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by: Bryon Roberts Sr.
Bryon Roberts Sr.
GPA 3.57

T. Bidner

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T. Bidner
Class Notes
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bryon Roberts Sr. on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANSC 3033 at Louisiana State University taught by T. Bidner in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see /class/222513/ansc-3033-louisiana-state-university in Animal Science at Louisiana State University.

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Date Created: 10/13/15
Group 1 Exploring the Importance Taste and Selection of Marbling What is Marbling and are some breeds superior Marbling or intramuscular fat is the fat stored in adiposetissue between the musclefiberbundles within the muscles Albrecht Animals are not born with much intramuscular fat but fatten with age then The fat is first deposited as internal fat then subcutaneous fat intermuscular fat and intramuscular fat Marbling appears as the white ecks or streaks in the meat The demand for marbling varies among beef lamb goat and pork meat but varies based on the consumer s preference for taste versus health Breeds among the species also marble differently and can be evaluated genetically then selected for marbling qualitiesHowever due to the relationship between redversus white musclefibers and fatnessmuscling it is difficult to select for marbling especially in highly muscled animals Albrecht There are many factors that affect the quality of meat such as muscling amount of fat and grade but marbling is one of the main factors that affect the palatability and tenderness of the meat In beef the meat is evaluated with an emphasis on quality grade where marbling is a highly desirable trait and plays a vital role in the price The 1British breeds Angus Shorthorn Hereford are known for their ability to marbleguicklyand thoroughly while the Continental breeds Limousin Simmental are known for greater total muscle mass percent lean percent yield giving them notoriety for their inferior ability to deposit marbling The 2Eared breeds Brahma and Beefmaster have more difficulty dispersing marbling and have problems producingmeat that is tender and palatable quotBreeds of Beef Cattle All of these traits depend highly on how the animals are managed such as gualityoffeed and amount of stress The meat of swine is primarily evaluated based on cutability lean to fat ratio with some emphasis on meat quality or marbling The 1Landraceis a breed is used for its meat production large litters and sturdiness Knipe The 2Yorkshire breed is known for being muscular m Mg a highproportion of leanmeat but an inferiorability to deposit marbling 3 3 Berkshirepigs are known for their superbmarblingand earlymaturity 4 Another breed known for excellentmarblinggualities and meatcolor is the Duroc Lamb and Goat meat is slowly rising in popularity in the United States Lamb carcasses are evaluated by a combinationofguality yieldgrade andmaturity because older lambs are considered mutton quotThe quality of the lean esh is determined by ankstreakingquot Boggs The Southdownlambhas an excellentability to depositmarbling while the Merinobreed does not Goat meat is evaluated similarly to cattle swine and lambs but there is not much research and data on marbling because it is such a newindustry and still in the infantile stage in the United States Factors that determine marbling Intramuscular fat or marbling is one of three main factors that m the gm of at While marbling adds avorit is the last type of fat to be deposited in the body The order in which the body deposits fat is mesenteric kidney intermuscular subcutaneous and intramuscular or marbling Qualitygrade is one of the most in uential components ofpricing is essential for a productiveand profitableherd The consumer wants meat to heife consistentlytender palatable m of outsidefat w to prepare and reasonablypriced The ability to affect marbling is imperative in today s valuebased markets Therefore it is important to understand the factors that affectmarbling in order to produce animals with superior intramuscular fat as well as be aware of how marbling is determined There are several factors that are known to determine marbling in an animal These include genetics age timeonfeed energycontent of the m and fatcoverOne of the most important aspects to understand is the time on feed Unlike externalfat marbling does not proceed in a linearfashion so extended time on feed does not necessarily mean the animal will have more marbling Due to external fat beinga linear gain so proper attention to calculated feeding is important to prevent over feeding and diminishing carcass return The length of time an animal is fed can be detrimental because your yield grade may increase without increasing so it is important to optimize both quality and yield grade without degrading the other Although age is important in the quality and palatability ofmeat research has shown that is does not have a direct effect on marbling In a recent study at the West Virginia University Extension Service results indicated the energy content of feed has affected marbling Feeding a high amount of cereal grains such as corn or barley is known to change the color of carcass fat from yellow to white as well as increase the quality grade However feeding too much grain can cause acidosis in cattle since they are ruminants making them more efficient at digesting grass than grain Feeding specific mixtures of soybeans or yellow fat tallow and grease at low levels in barely and sorghum diets have also increased marbling scores It is also believed that high oil corn should be fed in combination with higher levels of forage for optimum effects on both quality grade and the amount ofmarbling Wagner and Osborne In most livestock there are two main grading systems quality and yield The purpose of these two systems is to rank live animals as well as meat products They are useful in both the pricing and marketing of animals so when discussing marbling quality grade helps distinguish the predicted palatability Effective evaluation of meat quality