decide leader makes decision alone 2 Consult individually leader makes decision after consulting group members 3 Consult group leader makes decision after consulting entire group 4 Facilitate leader defines the problem and decision boundaries then group makes decision democratically 5 Delegate leader permits the group to make the decision without directly intervening Leader works behind the scenes providing resources and encouragement Time Driven Model for Choosing a DecisionMaking Style Factors to Consider p 148 Decision Significance The significanCe of the decision to the success of the project or organization Importance of Commitment The importance of team members commitment to the decision Leader Expertise Your knowledge or expertise in relation to the problem Likelihood of Commitment The likelihood that the team will commit itself to a decision you might make on your own Group Support the degree to which the team supports the organization s objectives at stake in the problem Group Expertise Team members knowledge or expertise in relation to the problem Team Competence The ability of the team members to work together in solving problems Inmnium l39lnmn xnpnmm immune Yuumn 39mhkw lhllpndhdmiu39nn mminmnmwwumnvmnpmm mkm mg m WMiIIhI pmhhlnV nb ianij IuLmltHurljfwunh minlulu 39 mu Pmaaddwnfmn mainmdjadg39lg mumu lumim Wtidbdhnu lyuu mhdhmmmddpmn Decision Significance Importance of Commitment Likelihood ol Comm meni Campaian Team I P Fl 0 B L E M S T A T E M E N T L mun 55 TheTimeDrlven Model for Choosing a DecisionMaking Style Samoa victor H copyn39ght 1998 Reprinted by I pen39nlssmn ofthe authon Cognitive Resource Theory How Intelligence Experience amp Stress Influence Leadership 0 Another contingency theory describes how a leader s intelligence and experience can influence performance when the stress level of the people is considered 0 The Cognitive Resource Theory explains that stress plays a key role in determining how a leader s intelligence is related to group performance 1 Experience is more effective than intelligence in stressful situations 2 Intelligence is more valuable when innovation is needed and stress is low 0 Contingency Leadership in the Executive Suite A leadership approach is defined as a coherent explicit style of management not a personal style however the style of management centers on leadership behaviors Based on interviews with 163 top executives on 6 continents Reviewed 12000 pages of interviews to determine how these leaders delivered consistently extraordinary results a n n n a Strategic Human assets Expertise Box Change agent Result Toplevel CEOs assess their companies needs then adapt their leadership style to fit the situation Strategic approach systematic dispassionate and structured analysis of a company s strengths and weaknesses and of its mission 1 CEOs using this approach perceive their major contribution as creating testing and designing the implementation of a longterm business strategy o Much of their workday is devoted to activities intended to analyze their organization s current situation and the most advantageous business position in the future o Devote 80 of their time to customers competitors technological advances and market trends n Should be used in unstable environments win which the volume and pace of change are high Human Assets approach add value to the organization through hiring retention and development programs a CEOs using this approach believe that strategy formulation belongs in the business units o Imparting selected values behaviors and attitudes by managing the growth and development of individuals o Spend most of their time recruiting performance evaluation and career planning o Goal is to develop business unit managers as clones of the CEO Expertise approach believe that the CEO s key responsibility is selecting and disseminating throughout the organization an area of expertise that will give the firm a competitive advantage n Devoted to activities that foster the cultivation and continual improvement of this expertise n Studying new technological research analyzing competitors products and meeting with engineers and customers a Areas of expertise include marketing manufacturing technology and distribution Box approach adds value by creating communicating and overseeing and explicit set of controls n Controls include financial measures rules procedures and values that define boundaries for the performance of all employees a Purpose of these controls is to ensure uniform and predictable experiences for employees and customers and to lower risk a CEOs that use the box approach devote much of their workday to attending to deviations from standard such as quarterly results that are below forecast and to rewarding