PRIN HMN RESRCE DEV
PRIN HMN RESRCE DEV HRE 3071
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HRE 3071 2262014 91500 PM Ch 1Intro to HRD Human Resource Development ASTD o HRD is the integrated use of 0 Training and development 0 Organization development 0 Career development to improve individual group and organizational effectiveness Human Resource Development Swanson amp Holton 2001 o HRD is a process for 0 Developing and unleashing human expertise through organization development and personal training and development for the purpose of improving performance HRD Core Beliefs Swanson amp Holton 2001 o Organizations are humanmade entities that rely on human expertise to establish and achieve their goals o Human expertise is developed and maximized through HRD processes and should be done for the mutual long andor short term benefits of the sponsoring organization and the individuals involved o HRD professionals are advocates of individualgroup work process and organizational integrity HRD Roles o Researcher o Marketer o Org Change Agent o Needs Analyst o Program Designer o Materials Dev o InstructorFacilitator o Career Dev Advisor o Administrator o Evaluator o Manager Ch 2 The Need for Training and Development Departments Comprised of builtinsubsystems and subprocesses o Subsystems and subprocesses are designed to achieve the sub goals that are necessary to produce the overall output Preparing Employees to Perform o All systems have three basic components 0 Inputs 0 Process 0 Outputs Preparing to Perform c We should envision training as the subsystem that acquaints people with the material and the technology o This helps them learn how to use the materials in an approved fashion which allows the organization to reach its desired output Preparing Employees to Perform o The ability to recognize the systems and subsystems of an organization is an important element in all training and developmental activities o Training and development exists to promote individual and organizational excellence by providing opportunities to develop workplace skills Training and Development Department o People are ready for responsible assignments beyond their initial assignments o Organizations can profitably help them develop new larger capabilities o Has become concerned not only with helping individual fill their positions but also with helping entire organizations and departments to grow and develop Interrelationship of the four inputs o Technology 0 The precise way an organization does business o People 0 To perform properly all workers need to master and apply the unique technology governing their task o Materials o Time Jobs of the Training Department Concerned with the meeting of two inputs to organizational effectiveness people and technology Changes uninformed employees into informed employees unskilled into skilled employees become workers who do things the right way 0 the right way aka Standard major function of training is to produce people who do their work at standard Output people who can met those standards both in quality and quantity Three Basic Views of Performance o Performance as a natural outcome of humanity activity o Performance as necessary for economic activity o Performance as an instrument of organizational oppression Performance as a Natural Outcome of Humanity Activity Performance is seen as a natural part of human existence There are purposeful activities with performance as a natural outcome Few people are content if they are not performing Performance as Necessary for Economic Activity o Performance is more utilitarian o Instrumental activity the enhances individuals and society because it supports economic gain o Leads to enhances work and careers performance at the organizational level leads to strong economic entities capable of providing good jobs Performance as an Instrument of Organizational Oppression o Performance is a means of control and dehumanization o Viewed as threatening to humans and potentially abusive Three Basic Views of Learning o Learning as a humanistic endeavor o Learning as a valueneutral transfer of information o Learning as a tool for social oppression Learning as a Humanistic Endeavor o Learning is seen as a key element in helping individuals become more selfactualized and is inherently good for the person o Enhances human potential Learning as a ValueONeutral Transfer of Information o Has instrumental value in that it transfers information that individuals need and desire o Learning is seen as a means to solve the problems of everyday living Learning as a Tool for Social Oppression o Learning can also be a tool for oppression outside of organizational settings o Examples 0 Communism uses learning to control people 0 Some religions use learning to restrict the world views of people Management Education amp Development includes o Higher education Universitybased MED Corporatebased training programs Association activity Private training Formal educational activities and onthejob types of programs Those activities designed to prepare employees for managerial and executive roles All levels of management often called executive development but it excludes supervisory development Organizational Developmental OD Efforts o Change program where change is observed as it happens o Involves launching and managing change in the organizational society o Focuses on the organization first not on the growth of the individual o OD programs use the human beings