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by: Trace Beier


Trace Beier
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Skylar Gremillion

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Skylar Gremillion
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This 130 page Class Notes was uploaded by Trace Beier on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOCL 2001 at Louisiana State University taught by Skylar Gremillion in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 83 views. For similar materials see /class/222551/socl-2001-louisiana-state-university in Sociology at Louisiana State University.

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Date Created: 10/13/15
Culture Culture is more of a feeling thing Most studied by sociologists Individuals in uence culture The values norms and material goods ofa given group 0 Values ideals held by individuals about what is desirable and good and bad Ifa large enough population believes something is true it essentially is or becomes true Social Construction Something thatis most likely dependent on society 0 Calling someone gay or slut 0 Don t analyze the exact meaning N orms Unwritten rules of conduct that dictate a particular type ofbehavior in particular circumstances Material Culture Everything physical that is part of a culture this includes technology Food crawfish in Louisiana haggis in Scotland Subcultures Social group that eXists within one culture but has traits that separate it from it s parent culture Set themselves apart from parent group want people to know they are different Subcultures an also eXist within subcultures Cultural Universals Many things differ across cultures but simultaneously many things are similar and universal 0 Marriage all cultures have some form ofbonding legal or religious 0 Language all cultures have some form of developed language 0 Incest taboo most cultures on some level say incest is bad Developing Culture Nature v Nurture Biological v Sociological MiX of elements they both in uence in different ways Sociology an approach that attempts to explain the behavior ofboth animals and human beings in terms of biological principles Individuals spread culture adapting to natural elements Older Societies We are arguing that culture is related to the surroundings and needs of the individual HunterGather o Territories and nomads 9 what is needed 0 survive and adapt need to be mobile Agrarians 0 Sustainability 9 groups learned to plant crops in the same areas and harvest them Industrialized societies Development of factories and mass production Shift to machines more modernized process Industrialized society 0 Societies where majority of individuals work outside of agriculture Public or Private 0 Factory work and culture 0 Changes the nature of family in a way 0 Agrarians or huntergatherers had many tasks inside home finding food cooking laundry 0 Industrialization changed this because people went to work to separate location Urbanization 0 Development of large central cities which again shifted culture Measuring Culture Empirically testing cultural issues is difficult Because 0 There are many different cultural identities 0 These identities change and spread over time 0 Individuals tend to identify culture themselves you can join any if they accept you 0 Culture is more informative than anything in uences a lot of things in local areas Cultural Relativism 0 Practice ofjudging a society by its own standards Ethnocentrism 0 Looking at other cultures through your own eyes 0 Example Europeans traveling to the New World and calling native inhabitants savages Socialization Process by which culture and norms and beliefs and material goods is instilled in a person Culture provides part of the setting Culture you grow up in in uences you 0 Different places Perkins Rowe New Orleans make you feel different Agency the ability to do something an individuals ability to change Individual element Needs a mechanism 0 A way that socialization happens What is socialization Socialization is the process through which individuals internalize the values and norms of society Socialization does not happen over night it s a long process Socialization starts out when you re young 0 Children are indoctrinated into society through their parents friends and any adults they are exposed to Even the most basic social norms are instilled through socialization 0 Speech and language 0 Authority Scope of Socialization Research into feral children show that a substantial amount of what we know is developed through socialization That does not mean that human nature and biological dispositions aren t important 0 Nature v Nurture Agents of Socialization We are also socialized outside of our close families 0 School 0 Peers 0 Media Gender and the media Barbie doll Magazine covers Naked ladies 0 BMI Women v Playmates Men A Theory of Interaction To fully examine socialization we need a framework or lens to view it through 0 Social construction of reality I Extension of symbolic interactionism Social Construction of Reality Social construction is an explanation of the way we give meaning to things or ideas through socialization and interaction If enough people believe something is legitimate and real then on some level it is real Exercise in Social Construction Meaning making 0 Way to build an understanding of things 0 Socialization through interaction and experience how builds out knowledge social or otherwise and leads to sharing Shared meaning 0 Common social themes Social Construction of food Food is socially constructed because the idea ofwhat is or isn t food often derives from social opinion and not nutrition or safety Social Construction of Gender Gender is socially constructed because the values and rules we typically associate with it are decided by society not the presence of biological parts What is authentic Value Social construction does not mean something is fake the value of an object is socially constructed Importance of Social Construction Extension of symbolic interactionism 0 Act on shared meaning Social environments The way an individual sees the world Norms and beliefs are in uenced by culture and we are socialized into this Beliefs are heavily in uenced by where you grew up Theoretical perspective on socialization Socialization instills norms and values Socialization is an in uence of groups Social Construction is an analytical tool for socialization Cohort Analysis There is always some sort of socialization happening at all ages at all times Cohort is a group that is around you and experiencing the same things as you all first year or graduating college students no age specifics o A way to group people together without age for socialization There are enormous spikes and changes in average children per woman o 21 per viable female is replacement fertility what keeps things steady amount needed to keep the population stable Cell phone usage 0 When anyone under 18 is excluded probably because anyone under the age of 18 parents had to purchase it for them 0 10 live in landline only or no phone households 0 90 live in a house with a working cell phone 0 Different generations have different usage of cell phones Perception onging o The way society values individuals and how society views its own mortality and the aging process Functionalist Approach The graying ofAmerica 0 As the baby boomers age this will create a huge problem Disengagement of the old 0 As we age we lose function 0 This may cause the individual to feel disengaged and get grumpy Disengagement a function for societies to remove people from t heir traditional roles when they become elderly Disengagement Theory a functionalist theory of aging that holds that it is functional for society to remove people from their traditional roles when they become elderly thereby freeing up those roles for others Activity Theory a functionalist theory of aging which holds that bust engaged people are more likely to lead fulfilling and productive lives Con ict Theory Arguments that emphasize the ways in which the larger social structure helps to the elderly Unequal opportunities are seen as creating the potential for con ict Problems of aging 0 Poverty 0 Poor health 0 Wont be able to work Product of society 0 Capitalism favors productivity Competition over resources 0 Difficult for a lot ofpeople in these situations to apply themselves Alternative Perspectives Active aging and life 0 Not fading away 0 As technology and physical demands become less and less the elderly will pick up hobbies Social connections 0 In person or online interaction Social Interaction The process by which we act and react to those around us 0 Awide spectrum 0 Micro level process I Microsociology study of human behavior in contexts of face toface interaction Basis of socialization Verbal and Nonverbal communication Nonverbal communication communication between individuals based on facial expression or bodily gestures rather than on language Body language not predicting Edge of culture Paul Ekman o Psychologist studied how far expression actually goes I Non verbal communication I Animals are really predictable tail wagging humans aren t o Took photos of emotion to cultures that were more illiterate wanted to know how they could recognize facial expressions they understood these expressions had concepts that were tied to them Dramaturgical Theory Irving Goffman 0 Saw human interaction as a play I Weren t openly and honestly communicating at all times I Where we are what the setting is who we are around affects this Social role expected behavior ofa person occupying a particular social position The idea of social role originally comes from the theater referring to the parts that actors play in a stage production in every society individuals play a number of social roles Social position social identity an individual has in a given group or society Social positions may be general in nature those associated with gender roles or may be more specific occupational positions Status the social honor or prestige that a particular group is accorded by other members ofa society Status groups normally display distinct styles of lifepatterns of behavior that the members ofa group follow Status privilege may be positive or negative Impression management Preparing for the presentation of one s social role At different jobs you do different things talk differently to different people We are always trying to control the impressions others have of us Augmented behavior 0 Consequences Social Groups Collection of people w ho regularly interact with one another on the basis of shared expectations concerning behavior and who share a sense of common identity Dyad group of 2 0 Most intimate form of social life because the two members are mutually dependent on each other if one member leaves the group the group ceases to exist Triad group of3 Primary Group A group that is characterized by intense emotional ties facetoface interaction intimacy and a strong enduring sense of commitment How an individual perceives the importance ofa group is complete up to them Primary groups have limited membership and have strong in uence on members 0 Families 0 Close