employees whose behavior and performance match the control standards a The purpose of the control is to strive for consistency Change agent approach create an environment of continual reinvention even if such an emphasis on change creates shortterm disturbances such as anxiety confusion and poorer financial results a CEOs spend upt to 75 OF THEIR TIME USING SPEECHES MEETINGS AND OTHER FORMS OF COMMUNICATION TO MOTIVATE MEMBERS TO EMBRACE CHANGE n EXECUTIVES REGUALARLY VISIT FACTORIES CREATE AND ANSER EMAIL AND A39I39I39END COMPANY PICNICS CEO LEADERSHIP APPROACH CONTINGENCY FACTORS Strategic create test and design Iongv Unstable environment high rate of change term strategy complexity Human assets add value through hiring Business units are better positioned than head retention and development programs quarters to make strategy Expertise design and implement programs Certain expertise can be the source of competit around significant specific expertise such advantage as technology Box add value through controls that set Presence of government examiners who insist o boundaries for employee performance strict controls to protect consumer and compan Change agent create an environment of Company wants to remain a leader in the field a continual reinvention status quo is unacceptable Source From Charles M Farkas and Suzy Wetlaufer quotThe Ways Chief Executive Of cers Leadquot Harvard Business Rev May June 1996 ppilO IZZ Farkas and Philippe DeBacker Maximum Leadership The World s Leading CEOs Share Thi Five Strategies for Success New York Holt 1996i o Leadership During a Crisis 0 Crisis leadership is the process of leading group members through a sudden and largely unanticipated intensely negative and emotionally draining circumstance o 8 Crisis Leadership Attributes amp Behaviors 1 Be decisive 2 Lead with compassion 3 Reestablish the usual work routine 4 Avoid a circlethewagons mentality Do not defend yourself against your critics or deny wrongdoing do not stonewall the problem 5 Display optimism 6 Have a disaster plan 7 Provide stable performance remaining steady under crisis conditions 8 Be a transformational leader establishing a climate of trust long before the crisis struck o Evidencebased Leadership is an approach whereby managers translate principles based on best evidence into organizational practices 0 A leadingedge way for a person to practice contingency leadership would be to look for researchbased evidence about the best way to deal with a given situation Chapter 6 o Ethics the study of moral obligations or of separating right from wrong the accepted guidelines of behavior for group or institutions o Morals an individual s determination of what is right or wrong morals are influenCed by a person s values o 5 Ethical Leadership Behaviors o 1 Be Honest and Trustworthy and Have Integrity in Dealing with Others An ethical leader is honest and trustworthy and therefore has integrity Integrity refers to loyalty to rational principles it means practicing what one preaches regardless of emotional or social pressure 0 2 Pay Attention to All Stakeholders strive to treat fairly all interested parties affected by your decision authentic leaders have an ethical responsibility to all their shareholders n the welfare of others takes precedence over their own personal welfare as in servant leadership n Authentic leaders have a deep commitment to their personal growth as well as to the growth of other stakeholders o 3 Build Community the leader helps people achieve a common goal Example The Global Compact common goal is equitable treatment of workers 0 4 Respect the Individual showing respect for the individual also means that you recognize that everybody has some inner worth and should be treated with courtesy and kindness o 5 Accomplish Silent Victories the ethical and moral leader works silently and somewhat behind the scenes to accomplish moral victories regularly o 7 Factors Contributing to Ethical Differences o 1 The leader s level of greed qluttony and avarice o 2 Rationalization leading people to focus on the intent of the action no the action itself 0 3 Implied permission to engage in unethical acts Nobody is telling me to stop so it must be okay 0 4 The leader s level of moral development 1 Preconventiona level a person is concerned primarily with receiving external rewards and avoiding punishment 2 Conventional level people learn to conform to the expectations of good behavior as defined by key people in their environment and societal norms u just good enough to look good 3 Postconventiona level people are guided by an internalized set of universal principles that may even transcend the laws of a particular society a the most good for the most people 0 5 A sense of entitlement