within the organization as resources in a problemsolving effort that might o Reassign or reorganize the subgroups o Restructure the communication channels o Reshape individual responsibilities behavioral modes or communication styles Conclusion o No matter how big or small the TampD operation they all have in common that one important goal 0 To keep the human resources performing at or above the established standards Ch 3 Function and Role of TampD Managers Competencies Needed o TampD function encompasses several facets and requires TampD professionals to wear multiple hats 0 They must be Managersadministrators Consultants Designers of learning experiences Instructors As ManagersAdministrators o The TampD manageradministrator must perform typical managerial duties 0 Planning 0 Organizing o Directing o Controlling the ongoing function What are the policy decisions that TampD manager must make o Decide what the training needs are and what training initiatives will be provided o Must have ready access to organizational goals problems and strategies o Set scheduling policies 0 Dates length location decide who should be enrolled and from where o Communicating policy to all other parts of the management structure TampD managers should also o Plan delegate motivate mentor coach monitor control and evaluate staff o Establish budgets and monitor costs o Control decisions about learning methods and media o Develop staff o Evaluate outcomes from training interventions As Consultants to the Organization o TampD managers help managers of client departments solve human performance problems o Consultants should know what questions to ask when to ask them and how to create an environment in which facts become the basis of decisions Human Performance Problems o ALL human performance problems are the legitimate and obligatory concern of the T amp DHRD manager o But not all human performance problems can be solved by training o Manager is ultimately responsible for distinguishing between training and nontraining needs o Manager s job is NOT to just find places where training is needed but to 0 Find all performance problems 0 Analyze each 0 Recommend as appropriate solution o Not a solution TampD in search of a problem but a true performance consultant As consultant the Manager of TampD uses many competencies o Evaluator o Group Facilitator o Instructor o Marketer o Individual Development Counselor o Needs Analyst o Program administrator o Strategist o Theoretician o Transfer Agent As Designers of Learning Experiences o Small Shops 0 The entire staff works to create Lesson plans Produce learning materials Write roleplaying scenarios case studies and simulations o Large Staff 0 The director may be only an observer or advisor Conducting a training needs assessment o One of the fundamental tasks of the design process is conducting a training needs assessment This determines which skills or competencies are required and which skills the employees are deficient in Need a sizable number of instructional methods o Learning styles vary o Objectives vary leading to a wide variety of learning approaches o Physical distribution may require that some programs be administered to individuals others to large groups There are three distinct domains of behavior in which trainees must be asked to grow o Cognitive 0 Mental skills acquired through reading lectures or demonstrations o Psychomotor o Involve using the arms legs and torso relies heavily on On the Job Training OJT o Affective Domain 0 Learners are expected to grow in the realm of emotions or feelings Manager s role o The effective TampD manager is able to counsel staff members in the proper selection to the proper match of learning objectives trainee population and organizational environment Transfer o Transfer refers to how well the learners apply the newly acquired knowledge to their work o Regardless of what the training content is or the methodology used the training will not stick unless the designer addresses the issue of transfer of training o Managers must address conditions before and after the training pre and post training conditions in TampD jargon which greatly affect transfer results As Instructors o The instructor is the ultimate delivery agent of the learning system c Bring life to all the content and all the methods for the lesson plans o Implies skill in twoway communication c We are less and less concerned with platform skills are more and more concerned with skills in facilitating others Ch 4 The TampD Department and the Organizational Structure Line and Staff Considerations o Line amp Staff division still exists in practice 0 Line management revenue generators focus on achieving main organizational objectives 0 Staff management revenue consumers focus on supporting line functions Line amp Staff Contributions to Solving Performance Problems o Phase A Analysis Discover a problem Performance standards Identify the deficiency Cost the deficiency Identify causes of the deficiency Design and select solutions o Phase B Solving the Problem 0 Decide to go ahead with the best solution 0 Establish behaviors performance objectives 0 O O O O O Design the program Select trainers Upgrade trainers Select trainees Conduct the training o Phase C Evaluation 0 Measurement 0 Evaluation Cooperative Efforts o TampD manager and Client manager Mutual effort required to solve performance problems 0 ClientLine manager Knows its operation best problems amp resources 