friends 0 Intimate relationships Secondary Group A group characterized by its large size and by impersonal eeting relationships Secondary groups are less personal and eXist as a means to an end 0 Have a reason to be there and an end goal 0 Labor union for workers to organize and protect their self interest 0 Clubs few people that are really involved others just go to the meetings once a month 0 Neighborhood associations natural progression ofidea ofa group In group A group toward which one feels particular loyalty and respect the group which quotwequot belong Despite beliefs about the importance ofindividualism we display high levels of conformity 0 Sometimes people will use their quotnot status as a group 0 Homophily individuals tend to stay in similar social groups I Housing patterns from a race class perspective think about the way neighborhoods look Friendship patterns high school we hang out with people who like to do the same things we do Racial segregation outside of the housing patterns Religious groups split between different groups From Groups to Networks A social network is a set of relations held together by ties between individuals 0 The people you know and why you know them A tie is the story that connects two members of a network Embedded We are embedded within social networks More people you know more embedded you are Embeddedness is the degree to which ties are reinforced through indirect paths within a social network Lesser embedded or weak ties often give valuable new information or insight strength of weak ties o The one tie between the two groups becomes very important Granovetter s theory on weak ties because weak ties act as conduits they are the most important tie o If everyone is involved in the same thing they are aware ofwhat s going on with each other the tie opens up new information o Opportunity is as important as anything else Group affiliation can have a lot of benefits for individuals 0 Who You Know Your social network is like a wire that connects members ofa network That wire transfers a variety of resources between individuals 0 Money 0 Opportunities 0 Community benefits This is social capital the resources or the way that individuals extract resources from their social network Think of the community as a spiders web As bonds increase and become stronger the entire webs tarts to see effects The Sociological imagination 1222010 53400 PM Sociologists do it in groups 0 Groups of humans interacting 0 Large nations continents planets 0 Small small groups clubs countries etc o How do we study society 0 Depends on your theoretical orientation Can view these through multiple lenses Classroom relationship as an example 0 Variety of methods ranging from experiments to statistics to interviews Sociological imagination 0 An imagination allows us to dream of other possibilities o clouds in the sky 0 the ability to connect one s personal experiences to society at large and greater historical forces 0 use it to make the familiar strange or to question habits or customs that seem natural to us Focusing the imagination 0 Using Sociological imagination A different lens 0 O Ignore common sense Nothing is ever what it seems Always ask why 0 True objectivity is not possible What is social identity 0 O 0 Social identity is how individuals define themselves in relation to groups they are a part of or in relationship to groups they choose not to be a part of o Humans are social animals Instinctually desire to belong to a group 0 Most importantly we often define ourselves by who we associate with O 0 Not choosing a group is equally important as choosing 0 Social identity is most easily seen in the context of school Institutions like schools are key factors in developing social identities 0 Social institution is a group of social positions connected by social relations that perform a social role Ex Education system a Religion n Medicine n Shape us because they make us fall into our role and they allow it to happen and foster social identities Social institutions also have social identities a Government reputation a School reputation Social identities are often supported and fostered by social institutions a Plinko effect History of Sociology 1222010 53400 PM Early sociology Society is better understood by determining the logic or scientific the belief that there is only and ideas that 19 century French philosopher consider a can not be changed and through positivism he is trying to uncover the ideabehavior o 19 century German philosopher and social critic theory of historical materialism identifies a history is the story of man s fig ht for control of the natural world a social conflictquot 0 First sociologist to appreciate the importance of subjectivity 0 Interested in and the way human society held together Saw religion as a primary mechanism of integration n A nuanced version of Comte s social physics a Suicide computed statistics into sociology a What held us together Integration Divisions within sociology understands local interactional contexts and o looks at social dynamics across whole societies or large parts of them and often relies on as a new social needs arise social institutions and structures rise to met those needs all lenses thus every social structure has a need and purpose within society Major Proponents n Emile Durkheim and Talcott Parsons Born of origins Society iS n Inequality ex Healthcare a Gender ex Used to be domestic conflict over resources 0 Micro theories e level theory which are in turn constructed by people norms are the unspoken laws the we live by Macro or micro level theory are in reality constructed by members of society even though people act as though they n Ex Common sense cant really measure it o Slut social construction used to make someone else feel better 0 Have no legit meaning believing something is real to help themselves culture 1222010 53400 PM What is Culture 0 Feeling culture 0 We all feel it more than we talk about it 0 culture does not occur naturally Societies construct it based around their locations and daily life 0 in people Those individuals continue the culture 0 Cultural expansion o Europeans colonizing AmericaAsiaAfrica found completely different cultures than their own 0 Many colonizers confused differing cultures for ignorance and though inhabitants to be simple minded and in some cases lacking souls Ex Belgians in the Congo a British in India The cultures assimilated together creating culture in many colonies o Why study culture 0 Early sociologists first studied their local culture 0 Introduction to the topics of sociology 0 Cultural relativism 0 Over time cultures began to recognize and legitimize the existence of other cultures 0 Nonmaterial Culture Leadsto r I V a Science and religion a Material culture 0 Material culture is everything physical that is a part of a culture This includes technology Food crawfish Musical instruments 0 subcultures can also exist within subcultures 0 effects of culture humans may create culture but culture passed generationally o norms 0 values 0 ideals socialization process 0 what is socialization Does not happen overnight it is a long process Starts when we are young n Children are indoctrinated into society through their parents friends and any adults they are exposed to 0 Even the most basic social norms are instilled through socialization Desk behavior speech and language Scope of socialization Research into feral children show that a 0 Does not mean that human nature and biological dispositions aren t important 0 Nature vs Nurture Agents of socialization 0 We are also socialized outside of our close families 0 School 0 Peers 0 Media Social status 0 Status has many dimensions and individuals can have more than one status Theory of interaction 0 To fully examine socialization we need a framework or lens to view it through n Extension of symbolic interactionsim 0 Shared meanings When we say that reality is socially constructedquot we mean that humans give meaning to different objects tasks and actions that we consider to inherent 0 Social construction of food Food is socially constructed because the idea of what is or isn t food often derives from social opinion and not nutrition or safety Gender is socially constructed because the values and rules we typically associate with it are decided by society not the presence of genitals deviancecrime 1222010 53400 PM 0 Can be both formal breaking laws and informal breaking social norms o norms are fluid and such will vary The nCrowd o Despite beliefs about the importance of individualism we display high levels of conformity o ncrowd is relative communities with higher levels of cohesion often show better health both physically and mentally and greater satisfaction with their community 0 Number of bowlers increased while the number of bowling leagues decreased Functionalist approach 0 Explains the existence of societal parts by the function they perform people share though day to day interactions social cohesion and solidarity lead to a idea that certain groups have certain norms they all share functionalism review 0 a functionalist view of deviance centers around how deviance influences social cohesion 0 when people from the collective conscience they must be punished Durkheim and Deviance o Durkheim applied his theory of social cohesion to suicide in France 0 His theory centered on the ideas Social integration and regulation 0 Suicide by social integration a Suicide by regulation Deviance summed 0 When we examine deviance we are actually examining social cohesion o Durkheim s Suicide shows the power of social cohesion DUE MONDAY 0 CONFLICT WRITE A PARAGRAPH ON HOW A CONFLICT WOULD SEE DEVIENCE TYPED DUE MONDAY Crime 0 The data behind it 0 Child abduction mostly done by people who know the child parent Kidnapping 1600000 by stranger Death 11500000 kidnappings that result in death 0 Odds of being murdered 1530000 in world 0 odds of dying in a car accident I 16500 0 odds of getting struck by lightning I l500000 0 street crime 0 white collar crime 0 frequently associated with fraud extortion and profit skimming ex madoff 0 problems with crime data 0 reporting of crimes 0 classification of crimes 0 race in crime 0 chances of imprisonment males white 34 Hispanic 10 Black 1 13 0 DNA exposes holes in the system 2004 data a death penalty exonerations o 62 blacks 42 whites 12 latino Social Interaction 9192012 13100 PM Social Interaction Sociology Defining Our Sense Of Self Symbolic InteractionInteractionalism believe that things are fundamentally buried in social interaction George Herbert Mead There is only a social self Self is not a thing but a process of interaction Individual is shaped through communication with self and others Perceptions are ongoing even after social interaction stops Even if you think you re not interacting you re interacting on some level The Looking Glass Self Lack of social contact affected emotional health physical health and sometime mortality of babies Without contact with others prisoners in solitary confinement experienced a wide variety of negative psychological and physical symptoms Charles Horton Cooley We know ourselves through the looking glass of others