some CEOs lose their sense of reality and feel entitled to whatever they can get away with or steal The average CEO pay at major corporations is now 364 times higher than the lowestpaid employees 0 6 The situation and organizational culture if leaders at the top of the organization take imrudent quasilegal risks other leaders throughout the firm might be prompted to behave similarly o 7 The leader s character the higher the quality of a person s character the more likely he will behave ethically and morally Ethical mind point of view that helps the individual aspire to good work that matters to their colleagues companies and society in general 0 Begins with the belief that retaining an ethical compass is essential to the health of the organization 0 Leader s need to state this viewpoint and apply it rigorously using selfchecks along the way 0 Leader s must act quickly and publicly on lapses of ethical behavior of others 0 The ethical mind of the leader is essential for the overall health of the organizataion Guidelines for Evaluating the Ethics of a Decision 0 Is it ri ht Based on universally accepted guiding principles of rightness and wrongness o Is it fair Based on the deontological theory ofjustice that certain actions are inherently just or unjust 0 Who gets hurt Based on the utilitarian notion of attempting to do the greatest good for the greatest number of people 0 Would you be comfortable if the details of your decision or actions were made public in the media or through email Based on the universalist principle of disclosure o What would you tell your child siblinq or young relative to do Based on reversibility which evaluates the ethics of a decision by reversing the decision maker 0 How does it smell what does your intuition tell you Unethical behavior has thrown companies into bankruptcy led to the layoffs of thousands of workers diminished trust in stock investments and discouraged many talented young people from embarking on a business career 0 Examples of Unethical Leaders p 179 Dennis Kozlowski Tyco Bernie Ebbers MCI Patricia Dunn HewlettPackard Frank Quattrone Credit Suisse Steven Jobs Apple Chung Mongkoo Hyundai Martha Stewart Martha Stewart Living Corporate social responsibility having obligations to society beyond the company s economic obligations to owners or stockholders and also beyond those prescribed by law or contract 0 Both ethics and social responsibility relate to the goodness or morality of organizations but social responsibility relates to an organization s impact on society and goes beyond doing what is ethical Providing Strategic Leadership of Ethics and Social Responsibility 0 Includes leading by example 0 Socially Responsible Actions 1 Creating a Pleasant Workplace n a social responsibility initiative that directly affects employees wellbeing is to create a comfortable pleasant and intellectually stimulating work environment 2 Helping Build a Sustainable Environment 3 Engaging in Philanthropy n donate money to charity and various other causes a each charitable cause as a potential business investment seeking maximum return in terms of social impact 4 Working with Suppliers to Improve Working Conditions a company leaders work with suppliers to improve physical and mental working conditions 0 Creating an Ethical and Socially Responsible Culture 5 Establishing Written Codes of Ethical Conduct a a written code of conduct is more likely to influence behavior when both formal and informal leaders throughout the firm refer to it frequently a adherence to the code must be rewarded and violation of the code should be punished 6 Developing Formal Mechanisms for Dealing with Ethical Problems n largeorganizations frequently establish ethics committees to help ensure ethical and socially responsible behavior o the committee establishes policies about ethics and social responsibility and may conduct an ethical audit of the firm s activities o members review complaints about ethical problems 7 Accepting Whistleblowers n whistleblower an employee who discloses organizational wrongdoing to parties who can take action 8 Providing Training in Ethics amp Social Responsibility n these training programs reinforce the idea that ethically and socially responsible behavior is both morally right and good for business 9 Placing Company Interests over Personal Interests n We leaders or pwople who look beyond self interest to build partnerships in pursuit of a greater good n We leaders unify rather than divide collaborate rather than compete and believe that it is possible to do well and do good at the same time n A major requirement for building a partnership is fairness n Everyone must benefit form a partnership o Ethical Behavior and Organizational Performance 0 High