0 Staff manager sees larger perspectives amp brings special technology for solving performance problems o Line and Staff Conflict o Ways to overcome line and staff trainer conflict 0 Mixed teaching teams 0 Mixed design teams o Collaborations between TampD staff client management and line instructors are highly desirable TampD as a Staff Function o Most TampD managers occupy a staff position under 0 HR Department 0 Vice President of Administrative Services 0 Director of Support Services o Important TampD manager must report to the top of the staff hierarchy TampD as a Line Function o Many TampD managers prefer to report to the line management c There are many advantages to this arrangement o Disadvantage Lack of mechanism by which staff managers can access the TampD manager Placement with the CEO o Chief Learning Officer CLO reporting directly to the Chief Executive Officer CEO 0 O O O O o CLOs mainly in large companies that rely on human expertise as a competitive advantage o Advantages 0 Power 0 Proactive approach to TampD 0 Improved quality of TampD decisions and programs TampD Function o Should be positioned where it can give the best possible service to the largest possible number of organizational clients o More and more TampD managers report directly to the CEO this is a goal worth seeking Ch 5 Identifying Training Needs Meeting Customer Needs o In practice the customer is seldom completely right o In the best of situations customers are aware of the problems for which training interventions are needed Core Principle of Customer Service o Ultimately the customerthe managers trainees etc is always right and gets what he or she wants o The end result is that ineffective and sometimes unethical practices are perpetuated and supported by HRD or TampD specialist Customer Needs o In the short run pleasing customers even if they are wrong is seductive o It increases HRD s power and influence o In the long run the end result is likely to be just the opposite it leads to diminished powers and influence Building Professional Integrity o Customer service provides little in the way of a professional compass to guide practice o It allows the profession to be pushed and pulled by customer s whims o It provides little foundation for leadership and atheoretical The Challenge of the Profession c To stop thinking like retail clerks and to start thinking like true professionals o A profession is the notion that practice is anchored within a system of formal knowledge and expertise The Swanson Diagnosis Matrix o Performance Variables O O O O O The missiongoal System design Capacity Motivation Expertise o Levels 0 O 0 Organization Process Individual Training Needs o A training need exists when an employee lacks the knowledge or skill to perform an assigned task satisfactorily M I A potential training need o M represents what the worker must do o I represents the inventory 0 What the worker is actually doing now o The difference between M and I is the potential training need o Potential is accurate because we are not yet certain that the reason for difference is lack of knowledge or skill DKs c When employees don t know how we call this DK for Deficiency of Knowledge DEs o If the difference between the must do and the is doing stems from other causes we consider it a Deficiency for Execution O DPs DE s are not solvable through training o People know how to do the job but have so little practice that they cannot maintain a satisfactory level of performance we call this Deficiency of Practice o Training in the form of drill may solve DP problems Individual Needs and Organizational Needs o Individual Needs 0 Exists for just one person 0 Or for a very small population o Organizational Needs 0 Exists in a large group of employees such as the entire population with the same job classification Potential Sources of Individual Training Needs o New hires o Promotions o Transfers o Performance Appraisals o Career planning programs o An accident o Quality control records c Grievances o New positions o Special positions o Job description o Research and development projects o Tuition refund programs o Job rotation programs o Crossqualification decisions Potential Sources of Organizational Training Needs o Regular management reports o Special reports and requests reveal o New plants o New products o New equipment or machinery o Changes in standards o Trends o New policies Being Proactive o If TampD managers make intelligent use of these symptoms they can avoid the firefighter trap o Instead of being purely reactive they can become proactive and take steps to solve potential performance problems before they become actual problems Surveys or Interviews o Surveys 0 Used for quantitative data o Interviews 0 Used for qualitative data Relationship between surveys and interviews o Basic signals about training needs come from monitoring the ongoing operation o Signals about individual training needs are pursuedthe TampD department using further inquiry and analysis with the manager of the potential trainees andof coursewith the trainees themselves o Signals about the organizational training needs of the organization are validated by further inquiry in the form of surveys and interviews o New signals that come from the surveys and interviews are validated by reference to the hard data from the operational monitoring Prioritizing Training Needs c There are at least four criteria on which the policy rests 0 Cost effectiveness 