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by: Kameron Skiles


Kameron Skiles
GPA 3.8

M. Schafer

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M. Schafer
Class Notes
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This 37 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kameron Skiles on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOCL 2501 at Louisiana State University taught by M. Schafer in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see /class/222548/socl-2501-louisiana-state-university in Sociology at Louisiana State University.

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Date Created: 10/13/15
Chapter Twelve Alcohol and Drug Abuse Exam 2 and Other Exam 2 MidTermGrades u Moodle V Posted Grades Participation Next Four Weeks Part IV Our Social and Physical Worlds 1 This Week Chapter 12 Drug and Alcohol Abuse 1 Next Week Chapter 13 Crime and Criminal Justice 1 Following 2 Weeks Chapter 14 Cities and Suburbs Video and Exam 3 Thursday before Spring Break I I recommend reading the Chapters before class I The War on Drugs Symbolic of the United States s punitive stance toward illegal drug use a A war with no rules no boundaries no end has been waged for 40 years Since 1980s aggressive law enforcement strategies and criminal justice policies have been adopted a Federal offenders must serve at least 87 of their sentence a Mandatory minimums based on type and quantity of drugs Tougher sentencing has failed to decrease availability of drugs or drug use HT E ZEEEZI made in 2008 Bureau of Justice Statistics 2009 Past Month Illicit Drug Use Among Persons Aged 12 or Older by Age2007 25 HI Im C23 Perm aga Using in Past Inth 01 l D I 39i g ggg gg K9 Sociological perspectives on drug abuse Biological and psychological theories say the causes of alcohol or drug abuse are within the individual 1 Abuse is genetic or inherited a If this is true then there is little a person can do to escape their abuse Sociologists study the social and structural determinants of drug abuse 1 Opportunity Structure 1 Factors affecting predisposition to drug abuse Best seen as complementary not competing i Functionaljst Perspective Argue that society provides us with norms or guidelines on alcohol and drug use I A set of social norms identify the appropriate use of drugs and alcohol a Prescription drugs have medical function 1 Alcohol in moderation for celebration health benefits Society also provides norms regarding the excessive use of drugs a College students share perception that excessive college drinking is a cultural norm Functionalists use Durkheim s theory of anomie to explain drug abuse 1 Lacking norms to control behavior people pursue self destructive behaviors like alcohol abuse 1 When people are in situations where they feel isolated and unsure what is expected of them they may experience high levels of stress which may lead to deviant behaviors including drug abuse Society can be the source of role strainwhen individuals lack sufficient resources to deal with demanding social situations or circumstances i Con ict Perspective Conflict theorists argue that strategic decisions have determined which drugs are illegal and which are not Powerful political and business interest groups manipulate images of drugs a Heroin opium and marijuana were legal in the late 18th and early 19th centuries but public opinion and law changed when their use was linked to ethnic minorities and crime 1 Images promote poor as undeserving I Feminist Perspective Feminist perspective experiences unique to women minority ethnic groups gay and lesbian populations and other marginalized groups were ignored until the 19703 There has been increasing recognition of gender specific and gendersensitive treatment models 1 Example separate women s treatment programs a The 12 Steps for Women Alcoholics Given What you ve learned about gender and family how might the causes consequences and treatment needs of males and females differ I Interactionist Perspective lnteractionists argue that drug abuse is W from others a Theory of differential association explains how we learn specific behaviors and norms from the groups we have contact with a Becker studied how marijuana smokers learn to rationalize their smoking behavior This perspective also addresses how individuals or groups are labeled abusers and how society responds to them Summary of Sociological Perspectives Drug Abuse Summary of Sociological Perspectives Drug Abuse Emotional Doll39l ietflv39eminist Ironmolionisl Explalalion ol39 DnJg abuse is liker to drug abuse mcur when society is unable to control or rgulate our behavior Powerful groups decide which drugs are illegal Certain social groups are singled out for their dnJg abuse There has Men a lack of sensitivity to the range of dmg abuse experiences Drug abuse is learned through interaction with others The perspective also focuses on society s reaction to dnJg abuse noting that certain individuals are more likely to be labeled as drug users the n others arsenics asked about drug or encourage drug abuse abuse Are some groups or individuals more vulnerable to drug abuse than others What rules exist to control What groups are able to enforce their de nitions of the legality or illegality of drug use How are they able to enforce their de n iljona How are the experiences of women and minority dmg users different from those of White males How is drug abuse