ethics and social responsibility are related to good financial performance The relationship between social responsibility and financial performance may be a virtuous circle Corporate social responsibility and corporate financial performance may feed and reinforce each other Chapter 1 1 Qualities of Leadership Leadership Quotes 0 Leadership is 0 Example 0 Action I Don t wait for your ship to come in swim out to meet it o Leaders are 0 Someone who believes in you and gets you to believe in yourself 0 Someone who makes the impossible possible Someone who considers the past evaluates the present and creates the future 0 Leadership is NOT 0 Position I Authority is a poor substitute for leadership I Fail to honor people and they will fail to honor you I Never tell people how to do things I Never discourage anyone who makes progress no matter how slow Exclusive From the Mouths of Great Leaders 0 quotMy Grandfather told me there re two kinds ofpeople Workers and Credit Takers Be a worker he said as there is less competition Indira Gandhi o quotI am not a saint unless a saint is a sinner who keeps on trying 3 Pat Summitt America s Best Leader 0 Tennessee Coach ofwomen s basketball o quotHow can we get better so we can be champions 0 Winning matters 0 Son was cut realized he didn t work hard enough asked mom to help him she said quotI ll teach you but I can t start your engine Nelson Mandela 0 Oprah interviews him 0 Mandela was insistent that it was not just him but others who helped in the movement 0 Oprah quotHow is there no bitterness when you come out ofprison o Mandela quotYou have to be how ever you want your country to bequot 5 ValuesBased Leadership by Proctor amp Gamble o It is important for each individual each organization to get in touch with their education experiences culture family heritage and organizational 0 Spend some time writing down your beliefs and the experiences that led to them People like to work for leaders who are predictable It would be better for us to be more deliberate 10 Leadership Beliefs O Equot F 0 Living a life driven by purpose is more meaningful than just meandersing through life I What is your purpose Think about your purpose I Is our purpose driving our calendar or are external events driving us I Proctor amp Gamble s Purpose quotPurpose inspired growth have brands all over the world 0 Help other people I Help people succeed gt Give people a small task Give people a small success Give people a larger task then a larger success I No ne wakes up trying to fail gt Do you spend your time watching people succeed or fail I Leadership is time inefficient I Turn success into a contagious feeling gt People like to be a part ofa winning team jersey example 0 Putting people in the right jobs I You get your best grade in your favorite class People excel in things they like I Ask them what they like 0 Character is the most important trait of a leader I Character is putting the needs of the organization above your own I quotLevel 5 Leadership is when your ambition is for the success of the organization not yourself I Taking personal responsibility is a good trait of character I Help me to choose the harder quotrightquot than the easy quotwrongquot 0 Diverse groups ofpeople are more innovative than homogenous groups ofpeople I Leadership challenge you have to get to know the people that you work with 0 Commitment to people as individuals 0 Must be willing to change I Have to change in order to increase productivity I Continue learning 0 Recruit o Determinant of the impact ofa leader is what goes on when he s not there I Did you build a clock or were you just telling time Chapter 2 1 From Good to Great What Defines a Level 5 Leader 0 Mark Thompson 0 Charisa is not leadership 0 Humility is the key to a great leader 0 Absolute obsessed burning ambition that wasn t about them but about a company organization or etc 0 With willful decisions endure 2 Level 5 Good to Great 0 Over 90 of CEOs are found inside the company 0 No such thing as outsiders who build companies 0 Charisma is like any other handicap o Charismatic Leaders are time tellers and when they leave a company their clock leaves with them 0 Good to Great Companies had leaders who built Clocks in Built to Last Companies 0 Samuel Watson was a charismatic leader that overcame his charisma 0 Level 5 0 Search for answers infuse with data and debate that data 0 Want people who are loyal to the data not to the quotleaderquot 0 Definition ofa Level 5 Leader ambitious for the cause company the work not him or herself and they have the will to do whatever is necessary to make good for that cause 3 Hero s Journey Mary Kay Ash 0 Cosmetic pioneer o quotPlacing people before percentages 0 Provides hope and opportunity