0 Legal requirements 0 Executive pressure 0 The population to be served Cost of Performance o Can usually be determined o Relatively easy if one knows the cost of a defective unit o It is necessary to compute the cost of the solution 0 Development costs 0 Salary costs 0 Special expenses Legal Requirements o Numerous government statues dictate some of the decisions about what training to offer o Equalemployment legislation occupational safety and health acts all these make an impact upon the TampD director s priority system Executive Pressure o Usually comes from within the organization Population to be served o Training goes to the most extensive problem macro needs may take priority over individual needs o The value of their product gives some priority to their need Potential knowledge deficiencies DK deserve training o Problems stemming from lack of practice DP should produce drill o Problems stemming from other causes are probably deficiencies of execution DE and nontraining solutions are in order Ch 6 Responding to Individual Training Needs TampD specialists respond to individual training needs make certain that c There are some reasonably definite objectives o The requesting manager is prepared to o Assign the trainee to work that will permit the use of new insights skills or attitudes o Reinforce the application of new behaviors o The factors that facilitate transfer of training are attended to o The program can produce positive results or cost benefits o The trainee understands the reason for the program If we are dealing with a genuine training need c We estimate the size of the trainee population 0 Many employees involved it will be an individual training need dealt with by establishing objectives for a class or workshop 0 Only a few employees or just one we would start joint discussions Discussions o Three people attend o Ourselves as the TampD consultant 0 The potential trainees 0 And the immediate supervisor o The objectives are established and the search begins and we ask whether to use inside or outside resources Inside Answers to Individual Training Needs o Existing Programs o SelfStudy Programs o Special Assignments o Coaching or Mentoring Existing Programs o Do the behavioral or learning goals for the need match or parallel those published for programs already in the curriculum of the organizations 0 Yes enroll the trainees in the next session of the existing programs 0 Other related objectives An individual or small group special session might be arranged to solve the training need SelfStudy Programs o This may be the ideal way for individuals to acquire desired knowledge of practices in other departments o to manage handsoffs smoothly c or when middlestaff manager need insight into how other departments operate Coaching and Mentoring It is an effective away to overcome individual performance problems in employees who are deficient in just one characteristic of their work Typical of these deficiencies of execution they are usually DEs o carelessnesslack of attention to detail missing parts of assignmentslack of followthroughor unilateral decisionmaking Coaching and it s advantages o It can be individualized It can ensure complete validity if the coach is the trainee39s immediate superior The oneonone communication permits a dynamic feedback mechanism and a reappraisal of the learning objectives Training responsibility is to the point in the organization where it has the most immediate payoff Managercoaches tend to learn a great deal about the inventories of the individuals whom they coach Mentoring and it s advantages o Provides opportunities for the growth of their proteges by identifying situations that will enhance their knowledge and expertise Addresses equity issues by supporting the advancement of women and minorities o Orient and socialize new employees In every situation the trainee immediate supervisor host and TampD specialist should o Set goals o Define the activity o Describe the way in which the training content will be applied on the job o Establish criteria and a mechanism for evaluating the expertise Outside Answers to Individual Training Needs o TampD managers use such activities as seminars and workshops university and college offerings programs from local trade and night schools selfstudy or conventions conferences and so forth Membership in professional societies o Provides for a rich opportunity 0 to find out what is new in the profession o to meet new people who do similar things in other organizations to get recognition for their accomplishments to find support groups socialize or hold an office Seminars and workshops o Their sponsors range from independent consultants to professional societies to colleges and universities O O o Their length ranges from one day even a few hours to several weeks o Review checklist on p 84 How to TampD managers locate such events o Open your mail o Organizational lists also announce upcoming events o Attendance at any event by just one sponsor will guarantee future mailings o Phoning the associations or writing to nearby universities will ensure lots of brochures University Programs o They can be short seminars o Onenightaweek o Fulltime investment o May lead to degrees o Should always be investigated and evaluated SelfStudy Programs o Sometimes they already exist within the organization o They can be available through local educational institutions o They are available as books and computer based training