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by: Kameron Skiles


Kameron Skiles
GPA 3.8

E. Shihadeh

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E. Shihadeh
Class Notes
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This 47 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kameron Skiles on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOCL 4461 at Louisiana State University taught by E. Shihadeh in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see /class/222549/socl-4461-louisiana-state-university in Sociology at Louisiana State University.

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Date Created: 10/13/15
Test questions on the FINAL Everything highlighted in blue was definitely a question on the final Be prepared for a tricky test everything you think is gonna be on there isn t and everything you wouldn39t think is on the final is Two sources of crime data 0 Uniform Crime Reports UCR o separated into two categories I Partl Index Crimes 0 Violent Crimes murder rape robbery aggravated assault 0 Property Crimes burglary larceny theft motor vehicle theft arson I Part II Crimes o All non index crimes drug violations DUI simple assault disorderly conduct liquor law violations public drunkenness etc National Incident Based Reporting System NIBRS o the new direction the FBI is going in changing to this from UCR o the main benefit is that it contains much more information than the UCR main difference between the two 0 the I m 22 39 file it gives a summary ofthe total number of crimes committed o the NIBRS is incident based it is a list of every incident and all the particulars for that specific crime The number of arrests divided by the number of crimes then multiplied by 100 Violent crimes have a higher clearance rate 0 Murder has highest clearance rate 62 o Aggravated assault has second highest 55 because the perpetrator can usually be identified 0 Problems with the accuracy of official statistics 0 only uses reported crimes 0 violent crimes are more likely to be reported exception is rape 0 property crimes are more likely to be reported ifthe value of the property is high motor vehicle theft 0 the relationship between the victim and the offender affects the reporting rate I crimes committed by a stranger are more likely to be reported While official statistics give us a bottom line number it is too low and is not accurate there are more crimes committed than what official statistics actually reflect Other data source alternatives 0 National Crime Victimization Survey NCVS O 2 12 years old and older 0 Asks participants what crimes they have been a victim of in the last 12 years 0 Only asks about index crimes with the exception of murder bc the victim would be dead 0 Major advantage I Can find out about crimes that have not been reported to the police 0 Disadvantages I Overreporting people report something as a crime that is not really a crime 0 Example drug use I Underreporting not reporting certain crimes at all 0 Example rape I Faulty memory 12 months is a long time and people have a hard time remembering what and when something happened I Surveying households misses out on the homeless they are not surveyed at all 0 The big difference between this and UCR is with rapes because so many rapes go unreported on the UCR o The official statistics UCR and NIBRS and the NCVS all agree on who is most likely to be the victim and offender I Unemployed poor young male black single and living in urban areas are more likely to be BOTH the victim and the offender Crime Trends how crime has been changing I Change in the population 0 Baby boomers were coming of age 0 The age most likely to commit a crime is 15 21 years old I Civil unrest lots of protesting going on 0 Civil rights 0 Vietnam War I New drug laws I New crimes coming out Changes in society also cause an increasedecrease in crime rates o It is NOT just that there are more or less criminals bc of population 0 The types of crimes also contribute to a fluctuation in crime rates 0 Example before debitcredit cards and ATM machines pick pocketing was high because everyone carried cash now we are more of a credit society and people rarely carry cash pick pocketing rates have dropped but credit card fraud rates have increased Victimization why are some people more likely to be victims than others 0 14 of households experience 1 crime per year 0 64 of women are victimized by someone they know 43 of men know the perpetrator o 90 of college females who are raped know the person who raped them Homicide by gender 0 Men more likely to commit crimes than women The higher the poverty and unemployment the higher the crime rate Blacks have highest homicide rate What makes people view one crime as more serious than another 0 Violence or value 0 More serious when the crime is extremely violent or the property loss is high 0 Property crimes against business government or public establishments are considered leiserious than crimes against households 0 The perceived vulnerability ofthe victim 0 Age I Crimes against children and the elderly are considered more serious 0 The relationship between the victim and the offender o where there is a relationship between the victim and the offender Trends in crime 0 Evens out 1975 to early 1990 s 0 Sharp decline early 1990 s 0 Has stayed about the same from then until now Why was there such a big increase in crime from 1960 to 1975 0 Baby boomers 0 Age curve of crime highest crime rate is 15 24 year olds 0 Because of the changing characteristics of society different bonds 0 Before industrialization the family was a unit of economic production they created most of what they consumed When someone reached the age of 19 20 they did not leave the family their lives did not change very much Industrialization moved economic production out of the household and moved it to factoriescities I After that when someone reached 18 they had to move out of the house in order to be economically productive 0 At 18 people are pulled away from the bonds of childhood o In non industrialized societies they are not required to do this I Keep same family friends etc I Everyone stays together children stay with parents even when they get married and have children oftheir own 0 0 Race in crime 0 High crime in black communities 0 They are highest for victims and offenders Proportionality Question 0 The proportion ofthe population that is black is 12 but the proportion of black people being arrested for murder is 60 Claude Brown 0 Wrote an article describing black inner cities Harlem specifically o ManChild in Harlem I Manchild is an adolescent young male between the ages of 7 13 0 He compared the Harlem when he was a child to the Harlem of the late 80 s during the crackcocaine epidemic Harlem used to be considered a quotpromised land for blacks 0 Brown was second generation ghetto 0 His parents were from the ghetto and he grew up there 0 Lived in the projects 0 He said when comparing the two generations the man child was a paradox 0 Now he is more intelligent sophisticated and has a more nuanced view of life but at the same time he is far more violent and far more likely to commit murder 0 Changes at the individual level 0 Name brand madness now has a obsession with materialism but has a way lower economic ability to get those items 0 Changes at the communitysociety level 0 Increase in conspicuous consumption lam better than you because look what lam wearing mentality o Businesses all left and some were replaced by businesses that foster drug activity Business owners also left 0 Loss of the arts I Apollo Theatre I Minton s I Black Muslim organization also left 0 Their message was get a job and support your family 0 quotFagin squot are gone I Oliver twist analogy I He was the good bad guy criminals who controlled society but had rules 0 Replaced with the quotSikesquot I The quotbadquot bad guy I Violence was glorified I Going to jail was glorified o Seen as a rite of passage for youngsters rather than something shameful 0 Big dramatic differences over a 20 30 years period 0 Three perspectives that look at the cause of decline in the inner cities lst Perspective William Julius Wilson 0 Relates the current situation to the history of blackwhite relations There are three stages of blackwhite relations and each stage is characterized by two things 0 System of production the economy and how it is set up refers to the distribution of wealth o The political arrangement at the time refers to distribution of power 1St stage Plantation Economy and Racial Class Oppression o Antebellum before the civil war 0 Before industrialization o A small group of white elite s owned system of production 0 Split racial labor market spit along racial lines I Blacks were either a very cheap labor pool or slaves 0 Race relations were paternalistic whites were dominant blacks were subservient 0 Not much physical distance between the two races but enormous social distances even in the non slaveholding states 0 There was a quotclearly symbolized rituals of racial etiquette quote by Wilson 0 There was not a lot of racial conflict the system was brutal but stable I Characterized by oppression but not conflict 2quotd stage Industrial Expansion and Race Conflict o Industrialization creates jobs but scrambles the labor market 0 The small group of white elite begins to lose power 0 Now white labor and black labor are thrown into competition for jobs 0 White labor organizes and becomes powerful I More numerous than black labor I Have more money I Have more political influence 0 Used their influence to keep the best skilled and unskilled jobs for themselves 0 This period peaked in 1890 s with the rise ofthe Jim Crowe laws to restrict blacks o This stage was characterized by conflict and racial antagonism 3rd stage Progressive Transition from Racial Inequality to Class Inequality 0 1960 s 0 Two things happened that changed the lives of blacks 1 The civil rights movement I Was an effort to get rid of the legal barriers that were put up in stage 2 2 The public sector ofthe economy grew to be the largest part ofthe economy I Services and programs for the public 0 Welfare 0 Flood insurance 0 Police o USDA 0 Military I Created jobs in the public sector which spilled out into the private sector I Also created the quotwar on poverty 0 When these jobs were created many blacks took these jobs and moved out into the suburbs Unskilled poverty stricken blacks were left behind in the inner cities They also lost business owners people who were an example of what you had to do in order to succeed o Highconcentration of poverty led to high crime and social isolation I Everyone in the inner cities was poor no education no jobs etc so when kids grow up that is all they know leads to social isolation I socially disconnected from the rest of society I economic implications 0 nobody to teach them how to get a job 0 very few contacts that