learned through interaction How are dnJg users labeled by society Why are specific groups ta raeted I What is drug abuse Drug abuse the use of any drug or medication for a reason other than which it was intended or in a manner other than directed which can lead to clinically significant impairment or distress Drug addiction physical andor psychological dependence on a drug or medication I Alcohol Alcohol is the most abused drug in the United States 4 symptoms or alcoholism 1 Craving 2 Loss of control 3 Physical dependence 4 Tolerance Alcohol use is related to a wide range of adverse health and social consequences both acute traffic deaths or other injuries and chronic stroke alcohol dependence liver damage The Role of Individual Cultural and Structural Factors in Minority Group Drinking Patterns Groups have different sets of norms and values regulating drinking Alcoholism among ethnic minorities can be attributed to three different sources of stress a Acculturative stress comes from leaving their homeland and adapting to a new country a Socioeconomic stress comes from feeling disempowered because of social and economic inequalities in US society a Minority stress tension that minorities encounter because of racism Factors That Put Women at Risk Risk for drinking increases with a the experience of negative affective states Depression or loneliness Negative life events such as physical or sexual abuse Women s risk is decreased by a women are socialized to abstain from alcohol use or to drink less than men 1 Women not participating in the labor force may have less access to alcohol than men do a women s roles as wife and mother may also discourage alcohol intake Youth and Alcohol People who begin drinking before age 15 are 4 times more likely to develop alcohol dependence than people who begin at 20 or older Adolescents who use alcohol are at higher risk for social medical and legal problems The rate of fatal crashes among alcohol involved drivers aged 16 to 20 is more than twice the rate for alcohol involved drivers age 21 or older Underage alcohol use is more likely to kill young people than all illegal drugs combined I Tobacco and Nicotine Tobacco is the world s number one drug problem killing more people than all other drugs combined According to the World Health Organization by 2010 10 million people per year worldwide will die of diseases caused by cigarette smoking I Cigarette smoking is the most prevalent form of nicotine addiction the most frequently used addictive drug in the United States 71 million Americans reported use of tobacco products in 2007 i Adolescent Smoking Compared to nonsmokers adolescent smokers 1 Have more stressful environments 1 More academic problems a Poorer coping skills ls associated with a Disruptive home environment a Parental and peer smoking a Low social support from family and friends 1 Conflict with parents a Stressful life events Marijuana The most commonly used illicit drug I 245 percent of the world s population consume Marijuana A favorite drug among youth and adolescents The major active chemical in marijuana is THC also the main ingredient in medications used to treat nausea in chemotherapy patients and stimulate appetite in AIDS patients I Can impair shortterm memory judgment and other cognitive functions l Methamphetamine A highly addictive central nervous system stimulant that can be injected snorted smoked or ingested orally The most prevalent synthetic drug manufactured in the US Approximately 5 percent Americans ages 12 or older reported methamphetamine use at least once during their lifetimes Chronic use can cause violent behavior anxiety confusion and insomnia psychotic delusions Long term use of the drug can lead to brain damage similar to damage associated with Alzheimer s dJseases1LQseoLepJJepsL I Cocaine A strong central nervous stimulant and can be snorted smoked or injected Adults 18 to 25 years old have a higher rate of use than any other age group n 24 million Americans were current cocaine users in 2005 Cocaine initiation is more likely to occur among adults rather than youths under 18 Complications include cardiovascular disease respiratory effects neurological effects and gastrointestinal complications The Problems of Drug Abuse Crime and Violence In 2005 more than two thirds ofjail inmates were found to be dependent on or to abuse alcohol or drugs Half of all convicted jail inmates were under the influence of drugs or alcohol at the time of their offence Alcohol has been associated with u intimate partner violence a a cause and a consequence of child abuse Drug Use at the Workplace Drug abuse cost American businesses 81 billion in lost productivity 37 billion due to premature death and 44 billion due to illness Alcohol abuse contributed to about 86 of the costs Problem drinking or drug use at work has been anedto The quality and organization of work Drinking subcultures at work The safety of the workplace Repetitive tasks dangerous working conditions U DUDE Problem Drinking among Teens and Young Adults National Survey on Drug Use and Health reported that the highest prevalence of binge drinking was for young adults ages 18 to 25 459 Binge drinking among college students has been called a major US public health concern Attempts to explain the behavior through various sociological perspectives have been limited 1 Theories identify drinking as part of the social learning process addressing the