packages Professional conferences and conventions o They are seldom structured as behaviorally oriented learning systems They often become intellectual bazaars at which people discover new trends in their fields They can be an effective way to bring stateof theart and cutting edge knowledge into an organization A control system for solving individual training needs o Individual training needs come from all parts and all levels of the organization Ch 7 NonTraining Solutions Fundamental assumptions about motivation o Supervisor s actions influence daytoday motivation of employees o A supervisor can achieve performance and employee satisfaction at the same time Positively reinforcing high performers is as important as dealing with problems Does employee understand there is a performance problem o If not Put the problem identification process on hold Supervisor must resolve differences in perceptions Supervisor must clarify expectations Employee must acknowledge there is a problem If employee agrees there is a performance problem o Task is to determine if it is an ability or a motivation problem Goal Setting o Foundation for motivation o Work best when employees are involved o Must be 0 Specific o Consistent o Appropriately challenging Reinforcement o Employees need consequences for goals 0 O O O 0 Positive 0 Negative o A supervisor is always reinforcing something Consequences 0 Must 0 Remove negative consequences for good performance 0 Remove positive consequences for poor performance 0 Add positive consequences for proper performance Feedback o Employees can not attain goals unless they get performance feedback Job Enrichment o Problem is not always the people may be the job o May be too difficult or too simple o May need to change the job not the people Job Enrichment Principles o A complete piece of work emerges o Do not damage humiliate bore or degrade worker o Frequent feedback about performance Utilization of worker s valued existing skills o Opportunity to acquire other skills o Enhance employee s ability to perform other life roles Ch 8 Learning Objectives Instructional Goals and Learning Objectives o Goals and Objectives are different o A goal is a broad statement of what is to be learned from the training Learning Objectives o Learning objectives are more specific They indicate what a student will be able to do with the information and skills learned by the end of training 0 It is a brief clear statement of what the learner should be able to do after completing the training Why Write Objectives o Trainees know what is expected of them so will be more motivated o Instructors can better plan and control the learning process o Management knows what it is getting for its investment o Trainees bosses can more clearly communicate expectations o HRD dept can evaluate its effectiveness o Establishes clear performance standards from training o Shows organization that training means business and training is work Instructional Goals and Learning Objectives o Taxonomy of Instructional Goals and Learning Objectives 0 Instructional goals and objectives can be classified according to three types of learning Affective Domain Cognitive Domain Psychomotor Domain o Cognitive Domain Knowledge 0 Learning that includes any intellectual process recall of information analysis of ideas facts or concepts and decision making or evaluation o Affective Domain Attitudes 0 Frequently hidden from observation learning that includes attitudes and values one holds which affect all performance o Psychomotor Domain Skills 0 Learning that requires muscular or motor movement A motor or psychomotor skill is the habit of making complex motor responses without conscious thought o Multiple Domains 0 Learning can occur in more than one domain at a time Writing Learning Objectives o Robert Mager 1997 o A learning objective is a description of a performance you want learners to be able to exhibit before you consider them competent 0 An objective describes an intended result of instruction rather than the process of instruction itself Learning Objectives o The purpose of objectives is to provide a focus for o selecting instructional content c selecting media instructional strategies and tactics o assessing the learner39s knowledge skills or performance Instructional Goals and Learning Objectives o The purpose of objectives is to provide a focus for o continuing evaluation of training programs and materials 0 to direct the learner39s attention to the expected learning and desired performance o Mager s Components of Learning Objectives 0 Performance 0 Conditions 0 Criterion Mager s Components of Learning Objectives o Performance 0 What learner will be able to do o Conditions 0 Under what conditions will the performance occur o Criterion o How will the learner know if they are successful Who Writes Learning Objectives o Not just the HRD department o Involve three groups 0 Upper management 0 Trainees supervisors 0 Representative trainees Ch 9 Adult Learning An Andragogical Theory of Adult Learning o Pedagogy o the art and science of teaching children o Andragogy o the art and science of teaching adults Andragogy Part 1 Principles of Adult Learning 1 The Need to Know o Pedagogy o learners do not need to know how they will apply what they learn to their lives o Andragogy 0 adults need to know why they must learn something before they will undertake learning 2 The Learner s SelfConcept o Pedagogy o the learner s selfconcept is characteristic