are of any use in the job world 0 low end jobs are the most unstable first to be lost in even a minor recession I cultural implications OO 0 when two cultures are isolated from one another they become different divergent isolation o culturally speaking inner city blacksghetto communities are growing apart from everyone else I politicalimplications o ghetto areas become weak in terms of political influence and can end up having no influence at all 0 become vulnerable to all sorts of changes that can affect them negatively 0 black representatives for these areas do not have anyone to build coalitions with that would help them protect their interests Wilson described the people left behind as the underclass 0 His first book was The Declining Significance of Race 0 He called it this because he believes it is more about a class distinction now than race 0 Middle class blacks have more in common with middle class whites than the blacks in the ghetto because they got out and moved to the suburbs 2quotd Perspective Doug Massey o Believes racial segregation leads to social isolation o Argues it is about race only C Says it all boils down to residential segregation O 0 Book The tendency for blacks and whites to live in separate areas American Apartheid o Racial segregation is prompted by several things 0 O O Whites do not really like the idea of black neighbors Residential steering real estate agents send white customers to white areas and black customers to black areas White flight when blacks begin to move into a neighborhood the whites begin to move out when the blacks number approx 5 7 ofthe neighborhood Black neighborhoods are usually 90 100 black I Other ethnic neighborhoods are usually about 40 50 of that particular group 0 China town 0 Segregation also causes a concentration of poverty 0 The cities resources go wherever the whites go 3rd Perspective Jack Kasarda o Believes that geographic mobility equals social mobility 0 19th century people had to live close to their place of work and when the city grew it just grew another workresidence enclave 0 After technological advances in the transportation industry people were no longer required to live where they worked 0 Population deconcentration people left the center of the city and moved outward o it was selective not everyone was doing it o the more money you had the further out you moved 0 those with no money stayed in the center of the cities I low skilled low paying jobs were in the inner city and so were the people with little to no skills 0 The American Dream a dynamic process where low skilled jobs were fueling upward mobility 0 People took low paying jobs and as you made more money you moved outward 0 Industrial drift 0 Low skilled jobs were mainly manufacturing jobs they process quotstuffquot o In order to do this they need a lot of space 0 Industries began to move out into the suburbs 0 High skill industries like law medical and government offices moved to the center of the cities where they could have easy access to all parts of the city quotcommand and control hub o This created a spatial mismatch the low skilled population was in the inner city but the low skilled jobs were in the suburbs 0 Even worse the low skilled jobs went overseas and are now disappearing altogether o Kasada says if you want to subsidize something don t subsidize housing because section 8 housing just forced people to stay in one place C Says to subsidize a job search instead Overview on why there was a decline in black inner cities 0 Wilson 0 Isolation the underclass is so low that they are completely disengaged o Massey o Segregation black people are kept out of white areas 0 Kasada o Mobility let people move around so that they can move up 0 Knowledge is power 0 When we have more strong ties the information we get is redundant because everyone knows each other 0 The information we get from we ties is mostly new information o The networks in ghettos have more strong ties o This is social isolation from a network standpoint C Says there is segregation even among black middle class in the suburbs ETHNICITY IN CRIME Mostly refers to Latinos and crime and Latino immigration and crime Latinos are the largest minority in the United States 0 15 of the population blacks are 12 o In California they are the majority o By the year 2040 1 out of 4 people will be Latino 50 of the population increase in the United States is due to Latinos o This change is due to fertility not immigration History of Mexican migration to the United States Three things influence the decision to immigrate o The Push factors things that are pushing people to do it 0 Economy 0 Political situation 0 War 0 Pull factors from the new destination 0 Better economy 0 Individual factors 0 Personal reasons Latino immigrants also went to these new destinations for other reasons 0 Construction boom 0 Industrial growth 0 The economy in California was horrible but in many other parts ofthe country it was booming 0 Proposition 187 a very strict policy on undocumented immigrants in California As this economic boom was going on 1992 2000 and Latinos were pouring in there was a drop in crime rates 0 Usually a spike in crime rates is seen when there is an influx of immigrants 0 There was also a low crime rate in areas that were primarily Latino 0 There was a lot of speculation that the lower crime rate was BECAUSE of the Latinos Actually the drop would have happened anyway with or without the Latinos Racial contribution to the drop Whites 75 of population 26 of drop Latinos 125 of population 137 of drop Blacks 12 of population 60 of drop So really there was a drop in crime within the black community New destinations versus old destinations o Homicide Victimization rate who is being murdered per 100000 0 Black 135 0 White 5 o Latino all 7 o Latino trad Destination 6 o Latino new destinations 95 o It is about where they live not who they are 0 There is also a high rate of poverty in new destinations 0 Traditional destinations have more isolation against it Linguistic Isolation and Homicide Rate 0 The homicide rate is lower where people around you speak the same language old destinations because the immigrants do not know English 0 In old destinations you can get along without knowing English Structure of business in a community 0 A lot of small businesses help the community because they have a stake in the community 0 Not much local displacement 0 Big box corporations answer to shareholders not local communities 0 They only think about the bottom line not possible harm to a community 0 Have a higher lowest wage 0 Much more likely to have labor force change from white to Latinos with big box corporations I Much more displacement Test 2 Notes Robbery the taking or attempting to take something of value by force or threat offorce andor by putting the victim in fear burglary is a property crime that requires no personal force Example a carjacking is better described as a robbery rather than auto theft The sentences are very high for robbery decades not years Answer is that the amount of money is high o It is interpersonalface to face 0 Weapons are sometimes involved Intimidationthreats Possible death Usually done by a stranger Unexpected 0 Theft Armed robbery Involves a weapon 59 of all robberies are armed robbery Less injury because the perpetrators are usually older more experienced and more cautious about using violence Strongarm robbery No weapon is involved 41 of all robberies Injury is more likely because people are more likely to resist and the perpetrator is usually young and less experienced Data for ALL robb eries In 2 of all robberies the injury is more serious and requires a stay of 12 day or more after admitted There are 15 deaths for every 1000 robberies 3 for every 2000 robberies Summary of data the likelihood of any kind of injury is high but the likelihood of serious injury or death is relatively low clearance rate the of offenses that are cleared by arrest 25 of robberies The average dollar amount lost in a robbery is 1321 This figure is high because bank robberies are included Average lost in a bank robbery is 4200 Average taken in a mugging is probably 20 30 Robbery is the prototypical high risklow yield type of crime DemographicsProfile of the offender Age 15 24 0 Usually under 20 15 19 0 Peak age is 17 90 are male DemographicsProfile of the victim Age 15 24 Men more likely Poor Why is this the profile Rationally you would think that a better choice of victim would be an older female who is affluent Lifestyle adaptations and the structure of a situation 0 People ofthose demographics are more likely to put themselves in situations where robbery is more likely to occur 0 Robbery is a predatory crime The offenders territory is usually poor and since the victims are usually from that territory as well they are also poor Dynamics of robbery proscons PROS 0 Robbery in general requires very little planning I It is a very simple crime I An uncomplicated way of obtaining money 0 Usually it is cash that is stolen not property that has to be converted to money o It is exciting thrilling and risky I Creates a pleasantly fearful rush o The offender can feel good about making money I It is a money making enterprise o It is a status enhancing mechanism I A way to become somebody in front of someone else whose approval you are seeking o It satisfies a need among some people who have a need to exert power and engage in violence CONS 0 High probability of arrest 0 Since participating in a robbery is not usually a one time thing the collective rate of success is very low the sequential probability of success 0 Fear offear 0 Fear can become so unpleasant and debilitating that it affects their performance 0 Fear ofthe victim 0 May have a weapon yell etc How do they manage their fear oftheir victims In their choice of partners 0 Look for partners that can help look tough are quick are solid won t rat you out etc In their selection of victims 0 Their selection has to balance two competing things they want a victim that is a good payoff but also a victim that is likely to resist Selection of victims The range of potential victims is narrowed by 0 The fact that as a predatory crime they work their own area so their victims are from that area as well 0 A set of predispositions that robbers have about who the most appropriate victims are I Some don t want victims that are too easy or vulnerable 0 Not seen as a challenge I Acceptable victims include 0 Young affluent people that are not in their domain 0 They are rich they can replace what I am stealing o Homosexuals o Reflects a disapproval of their lifestyle 0 Drunk people 0 While they are an easy target the general consensus among perpetrators is that if you are stupid enough to put yourself in that position you deserve to be robbed The professional robber The smallest group of robbers Most elite Enjoys a position of prestige in the underworld