to those that desire it 0 Mary Kay Ash Charitable Foundation cancer research and an end to domestic violence 0 Her in uences lives on in her legacy 4 What is Personal Leadership Brand 0 Dave Ulrich and Norm Smallwood o A personal leadership brand is when your personal strengths deliver value to someone else Leadership brand becomes your reputation Consider your predispositions and what audiences you are wanting to serve o Begins by understanding who you are and how well that fits with who you want to serve 5 Why Should Anyone Be Led By You 0 Research on what followers want 0 Community they want to belong to something 0 Authenticity they want leaders who know themselves a show themselves I Want to be led by a person not a quotperfect being 0 Significance they want their leader to appreciate their contribution to the whole 00 0 Energy they want to go to work at a place that is inspiring I Includes a sense of excitement and passion 6 Madeline Albright on Women and Leadership 0 1St woman to serve as Secretary of State 0 Women need a certain amount of support a good support system 0 She had one called it G7 0 Good women in leadership 0 Know who they are 0 Respectful of one another 0 Not have a Queen Bee complex but help other women along 7 I Have A DreamMartin Luther King Chapter 3 1 Perspective on Leadership Condoleezza Rice 0 What guides you to move forward 0 Democracy matters 0 US must stand for the universality of democracy and freedom because it s morally right 0 It s not just that individuals should be free but to have a government that instills and protects that freedom 0 Objections 0 You cannot impose Democracy BUT you don t have to impose Democracy but impose Tyranny gt Ifyou ask anyone under tyranny if they would choose democracy or tyranny they would choose democracy 0 Certain peoples are said to not care about Democracy I BUT everyone wants democracy gt Saying democracy is hard and saying that someone is not ready for democracy are two separate things 0 China is doing very well under tyranny But Democracy allows people to learn from mistakes gt And if you don t like who s governing you you can throw them out Unable to express themselves gt If there is difference there is immediate suppression of that difference I Product safety issue gt Killed the guy in charge ofproduct safety gt No longterm solution because sooner or later no one will want to accept the responsibility of product safety 0 What do you do when the bad guys win 0 You continue in your pursuant of your values because that will enable those values to be quotchosenquot There is quotchoicequot allowed 0 Must fight for democracy There will be ups and downs but we must remember never to lose heart 0 Today s headlines and judgment are rarely the same 0 WWII Don t destroy prosperity History has a long tale So it is our part to do what is right for history not what is good for today s headlines History will come out in our benefit as long as we remain true the system reform it US is the most free generous compassionate and powerful With only democratic institutions to point toward can we strive for the better It doesn t matter where you came from it only matters where you re going America should want the most ambitious and creative people to come and share our Her grandfath his education Solutions com And everyone country er was quick to think on his feet and that is what led to and thus his family s success e form the people should have the chance to reach his or her full potential Ifwe continue to focus on our core strengths and remain standing with those who hold those core values we will be fine It is because 0 reached and o foptimism of the people of this country that we have ur ideal goals 2 Leadership Speaker Series Evelyn Lauder Chapter 4 Was very hesi tant in starting quotPink Ribbon of Breast Cancer Awareness because she was going out completely on her own and it was something completely different People enjoy working for a company that gives back 1 Steve Jobs Stanford Commencement Speech CEO oprple and Pixar Animations 3 stories 0 Conn I ecting the dots Dropped out but continued attending classes Followed his curiosity and intuition Attended a calligraphy class because it fascinated him Designed Mac with beautiful typography because he learned it in that one class Cannot connect the dots looking forward but can only connect them looking backwards 2 Lea gt Have to trust and Loss He loved what he was doing Took it from a garage to a multimillion dollar company Was fired by someone he hired because ofa disagreement in change Apologized to those who rejected him Decided to start over Built NEXT which apple in turn bought Sometimes life will hit you in the head with a brick but don t lose heart Love what you do