that mirrors back to us impressions we create Looking for approval is a motivational fundamental human instinct Positive approval contributes to our sense of self and social belonging How people approve of others vary with the individual we seek different things Approval can also vary from culture to culture Positive approval contributes to our sense of self and social belonging Positive and negative approval serve as behavioral cues Christena NippertEng o Researched contents of wallets and purses and found publicly shared and privately kept items o This suggest we think differently about what aspects of our identities we are willing to show and exactly how At all points we change aspects of our personality depending on who we are around or what social setting we are in This is the idea of public vs private People figure out what they can and cant say through experience Garfinkel o Invented ethnomethodologystudy of people s methods o Looked at different ethnic groups o Concluded humans have specific methods for interacting with others o Suggested same methods are used regardless of country culture or historical movement How do we make sense of our worlds Context Context Context o Sociological context is important to social interaction Master method o People persistently and intensively take context into account o Meaning is constructed by drawing on social context You re constantly scanning faces and figuring out whom you can and cannot be near In some cases you feel more or less threatened by certain people but will most likely not be able to vocalize why that is or it may not be socially acceptable to say why Sometimes our brain takes shortcuts c We use previous interactions to set the stage and make judgments about future interactions ie race gender height weight o People are not the same level of dangerous in all settings o Our social context will influence how one reacts Other method o Not demanding complete responses to asked question is sometimes used c Facial cues noises tone Emails o Not constant back and forth o They are calculated o Social contexts can get mist rued Conversation Principles c We know when to use them Utterances o Fit in precise way to ongoing flow of conversations with others c When you use an um you re buying time or stalling the conversation thinking o Can be used to butt into conversation Simultaneous utterances o Making utterances at the same time in a conversation o Includes bowing out of simultaneous utterances o Involves gender age and role difference o Social factors previous bullet point can often decide who continues talking in the conversation after a simultaneous utterances Turn taking o Used to safeguard interactions o Help others save face o Retain more positive sense of self o A back and forth conversation o Letting the other person talk them letting you talk o Pleasant calm conversation Impressions Matter o What people think of you does matter on a lot of different levels o Individual people all have slightly different characteristics o You don t know who actually cares what you look like Then vs Now less news vs constant news and analysis available to us on TV News organizations today constantly examine people and their every action and movement Constantly being critiqued o Some impressions may not matter nowright away but they could later on Emotion o Performances arranged for specific purposes with specific display content that varies by context Crying Fighting Laughing Can be personal or social Can be manipulated What are the social elements of emotion Collective emotion The idea that when something happens there is a shared response or an expected shared response ie collective support Funerals Tragedies Expected emotions Look around to see if others share the same emotion as you Fake clappingclapping at the end of something because it is socially expected Applause Applause Appreciating performance creates cycle of mutual reinforcement between actors and applauding audience Reading of social clues but in a very particular stance Can tell when a crowd is into something and when they are not Performer and crowd constantly read each other Presentation of Self in Digital Age Manipulated in Facebook Twitter texting and other social media to gain approval of others Often uses to bring about copresence face to face interaction or meeting Employs same communication techniques found in other media including print and electronic exchanges Changes some details of interaction patterns but many features remain Interaction in Public o Communication strategies altered when interacting with strangers When surrounded by people you don t know you re going to act different ie getting on the bus o Goffman calls this dimming the lights We can choose to ignore things like when we avoid eye contact in public o Inattention especially in dense places makes social life possible Your brain switches between when to interact and when to notWhen to pay attention and when to not pay attention We intentionally turn off attention to get through the day o You can t worry constantly o Oops often works If you simply drop a book in public much of the time people won t pay attention When you bump into someone often times we say excuse me or im sorry and move on we don t ask if they are okay These break the social barriers accidentally Can bring a response or people may still not pay attention Duneier and Molotch Study o Analyzed interactions between street people and passersby o Men on street routinely remarked on women s bodies appearances and how to entangle them Didn t care how people talked about them or how women responded o Disaffiliative gestures or signals to end the interaction not noticed or ignored o Ignored signals encouraged interactional vandalism Different kind of social interaction than most people have more interaction with strangers What Matters to Us Who matters to us o Significant others people whom are important to you not just your boyfriend or girlfriend Individuals close enough to us to have a strong capacity to motivate our behavior includes more than just a spouse or other o Reference groups consist of others whose social positions and preferences make them especially relevant to our sense of worth Often a little more like us birds of a feather flock together often share commonalities of age tastes status and interests o The term other implies not you c Example reference group the popular girls on mean girls the group you want to be like or don t want to be like Online Social Networking Sites o Often involve members with overlapping reference group memberships o Cluster around commonalities of age taste or status o Contain stars with disproportionate influence some people who are more popular on social networking sites and are more into it than others o Some people are more influential than others What matters to us o Generalized other common sense understandings of what is appropriate in specific time and place A concept of what society thinks Determines a lot of our behavior People act like it doesn t exist but were constantly referencing it o Generalized other CULTURE substance or systems of belief and knowledge of takenforgranted world that together have socialize us Not always boundarybound due to immigration and shifting borders o Generalized other SUBCULTURE sets of individuals who share common preferences or understandings of specific aspects of the social world but remain part of a larger group that is tied together on a more basic level Subcultures are still part of the culture they are just slightly different from one to the next o How does the generalized other work with inattention in dense societies People that you pick out are significant to you others whom we don t care about we don t pay attention to generalized other people on the bus in the quad and so forth Generalized other is concentric there are layers everyone cultural subcultural What challenges do we face as we move from one social context to another Status and Role Change o Status distinct social category are associated with a set of expected behaviors and roles for individuals to assume people in certain positions are supposed to do certain things involves a set of expectation we tend to attach meaning to statuses Different life statuses evolve with change in age and life situations aren t constant Conformity Experiments Asch s classic three line experiment Demonstrated the influence of social context Milgram Induced subjects to deliver what they thought were painful even fatal electrical shocks to a stranger who had given the wrong answer Trying to see how far you can push someone exactly what someone will do KNOW THE MILGRAM EXPERIMENT FOR TEST Zimbardo sStandford prison study Volunteer students acted as guards in mock prisons Some guards became intensely sadistic and prisoners became radically dependent on their guards attitude toward them Roots of Ethnocentrism o The process by which some people tend to prefer their own ethnicity o A process o I act to satisfy my reference group Do things that make our group of friends happy This puts me in opposition to others People link up and cast others away as deviant or different in some lesser or dangerous way Our deviance is their normal and vice versa Other people s ways of life are inferior or maybe evil in part because they are different Social Structure 9192012 13100 PM What is social structure Easiest to see when it breaks down Structural foundation keeps structure upright and shape constrain and enable all activities Enables us to do what we do When social structures break down so does social order A powerful recent example of this was during Hurricane Katrina when lootings and crime skyrocketed in New Orleans Social Structure Social hierarchies found in any society in which some groups or individuals are elevated above others Institutional environments made up of laws rules organizations and the government in which individuals navigate Social Hierarchies Society as a whole is impacted by social hierarchies because they generate tensions and conflicts between dominant and subordinate groups What is happening in society often changes who is in charge of society at one time Some of these groups school prison Ex Religion race wealth Acquired status income education can be changed or acquired Power and Privilege in Social Hierarchies Dominate group seeks to monopolize opportunities or claims on rewards Subordinate group subjected to inferior status and limited opportunities History is filled with examples of the power imbalance within social structure It can be seen in the capacity of the powerful to influence the behavior of others including establishing laws that will exclude subordinate groups and reproduce the power inequality Challenges to Discrimination o Social movement protests Civil rights movement o Women s movement o Legal and political challenges Civil rights act of 1964 o Voting rights act of 1965 Demography is a subset of sociology that pertains to population how the numbers of people can lead to widespread social change o changes in overall size of different social roles is a critical source of overall social change and impact on individual lives o critical