and upperworld Main identity is that of a robber I This is what they do 0 Exercises a lot of planning The opportunist robber 0 Most common and largest category of robber o Is the next step down in professionalism OOOO o Gravitates toward the easy target I Takes advantage of what comes up 0 Does not specialize in robbery 0 Has a long history in a variety of crime and deviance 0 Does not take a lot of planning The addict robber 0 Has a substance abuse problem and they rob to service that need 0 Reluctant to rob I Won t do it if they don t have to but will if they do I Even less planning The alcoholic robber o The lowest quality of robber They will typically assault their victim Will rob while intoxicated Robbery is like an afterthought to them 000 Robbery as a whole is considered to be a very primitive crime Requires very little specialized behavior More like an extension of everyday behavior quotcave man crimes Robberies are usually committed by people who are young too inept and too stupid to do anything else 90 of robbers are men because robbery is identified with males Females commit less crime because crime does not fit the female identity The two crimes committed most by women are 0 Prostitution 0 Larceny theft shoplifting Women are the social sentinals they make sure the rules are followed Robert Merton Focuses on the importance of stratification in explaining crime in the US 0 Has three definitions I The uneven distribution of the material conditions for existence and the means by which they are produced I The uneven distribution in the currency of exchange 0 Money grain livestock etc I Inequality of wealth Ideology of egalitarianism The US is highly stratified and yet we have a strong national ethic that we are all supposed to be equal or at least have equal access to wealth o In the United States the idea of success is very strongly emphasized This very strong ethic of egalitarianism coupled with a very strong stratified society creates a conflict The means you need to be successful are the M you need to be successful 0 Intelligence 0 Capital money 0 Contactsnetworks 0 Education The means to be successful are not evenly distributednot available to everyone 0 Means deficiency we push everyone to succeed but not everyone has access to the tools they need to succeed I It is more open for some groups than others This means deficiency creates a strain in the system Miami 2 When the success goals become impeded by a means deficiency it causes a strain and W am it w W v in ting the rules becomes w By explaining these differences his theory becomes very structural Structure 0 our society has structure 0 we have free will and individual choice but we are also contained by structure Merton uses structure to explain the group differences in crime 0 Urban areas have higher crime rates than urban areas I Success goals in the city there is a greater drive for success I Means deficiency in the city there are extremes of wealth I Strain these extreme differences cause a strain because everyone is driven to succeed but not everyone has the tools they need to do so 0 Men have higher crime rates than women I Men experience more pressure to succeed I Men are described by their occupation their job is their social identity Questions to help understand Merton s theory What is Merton s aim His objective 0 He wants to learn about group differences in criminal behavior why some groups experience more pressure to deviate than others What are the two structural conditions that are crime producingthat must be present 0 Strongly emphasized successful and a means deficiency I Both need to be present in order to have a high crime rate What is anomie o A questioning of the normsrules o A weakened attachment or allegiance to the rulesnorms What is the difference between relative deprivation and absolute deprivation o The term relative deprivation comes from a study done by Stouffer called The American Soldier I He studied what accounts for high or low moral by looking at northern black soldiers and southern black soldiers I He found that in objective terms the northern black soldiers were doing better than southern black soldiers 0 They were promoted more made more money experienced less deprivation etc I Yet it was the southern black soldiers that were happier in the military 0 This research led Stouffer to an important finding I One s happinessmoralsense of satisfaction depends on a standard of comparison depends on to whom you are comparing yourselfto I Northern black soldiers better amenities were comparing themselves to white soldiers and to other blacks back home in the north 0 Even though they were doing better than southern black soldiers they were still not doing better than white soldiers 0 They also did not feel like they were doing better than other blacks back home where industrialization had created huge opportunities for blacks in the north 0 This caused them to feel a sense of relative deprivation I Southern black soldiers happier ones were comparing themselves to other blacks back home in the south 0 Compared to them they were doing very well touffer coined the term I feelings of deprivation are not based on absolute terms everyone who makes less than 50 K a year is deprived I it is based on subjective determination based on how you relatecompare to others 0 can be used in many real world applications I India 0 Serious poverty 0 Lots of absolute deprivation but low crime rates 0 Has a caste system that you are born into which does not change throughout your life 0 This causes a low relative deprivation because people are only comparing themselves to others in their claste I Race riotscivil rights movement in the 1960 s 0 Blacks compared themselves to whites both were supposed to be equal 0 The civil rights movement caused lower absolute deprivation for blacks but higher relative deprivation I Eastwest Germany After the fall of the Berlin wall East Germany had lower absolute deprivation because their economy improved But higher relative deprivation because they could then see how West Germany s standard of living was so much better than theirs East Germany s crime rates started to rise because people felt deprived 0 Property crimes increased Anomie is a shared problem What do we mean by that 0 You can experience anomie personally but feelings of anomie and relative deprivation become much stronger when you experience them with others are feeling the same way 0 Reinforces each other s world views of being screwed o Fraternal deprivation feeing a sense of anomie and relative deprivation even though you are doing well but others in your group are not doing well What is the historical side to anomie and relative deprivation o What are the long term effects when a group experiences anomie and relative deprivation together I The group begins to undergo a subcultural adaptation they begin to substitute old norms and values for new ones Reject some old ones and get some new ones 0 May change some successful I Delinquent Boys Study by Cohen Wants to examine how the lower class youth react and adapt to the middle class measuring rod as seen in the school system what it takes to be considered a good student Finds that lower class youths are ill prepared to meet the criteria of the middle class measuring rod Their solution was to come up with their own measuring rod of success 0 Being a good fighter lady s man street hustler etc o The problem is that those skills are useless for success in middle class adulthood Social disability when the cultural adaptations increase the odds that you will fail later 0 the long term affect of anomie and relative deprivation o anomie and relative deprivation short circuit the entire system makes them re define the system and sometimes those new definitions lead to crime What is the remedy according to Merton s Theory 0 What kind of policies would we implement I Change successful De emphasize material successful emphasize building something as a way to measure success Theory of Differential Association Sutherland Agrees with Merton but says that crime is not always the result just because you feel a sense of anomie and relative deprivation 0 See chart between anomie and crime Two things are learned Sutherland and Cressesee article 0 An attitude and 39 I We learn things associated with crime through our interactions with others 0 The p H and techniques to commit crime Some are favorable to crime and some are not 0 0 We get messages all day about crime 0 If you get an excess of crime favorable messages then crime is more probable I It is a rational choice I Groups are differentially organized and this is how crime is transmitted from one group to the next or one generation to the next This theory is about the cultural transmission of crime Points 0 Not all sources of learning are equal in terms of their impact on crime I Primary group family friends and other with whom you are closely associated 0 Messages from this group are the most important I Secondary agencies of communication 0 Television music internet newspapers etc Why are primary groups more important than secondary agencies of communication 0 Primary groups can reward or punish you for certain activities I Rewardpunishment is reinforcement because it modifies behavior Differentialreinforcement 0 Ron Akers 0 Primary groups and secondary groups will reinforce behaviors differently 0 Mary groups do the most reinforcing o Says tv violence is not all that important and does not contribute to a higher crime rate The Professional thief 0 Book by Sutherland about Chic Conwell a professional thief o Sutherland outlines the social learning process 0 Differential association learning from the people you associate with most I Chic Conwell hung out with professional thieves his whole life and learned from them Professional Thieves Most prestigious type of crime They have 4 characteristics 0 High degree of skills I Mechanical skills 0 Pick a lock get through a safe etc o Learned from others I Interpersonal skills 0 Very smooth likable people 0 Charismatic 0 Know how to talk and listen 0 Helps them develop relationships with other people networks I Organizational skills 0 The ability to bring materials and personnel together with some notion oftiming I Perceptual skills 0 Can perceiverecognize opportunities and capitalize on it 0 Can also create opportunities 0 Status I Enjoy a very high status in their criminal network and in prison I quotmany are called but few are chosenquot 0 Very few become real professional thieves I Recognized in their industry o All people are basically dishonest to a degree and everyone has larceny in their heart 0 Most don t commit crimes because they do not have the opportunitycontactsnetwork to do so 0 Some targets are more worthy of being hit than others 0 Example businesses because all business owners are crooks o All legal officialslaw enforcement is corrupt they get