Ifyou haven t found it yet keep looking and don t settle ath Knows he needs to change something when he answers quotNoquot to the selfasked question quotIf I were to die today would I die happy in what I m doing Diagnosed with cancer 36 months before he died gt Had a surgery to remove his cancer and is cancerfree No one wants to die but is a destination we all share Death is life s change agent takes away the old and brings in the new Your time is limited so don t live someone else s life Have the courage to follow your own intuition The Old Catalog 0 Made with typewriters 0 Google in paperback form 0 Back cover on final issue had the words quotstay hungry stay foolishquot ding at Google Annie McKee With change comes challenges How to live work and lead Emotional Intelligence 0 Need to understand ourselves and relate to other people Mind body heart and spirit You re recruited for your minds but the difference in leadership is made through Emotional Intelligence You need to be resilient 0 Look out for everyone 0 Hope in tomorrow Spirit beliefs and values and how you stand up for them with things get tough Shows pictures and asks students to talk about them 0 Nelson Mandela 0 Love I De 0 Think about the people I your life who allowed you to open up and see your life in a different way or who you could be ifyou gave yourself a chance 0 People only change because and when they want to 0 We re more willing to engage in the hard work of change when we feel excitement hope and encouragement o Resilient Leadership is sticking to who you are and understanding how to help others become who they are truly 0 Let go of myths of good leadership 0 Myth 1 smarter people get the job 0 Myth 2 emotions don t matter at work I Emotions can open or close our minds 0 Myth 3 you re a superhero you can take anything the world dishes out I Even those who are very resilient will be brought down 0 Emotions affect our ability to perceive and process information o Emotions are contagious I You feel act then think out of re ex I You can feel think then act with Emotional Intelligence 0 Competencies Observable behaviors that allow you to be a better leader 0 Creativity Domains 0 Knowledge Domain I Cognitive Domain I Emotional Domain 0 Processing Mode Domain I Deliberate Domain I Spontaneous Domain 0 quotPower Stress just feel you don t have anything left to give 0 quotSacrifice Syndrome feel we can t be our best 0 Sustainability is important EQ allows for sustainability o Mindfulness I Understand how your mind works and be open to other things I Then manipulate your emotions for positivity I Live consciously be the change you want to see in the world 0 Hope Belief that future will be better than the past as long as we put one foot in front of the other Chapter 5 1 Leadership Trait vs PathGoal 0 Someone who has all the traits ofa leader may not be able to lead others 0 A leader is notjust quotborn into greatness 0 People only follow o If they think the leader is capable of doing the job 0 If they believe it will result in a certain outcome 0 If they believe the pay offis worth while People won t follow unless you have a clear goal You need to adapt your leadership traits to the demands the people want to accomplish You must meet the subordinate s emotional needs You must provide them with rewards that they find appealing in order to reach their goals A leader understands a leader s needs asks for their input believes that his subordinates matter 4 styles directive supportive participative and achievement oriented 0 Used by a leader in various situations Example doll building corporation 0 Leader should support them by separating them into task teams Be sure your style doesn t support laziness 2 Ken and Scott Blanchard Situational Leadership Leaders must explain why they re implementing their style 0 This allows leadership to be done quotwith them rather than quotat them How useful are your conversations with people you re talking to 0 Does the person you re talking with feel better or worse at the end of the conversation 0 Most useful conversations are quothow can I serve you rather than quotthis is what I need Once the goals are clear a partnership is created 3 Global Leadership Fellows Creating Future Global Leaders Our society is interdependent o Collaborate Not to make decisions but toto improve the state of the world Act as a global community The program is a leadership training that recruits high potential fellows Fellows come from many different backgrounds and are put together they have a global mindset Leaders must be aware and create awareness Leaders must be prepared and adapt constantly with the rapid ongoing change all in course with the longterm vision You cannot solve problems alone A leader