mass too many people for you to subordinate o immigration o changes in mix of racial and ethnic groups Critical trends o Longterm decline in agricultural production and employment o Dramatic rise in employment in whitecollar knowledgebased occupations service jobsnon labor employment o Manufacturing has also been on the decline It is important to know these things because there are not hard rules to interaction Ex Apartheid a minority group should not be able to control the majority group Therefore population dynamics are not just number based Enduring Customs as Institutions Some examples organized religion different statuses will have different roles attached to them that function within an institution schools and educational systems marriage system institutions essentially the larger building blocks of social structure organization one unit within an institution Ex School districts nesting element within society we have institutions within institutions we have organization Institutions of government o Stand above institutional structure of any society o Serve as ultimate expression of powers of institutions rigid structure tied to bureaucracy governments are nested themselves o Provide policies and programs related to social insurance and social assistance The context of social interaction c When you re born you re born to a particular family social institutions etc You arrive into a world that is already going before you re even there o Individuals define themselves through identification required for social interaction o Rules o Roles o Social norms Habitus the formalization of socialization the habits that you pick up become imprinted on you Every interaction you have builds on one another and are part of socialization Universal features of socialization processes o Games and roleplaying in early childhood o Structured learning environments and rules in later childhood and adolescence o Continued learning and adaptation to new situations and new guidelines and rules throughout adulthood and rest of life o Structure influences us at every level Social scientists are mixed when it comes to free will vs social structure Sociologists do not agree on which one is more important Culture 9192012 13100 PM The Many Meanings of Culture To understand our culture we must begin to encounter other cultures 18th and 19th century rise of world travel and exposure to world created differences End of 19th century Anthropologists viewed difference between groups of people as learned and biological Early 20th century Culture defined as entire way of life of people Today Culture is a system and culture is a practice Culture as a System What are some collective symbols of contemporary US culture Fast food mcdonalds football blue jeans American flag statue of liberty flip flops dressing your animals symbols shift and change over time o The collective rituals we display in our cultural events such as this cockfight in modern Indonesia can demonstrate shared values What cultural events could reveal shared American values how you spend your time what you do on a regular basis rituals that reveal small facts about people Culture and Context Raising your hand in class vs hailing a cab vs raising arms at a sporting event vs hailing Hitler all similar actions raising your arm up but in different contexts How is culture actually practiced Pierre Bourdieu o People develop certain sets of assumptions about the world and their place in it tastes preferences and skills called habitus o Kinds of habits depend upon upbringing o Future choices and opinions always guided by past experiences o What people do to for meaning in the world c As we grow and move we pick up things o In essence the habitus is everything that you ve picked up o What you do in the future is inherently guided by your past Mass Communication o Internet creates new ways to communicate o Social networks and media o Instant messaging Mass selfcommunication o Internetcentered communication Mainstream cultures subcultures and coutercultures culture is nested within itself Mainstream the dominant norms within a society the larger aspects of a culture ie what it means to be an American in general or remarkably popular television shows Subculture some visual or other characteristic that separates them from the mainstream culture going to see subcultures within every large culture even religion ie different denominations Counterculture a culture that goes intentionally against the mainstream culture done in defiance to another group Hegemonywhen the dominant group upholds common sense values within a culture that work in its favor The Sociological Imagination 1222010 53600 PM Sociologists do it in groups o Groups of humans interacting 0 Large Nations continents planets 0 Small Small groups clubs counties etc How do we study society o Depends on your theoretical orientation 0 Multiple Lenses 0 Classroom relationships as an example o Variety of methods ranging from experiments to statistics to interview 0 Will be elaborated in Methods Chapter An imagination allows us to dream of other possibilities o Clouds in the sky Sociological imagination is the ability to connect one s personal experiences to society at large and greater historical forces Using our sociological imagination allows us to make the familiar strange or to question habits or customs that seem natural to us Using sociological Imagination o A different lens o Ignore Common Sense o Nothing is What it Seems 0 Why True Objectivity is NOT possible What is Social Identity o How you define yourself in relation to groups you are a part or Or not be a part of o Humans are Social Animals 0 Instinctually desire to belong to a group 0 Most importantly we often define ourselves by who we associate with 0 Not choosing a group is equally important as choosing Social identity is most easily seen in the context of schools Social institutions like schools are key factors in developing social identities A social institution is a group of social positions connected by social relations that perform a social role o Education System o Religion o Medicine Social Institutions also have social identities o Government Reputation c School Reputation Social identities are often supported and fostered by social institutions o Plinko Effect 1222010 53600 PM 1222010 53600 PM Sociology 2001 RACE ETHNICITY A Histor of Identification Race is on some level a social construction many people believe race can be easily defined 0 An issue of measurement 0 Pseudoscience and Race I Pseudoscience science not recognized by the larger scientific community I Phrenology scientist would determine characteristics by the bumps of the head I These types of terminology were used to create division between races 0 One Drop Rule one drop of minority blood makes you a minority This kind of rule led to ways to deny certain group privileges o Sociological Reasoning 0 Ethnicity group that uses cultural values or is distinguished to set themselves apart What Separates Ethnicity from Race 0 Awareness of identity 0 Idea of a belongingness sense of being part of a group 0 Geography different people come from different parts of the world 0 Race Classifying groups based on a physical characteristic o Racialization When a culture is grouped together as a race a process by how groups of individuals of separate group become clump together into one 0 Native Americans It s important because there are heavy distinctions with how these groups April 25 2011 Suburban nner Poor amp minority Discrimination and structure Discrimination It s when a group is denied resources A broad process 0 Women 0 Across all races 0 Population Dynamics Sociology 2001 Discrimination represents one structural barrier than some individuals must deal with Group Individual Labor market Gender Religion Race Education Age Summag Examining variation in outcomes for minorities Discrimination William Julius Wilson and Class quotThe Truly Disadvantaged 1986 He argues That class is now more important than race What happened to the black middle class Discrimination still exist 0 Different and less important He argues it was important in three different areas 0 Slavery there s no gain or outcome for discriminationduring this time o Emancipation most influential and problematic restriction on when individual could be a part of society 0 Civil rights There are now federal Law individuals were separate but equal While it did level the playing field Wilson argues that it didn t work 0 Class Dynamics Benefits of Income 0 Moving up During slavery there was no income forthe minority population all of it went to Majority In the emancipation there were structural barriers Civil rights were supposed to clearthings up intended to merge to upper and lower class Wilson argues it never happened Unintended Consequences 0 Residential Segregation During slavery there was no income for the minority population all of it went to Majority In the emancipation there were structural barriers Civil rights were supposed to clear things up April 29 2011 William Julius Wilson Continued Reasons why the black middle class never took hold Slavery No high need for discrimination because it was a law to define people as less than human No land owner rights Emancipation Sociology 2001 There was the denial andor limited access to resources sharecropping Civil right Legislators tried to make a difference but factors such as recession caused Residential Segregation Individual living in different environments Benefit of Income 0 Moving up out of low income areas Unintended Consequences 0 Residential Segregation The economic collapse 0 1970s I There were no black midclass so people earning new income either move to white neighborhood or stay in the neighborhood they re in 0 Service Economy I Wage along with everything else collapsed taking a toll on o Segregation Class over Race Population dynamics Short rise Large populations still in poverty Barriers to mobility Education access remarkably limited Job access Residential segregation Wilsons Lesson Public policy Race based policies will not work We should Address class issues more than race we would get at the issues for everyone its not that a group are unable Collaboration of many sociological concepts Stratification Race Labor markets May 2 2011 Sociology 2001 Education Primary Gains from Education GBIM N Educational miummerif 0 Functional literacy the amount of literacy required to get through life Porenn edutoriau o Innumeracy not having the basic mathematical skill to function 5 F mm j pm Secondary Gains from Education 0 Hidden curriculum things that happen in the background 0 Socialization The idea that we pick up a lot of thing about social norm through interaction Individual or Structure quotIf we think of children they are seen as blank canvases 0 Individual level 0 Structural level 0 Student 0 State 0 School 0 Class Performance and Measurement 0 IQTest 0 Which intelligence I How do you accuratelyfigure out how smart someone is what matters 1 Environment 2 Individual 3 Questions llIt s one big scale of smartness Sociologist argues that there are different types of intelligence o Standardized Testing 0 Bias What causes