to get away with it because of their authority 0 Crime is a business not a good or bad thing just a business 0 Differential association I Professional criminals have differentially associated with other professional criminals and their behavior is learned from them Argote a specialized language Serves a very important purpose o It is a source of solidarity for the group o It helps define the boundaries of the group I If you do not know it then you are not part ofthe group More likely to develop when there is a non ordinary or specialized behavior involved The Underworld a loosely coupled system where people have relationships with people that are different than their other relationships When did the underworld come into being 16 17th century Three structural changes that contributedcaused the rise ofthe underworld o Industrialization 0 Mass production of goods is introduced 0 Feudal wars were ending ril Jonathan Wilde The most successful underworld figure 19th C London He was a fence of stolen goods but he also recovered stolen property for a fee o It was probably his burglary crews that stole it in the first place Eventually caught and hanged Theory of Neutralizations White collar crime a more serious type of theft Embezzler someone in a position of financial trust who misappropriates money or property entrusted to him or her Not a lot of people are arrested for embezzlement compared to the number of people that commit it 0 Large companies keep it hush hush because they don t want the public to lose trust in them The professional nature of crime the causes of crime will change over time the tings that get you into crime are not the same things that keep you there 3 stages in becoming an embezzler 0 Stage 1 Incurring I What you perceive as a non sharable financial problem occurs 0 Can t get help for it 0 Examples gambling debt drug problem bad credit catastrophic medical bills etc 0 Stage 2 perceiving that embezzlement is a solution to your problem 0 Stage 3 clear the way I Clear the way to engage in the bad behavior but still see yourself as a good person I To do this they develop a neutralization that allows them to engage in the behavior but not see themselves as a bad person I Most people who commit white collar crimes do not see themselves as a criminal Neutralizations a pre behavioral justification which protects the individual from self blame and makes norms and social controls ineffective thereby making the deviant behavior possible norm evasions or detours around social controls so that you don t feel bad about yourself 5 techniques of neutralizations Denial of responsibility 0 The person sees their delinquent act as due to forces outside of their control 0 Sees him or herself as being acted upon rather than acting o Example war crimes I Defense of behavior was quotI was under orders Denial of injury 0 quotI wasn t hurting anyone 0 The person convinces themselves that even though they were committing the crime it did not hurt anyone therefore it doesn t count and they are not a criminal 0 Example drug use downloading illegal music mafia hitman who kills bad people not women and children Denial of victim o quotI am just getting them back 0 The offender and the victim switch places 0 Places the victim as the wrongdoer quotthey are the one at fault I am just getting them back 0 Example a rapist quotshe had it coming look how she was dressed Condemnation of the condemners o The condemners of my act real or imaginary are a bunch of hypocrites o A bitter cynicism aimed at those who are enforcing the rules An appeal to higher loyalties o Sacrificing the demands of the larger group for those of a smaller group 0 Don t reflect the dominant normative system you are just trying to meet the demands ofa smaller group 0 choosing to be loyal to a smaller group because it has a higher cause Example allegiance to a gang or religious groups 0 Business types of crimes Tax evasion any attempt to avoid or defeat the tax code 0 Even just the attempt to do it IS tax evasion o Prosecutors must prove the act was willful that you did it on purpose 0 They need to have additional independent evidence beyond just under reporting your income to prove that you did it willingly 0 Example Leona Helmsly Bribery the giving or receiving of something of value in consideration of some OFFICIAL act 0 Must involve a public office or government official Graft bribery that has to do with a military defense procurement contract 0 Example Duke Wellington given yachts houses etc by defense contractors so that they could get contracts Conspiracy agreeing with and joining with someone else to commit a crime 0 The crime does not actually have to be committed Contempt of court refusing some type of court order Insider trading when the officers of a public corporation or any shareholders that own more than 10 of the stock buy or sell stocks based on information known only to them and not yet released to the public 0 Example Martha Stewart Mail or wire fraud using the mail system or the wire services telephoneinternet to commit a crime 0 Both are federal crimes because they cross state lines Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin Says the illegitimate world is just like the legitimate one it has means deficiencies as well and some people have access to crime opportunities and some do not Hover just because you do not have opportunities for success in the legitimate world that does not mean that you will automatically have them in the illegitimate world Access to opportunities in both worlds involves m ifujl r I Being in an environment that allows for the acquisition of values and skills associated with the performance of a particular activity 0 Your location in society being in the right place at the right time I Your social location gives you access to certain types of learning structures I To be a criminal you have to grow up in or be part of an environment that would be conducive to you learning the tools that would help you commit a crime The opportunities to perform the roles once the skills and orientations have been acquired o If there is no opportunity to commit a crime then you will not commit it 0 An example of reducing the performance opportunity to commit a crime casino Everyone has a foot in both worlds Access to both worlds requires learning and performance structures Practical application 0 You want to open legitimate access and shut down illegitimate access 0 Ways to shut down illegitimate opportunities I Curfews Homicide the willful killing of one human being by another Terminology is the same in most states 0 1st degree murder I Requires two things 0 Malice of forethought you intended to kill at the time of the attack 0 Premeditation you thought about it and planned it before the attack u LLl I Only requires malice offorethought not premeditation o Nonnegligent manslaughter I Only requires malice offorethought not premeditation I BUT there has to of been some serious provocation that diminishes ones criminal responsibility 0 Negligent manslaughter I There is NO malice offorethought you did not intend to kill at the time of the attack I BUT there is still some criminal responsibility negligence 0 Example killing someone while you are driving drunk I Not included in homicide statistics I Not as serious as 1St or 2nd degree murder Statistics 70 of all homicides involve some type of firearm o 55 of those are handguns Differences between the homicide rates of various countries 0 United States 5100000 0 Canada 2100000 0 Japan 1100000 Even though the rate in the US is much lower than it used to be in the 90 s it was 10100000 it is still higher than other industrialized nations The highest rate is found in Columbia or Honduras 0 100100000 this is 20 times more than ours Louisiana homicide rate is 17100000 Baton Rouge is 27100000 o This is partly because it is a city and partly because we have a violence problem New Orleans is 100100000 41 of homicides are between people that know each other 13 of homicides are between people that DO NOT know each other 46 are unknown because they have not been cleared yet The highest homicide rate in the United States is found in the deep south Offendervictim relationship Homicide is the most intra relational crime 90 of all killings are within the same race 0 Blacks kill blacks and whites kill whites It is the same for gender 0 Males are more likely to kill males and females more likely to commit females Mate slayings Study done by Wolfgang Males are more likely to be killed in the kitchen because 0 Kitchen is the place where most interaction in the home occurs I Underlying hostilities usually erupt here 0 The kitchen is the female domain I She has ready access to weapons here 0 Men are most likely killed with knives or a blunt object Females are more likely to be killed in the bedroom o It is the males domain 0 Ready access to a handgun I Most men keep it in a drawer by their bed 0 Women are more likely to be killed with a gun Domestic murders are usually very violent Situational context of homicide Homicides are often the result of a really minor dispute BOTH the offender and the victim see violence as a way to solve their problems Stranger homicides 13 out of all homicides are between people who DO NOT know each other Out of this 13 HALF are felony homicides o A homicide that occurs in the commission of a felony Only a very tiny proportion of stranger murders are due to mass murderers or serial killers 0 Maybe 1 Mass murderer o Kills a whole bunch of people at once 0 Individual killing is random 0 Usually quickly apprehended by police Serial killer 0 Killing is sequential a certain amount of time has to pass between killings 0 Typically their victim is a female they do not know but have selected very carefully 0 Usually have a ritualistic pattern 0 The number of ritualistic patterns indicates the number of serial killers at large at any given time I Estimated that there are between 30 40 serial killers at large at any given time Both serial killers and mass murderers share certain traits 0 Neither conforms to a standard demographic profile of killers 0 Usually white and over 25 years of age Profiling A very weak type of science not really a science at all All they do is say quotif most killers are like this then this killer must be like this as well More about statistical analysis than science Not a useful law enforcement tool Most are wrong 0 High profile cases where the profiler was wrong I Washington DC sniper I Baton Rouge serial killer Derrick Todd Lee Victim Precipitated Homicides homicides in which the victim made some contribution to their death of all homicides are this type Evolves through 4 stages 1 The eventual victim violates the offender s honor in some way The offender is insulted by this and retaliates A character test is going back and forth and neither one is backing down Escalates and the offender applies deadly force