of a dependent personality o Andragogy o the adult learner s selfconcept is characterized by independence and selfdirection SelfDirected Learning o Two conceptions of selfdirected learning 0 selfteachinglearners teach themselves a subject 0 personal autonomy autodidaxv taking control of learning and assuming ownership of it Grow s Four Stages Stage Student Teacher Example 1 Dependent Authority coach Informational Lecture 2 Interested Motivator guide Goalsetting strategies 3 Involved Facilitator Seminar 4 SelfDirected Consultant Internship 3 The Role of Experience o Pedagogy o the learner s experience is of little worth as a learning resource o Andragogy 0 adults bring to the learning activity a greater volume and a different quality of experience from youths Prior Experience of the Learner o How adults experiences impact learning 0 create a wider range of individual differences 0 provide a rich resource for learning 0 create biases that can inhibit or shape new learning 0 provide grounding for adults selfidentity o Schema Theory 0 cognitive structures that are built as learning and experiences accumulate and are packaged in memory 0 related to mental models Learning Strategies o Socratic dialogue o Case studies o Discussion o Inquiry groups o Simulations o Projects o Action learning 4 Readiness to Learn o Pedagogy o learners are ready to learn what the teacher tells them they need to learn to pass or be promoted o Andragogy 0 adults are ready to learn those things that will help them cope effectively in reallife situations 5 Orientation to Learning o Pedagogy o learners have a subjectcentered orientation to learning o Andragogy 0 adults have a lifecentered orientation to learning 6 Motivation o Pedagogy o learners are motivated by external motivators such as grades and teacher approval o Andragogy 0 adults are responsive to some external motivators but the stronger motivators are internal pressures Six Assumptions of the Andragogical Model 1 The need to know 2 The learner s selfconcept 3 The role of the learner s experiences 4 Readiness to learn 5 Orientation to learning 6 Motivation ThreeDimensional Thinking Process 1 The core principles of andragogy provide a sound foundation for planning adult learning experiences 2 Analysis should be conducted to understand i the adult learners and their characteristics ii the characteristics of the subject matter iii the characteristics of situation in which adult learning is being used 3 The goals and purposes for which the adult learning is conducted provide a frame that puts shape to the learning experience Andragogy Part 2 Adult Learning Process Model 8 Phase Process Model 1 Preparing learners for the program 2 Setting a climate for learning 3 Establishing a structure for mutual planning 4 Diagnosing needs for learning 5 Formulating directions objectives for learning 6 Designing a pattern of learning experiences 7 Managing the execution of the learning experiences 8 Evaluating results andrediagnosing learning needs 1 Preparing Learners for the Program o Provide information o Prepare for participation o Help develop realistic expectations o Begin thinking about content Developmental Perspectives on Adult Learning o Adult Development Theories 0 physical changes 0 cognitive development 0 lifespan role development LifeSpan Role Development o Adult life is a series of stages and transitions o Each transition to a new stage creates a motivation to learn Implications from Developmental Theories o Adult learning is inextricably intertwined with adult development c Adult development occurs along multiple paths and multiple dimensions o Adult learning will vary with stages of cognitive development Implications o Motivation and readiness to learn will vary according to stage of lifespan development c Facilitators must tailor learning experiences to fit the developmental stage 2 Setting a Climate for Learning o The psychological environment 0 mutual respect collaboration mutual trust supportiveness openness and authenticity pleasure o humanness o The physical environment 0 comfortable surrounding O O O O O o aesthetically pleasing o facilitates interaction 3 Establishing a Structure for Mutual Planning o Key issue to keep in mind 0 peoples level of commitment to a decision is proportional to their participation in making it 4 Diagnosing Needs for Learning o Collaborative o Provide means for learner to assess their present level of performance 0 providing evidence of present performance 0 different kinds of performance call for different kinds of assessment procedures 0 areas of performance assessment include knowledge understanding and insight skills attitudes interests values 5 Formulating Directions Objectives for Learning o in a form that will benefit the instructor and participants in o planning learning 0 conducting learning 0 evaluating outcomes o Learning objectives are often stated in terms of o instructor activities 0 subjects to be covered 0 general behavior patterns o Learning objectives should identify 0 the kind of behavior to be developed 0 area of life in which the behavior should operate 6 Learning Techniques o Techniques that facilitate adult learning include o presentation techniques 0 audienceparticipation techniques discussion techniques simulation techniques nonverbal exercises o skillpractice exercises Orientation to Learning o Problem Solving o Experiential approach Kolb s Model with Strategies 0 O O Stage Facilitation Strategy