bias Why is it difficult to measure Intelligence May 4 2011 Review Education Hidden curriculum unspoken o Socialization behavior norms Sociology 2001 Status attainment 9 Human capital sort of investing in you education as 9Health of education system 9 Coleman report 1966How much moneyspent perstudent Famiy influence Peer influence Testing Biases in test should be considered Religion Theardaorg Individual Belief sociologist are not interested in proving one s belief right or wrong Is religion still important 0 Very high attendance 0 Very high adherence Religion in the US is Pluralistic multiple groups 0 Theocracy government ruled based on religion 0 Modernization removal of religion from the importance of everyday life religion becomes less important How does a social scientist ask how religious someone is Qualitative Open ended Quantitative Adherence Attendance Holidays It s Kind of difficult to measure Religion in the community Sociology 2001 Denomination sub group ofa religious group Christianity 0 Catholic 0 Main protestant o Evangelical People who attend services regularly have increased health 0 Psychological 0 Physical Health Social Capitol 0 Bridging groups that leave their local community they will reach out to people with the intent to convert Meeting with other groups 0 Bonding Only work with their own community more tightly knit May 6 2011 Semiinvoluntary Institution Religious function 0 Similar to social capitol because people in the communities spend time with each other Secondary function 0 Religion can sometimes take the place of other institutions to supply needed services I Educational Opportunities GED Tutoring I Job opportunities Job Skills Training I Emotional Support Counseling talking to the priest HistoricalSignificance 0 Not so much an individual system but more a societal matter 0 Religion performs a lot of different functions within the community CHURCH SECT CYCLE Categorization Church mainstream Sect True Believers that s what they believe they are they are formed when they break away from the church They form into a church over time Cult Fresh Claim some sort of new aspect adding something new to their beliefs Sociology 2001 How the tensions relate to the larger area Churches Low tension with society Mainstream Beliefs 0 Southern Baptist 0 Catholics o Lutheran o Etc Sect Offshoot of an original Church True believers 0 They believe they are the true custodians of the religion and the mainstreams are diverting from the true belief Offshoot of Traditional group High Tension o Shakers 0 Children of God shows video Cult A small group that claims something very different High tension Smaller than a sect New Supernatural o Heaven s gate shows video 0 Peoples Temple shows video Sociology 82311 Sociological Imagination What is Sociology o Sociology is the study of human society 0 Humans are harder to study because they are dynamic and more complex than other organisms o Humans are diverse especially in groups 0 Society group civil savage a society is lose The Sociological Imagination o Coined by C Wright Mills this tool helps us to 0 Connect our personal experiences to society at large and greater historical forces gt Relate each other the past now 0 quotmake the familiar strangequot or to question habits or customs that seem quotnaturalquot to us meaningquestioning where you come from OR looking at things that are common to you and realize that they may be weird or strange to others form other places Focusing the Imagination 0 Using the Sociological Imagination O O O O A different lens Ignore common sense common sense varies on who you are where you grow up and what has in uenced youyou can39t let your childhood in uence you on what the world really is Nothing is really what it seems a lot of ppl can be quick to judge when people are put in positions when they are put under pressure they jump to conclusionwhen something happens not everything is known quotWhyquot quotTrue objectivity is impossiblequot if something is truly objective you would be able to separate yourself from emotions which is impossibleespecially social things Why the Sociological Imagination Sociological Imagination appeals to a broader concept 0 When examining social phenomena a sociologist must examine all sides of things 0 Examination of Bias 0 Example Fertility 1 of babies 2 born 3 of babies that survive past 1 year of age 4 ofviable women 0 Fertility Over Time 0 Fertility rates in the US have dropped dramatically o 21 replacement fertility of babies that need to exist to keep the world with the same number of people it has What is a Social Institution 0 Social institutions are networks of structures in societythat work to socialize the groups of people within themExamples include o The legal system 0 The labor market 0 The educational system 0 The military 0 The family Think of society at a lot of different levels Macro quotbigquot 0 Legal system Micro quotsmallquot 0 Family What is Social Identity We interact with environments and social institutions as people We are defined by a lot of different things 0 The way individuals define themselves in relationship to groups they are a part of or in relationship to groups they choose not to be a part of o Perception is reality what you see is what you understand The History of Sociology o Auguste Comte society is better understood by determining the logic or scientific laws governing human behavior called social physics or positives he believed that essentially you are looking for one truth 0 Karl Marx theory of historical materialism which identifies class con ict as the primary cause of social change he said there is more here then justlaws more can in uence peoplehe said maybe the history of the area can have long term effects or the things we have can in uence things 0 Max Weber emphasis on subjectivity became a foundation ofinterpretive sociology beginning of changemeaning sociology began to develop of research 0 Verstehen to know to interpret you have to understandtrying to look through someone elses eyes and understand why they interpret it that way o Emile Durkheim founder of positivist sociology theory that the division oflabor helps to determine social cohesion bonding or why people are held together or not maintained in a society Wanted to explain social scenarios like suicide 2 Functionalism con ict theory feminist theory symbolic interaction postmodernism and midrange theory are all modern sociological theories Functionalism Contd o Functionalists they were concerned with how society works functions believed the world was the same way society changed depending on what it needed E giggire o Organism EX 1a 0 Correction iii countmg 0 Each institution was part of a O Rehab perception 0 Punishment 0 marriage WhOIe 0 quotfit into society how to work 0 Reputation with other 0 serves as a functlon people 0 bullying causing insecurity Sociology 5411 Education 0 Hidden Curriculum 0 Behavior and social norms 0 Status Attainment 0 Education predicts status attainment 0 Human Capital 0 Education System 0 Coleman report 1866 I Seeing if how much money per student spent in the education system mattered Found no link between dollars per student and educational attainment What actually mattered 0 Family in uence 0 Peer in uence 0 Testing 0 Tests primarily determine opportunites like getting into college 0 Thus issues ofbias are important ie unfair grading Religion 0 Individual beliefs 0 Society wise it s usually not that helpful 0 Is religion still important 0 Very high attendence 0 Very high adherence 0 Religion in US is Pluralistic 0 Many different religions o Other countries 0 Theocracy government with religion as the ruling body 0 Modernization religion becomes less important in public life 0 Religion in Sociological Studies 0 Qualitative I Open questions ex How you feel about your religion 0 Quantitative I Adherence I Attendance I Holidays 0 Religion in the community 0 Denomination subgroup ofa religious group 0 Increased health I Psychologically I Physical health 0 Social Capital I Bridging I Bonding o Moretightlynit Sociology Notes March 18 J39Lexius Rodriguez Norms o Norms inform behavior 0 Why comply If not law why comply o Efficiency 0 Fairness 0 Safety driving law and black Friday 0 What if you don t comply Deviance 0 Anything outside the norm 0 Most concerned at the group level not individual level 0 Takes on different contexts at group levels 0 Deviance is an issue of context 0 Depends on culture 0 Smallest to largest Social Sanctions 0 Consequences you pay for being deviant o Bullying 0 Removal Example institutionalize prison publicly put someone out there like sex offenders 0 Law and crime 0 Violation of law is deviance 0 Formal deviance is breaking the law 0 Non formal is breaking a norm Why is there deviance 0 Biological explanations 0 Criminal profiles Said a criminal s brain is different than everyone else s 0 Certain types of people came out of womb deviant o Clipping lobes Process once used to stop criminals from being criminals They would literally stick something up the criminals nose and scramble part of the frontal lobe which was the part that thought dealt with deviance o Psychologicalexplanations 0 Personality types Certain types are more prone to different things 0 From group perspective Functionalists Approach 0 Functionalism o Organism view of society 0 As society needs things they come about 0 Institutions organs develop to meet social needs 0 Explains the existence of societal parts by the function they perform 0 Deviance exists for a reason 0 Social cohesion 0 Strength of the social bonds people share through day to day interaction 0 Functionalists may say that deviance strengthens social cohesion Sociology Notes March 11 J39Lexius Rodriguez Functionalism Review 0 A functionalist view of deviance centers around how deviance influences social cohesion Q We are held together in the collective conscience 0 When people break from the collective conscience they must be punished o Punishment further reinforces the collective conscience because we don t want to be punished o Deviance can become a crime 0 Crime is deviance but all deviance is not crime 0 From a functionalist perspective we re trying to find its function 0 What does it do 0 There has to be some sort of deviance on some level 0 Deviance does introduce innovation into society 0 Without deviance we would do the same things over and over Things would always be the same 0 Adults bully other adults 0 This happens frequently 0 Deviance solidifies a collective conscience o Putnam focused on people being close 0 Cohesion Conflict Theory 0 Conflict over resources causes social change 0 Social forces are always in conflict 0 There s always some issue 0 Deviance conflict with social institutionsorder 0 Examples bullying KKK o How do conflict theorists see the above examples as deviance It s outside of the social norms 0 Power is your will over someone else Conflict Approach to Deviance o Deviance as Social Action 0 Civil movements 0 Almost a statement or protest 0 New criminology 0 Power and law 0 Law is not made my lower class individuals poor working class They argue that law is made from wealthy elites Disparities