role of peer groups students attitudes and perceptions as well as the social construction of drinking norms Current Binge and Heavy Alcohol Use Among Persons Aged 12 or Older by Age 2007 SU 70 Percanlzaga quotaim in Past Mom m m U1 m D D D D C H O I fabca quq 9 x xxx m 1 426339 4 V 9 55 3939 a we 09 56 n9 quot 9 342 an 3 Milka I Current Use Not Binge I Binge Use Nat Heavy I HeavyAlcuhulUsel Policy and Social Action Federal Programs Three US offices the NIDA the NIDA and the ONDCP a National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism NIAAA established in 1970 to address alcohol as public health concern a National Institute on Drug Abuse NIDA established in 1974 for research treatment prevention training services and data collection on the nature and extent of drug abuse a Office of National Drug Control Policy ONDCP established in 1988 to set national priorities comprehensive research based strategies and certify federal drug control budgets Drug Legalization Extensive use of illegal drugs continues despite these Federal efforts Other efforts Decriminalization keeping criminal penalties but reducing their severity or removing some kinds of behavior from inclusion under the law eg eliminating bans on the use of drug paraphernalia Legalization suggests removing drugs from the control of the law entirely Supporters of legalization argue a Current laws amp enforcement initiatives failed a Arrest amp incarceration doesn t alleviate the drug problem a Drug crimes are actually victimless crimes 1 Legalization will reduce crime amp violence amp improve the quality of life in inner cities 1 Heath risks can be diminished by providing clean and highquality substances 1 Banning drugs is a violation of civil liberties Drug legalization is generally opposed by the medical and public health community who argues that a Most research shows drugs are harmful to an individual s health a Drug use is a significant factor in the spread of sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV 1 Drug users are more likely to engage in risky behaviors and in criminal activity a We would see increases in drug use and addiction drugrelated crimes and costs related to drug treatment and criminal justice Harm Reduction Approach 1 Suggests that managing drug misuse is more appropriate than attempting to stop it all together Inciardi 19993 a Emphasizes Treatment rehabilitation and education Changes in drug policies HIVAlDSrelated interventions Broader drug treatment options Counseling and clinical case management for those who want to continue using drugs Ancillary interventions housing healing centers advocacy groups Punishment or Treatment Conflict and symbolic interaction theories suggest drug laws are not enforced equally El Most illicit drug users are White but Blacks constitute about 8090 of all people imprisoned on drug charges Drug enforcement usually targets urban and poor neighborhoods Society treats middle or upperclass drug use as a personal crisis and lowerclass drug use as criminal Tougher drug laws placed the drug war into the hands of law enforcement and courts While federal policy seems unlikely to change in the near future several states are reexamining the way they deal with drug offenders How might drug policy differ from What it is now if it were designed by sociological theorists Do you think the public would resist certain types of changes to drug policy I What existing norms would make it difficult to convince the public to change drug policy I What existing norms might make the public receptive to change Drug Treatment and Prevention Programs Individual approaches Programs focus on treating the individual and hisher addiction 1 Behavioral treatment counseling support groups family therapy or psychotherapy o Medication therapy maintenance treatment for heroin addicts may be used to suppress drug withdrawal symptoms and craving Workplace Strategies Drug Free Workplace Programs Drug testing programs Con ict theories suggest drug testing promotes political agendas and reflects the manipulation of interest groups that market and sell drug testing and security services Campus Programs 3 prevention models produced the most favorable outcomes in binge drinking prevention efforts a Student participation and involvement such as volunteer services advisory boards or task forces to discourage alcohol or other drug AOD use or abuse 1 Educational and informational processes such as AOD instruction in classes bulletin boards and displays and resource centers 1 Efforts directed at the larger structural environment changing the campus regulatory environment and developing AOD free alternative programming Which model do we use on this campus a How do students respond to this model 1 Which elements of other models do you think might be effective here a As a sociologist do you have other suggestions for how campuses might think about reducing abuse 1 What characteristics of a campus typical student age race social class should we think about as we design a program Community Approaches Drug Free Communities Act 1997 The program supports coalitions that rely on mentoring parental involvement community education and school based programs for drug prevention and intervention Community AntiDrug Coalitions of America nonprofit organizations that provide technical assistance and training to communitybased coalitions


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