Concrete Experience Simulation Case Study Observe and Reflect Discussion Small Groups Abstract Sharing Content Conceptualization Active Experimentation Internships Lab Experiences 6 Selection of Materials and Devices o Some generalizations o textbook structure does not allow for individual differences student interests or selfdirected inquiry o learners should develop materials to fill the gap in resources 7 Carry Out Learning Plans o Teacher is o facilitator of learning process 0 guide to effective approaches to learning 0 content resource person 8 Evaluating Learning Outcomes o Most difficult part of adult learning 0 external evaluation 0 learner evaluation Chapter 10 Instructional Methods Instructional Methods o The method by which instruction occurs 0 Selecting the appropriate instructional method or learning method is multidimensional 0 Strong trend toward experience based on experiential learning in training programs 0 Modern learning theories stress that adults should have a degree ownership in the learning process amp want to invest their previous experiences in the learning process Learner Participation o Level 1 Low Participation o Lectures o Readings o Demonstrations o Level 2 Some Participation o Skits 0 Field Trips 0 Taking Notes 0 Programmed Instruction o Level 3 Medium Participation 0 Panel Discussions 0 Structured Discussions 0 Panel Discussions by participants 0 Topical Discussions 0 QuestionAnswer Panels 0 Cognet o OpenForum Discussions 0 Behavior Modeling o Level 4 Moderate Participation 0 Interactive Demonstrations 0 Job Instruction Training JIT 0 Performance Tryouts o Level 5 High Participation o Brainstorming Case Studies Action Mazes Jigsaws Role Plays Simulations Games Clinics Fishbowls Critical Incidents OD Data Gathering O O O O O O O O O 0 Summary o Asking which method to use for a training program is like asking a physician which instrument to use for surgery 0 Variety is an important ingredient in adult learning experiences Chapter 12 Training Facilities What do instructors want o Experienced instructors will tell you that they want Flexibility Isolation Lighting control Capacity to accommodate computer equipment Ventilation O O O O 0 Why Flexibility o Just stop to think about the wide variety of methods professional TampD specialist currently employ o It has several dimensions 0 Size 0 Space 0 Ceiling Height 0 Chairs Isolation o Room is sufficiently removed from the workplaceso that the learners know they are in training o Effective isolation is further achieved by a policy communicated before reporting to training o Isolation is both physical and psychological Lighting Control o Is a prime criterion for visual presentations o One dimension is the ability to eliminate light another is the ability to diminish it by degrees o Removing naked lamps and glossy surfaces can best prevent glare Ventilation o People don t learn well when they are too cold or too hot o Ventilation is a loselose situation You can t please all the people any of the time o Err on the side of being a little cool Room Arrangement c There are several different ways to arrange your room to accommodate your learners o Unfurnished circle Circle Circular table Square Solid table Rectangle U Place the tables at an angle Semicircular patterns Cabaret arrangements Scattershot method classroom setup O O O O O O O O O O O Organizational classroom Wide isle between each row Convert the rows to arcs Modified chevron O O O 0 Summary o Good facilities don t guarantee learning o But they 0 Can significantly impede learning 0 And significantly enhance learning Chapter 13 Core Premises Underlying Transfer of Training Core Premise 1 o Performance change at the job is the central purpose of organizational training Core Premise 2 o Transfer is a function of a system of influences not just learning design o What happens outside the classroom in the work environment is just as important as what happens inside the classroom Core Premise 3 c We can intervene to significantly improve training transfer Core Premise 4 o Transfer interventions will be most successful where the explicit goal is performance improvement Core Premise 5 o Transfer is a process with multiple leverage points for intervention Core Premise 6 o Achieving transfer does not require substantial investment in new processes and systems 0 Does require that we focus on existing management and organizational processes on learning Core Premise 7 o Transfer is multidimensional Learning Transfer System Inventory Learning Transfer System Inventory LTSI o Measures 16 factors 0 Barriers and catalysts to transfer 0 Factors tied to leverage points which are opportunities for intervention o A diagnostic tool o An evaluative tool o Grounded in previous learning transfer research o 5 point Likert response scale strongly disagree to strongly agree o Scales o 11 for specific training program 0 5 for training in general The 16 LTSI Factors 0 0 Content Validity 0 Transfer Design 0 Opportunity to Use 0 Personal Capacity o Motivation 0 Transfer Effort Performance Expectations 0 Transfer Performance Outcomes Expectations 0 Learner Readiness 0 Motivation to Transfer 0 Performance SelfEfficacy o Work Environment 0 Supervisor Support Supervisor Sanctions Peer Support Performance Coaching Personal Outcomes Positive Personal Outcomes Negative Resistance to Change 0 O O O O O Chapter 16 The State of the Profession o Evaluation is not often conducted o HRD professionals