in Sentencing 0 Video Cocaine African Americans get a 10 year sentence for having 50 grams of cocaine However white people get a 10 year sentence for having 5000 grams of cocaine Symbolic Interactionism Focused on a creation of norms Interaction reinforces social norms Norms are reinforced slowly over time Behavior is shaped by norms and learned Social construction 0 Constructed by the members of that group of people Labeling Theory Labeled by others Most deviance don t label themselves deviance Deviance is something implied by other individuals 0 According to this theory Group perception o Marijuana usage The Devil s Harvest 0 Gay Rights Someone in class has some tiny deviant things that they do Primary Deviance o The first act of deviance Secondary deviance 0 Subsequent deviance of the same sort Stigma Management Sociology Notes March 23 J39Lexius Rodriguez Finishing up deviance 0 Each theory has a direct are pointed way of looking of things that it shaped by the individuals authors 0 Not always do these theories hold weight 0 Functionalism o What deviance does 0 How do functionalist view deviance It sets boundaries of norms a What not to do u It s trying to figure out what you can and cannot get away with Groups forming a It can also strengthen them 0 Social solidarity individuals are slowly tied together 0 Functionalism explains why deviance exists 0 Functionalism assumes that groups are together for one thing 0 Universal Norms What if the norms aren t universal u The things you should or should not eat etc 0 Individuals are going to be different on different levels 0 Conflict 0 There s a conflict over resources 0 Social action protest We don t mean protest as in war but in deviance being an act against a norm 0 There s going to be a lot of different variation 0 Individuals break social norms o Intention o Wealthy Have already extracted resources 0 Functionalism and conflict theory are on the macro level 0 Symbolic Interaction o On the micro level 0 Norms and interaction 0 There s a label being applied Labels are applied outside the individual and influence the behavior of the individual 0 Primary deviance The first act is the first act under deviance 0 Secondary deviance The subsequent acts under the first act Example if someone is labeled a criminal then why stop committing criminal acts 0 Are all labels bad Probably not Some labels are completely socially constructed Crime 0 You pick areas of crime 0 But crime can happen anywhere not just in certain areas 0 Where does crime data come from 0 Data based Violent Non violent crime Which one is most frequent u Non violent u 12 is violent limitations of data a Police reports a Non reporting crime can limit data 0 Uniform crime reports Victim studies a Social scientists interview to find more information 0 Has crime gotten worse better or the same 0 Violent crime rate has dropped 0 Majority of the violent crime is aggravated assault 0 Burglary the criminal is not there 0 Robbery the criminal is in contact with you o LarcenyTheft make up a much larger crime Perception of Crime 0 Child Abduction US 0 Kidnapping 1600000 0 Death of child from kidnapping 11500000 Odds of being murdered WHO 0 1530000 Odds of Dying in a Car Accident US 0 16500 Odds of Getting Struck by Lightning NLS o 1500000 You can t predict crime Sociology Notes March 25 Crime J39Lexius Rodriguez Is going to be recognized by some sort of state or government Overall women commit less crime than men Men get murdered more 0 Primarily black men Men are incarcerated and commit more crime than women Essentialism 0 School of thought that all differences of gender or biologically based There is something biologically in women to make to not commit crime There is something biologically in men to make them commit crime a Because of some sort of essential element Men are more likely to die in accidents Risky behavior 0 General stupid things dare devilish o The reason that men do die more than women is because they do more risky behavior 0 Unprotected sex 0 Men are expected to be more aggressive o Feminine is nurturing Does prison work 0 Recidivism rates The rate at which people go back to jail Louisiana 67 go back in 3 years 0 Security Safety The outbreaks the prison has Rehabilitation 0 Environmental issues 0 Psychological 0 Imagine going back home after you graduate from college You might have changed but the environment may have not Prison stigma 0 Being a prior prisoner is hard for that person to get a job Sociology Notes March 28 J39Lexius Rodriguez Stratification Becoming Concerned with Status 0 The most frequently occurred is inequality 0 Different layers of society why they might not be equal and what it means o Systems can inhibit individuals 0 Systems can inhibit the options that individuals have 0 No one is saying we choose to not have free will Status and Prestige 0 Status a social honor or prestige that a group is concerned with 0 Different groups can have different characteristics prestige or goals 0 Example High School 0 There is not a lot you can do that can get things done Not a lot of power 0 However students do have a some power Some people consider their group more important than others Students determine social groups 0 Example 2 Consumers 0 Some people buy things just to show them off 0 Picture Long Line for the Apple Ipad 2 0 Example 3 Jobs 0 Garbage man 0 Business womanman l 0 We don39t know what he sells 0 Most people will regard the business man as having higher prestige o If you had a question about business who would you ask The business man 0 When we talk about status and prestige we39re not always talking about money Stratification Syste m 0 Structural Inequality Slavery 0 Different groups tend to favor different types of inequality Large Structure 0 We re not just talking about the education system or criminal law structure Social mobility o Describes the capacity in a given society for one to change ranks For one to move up and down a stratification system 0 Example The American Dream You start your way from the bottom and work your way to the top 1 The rankings apply to a social category of people who share common characteristics 0 A particular group has different outcomes 0 Could be based on gender race or disabilities 2 People s life experiences and opportunities depend heavily on how their social life is ranked 0 Your ranking determines where you can go who you can hang out with or in some cases where you can eat 3 The ranks of different social categories tend to change slowly 0 There is something why there is limited social mobility why rankings don t change Equality 0 People talk about it all the time 0 Outcome does everyone end up with the same thing 0 Opportunity everyone gets the same chance This is what I think most people consider inequality Gremillion A form of social stratification where some members of a society are allowed to own other members A system of social inequality 0 Most people don t think this though Had gone back a long time Video Rome Slavery 0 Rome system was very complex 0 Slavery is ranked low in social mobility You could buy your way out of slavery depending on how much money you had and who was your owner However in most cases once you re bought as a slave it is hard to get out of it o The slaves weren t just a certain race or gender The slaves were just captured in war etc o Slavery is simplistic Caste System 0 A system in which one s social status is given for life 0 The caste system in India is illegal 0 However it still exists 0 No social mobility Class System 0 System in which socioeconomic differences are used to differentiate groups 0 Based on money Money is something that can be acquired There is more social mobility within a class system In America the class system is more complex America is not completely a class system 0 If America wascompletely a class system the people with the most money would rule How are class systems different 0 What limits how much money you make Your education Social Mobility Slavery Caste Class Systems Sociology Notes March 30 J39Lexius Rodriguez How are class systems different 0 Class systems are fluid mobile can change 0 This system has the most social mobility 0 Social mobility doesn t always mean to go up you can go down Q m m o s positions are in some part achieved 0 Potential to achieve a higher status 0 Achieved through education etc 0 Class is economically based 0 One s position within a class system is largely based on income and wealth Income money you have coming in Wealth what you re worth Q m m o s systems are large and impersonal o A lot of the class based exchanges aren t even noticed o Interacting with class without even realizing it Marx and Labor 0 Marx s enemy is capitalism c He believed that capitalism can rob you of humanity c He had 2 categories 0 Capitalists Owns the production the person who owned the factory 0 Workers Factory worker Works for the capitalists Earned a wage a Trading your time and labor for money 0 Marx was concerned with workers who did things over and over in a factory He felt they would become alienated isolated o Marx saw capitalists and workers having inequality 0 The reason is surplus value 0 The food is substantially cheaper The cost of labor is being made but a large amount of surplus is made 0 No matter what the workers did the capitalists would always make more money Increased inequality 0 He saw the agrarian lifestyle fade o The big limitation for Marx idea according to Gremillion is that it s so simple to life Weber s Class 0 Weber argues some characteristics that we have learned 0 Our outcomes are based on characteristics we earn not just the one s that we have 0 Characteristics 0 Acquired Things that you earned Skills etc o Ascribed Things that you can t do anything about Gender race 0 The acquired and ascribed characteristics has something to do with your outcomes 0 Weber says that status and class are different 0 Your social class is only concerned with your income 0 Status prestige reputation Social status will be perceived in different cultures People with low prestige can still make a lot of money a Example drug dealers negative prestige o Pariah groups Has low status Involvement in low groups can lower status overall a Negatively affect your overall status 0 Marx argues that status and class are the same Functionalists 0 Their goal is to find a function 0 Davis and Moore 0 Why would inequality have a function 0 Different people need different jobs 0 These people are different because of skills intelligence and physical strength 0 Things are stratified for a reason 0 Certain jobs are rewarded more than other jobs because they re more important than others 0 Would you want some idiot off the street being a doctor 0 Inequality is inherent and performs a function Inequality divides up labor What does it take to become a doctor 0 You have to go to grad school for a long time In order to have a high level degree you have to stay in college for a long time In order to stay in college you have to give a lot of money especially if you are in college for a long time 3 Tiered Class System Graph 0 Option C middle class gt low class gt high class Sociology Notes April 1 J39Lexius