and the victim is dead P9quot All homicide requires is a person learning the norms or rules that advocate the use of violence We learn these norms by observing other people Murder is only an extreme form of violence Violence is nothing more than a problem solving mechanism for some people We also react to situations in ways that are consistent with our self perception If you think you are a badass then you will react to situations in a manner that is consistent with that self perception Regional differences in violent crime homicide rape robbery and aggravated assault Northeast 390 Mid west 390 all per 100000 West 480 South 540 The differences above would be even sharper if you looked at just the homicide rates Why does the south have a higher rate of crime Composition of people things that effect the crime rate are more prevalent in the south 0 Poverty 0 Unemployment 0 Low education Cultural south has a slightly different culture 0 Way of life is very different down here 0 Violence is a slightly more acceptable way to solve problems A southern subculture of violence Theory Research shows that southern males are under more pressure to act with violence to a perceived insult more than their non southern counterparts More prevalent among white males quotlextalionisquot an eye for an eye There are two main theories as to why the south has a subculture of violence 0 ScotsIrish Gene I southern men are descendants of Scot and Irish immigrants I These immigrants were hot blooded men who were prone to violence and fighting and southern men inherited this I Whereas northerners come from Puritan stock and are more reserved staid etc o Settling in the south was like settling in the West it was a wilderness where there was not a lot of governmental control I Men were required to project an air of violence you mess with me and I will mess with you in order to survive and protect what was theirs I You had to take care of things and solve problems yourself I This morphed into the idea that if you didn t take care of it yourself you were a wimp Studies clone to support the southern subculture of violence theory 0 Can you kill to protect your home I 18 of northerners said yes I 36 of southerners said yes 0 Can you kill to protect your family I 67 of northerners said yes I 80 of southerners said yes 0 Fake insult experiment I 65 of northerners were amused I 15 of southerners were amused o Rude filing cabinet guy tested blood I In the southerners they found a lot of cortisal in the blood southerners became very angry and were ready to fight I The northerners had no change in blood chemistry 0 Shihadah paper I Where you find more close concentrations of southern born people you also find an increase in the rate of violence I There is more ofa southern subculture effect 0 Statistical support I Southern murders are higher for argument based homicides not instrumental based occurred during another crime Emile Durkheim and Travis Hirschi The bonds of society are the strings of social control that pull you into conformity at an individual level A classical assumption that people are basically hedonistic and they seek gratification at the expense of others People are basically bad and need to be controlled What needs to be explained is conformity why do people follow the rules rather than why people commit crimes This theory states that they conform because they develop bonds or relationships that pull them into conformity There are 4 types of bonds that people form 0 Affective attachment emotional investment I Refers to the bond of affectionemotion between you and other conventional people I How these important people think of you is what pulls you into conformity I quotconsciencequot is really your affective attachment to others I People with little or no affective attachments have no reason to conform I This type of bond creates quotpressuresquot to conform 0 Commitment Bond financial investment I Involves reputational certificational or financial investments that pull you into conformity I You don t want to screw these things up so that pulls you into conformity I Example college degree employment credit score etc I The more stuff you get the more you make sure that you conform so that you can protect it o Involvement bond time investment I Refers to the time investment in conformity I If you are heavily involved time wise in conventional things you just do not have enough time left over for crime or deviance I quotthe devil finds work in idle hands 0 Belief Bond philosophical investment I Refers to your intellectual r philosophical investment I Our belief in the laws and the system the rules that govern society creates bonds that make us conform Limitations of the social control theory Too cut and dry says either you are attached to mainstream society or you are not Too simplistic there is not just one mainstream society 0 A person can be attached to a subculture It is too hard to measure real world attachmentsbonds Shaw and McKay 1900 1930 0 this study looked at crime rates in Chicago over a 30 year period 0 found that crime rates remained stable those that were high stayed high and those that were low stayed low 0 this was despite the fact that the racialethnic composition for each neighborhood changed over time 0 they came to the conclusion that crime rates rise when a community undergoes change too quickly becomes disorganized there are two kinds of connections found in a community 0 formal networks I connections between formal organizations school church civic groups businesses etc your existence in these networks of formal organizations allows you to learn the rules of society I the more formal organizations there are in a community the better the community can hand you the rulebook and teach you how to behave 0 this is called socialization I not every community can do this 0 informal organizations I friends family neighbors etc I these organizations bond together to create conformity l V V V V v i 4 v lHl X lillllllll39i iiquot quot Hli ljill quot i H quot1 7 3 C ll i 1 139 l Hm and informal organizations 0 crime rates go up 0 after time the community re organizes and crime rates go back down the goal ofa community is to socialize its young members and keep crime rates down Major changes in Chicago in 19001930 that caused disorganization industrialization urbanization tearing down old neighborhoods and building new ones immigration lots of people coming in from other countries and looking for factory jobs huge northsouth migration The Polish Peasant in Poland and America study done at the University of Chicago by W Thomas and Florian Znakiecke letters from Poland revealed that life in Poland was fine Labeling Theory Mode rimary Deviance crime gets committed lt l M l 0 Social Reaction depends on act actor status context and audience Act the seriousness of the act the more serious more vigorous the response Actor Status people who have more resources have better sources for fighting the stigma contest ex OJ Simpson trial race was superimposed on this trial but it was really an issue of class he could afford dream team of lawyers amp purchased a quotnot guiltyquot verdict Context why crime was committed ex Woman stealing to feed her kids is going to be treated differently than a greedy person stealing TVs Audience government most powerful victim because they have infinite resources of wealth to convict cases 0 No Formal Labeling person gets off 0 Formal Labeling Imposition of Stigma stigma becomes your master status that overrides everything else you are officially and socially known as quotbad personquot opportunity structure in life begins to shift to illegitimate world Changes in legit and deviant performance opportunities Changes in legit and deviant learning opportunities 0 Development of deviant self concept person begins to believe that is who they are other people see us as criminals so we are criminal 0 Secondary deviance entrenched commitment to crime and criminal career quotwhen one s life and identity revolve around the facts of deviance the principle fact being social reactionquot Lemert Victimless Crimes no legal person to complain that can come forward as victim of the crime ex Prostitution someone is consenting to it o Is making these behaviors illegal a good thing These laws are practically unenforceable because they are private wealth leads to discriminatory enforcement patterns catching some people but not others illegal means to apprehend suspects illegal gathering of evidence illegal use of witness illegal wiretaps etc These illegal behaviors can actually lead to more deviance ex Drugs aren t legal or cheap people commit crime to feed drug habit These laws are very expensive to enforce Laws help promote organize crime and gang activity Types of laws damage people s respect for law Deterrence Model says people try to maximize pleasure and minimize pain basic idea of deterrence is maximizing pain through formal sanction of law 0 General vs Absolute General Deterrence effective penalties on population as a whole primarily the non offending population Specific Deterrence effective penalties on particular offender 0 Absolute vs Marginal Absolute Deterrence introduction of penalties were none have existed before ex Introduction to marital rape laws Marginal Deterrence raising or lowering already existing penalties ex Going from life imprisonment to capital punishment Saturation Effect associated with marginal deterrence the more you increase the lower the rate of return Criminal Careers aka Chronic Offender more involved more skill more entrenched etc 0 Wolfgang studied boys from 10th to 18th birthday one basic finding a very small proportion ofthe boys committed lots of the crime 1 19 of boys accounted for 80 of crime Chronic offenders 5 contacts with the law non chronic offenders 2 4 contacts with the law one time offenders non offenders Patterns in findings indications of a criminal career Hm n7 2 4M1 with the law turns out that one contact C1 then probability of a 2nd contact is low transition probability probability of transitioning from one contact to the next C2 has between the contacts gets progressively shorter average time between C1 and C2 15 years average time between C2 and C3 10 months C3 and C4 8 months C12 and C13 3 months m of first contact juveniles who had their 1st run in at a very early age are more likely to have another contact at a later age if person A had C1 at 12 years old person B had C1 at 14 years old the probability of C2 at 17 years old is greater for A then for He extended this study into the adulthood ofthese boys turns out that any contact as a juvenile dramatically increases chances of contact as an adult if C1 as juvenile the probability of adult contact is 51 5050 if C0 no contact as juvenile the probability of adult contact is 18 The earlier the age of C1 the more likely there will an adult criminal career More violent