requires reference standards in addition to adequate training and the ability to differentiate the traits being assessed Marbling in beefis determined using a millimeter ruler and compass where the carcass is ribbed between the 12th and 13th rib It ranges from practically devoid to abundant where each degree of marbling gt2 mm is divided into 100 subunits The visible ecks are measured with the ruler and compass in the ribeye area and recorded Knipe The marbling in pork meat is not used in quality grading but can be determined by ribbing the carcass at the 10th and 11th rib then visually measuring the amount of fat which generally ranges from 17 Knipe In lambs the carcasses are not ribbed so ank streaking is used to evaluate marbling In sheep marbling is determined primarily by the amount of ank streaking Lamb quality grades are labeled prime choice good and utility Prime is the highest and most desirable while Choice grade meat has less marbling but is still considered to have a high quality palatability A prime grade is characterized by an abundance of marbling while being very juicy and tender Good and Utility grades are rarely if ever sold in stores and are characterized by the lack of marbling compared to Choice grade meat Pork carcass quality is strongly based on color and marbling but tends to be almost too lean so looking for adequate marbling will produce a more desirable eating quality even though pork has less variability Some consumers prefer pork with little or no marbling while others prefer the avor ofmoderately marbled pork An intramuscular score is assigned to correlate with the amount of marbling within a cut A score of 10 has 1 intramuscular fat a score of 20 has 2 intramuscular fat and so on Marbling is most important in beef carcasses compared to sheep and swine because quality grade is in cattle is the primary determinate of quality grade There are eight quality grades in the beef industry Prime Choice Select Standard Commercial Utility Cutter and Canner Marbling scores include Abundant Moderately Abundant Lightly Abundant Moderate Modest Small Slight Traces Practically Devoid and Devoid Each of these degrees of marbling is divided into 100 subunits However marbling scores are discussed in tenths within each degree of marbling so that a marbling score in beefis specific and to some considered quite accurate The grade quotPrimequot has the highest marbling content when compared to other grades and is most requested at restaurants and supermarkets The grade of quotChoicequot is commonly sold in retail outlets while the grade quotSelectquot is sold as a cheaper option but still contains nutritional value Prime Choice Select and Standard are commonly used in the younger cattle Lamb meat often has an undesirable avor due to higher incidence of disease and age Marbling as Taste vs Health Marbling plays an important role in the price ofbeef and a large portion of this price deals with supply and demand Consumers often request and purchase meat with more marbling than the meat with a more lean appearance While marbling adds avor to meat it also adds fat content so the preference of the consumer is generally based on whether they approach food from a taste versus health perspective In a survey of 50 random participants of the Baton Rouge Louisiana area subjects were asked if they purchase meat high in marbling or lean Of the 50 participants 35 stated they chose cuts based on higher marbling rather than healthier lean cuts The majority stated they wanted better avor and taste associated with higher marbling while the rest chose to eat a more lean meat to take advantage of the health benefits Selection Methods of Marbling Thirtyseven percent of observed differences in marbling are attributed to heredity making marbling a highly heritable trait Animals can be selected for their marbling and bred for generations giving the producer more control of their profit The other siXtythree percent is credited to environment nutrition and managementThere are several procedures currently being used to improve carcass traits EPDs expected progeny differences use performance data to document traits such as size of litter carcass weight and tenderness Whole Genome Selection can be used to select traits based on all the mutations ofa gene but the problem is the size ofa single genome is hugeSNPs single nucleotide polymorphism are also used to look at the DNA in animals ofinterest based on good traits to select for future generations Marker Assisted Selectionidentifiesa single mutation associated with performance and is used to indicate carcass traits such as marbling One of the genes identified is the Calpastatin gene It is a naturally occurring protein that inhibits the normal tenderization ofmeat as it ages postmortem In the past few years there have been several studies and marketing of marker assisted selection for increased milk production The Calpastatin gene is believed to be related to dairy cattle fertility and dairy cattle arealso known for their less than desirable meat qualitiesGenome scans in the pig have identified a region on chromosome 2 associated with tendernessFor this reason the Calpastatin gene is believed to be a likely positional candidate gene because of its inhibitory role involved in postmortem tenderization One study even found novel single nucleotide polymorphisms SNP in calpastatin that were identified and used to genotype a population of Duroc Landrace Yorkshire swine for association with postmortem tenderness Perry Rohrer HollShackelford Wheeler Koohmaraie and Nonneman Dr Matthew Garcia Assistant professor School ofAnimal Sciences at Louisiana State University is currently conducting research to study the identification and use of genetic markers to improve marbling There genes are not being altered or manipulated The genetic makeup of that animal is evaluated in an attempt to find all the SNPs associated with the benefits ofa particular trait When an animal is born a blood sample can be obtained and evaluated to identify the makeup and projected success of that animal assuming proper nutrition and handling In order to select for marbling in cattle Dr Garcia