incubator must have traits with a global mindset They have facetoface meetings with pioneers captains ofindustries and public figures that all share what makes them who they are weekly just asking and answering questions 0 Peer Coaching you get to be both the coach and the coachee o Fellows coach each other 0 They have groups for peer coaching where they meet weekly to help each other improve I With feedback Diversity is an enrichment Leaders have the dedication to understanding foresight resources and continuing forward Must allow you to absorb and enjoy Your ethics form your reputation 5 lessons 0 Seize opportunities to learn about different cultures values and perspectives 0 Get a coach and a mentor early in your career To leaders be authentic and genuine Recognize the interdependence among global issues countries communities and people 0 Practice collaborative leadership 0 Even ifyou re on the right tract you ll get run over ifyou just sit there 4 Global Leadership Fellows Interviews with Leaders by World Economic Forum 0 Arthur GO Mutambara Deputy Prime Minister of Zimbabwe Young Global Leader 0 Interconnectedness and interdependence o All challenges are interconnected o 1 Frank Brown Dean ofINSEAD 0 Must have exposure to diverse settings 0 HRH Crown Prince Haakon of Norway Young Global Leader Consider ecological and social footprint on what they do Have a clear vision and wanting to create something positive To increase others dignity Every single person is a leader because you are capable of inspiring anyone you come in contact with 0 It s how you use the resources you already have not how many resources you have 0 Iames Quigley Chief Executive Officer of Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu o Interpersonal skills I Motivate and excite our work force 0 Must have vision and optimism Kevin Kelly CEO of Heidrickamp Struggles 0 Not just important to have IQ and EQ but a sense of humor Manfred F R Kets De Vries Clinical Professor of Leadership Development Director ofINSEAD Global Leadership Centre 0 Providing focus 0 A sense ofhow to get the best out ofpeople OO O O O O o Decisiveness 0 Open to experience 0 Exposure to other cultures early in life is very good because you get to see how other people behave 0 Mario Monti President ofUniversity of Bocconi 0 Avoid uniformity 0 Learn from mistakes 0 Don Tapscott Chairman nGenera Insight Author of Grown Up Digital amp Coauthor of Wikinomics 0 Help people understand their own selfinterest 0 Collaboration Tom Robertson Dean of The Wharton School of the university of Pennsylvania 0 People have to want to follow 0 Authenticity 0 Confidence Victor L L Chu Chairman and CEO of First Eastern Investment Group 0 Deeply conscious oh his responsibility 0 Cooperative o Interculture 0 Communication skills 5 Resilient hurricane Katrina Drew Brees 0 Just a video showing that disaster doesn t mean it s over Chapter 6 1 How Leaders Go Wrong 0 We are much harsher on our leaders than we used to be 0 Media has a systematic bias toward bad news 0 Barbara s book quotBad Leadership 0 The word leadership is automatically associated with being good 0 Barbara Leadership is defined as quotPower come sout of the barrel of a gun Leadership is a web with different strands running through it quottangled web 0 Typology breaking things up into different groups or types I The bookis separated into slightly bad to horrible leaders 7 types in 2 major groups gt Inadequate Leadership falls short of its intention 39239 Incompetent Lack the will or skill to sustain affective action 0 ozo Rigid V Unable or unwilling to adapt to new ideas information or changing times 39239 Intemperate V Lack selfcontrol V Unwilling to moderate their appetites gt Immoral Leadership fails to distinguish between right and wrong 39239 Callous V Insensitive and inconsiderate to their followers 39239 Corrupt V Dishonorable V Moral fiber is then V Lie cheat or steal V Put selfinterest ahead ofpublic interest 39239 Tribal V Insular V Discount the health and welfare of those outside the group or organization for which they are directly responsible 39239 Evil Commit strocities V Use pain as an instrument of power Can be physical or psychological 0 Leadership depends on followers 0 Warren Bennis 0 From historical pov o Talks about Caesar I Caesar runs of to a meeting and ignores his assistant s warning anout Brutus on the morning of the assassination I Hubris arrogance o Talks about Howard Rains I It s the Caesar story once again but more dramatic I Cognitive decisiveness I Inability to listen 2 James MacGregor Burns on Moral Leadership 0 Talks about values in moral leadership 0 Argument to those who say we have no coherent form lt
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