the juvenile offending more likely the person will become a career criminal 0 Status Offense offense depends on age of offender ex Underage drinking Adult Criminal Careers study by Perersilia Greenwood and Lavin studied 49 men serving time for robbery in a state prison 0 Collectively this group over their lifetimes accounted from 10505 crimes 0 Average age of C1 was at 15 years old but significant proportion had already had C1 at 12 years old 0 These men on average spent half of their adult lives in jail o Divided the 49 men into 2 groups Intermittent Offenders on again off again crime not sustained criminals low pay off amp high risk most ofthe offenders On average these men were committing 5 crimes a year per person Intensive Offenders engaged in sustained criminal activity very skilled and consciously planned saw themselves as career criminals On average these men were committing 51 crimes a year per person 0 Incapacitation custodial control of convicted offenders so they can t commit any more crimes that hurt the publics 2 types quotlock all ofthem upquot give everyone convicted of an offense a set jail time ex All those that commit burglary give them 35 years if we did this we may get crime reduction of 10 20 disadvantage cost 7 w 39 i m it quotlock some ofthem upquot find the most dangerous offenders and the ones who are most likely to commit more crimes and give them a serious sentence give the others another sentencing option house arrest electronic bracelet etc Lock up the intensive offenders and not the intermittent to cut crime lock up the high risk offenders found the high risk offenders have to have at least 4 of the following 7 characteristics Earlier conviction for the same offense n prison for more than half of the last 2 years prior to the arrest Conviction before age of 16 Prior commitment to juvenile institution Use of heroine or barbiturates during the last 2 years Use of heroine or barbiturates as a juvenile Those who fit at least 4 ofthe criteria had committed 31 crimes per year those who fit 0 1 of the criteria were committing 2 crimes per year Problems Predicted model based on the criminals that got caught Self report information isn t completely available to judges at the time of sentencing juvenile records are sealed employment information or drug use information isn t available to judges either Deviance may not be illegal but is frowned upon by society Crime is actually illegal Every society has rules of what to dowhat not to do when to do it Some rules lldon t cut in linequot or lldon t ask a woman her age don t require formal punishment but they are acts of deviance llCriminology the study of law making law breaking and the social reaction to law breakingquot Sutherland Law Making 0 Certain laws come into being or are removed because ofa social issue in connection with it 0 Ex certain drugs became illegal or more enforced in the 60s because users of those drugs were seen as a threat Unclear if they were threatened by the substance or the users Are the laws directed against the users or the drug itself 0 Consensus model of law With crime some laws reflect the deep normative consensus ex murder There is pretty much universal agreement of the crime but not necessarily the punishment The view that we agree on things I Most laws are not in this category Most are the result of conflict where 2 or more groups battle it out I Ex laws against smoking At one time the tobacco companies were more powerful than the groups against smoking The groups sued and won huge settlements against the tobacco companies so this is completely turned around now I Ex Abortion The side that is strongest is the side that is quotwinningquot at the moment Law Breaking o Involves the documentation of different types of crimes and coming up with explanations to explain what was just documented Trends and explanations ofthose trends Social reaction to law breaking 0 We ve set up a system to deal with crime the criminal justice system Our formalized response to law breaking Criminology scientific systematic study of crime that is typically from a social standpoint What makes crime go up or down Establishing relationships between variables A variable is something that varieschanges like crime rate Predictors location income family type all variables 0 Lung cancer rates are a variable because they vary from one place to another Smoking is another variable You find the variation in lung cancer and cross it with the variation in smoking and try to make a connection Explaining variation 0 Broad general social variables are usually used in criminology age gender immigration issues 0 Explanationtheory about how 2 or more variables are related to one another I Theorysystematicexplanation Statistical relationship correlation If they vary together it s positive If they vary exactly oppositely from each other it s negative If you can t tell how they re connected there is no correlation For a theory to become a theory you must try to disprove itA theory must have some way to falsify itself llf this and this happen it s right but if not then it is wrongquot It lets you see if you should modify it or throw it out 0 Faith cannot be a theory in the regular sense of the term Experimental method example aspirin and blood pressure level 0 Treatment group aspirin and control group placebo Things that affect blood pressure diet stress exercise genetics age 0 0 Groups are assigned randomly o The only thing you change out of all the variables the only thing you change is the aspirin intake 0 Problem You have to study the world as it is because you can t harm your subjects 0 You must measure theories in the real world Empirical regularity measuring things over and over Types of statisticsstatistics 1 Official data comes from some official law enforcement agency 0 Major source uniform crime reports UCR o In 1924 Edgar Hoover decides he wants to make the FBI responsible for gathering statistics on crime By 1930 this was approved up and running 0 2 major sources the police record offense reports and arrest reports 0 Uniform way of reportingrecording things 0 Ex Car breakins are not burglaries because a car isn t a structure It has to be categorized properly 2 Unofficial stats doesn t come from an official agency 0 Does not come from a law enforcement agency 0 Major source national crime victimization survey NCVS 0 You get more detail than UCR but UCR allows more generalization o The most specificity comes from individual cases but that doesn t help you make assumptions for all other cases 0 Monitoring the Future study monitors junior high and high school students drug use 0 National Institute for Drug Abuse national sample of households drug use 0 Problem even if the sample response is perfect you d be more interested in the drug use of kids that are not in school MTF or don t live in a house NIDA But this leads to Sample Bias when your sample doesn t accurately reflect the population of interest 0 College students are underrepresented in these studies because we move around so much Hard to get ahold of but our drug use because of our age is probably higher than the rest of the population Important to make this distinction 2 kinds of studies Crosssectional I want to study a lot of people TODAY Taking a cross section of the population and studying them Longitudinal I want to look at this group of 10year olds and follow them for 8 years 0 Problem of sample dropout 0 Problem of it taking so long 0 The ones that drop out may be the ones that are using drugs more than the ones that stick with the study Sample Bias 8 index crimes crimes we observe that are readily available Violent crimes crimes against a person Property crimes crimes against structures 4 Violent crimes homicide robbery rape aggravated assault O O O O O O O 0 Robbery is the taking or intent to take something of value by force by threat of force andor by putting the victim in fear Carjacking is considered a robbery 4 Property crimes burglary larceny theft autotheft arson Burglary the unlawful entry of a structure to commit a felony or theft therein Larceny theft taking something you aren t supposed to take shoplifting Arson malicious burning or intent on burning a structure wwwfbigov 9 statistics 9 look at 2010 for most recent because 2011 is still preliminary Louisiana has about 3 times the average crime rate Murder rate in the United States 48 Crime in BR is about 30 per 100000 and NOLA is 100 per 100000 This increase was in 20012002 before Katrina Crime is as bad now as it was in the battle days He suspects a rise in teen pregnancy Children of teens are more likely to be neglected abused become floaters Crime as a result Murder rate began to rise right after Katrina disorganizing influence Important social organization that kids are attached to school Public schools suck and the dropout rate is high Combination of things violent city 105mil crimes annually in the US 9mil are Property most of those are larceny thefts shoplifting small stealings Arrests category Highest position goes to drug busts 16mil Much higher than the 70s because the social definition of drug use has changed Second highest on the category is DWI 14mil Probably wouldn t even have been on the list in the late 70s because back then drunk driving wasn t considered as much of an issue as it is today Early 80s MADD Third Larceny Theft AssaultBattery Disorderly Conduct being obnoxious at a football game etc Public drunkenness was higher on the list in the 50s and 60s A lot of times they may have been insane but were just charged with drunkenness Now we may send them to a treatment center instead Liquor law violations social definition changed so much that you can t really compare today s laws with the past Fraud wasn t that high on the list 3040 years ago Huge problem now Structural opportunities increased tremendously Biggest change was from a currencybased economy to a creditbased economy to virtual transactions online shopping No change in the social definition of fraud it s the increase in opportunity to commit fraud 0 Currency Credit Virtual Vandalism Public sector of the economy has grown the most It grew because we wanted it to grow 0 There are now programs that are beneficial to us but they can all be defrauded You can t fraud a program that doesn t exist 0 Crime Rate 48 Formula crimespopulation o 14700380mil100000 murder rate 0 Crime is a rare event answer ends up being 000048 0 Eventspopulation Clearance rate percent of offenses that have been cleared by an arrest OOO arrestscrime100 Shows how the police are doing Violent crimes have higher clearance rates than property crimes They re considered more serious and they usually involve a witness I Type Robbery Clearance rates are only calculated for index crimes I If someone reports a crime cops will sometimes label it as something else until they make an arrest so they look better They also sometimes get