collects blood samples for marker evaluation from every breeding animal in the existing herd and each new animal born into the herd Dr Garcia can then use the report to decide which animals to breed and which to slaughter or sell Some examples of the breeding animals he uses are pure or crossbred Brahman and Angus To further determine the genetic traits the performance data is needed so Dr Garcia sends the calves to the Louisiana Calf to Carcass program where they are preconditioned at Dean Lee Research Station in Alexandria and later sent to Hitch Feed Lot in Oklahoma After slaughter all the carcass information is sent back to Dr Garcia for use in deciding which animal to keep Genetic markers are primarily being used by seedstock and commercial cattle producers as a marketing ploy for farmers who do not fully understand the process and its accuracy or lack thereof There are currently a number of companies involved in genetic analysis of genes for carcass traits milk production and fertility Igenity OptiYield evaluates the genotype YY showing increased milk production and increased fertility often found in Holsteins Igenity TenderGENE claims to identify the calpain genotype associated with five different levels ofmeat tenderness GeneSTAR is used by an Asutralian company named Genetic Solutions offering marker identification for tenderness and marbling in a single test Even sheep are being evaluated in the United Kingdom by LoinMAX for loin muscle area The potential problem with using these companies such as TenderGENE to evaluate and select for traits is not only the cost but also the lack of research and development illustrating the negative effectsThe complexity of a genome is tremendous in that there are hundreds of genes associated with a single trait which can hinder accuracy in selection Pleitropy is the phenomenon ofa single gene in uencing multiple traits When selecting for one trait such as marbling we face the problem that it will not only select for marbling but could also inadvertently select for undesirable qualities such as decreased fertility The commercialization of these markers may lead to over selection ofa trait that is also connected to a detrimental trait This could leave the industry affected for an extended period of time because it can take many generations to correct the damage of overselection Using Marker Assisted Selection is still in its very early stages of development but may be able to lead us into a future of highly profitable good quality meat production with increased yield increased quality of marbling and more fertile animals However it is unlikely to be reliable enough or cost effective to be utilized by smaller livestock operations in the near future The most effective way for these producers to improve their stock will likely remain with the use of EPDs Marbling is an important aspect to the meat industry It is a principal quality in meat grading and is not only affected by the specific breeds of animals but also by factors such as genetics management and the animal s diet Several procedures can be used to improve carcass traits and marbling including genome selection Single Nucleotide Polymorphism SNP Marker Assisted Selection However using EPDs is still the most effective procedure for producers It is crucial in today s valuebased markets to understand not only how marbling and quality ofmeat can be amplified in an animal without having negative effects but also understanding the preference of the buyer in order to benefit both the consumer and producer The understanding ofhow to produce a quality carcass with minimal cost minimal time while maximizing yield and marbling will continue to be the survival strategy of meat producers making the meat industry necessary As long as we continue to produce more children it will be necessary to continue achieving a better understanding of meat quality and production vital to our own survival Works Cited Albrecht E F Teuscher K Ender and I Wegner quotGrowth and Breed Related Changes of Marbling Characteristics in Cattle Journal of Animal Science 2006 Research Institute for the Biology of Farm Animals 27 Nov 2010 httpwwwanimal scienceorgcgicontentfull8451067 Blumer TN and KP Fleming quotA Method for the Quantitative Estimation of Marbling in the Beef Ribeye Iournal ofAnimal Science 1959 North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station Raleigh 27 Nov 2010 httpjasfassorgcgireprint183959pdf Boggs Donald L Robert A Merkel Matthew E Doumit Livestock and Carcasses Fifth Edition KendallHunt 1979 27 Nov 2010 quotBreeds ofBeef Cattle Instructional Materials Service 2001 Texas AampM University 27 Nov 2010 http imsonlinetamueduCoursesSamples102AppliedSciandTechAppliedSciTe chDocs8393STpdf quotDr Matthew Garcia Associate Proffesor Department of Animal Science Louisiana State Universityquot Personal interview 9 Nov 2010 Farmers Weekly 14327 2005 40 EBSCO Host Web Knipe Richard Brent Titus Daniel Jennings Ken Iohnson Gina Backes quotSourcing High Quality Beef The Retailers Guide Initiative for the Development of Entrepreneurs in Agriculture University of Illinois 27 Nov 2010 http webextensionillinoiseduiideaPDFbeeffactsheetpdf Perry A K G A Rohrer 1 H011 S D Shackelford T L Wheeler M Koohmaraie and D Nonneman quotRelationships among Calpastatin Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Calpastatin Expression and Tenderness in Pork Longissimusquot Animal Genetics 405 2009 71321 EBSCO Host Web 20 Nov 2010 Schenkel F S S P Miller Z Iiang I B Mandell X Ye H Li and I W Wilton quotAssociation of a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in the Calpastatin Gene with Carcass and Meat Quality Traits ofBeef Cattlequot Iournal ofAnimal Science 842 2 006 299 ESCO Host Web 20 Nov 2010 Suther Steve quotStaking Management Traits for Marblingquot ANGUS Journal 2001 116118 Web 26 Nov 2010 lthttpwwwcabpartnerscomnewsresearchduckettsummarypdfgt Wagner Wayne and Phillip Osborne quotQuality and Yield Grades in Cattlequot West Virginia University Extension Service West Virginia University Dec 1997 Web 26 Nov 2010 lthttpwwwwvueduageXtenpubnwsltrTRIMlO2022


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