Rodriguez Defining Class in the US 0 What we re most concerned with today is going to be Weber 0 He treats status and class as separate things 0 Status is a thing about prestige It s how important people think your job is It s how the rest of society likes your job Even though garbage men do a very important job they have a low status 0 Four characteristics of inequality 0 Income payment usually derived from wages It is usually consistent It s the money you are getting in You could have a high income but not be wealthy You can also have a low income but have a high statusclass position a They could have inherited a lot of money 0 Wealth money and material possessions held by a group or individual 0 Education years of schooling an individual has Biggest predictor of income Education is largest acquired characteristic you could have 0 Occupation the job of an individual Those ranked highest on surveys usually have the highest education requirements Highly correlated with education The people with the highest status usually have a higher education Class Structure 0 Upper class Q Households earning 297000year o 5 of American households 0 Wealth rather than income 0 Middle class Q Uppermiddle 120000 to 300000 PHH 20 of US higher education professionals 0 Lower middle 48000 to 122000 PHH 40 of US trained office workers skilled workers 0 Working class 28777 to 48223 PHH 20 of US Blue and Pink collar workers Clerical work household cleaning Work very very hard to get by Lower class 0 Lower than 28777 15 of the US 0 Urban unskilled or semi skilled 0 Do things over and over again 0 Underclass Lack access to the work Socialized into poverty Don t work Usually only encounter people that are characteristic of themselves Social Mobility Intragenerational mobility movement up or down a social stratification hierarchy within the course of one s life You could work at ABC and get fired You have to work your way from the bottom to the top Known as the American Dream Intergenerational mobility movement up or down a social stratification hierarchy from one generation to the next Social mobility explains the opportunities that different individuals have Areas that are formerly important or shrinking The poor is migrating out of the city to the suburbs The upper class is moving into the central city Who has the most mobility In 1967 a guy decided he wanted to test social mobility Marx had spoken about his a few years before but doing this with math is new 0 What social characteristics were do to income They found They found that starting at the top was better This meant that you would probably do better also Long range of mobility is rare This means that starting from the bottom and working your way to the top is rare Education is the largest predictor of income Your father s education was more important than anything 0 Most of the studies were done on white men in the past Bourdieu and Family o Socialization process and family effects you 0 Way they socialize 0 Different class positions have different have different opportunities Higher class a Are able to contribute more time to their childrens education a People who have more money don t have to work often Lower class a It s really hard trying to work several jobs and helping your kids with homework Why social mobility So far Social mobility is the most salient way to view the structure The ability to start at the bottom and go the top is the excelling point for immigrants The use of random samples by researchers ensures that individuals abilities are controlled and taken out of the equation Your ability to move around in a social system is an indictment of its structure and strength Individuals 0 Gender 0 Race 0 Education 0 Parent social 0 Class 0 Parents 0 Education 0 Peer s influence Greatly influences the individual s outcomes Macro level states and systems Meso level labor markets Sociology Notes April 4 J39Lexius Rodriguez The Lesson of Stratification Structural elements of class and inequality Social mobility is both upward and downward 0 So there is a possibility that you could fall below Our culture is not very collective o It is very individually eccentric Regardless of what is our individual notion of success there is a group of people that is always on the bottom of something People have tried a lot of different things to get people out of poverty but it doesn t work In real dollars the amount of money we make now is no different from the money people made back then because of inflation We defined poverty as 0 Absolute poverty do not earn enough income to feed yourself for a year Bare minimum 0 Relative poverty median income in a given location 0 Poverty rate a guideline the government sets of what it means to be poor 1 10830 2 14570 3 18310 Usually individuals who are not consistently employed 0 Culture of poverty Has come up and down over the years There are informal economies in these environments u Eg selling drugs This creates a socialization process Overtime is replicates itself Eg American South u Developed out of poverty Haiti Video Child Slaves u Restaveks child slaves When we think about the food we eat we don t think about how much is produced or how much we consume To eat organic food it is very expensive When you re living in a rural area there may not be a grocery store 0 You ll probably see a convenient store Sociology Notes April 6 J39Lexius Rodriguez Gender 0 Gender is very important There is a lot of inequalities Basic assumptions 0 To understand gender in a sociological context we must work with 2 basic assumptions 0 There are biological differences between males and females 0 Gender is a social construction The way individuals pick gender is by social interaction When do babies first socialize Almost immediately They are dressed in boy colored and girl colored clothes Sex and Gender 0 Sex the biological and anatomical differences that separate females from males 0 Gender social expectations of behavior regarded as appropriate for the members of each sex NOT JUST PHYSICAL o How do people of different genders figure out how they re supposed to act 0 Sex and gender are separate 0 Biological fundamentalism is essential o Essentialism the belief that all social beliefs are based on a biological bases An essential trait or something that is essential to humanity o Asexual reproduction is not done with humans but plants do it o Hermaphrodites individuals with both sets of gene Talia David Reimer He went to get a circumcision but it was so bad that the doctor removed his existing genitals and made him female This caused extensive psychological issues in his future A study was done before the happened to Reimer The results of the study showed that most people committed suicide in their later years Role of stereotypes 0 Men are aggressive and desire more sex 0 Stereotypes are not universal o What stereotype is can shift from culture to culture Feminine masculinity o Masculine individuals who have feminine ways may or may not be gay vice versa 0 Women who have a masculine identity or style are often chastised as being lesbians o Dike discourse people refer to you as a dike whether you re straight or not Gender Alternative in Other Cultures Reversal of Roles Mead 1963 o Occurred in New Guinea 0 Three tribes o Arapesh close to traditional west role Females cooked men worked 0 Mundugumor very similar social roles for males females Whatever had to get done was done by either females or males 0 Tchambuil reversal of western gender roles Females gathered food and killed animals men nurtured Sociology Notes April 6 J39Lexius Rodriguez Gender is Society Gender Inequality When people talk about gender and sex they re talking about the mix of the biological and the social differences We treat gender as social construction 0 We mean that gender can change Inequality and differentiation are not the same 0 Eg woman CAN have different jobs than man 0 The meaning of inequality we use is wealth income and status Historical changes in labor 0 Industrialization Public Private Life 0 Industrialization is the big change from the agrarian life to machinery 0 Public you leave the house to do work Carved a cleavage in social life that didn t exist before Women s lib and labor force participation 0 Shift to service economy 0 We ve seen some major changes in work life and in social life 0 Women s participation increased after the 605 or 705 0 Status Attainment Most important finding as far as success goes is education More and more women are going to be highly educated 0 Social Mobility Why do men have more income than woman 0 More men in high income 0 Women stay home with the family more often 0 Sexism o Socialization o Essentialism there s something crazy in women to make them not make know how to use the machines Inequality at Work Gender typing designation of occupations as male or female 0 Certain jobs are for men or women 0 Woman construction worker Man Nurse Glass Ceiling and Escalator Glass ceiling promotional barrier that prevents women s upward mobility 0 Not a lot of women are CEOs 0 Glass escalator o Processes by which men in female professions benefit from unfair rapid rise within an organization 0 Social Problems 1992 They assumed that the man didn t shoot high enough because he was in a female position Sociology Notes April 11 J39Lexius Rodriguez What is covered on Api39ill13 will NOT be on EXAM 3 Analyzing Gender 0 Gender Empowerment Around the World 0 Women are well represented in power in part of CEOs and the money they make 0 You don t see a lot of female Donald Trumps 0 Examining Differences o In labor and managerial more men than women 0 In clerical and service more women than men 0 Social Construction gender itself is different than sex 0 We re not going to deal with essentialism all that much 0 Functionalist perspective Sexual Theory 0 The functionalist perspective on gender 0 There are functions performed by social institutions 0 Sex Role Theory Extension of Functionalism social structures have uses and jobs like organs in the body Different genders developed in orders to fulfill the specific needs of society 0 Men to work Women to raise workers 0 Nuclear family momma daddy and baby this child is biological Smallest number to procreate and continue on The father is the bread winner Someone has to work in the factory someone has to take care of the family 0 There are two genders that are created two functional genders Nurturer and the bread winner slightly biological 0 Once worked moved outside the home your private life became your public life 0 Conflict theory Feminist Theory 0 Conflict between sexes 0 Gender inequality from a conflict perspective is the result of competition 0 Sexes conflict over power outcomes income and wealth and status 0 Feminism concept equality for women women first 0 Liberal feminism inequality is a product of unequal access to social institutions and resources Women have graduated from college more than men lately Women were not encouraged to go to collegethey were expected to get married Fertility rates have dropped because of women going to college a Women get pregnant around 28 yo a Are things like fertility the reason why inequality exists Discrimination