criminals to admit to other crimes so they can clear the books What makes a crime serious 0 1 Seriousness of the injuryViolent crimes How big the loss was Property crimes 0 2 Property crimes againsta household is regarded as more serious than a business or public establishment o 3 Age Crimes against the elderly are more serious 0 4 Relationship between victim and offender Crimes between strangers are regarded as more serious than those between friends families acquaintances etc I Most serious offenses o 1 Man takes bomb in public and it explodes killing many 0 2 Man forcibly rapes and she dies Crimes known to the police 0 O O OO 0 Limitation police obviously don t know about all crimes Reporting bias I There are 6 steps for a crime to go from a crime committed to a crime reported 0 Criminal Act Perception of Activity Defined as a crime Report Redefinition 9 Recorded 0 After these steps are completed it goes into the UCR o If multiple crimes are committed at the same time only the most serious of crimes are recorded Primacy Rule UCR is the most serious event completed UCR doesn t distinguish between completed and uncompleted crimes Reporting to the UCR is optional Some departments don t I You can get pressured to alter the numbers to justify a crack in the story Changes in reporting practices Are we measuring criminal behavior or police response I If the cops make a bunch of arrests all at once it makes it look like the crime rate goes up I Benign neglect really high crime area but not a lot of arrests People are afraid of the police so they don t report crimes Very little police can do to redefine murder Aggravated assaultRobbery can be redefined as a suspicious circumstance and dealt with later Categories are very broad I No category for organizedwhite collar crime Those are absolved into other groups Important Categories UCR 0 Gender Crime is a male dominated activity 90 male Ageyounger Ethnicity minority neighborhoods have a much higher rate of crime on average Lower income areas have higher rates of crime 0 Region South has the highest crime NIBRS National Incident Based Reporting System 0 UCR listed in summarized form for geographic areas NCVS National Crime Victimization Survey Began in 1973 Looked at the other side of crime UCR looks at offenders not victims This looks specifically at victims Tried to get a record of crimes against people Looks at index crimes 0 Personal I Rape and sexual attack I Robbery I Aggravated and simple assault I Pursesnatchingpocket picking 0 Property I Burglary I Theft motor vehicle theft I Vandalism for above age 12 o The data include I Type of crime month time location of the crime relationship between victim and offender characteristics of the offender selfprotective actions taken by the victim during the incident and results of those actions consequences of the victimization I Type of property lost whether the crime was reported to the police reasons for reporting or not reporting I Offender use of weapons drugs and alcohol I Basic demographic information age race gender and income quotVictimless crimesquot prostitution gambling Don t ask about fraud and forgery because many people don t know they ve been victimized The whole point of this survey is to report people who are victimized Homicide missing because the victims aren t alive to give information Information may be unreliable because the people giving the reports aren t professional Also recall error has to be taken into account The further back in time you go the more likely people will be to llpush the data towards the surveyquot making the data more recent than it was 1993 may be 1995 1953 may be 1960 o llHeaped dataquot using the 5 year bracket to lump information together 1995 2000 2005 2010 Not really a problem in this set of data Limitations who you leave out 0 Example homeless people people who don t participate 0 Public establishments tend to be underreported because one single person isn t victimized If someone shoplifts it hurts WalMart or the park but not a single person 0 Men are 2x more likely to be victimized than women 000 I Men are more likely to put themselves in situations where victimization can occur Lifestyle choices 0 The young are more likely to be victimized than the elderly I We look at young people as strong and capable so they re victimized more Young people are also more likely to be in places where they can be affected by crime barhopping as opposed to being at home with your significant other 0 Rates of victimization are higher for young strong people because of the structure of the situations they are in o Singledivorced are more likely to be victimized o The poor are more likely to be victimized because offenders are more likely to come from poor areas so the people who live in those areas are closer in proximity to the single lives in a central city What s in it for mequot to report crimes to the police 0 What s the highest reported crime Car theft 80 are reported because in order for the insurance company to replace your car you have to file a police report 0 Least likely to be reported Larceny theft Most of it is minor About 30 are reported 0 For the rest about 50 are reported Sexual assault burglary etc I Types of rape stranger rape acquaintance rape marital rape This survey mostly looks at stranger rape The offender may even be in the room for reports on acquaintancemarital rape 1930s huge increase in murders Civil unrestJFK assassination Public specter increased more people moving to the suburbs and more police to make reports Great depression 0 About 1947 Baby boom llPeople were poppin kids out like Pezquot All these kids entered the crimeprone age group in around 1962 or 1963 So spike in crime during these years because young people are more likely to commit crimes t levels off around 1975 because this group was out of the crimeage group Arrests peak from age 1524 The more responsibilities you have the less likely you are to commit crimes 0 Conforming to society more buying a house getting married having kids More to lose Race and Crime Article llManchild in Harlemquot Claude Brown The changes that took place in black communities in Harlem NY 0 Manchildquot paradox and contradiction The manchild of today is much more sophisticated and educated but also more likely to commit murder 0 Obsessed with materialism namebrand madnessquot Conspicuous consumption 0 One of the symbols of success was the namebrand product 0 Notjust urban areas huge spike overall in consumerism and conspicuous consumption 0 Described changes in the individuals and also in the community level I Center for arts9 gone Minton s playhouse gone Stores gas stations businesses gone I Replaced by drug activity It s as though people had just left 0 Main message Dress well get a job and support family 0 Fagens are gone as well I Fagens characters in Oliver Twist pickpockets In exchange for a place to live and meals they were taught how to pickpocket Violence was for fools pickpocketing was an art form a skill When Claude Brown returns to Harlem he finds the violence level to be incredibly high You just quotpopquot people kill them and take their stuff as simple as spitting on the ground Usually there s a social stigma that comes with going to prison But in Harlem the people who went to prison were elevated in society The Fagen nonviolent people had all gone and were replaced by very violent people 3 Social Perspectives about the Changes that Occurred in InnerCities Both Wilson and Massey came up with the conclusion that it is concentration of poverty and social isolation William Julius Wilson Relates present day innercity black community circumstances to the history of black and white relations 3 stages of blackwhite relations 2 things that denote them the system of production economy and the distribution of power political arrangement 0 o l 2 3 PI in a b 99 E antation Economy and Racialcast oppression antebellum precivil war and pre dustrial period OPPRESSION Small white elite own the means of production Split labor market split along racial lines Whites had the good jobsBlacks had bad ones The blacks either worked for cheap labor or were slaves Relations at this time were dominated by whites subservient by blacks Physical distanceSocial distance they didn t date intermarry or socialize i Clearly symbolized rituals of racial etiquette Relatively little conflict about this at the time Oppression but not conflict Brutal but stable social order Industrial Expansion and Race Conflict Industrial period CONFLICT F 99 P Complicated time now Complex division of labor old jobs removed new levels created it s all different now i Introduced competitionconflict into the labor force ii Everyone can llgo for itquot Whites had more numbers money and political power so they won the competition They used their power numbers and political positions to keep the skilled jobs for themselves White labor became very powerful organized This was the period of time with discriminatory laws Jim Crow laws Separation of blacks and whites rogressive Transitions from Racial Inequalities to Class Inequalities 1960s modern period b Squot 9 Civil Rights Movement voting rights fair housing act etc This removed the legal barriers set up in Stage 2 Public sector grew President LBJ s War on Poverty Qualified blacks improve their situations black middle class increases Unqualified blacks stay behind Underclass i They essentially lost the leaders in their communities ii The symbols of success role models were gone iii Underclass now isolated from the rest of society llThe Declining Significance of Racequot Things stop being about race and become more about moneyclass Doug Massey i The Underclass is so because of their lack of qualifications and status not their race e Concentrations of poverty It isn t that there are more people in poverty they re just more closely located social isolation i One group is literally isolated from mainstream life 0 Wrote llAmerican Apartidequot Closed political system based on race 0 Blacks can t intermarry vote etc 0 Same as in Africa 0 Concentration of Poverty same idea as WJW different route 0 Most basic form of inequality T 39 7 vi v31quot tendency for blacks and whites to live apart 0 Maintained by hostility residential steering Hostility whites may feel threatened by a black moving next door and be unfriendly Residential steering realestate agents will direct whites to white areas and blacks to black areas under the expectation that this is what the buyers want 0 When you segregate blacks and whites you separate blacks with their problems 0 Main sources of wealth for middle class retirement account and real estate your house 0 When house values decline the concentrations of poverty become intensified 0 Implications of Social Isolation Economic implications detachment from the labor force 0 Richard Grannovettes llWhat s the difference in people who make it in life and