rely on a 45 yearold model which has failed the profession o HRD does not measure its results o HRD is often discounted by management Why Results Assessment o The organizational process of determining whether meaningful and valued outcomes are achieved from human resource development interventions The Results Assessment System o Assessing results is a core organizational process evaluation is not o Is similar enough to popular models to be comfortable o Is fundamentally different in important ways o Our effort to solve the results assessment problem Foundational Premises o Results are assessed for important organizational processes o HRD must hold itself accountable to be seen as a core process o Outstanding results occur from sound HRD practices o Not assessing results is a false security o Results assessment can be very satisfying Case Study Sales Communication o Sales communication effort for sales personnel at a major insurance company o 168 sales persons 24 managers o Outcome 2352000 return 800 o Impetus poor returns from previous general sales training o Previous results assessment used only reaction forms o Performance analysis showed 0 Lack of communication expertise o Inadequate support by sales managers o Interventions 0 New sales training program for everyone 0 New performance appraisal system Learning Results Domain o Knowledge 0 Metal achievement acquired through study and experience o Expertise 0 Human behaviors having effective results and optimal efficiency acquired through study and experience within a specialized domain Knowledge o Familiar to most HRD professionals o HRD should consistently deliver confirmed learning outcomes o Individuals can not selfrate learning well o Tests are typically used Expertise o Assessed after learner gains some experience o Requires person to demonstrate behavior in a real or simulated setting o Measured in two ways 0 End product 0 Process Performance Results Domain o System 0 The units of missionrelated outputs in the form of goods andor services having value to the customer and that are related to the core organizational work processes groupindividual contributors in the organization o Financial 0 The conversion of the output units of goods andor services attributable to the intervention into money and financial interpretation Key Points o Measuring performance is critical to success o Key to demonstrating performance results is being clear about the system including 0 Mission 0 Core outputs 0 Connecting the intervention to core outputs Most organizations already measure core system outputs 0 Dimensions of Performance o Time 0 Time to complete tasks 0 Response time 0 Processing time o Quantity 0 Number of customers served 0 Units produced 0 Sales made 0 Boxes shipped o Quality 0 Errors reduced 0 Rejects eliminated o Rework avoided Levels of Performance Outcomes o System organization o Work Process o Contributor 0 Work Group 0 Individual Perception Results Domain o Participants 0 Perceptions of people with firsthand experience with systems processes goods andor services c Stakeholders o Perceptions of leaders of systems andor people with a vested interest in the desired results and the means of achieving them Limitations of Perceptions o Most abused aspect of results assessment What people fee or believe may be totally different than what they do o If the results are outside the person then perceptions may be faulty o Must know limits of perceptions 0 To not collect invalid data 0 And make poor decisions Assessing Perceptions o Process regarding ongoing processes 0 Affective 0 Utility o Outcomes regarding actual outcomes o Standard 25 out of 4 Process Perceptions o Perceptions about ongoing processes including intervention process itself o Most commonly collected from participants but may be collected from stakeholders o Purpose is to understand how people react to the quality features of the process Developing Measures of Stakeholder Perceptions o The perceptions of leaders of systems or people having a vested interest in the desired results and means of achieving them o Stakeholders can be inside or outside the organization Key Points o A perception is a personal feeling belief impression or comprehension o Perceptions can get in the way and can be easily manipulated yet they are important o Participant and stakeholder perceptions provide important alternative vantage points o Performance and learning results cannot be measure adequately through perceptions When to Collect Data o Before 0 Data from analysis 0 Pretests o During 0 Beginning of training 0 End of training 0 After 0 Shortterm transfer 0 Retention Measures of Knowledge in the Sales of Communication Case o Knowledge of sales communication organized into five content categories o Based on analysis of work structure o Frontend analysis involved interviews observations and records of successful and failed sales efforts Sales Communication Case Expertise Assessment o Sales communication organized into categories to match expert work behavior o Content areas were the basis of the measure of knowledge and expertise o Sales managers served as expert raters and rated the learner in a highfidelity sales simulation Comparison Options o 7 Another Cycle of same program control group future offering previous offering o 8 Standard 0 minimum test score 0 performance rating 0 competency score o 9 Norm 0 national norms o rankings 0 industry norms O O O O 2262014 91500 PM 2262014 91500 PM