those who don tquot 0 O 0 Connections you have networksalters Strong ties people you know really well and hang out with Weak ties friends of friends The people who are most successful in life are the ones who have the most weak ties The information you get from one alter in a weak tie sector is going to be more unique Strong ties probably know each other so the same information spreads around In underclass communities there are many strong ties Everyone hears the same information Cultural Implications when 2 groups are separated they become more and more different as time goes on 0 They begin to look and act differently view the world differently 0 READ ARTICLE Elijah Anderson looking at culture changes in black innercities O O Culturally different because they ve been separated for so long Naturally intelligent kids are encouraged not to do as good because they ll stand out make the other kids look bad 0 Cultural change in inner cities used to not be okay to talk about it Political implications segregated areas create political zones of weakness 0 The power in politics comes from the ability to work with others and build coalitions 0 You have to work for who lives in your district Further segregation Jack Aasarda concept of the city has changed O O Basic idea that ties them all together O O The preindustrial city didn t have mass transit You were pretty much stuck living near where you worked I WorkResidence Enclave I As the city grew more of these enclaves began so you had a cluster of them Then there were technological changes Trolley car then trains then subways automobile commuter highways Population Deconcentration people began to move away from the enclaves I Selective The more money you have the further you can move away People with more money began to be separated from the lower income people Lowscale income jobs were concentrated in the middle because they couldn t afford to move further away The low income jobs were concentrated in the center as well Industrial drift jobs began to sort themselves by industry I Lowscale jobs moved up to the suburbs with easy transportation routes lots of land easy truck routes ex car manufacturers need lots of horizontal land Highscale jobs moved right into the middle of town and because they didn t need lots of land they built upwards Ex IBM 0 Nicely located central office manufacturers located further out Physical processing outwards Corporate processing inwards Spacial mismatch complete mismatch to where the lowscale jobs are and the low scale people are I Lowscale jobs located on the outskirts of town with the highscale people Highscale jobs located in the center of the city with the lowscale people who aren t qualified to access those jobs Lowscale people can t move outwards towards their jobs because they can t afford it When you move around you can move up The more you move around the more you can move up Over a 20 year period The cities that lost the most manufacturinglowscale jobs were the cities that had the highest increase in murder rates 0 0 Global Economic Restructuring allowing cheapest labor option to make the product Problem is that the lowscale jobs are taken away here and people need those When you look at what kind of job you want in the future you have to consider outsourcing Ethnicity and Crime Biggest minority in the US Latinos O In 6 years from 20002006 Hispanics went from being 12 of the population to being 15 By 2025 Hispanics will be 1 in 4 He estimates that by 2050 there will be more people of Spanishspeaking origin in the US than the total population in Mexico total today OO 00 25 change in 6 years main source being fertility rates Bigger increase in the 1990s Biggest growth in Latino population percentagewise was in the south I Traditional destinations Latinos traditionally settled in the Southwest Grew by 3 I In the south it was a 300 increase I 400 increase in North Carolina Who are the Latinos Mexican Central or South American Puerto Rican Cuban Other Spanish SocialEconomic Income Median individual earnings for Hispanics 20000 I Blacks 22000 and Whites 30000 I You don t take the mean because if you put someone on either extreme it throws your results Poverty Rate Whites 9Blacks 25 Hispanics 22 Latino Paradox their homicide rates should be higher based on income and poverty rate Reasons the Latinos came to the United states I Push Factors 0 A factor could be the political situation 0 Warunrest I Pull Factors 0 US Economy when it was good I Individual factors 0 Family 0 Startinga business History of Mexican migration to the US I Huge border 200 miles long or something I Huge difference socioeconomically o Richest on one side 0 One of the poorest on the other 0 Major difference in the standard of living I Old border 1853 I US began to build railroads to connect the 2 countries and to aid the boom in agriculture We needed people to come work here 1924 US border control formed I 1920s sense of NationalismPatriotism Lot of integration from eastern Europe Felt the need to protect our country from those who were trying to integrate in I People continued to come in because we had such a strong need for laborers I 1929 Great Depression 0 Renewed sense of protection of the border 0 Cut the Mexican population in half at this time because we didn t need them here anymore I 1941 WWII 0 Created an industry boom demand for labor 0 Americans were tired of the low wages so there was a huge demand Government allowed Mexicans to come back in I Influx continued through the 1950s Cold War Us and the Soviet Union Joseph McCarthy llA red under every bedquot 0 Hysteria Nativism grew massively Need for labor but wanted to protect the border Bracero Program effort to satisfy demand for growth while giving the appearance that the borders were being protected I 1960s Cold War continues Space Program Americans began to look at inequities in society Diversity in immigration Sensitize people to the racialethnic makeup of the population 1965 Immigration Act equality in immigration 20000 max people per year allowed in from every country in the world 0 First time there were legal rules for how many Mexicans cross the border 0 100000s of Mexicans had been coming over so at the time a 20000 person cap seemed fair 0 Economy in Mexico was going downhill at this time so more of them wanted to come here 0 80 of people who crossed the border were undocumented I 1986 Cold War begins to heat up again 0 Immigration declared a national security issue communist insurgencies America was under attack 0 IRCA Immigration Reform and Control Act 0 Border security tightened o Enforce border policies 0 Fines assigned to employers who hired illegal workers 0 Immigrants scared as well 0 000 0 Massive Latino population growth 0 Unintended consequence 0 Increased drastically during this time because they were scared that if they left they couldn t come back so they all stayed I 1990s Clinton Admin figured out that the main points of immigration entry were San Diego and El Paso Settling in the SouthWest o California s Proposition 187 llGet the Eff out We don t want you here anymorequot Basically made it really hard to be an immigrant because we didn t want immigrants o Legalized immigrants that had been here for a really long time o California s economy sucks then they pass this proposition so immigrants began to move outwards 0 Location Location Location matters 0 Crime rate 0 Victimization 0 Usually the higher the minority number the higher the crime rate I Not true for Latinos The higher the concentration of Latinos the lower the crime rate I Higher in new destinations where there aren t very many Latinos Early views on crime Demonic Perspective late 1600s 0 Cause cure of criminal behavior is in the realm of the supernatural9 crime is a sin against God 0 Succumb to evil forces in 2 ways I Temptation we become weakened seduced by the devil but we still have choice I Possession person is taken over by an evil spirit Once possessed a person is no longer capable of making choices 0 We think of crime between a victim and an offender They thought of crime as affecting all of society 0 Trial by Ordeal Torture they tortured a suspect If the suspect lived then they must be innocent If they died they must have been guilty quotGod wouldn t let the innocents diequot I If the soul was corrupt there was no point in preserving the body 0 Punishment all crimes were regarded as serious and were all susceptible to punishment No difference between crimes 0 System of logic Appeal to authority If this is an authority figure he must be right If it s in the bible it must be right Because they know more than me Classical Perspective late 1700s 0 CesareBeccaria o Deviance as rational hedonism being deviant can be considered a rational choice based on the notion seeking pleasure and avoiding pain 0 Regarded as the first modern perspective 0 Assumption that humans try to maximize pleasure and minimize pain This makes humans rational calculating creatures that are capable of choice I Crimes bring more pleasure than pain I Utilitarian calculus costs vs benefits of a decision 0 Shift in beliefs because ofa shift from feudalism to industrialization I No common structure of beliefs anymore decline in theological power and a rise in the power of the individual free will 0 Punishment calculated to fit the crime The more serious the act the more serious the punishment I If people believe in hedonism increasing the pain will cause crime to go down because pleasure will decrease Rational 0 System of logic starting with an assumption or a truth about the world and develop individual facts deductive reasoning I Notion of deterrence Pathological Perspective late 1800s 0 Crime Deviance is a sickness If that is the case then crime is not a choice It s a diseaseproblemmedical issue 0 Cesa reLambroso I Some people were born primitive fell into the margins and became more prone to committing crimes 0 Physical anomaly He studied physical abnormalities of prison populations with the general populations I Certain physical characteristics make a person more prone to crime 0 Unusually large head eye defects large ears bigjaw long arms receding hair line O 3 important components Determinism crime is determined by some natural cause 0 Influenced by Darwin Some members ofa species are born with characteristics that make them less likely to adapt and more likely to get into trouble Positivism you can only understand crime through a positivistic science controlled observation and experimentation 0 System of logic taking little facts that I observed about the world and making a general truth Inductive reasoning Organismic Infection Biological idea that society is an organism composed of interrelated parts Crime is a disease of that organism 0 Richard Speck killed multiple women Eventually got a sex change in prison Implication of pathology


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