occurs when your are denied something Theoretical Perspectives on Gender 0 O A deeper analytic must be developed to explain and examine the differences between the genders Let s assume that biological sex is the reason for inequality How do you explain that Sociology Notes April 13 J39Lexius Rodriguez Gender Inequality Essentialism biological I Men and women are biologically different Functionalism I The idea that individuals have different slots I Traditional family 0 Mom nurtures 0 Dad bread winner 0 Baby 1 Con ict feminisim I Discrimination and social norms have in uenced the path that women have taken I Why men make more money then women 0 Access to education 0 Access to other institution law military Questions I Women have graduated more than men I Women are majoring in science more I Chapters 6 7 9 I Strati cation o Slavery o Caste 0 Class Inequality income Formal deviance is a crime Informal deviance has no penalty 0 Normative Baton Rouge has gone up even though crime has gone up nationally Don39t need to know specific incomes I Marx essentially argued that capitalism had producers and workers 0 Producers owned the means of production owned factories Sociology 2001 Jan 21 J39Lexius Rodriguez Application of Scientific Principles o Social Science o Humans can lie and act irrationally o This creates a major problem in trying to apply scientific principles o Phenomena 0 Problems o Measuring o Testing o Aren t going to have a solid right or wrong answer o You compare and contrast Individual and Group o Individual 0 Oneperson o Represents how we interact with the world 0 On the individual level we experience the world o Group means more than one 0 Ex United States population 0 Babyboomers range from age 30 40 o Age Race Gender Levels of Understanding o Macro Level 0 Largest Level Could be national or even global There could be a lot of things as of what you can do There are no reliable global data In the macro level you usually talk about a nation Meso Level o Small Group 0 Regional State or Firm For instancean organizationthe state of Louisiana Micro Level o The individual Level 0 Individual status characteristics o People tend to act similar O For example most of us eatmost of us go to class People do the same things over and over again Just because one person does one thingdoesn t mean that they represent the whole world c When we study we have to be mindful of what level we re at and how big something can get c When you talk about poverty in the south people relate poverty with the black race 0 Poverty is different in different places 0 O The Sociological Imagination o Is the most fundamental term we re going to learn o Alternative possibilities o Perception is almost everything o The sociological imagination is the ability to connect one s personal experiences to society of large and greater historical forces 0 It s your ability to stop and realize the way you see the world may or may not represent the world 0 Make the familiar strange Take something that you know and separate yourself from it People who make a lot of money and who don t make a lot of money say how much they make However people in the middle don t say People attach personal meaning to what we do all the time o Poor people tend to have more kidsyou have to rely on facts Focusing the Imagination o We re going to ask research question that are broad o Using the Sociological Imagination o A different lens Ignore common sense Nothing is what it seems especially with social situations You will always ask why 0 O O o True objectivity is impossible Why the Sociological Imagination o Sociological Imagination appeals to a broader concept 0 When examining social phenomena a sociologist must examine all sides of things You re always going to think about what you re examining o Examination of Bias 0 Example Fertility very important concept How many babies a person has happens to determine the population Everyone needs to have 2 babies in order to keep the population as it is Fertility Rates in the US have dropped dramatically a After the baby boom fertility has stayed flat for 30 years Sociology 2001 Jan 26 J39Lexius Rodriguez So far o Individual and Group 0 Phenomenon can have different effects in different places 0 On different levels we may experiment certain things From the individual level you may lack access to food On a group level there may be more drug use etc o Levels of Analysis 0 Different variations on the group The different effects on different levels also have different effects on different levels o Sociological Imagination First step of social analytics It makes the most sense You can t let your own personal biases interfere The group itself can eventually can develop it s own characteristics 0 O O 0 What Is Social Identity o Everyone knows what it s like to live hisher life o Social Identity is how individuals define themselves in relation to groups they are a part of or in relationships to groups they choose not to be a part of People tend to group together Social Identity is most easily seen in the context of school o Social Institutions like schools are key factors in developing social identities 0 Without some academic structure how can a person be a nerd What is a Social Institution o A social institution is a group of social positions connected by social relations that perform a social role 0 Education System Very popular We will talk about all the stuff you don t learn 0 Religion O We will look at what religion does in a community Medicine o Social Institutions also have social identities 0 Ex LSU is a party school o Government Reputation c School Reputation o Corporate Reputation o Do people shape the social institution OR do social institutions shape the people Structural Elements of Society o Individual vs The Group 0 0 Social Status Social Institutions Law Education Religion Both social structure and the individual are a part of social society Building blocks of social research and investigation We re examining social structure structural examination A Brief Sociological History o Comte Social Physics August Comte O O Coined the term Sociology Was really interested in finding the rule of social society First formalization of social research Comte began by using this hard sciences model Hard sciences model things that can be measured an tested solidly n Ex Physics a When you deal with things involving people they may not tell the truth Comte believed in Social Physics Social Rules Comte is the father of positivism all social phenomenon can be measured and testedone knowledge Sociology 2001 Jan 28 J39Lexius Rodriguez August Comte continued o Believed to be a high priest of science o Didn t have access to many people 0 Couldn t get data from people o Took something he already new and applied it o Arm Chair Theory 0 Giving grand theories of the world but you really haven t gone out and did anything Discussing the Sciences o What is the scope of a social science 0 Scope range 0 What question can sociologists ask Can everything be 100 measured Probably not Examples a Can you measure relationships You can measure something but it might not mean anything a For example you can measure the amount of marshmellow consumption but what does that actually mean The broader the question the more information you get For example you can measure a relationship by where they hang out or whom they hang out with However you might not be able to measure details of the relationship Do you think it s fair that social sciences and hard sciences work together Those two things seem fundamentally different to me Gremillion O O Emile Durkheim o Society can constrain individuals meaning society is a structure in and itself In other words society can constrain us and benefit us as well o Focused on the concept solidarity 0 Organic Solidarity society depends upon the cooperation of people to function o Began his days studying religions the way different groups interacted with the earth and religion c To Durkheim the things we do keep us together o Durkheim believed there were consequences c He believed some people did not fit into society so consequences began o Durkheim was French o Suicide Durkheim believed that suicide was related to society itself 0 Durkheim found suicide in cases where people weren t integrated o Anomie lack of the usual social or ethical standards in an individual or groupto be without norm Max Weber Objectivity o Weber was interested in subjective meaning o Interpretive Sociology variant of sociology that emphasizes the understanding of subjective meaning o Weber believed you should examine something completely o Verstehen empathetic understanding 0 When you empathize something you re putting effort in understanding someone s position 0 It s kind of like you copy and pasted yourself in another person s situation o Weber believed that you can t just watch someone in situationsyou have to do much more Karl Marx Historical Context o Theory of historical materialism identifies class conflict economics as the primary cause of social change 0 Materialism in Marx language is land ect o Marx hated capitalism He saw a lot of evil in capitalism o Marx believed that class conflict was the cause of all social change All human history thus far is they history of class struggles He means that there always have to be a loser You can t get higher in class without stepping on somebody else Historical materialism was before a unified currency like we have in the United States now Before there were factories people worked in a home Important part about Marx is conflict Theorists and Theory Contributions of Early Sociologists Social Theory Grand Sociological Theory Sociological Theory 0 Sociological Theories are abstract interpretations that can be applied in a variety of situationsquot Each theory is one perspective derived from compounded research Overtime the more vague uncertain the theory becomes Early theorists were trying to put together a broad story These theories form how people act in certain times 0 O O O Functionalism Social Phenomena events are best explained by the function they perform Everything that happens is tied to something and does something Manifest Functions obvious direct function Latent Functions unknown indirect functions 0 Related to consequences 0 Consequences may be hidden and revealed later Example 0 After the war men came home to their spouses and started making babies which is the latent content However there was an increase in birth rates which is the manifest content Sociology 2001 Jan 31 J39Lexius Rodriguez Sociological Theory o Sociological Theories are abstract interpretations that can be applied in a variety of situations o Each theory if one perspective derived from compounded research o Durkheim was interested in how people functioned together Functionalism Theory o Social phenomena events are best explained by the function they perform 0 Two kinds of function Manifest functions obvious direct functions Latent functions unknown indirect functions o Functionalism in practice 0 Education What function does education serve Manifest function a Reading basic literacy Writing math Computer skills These functions are applied to jobs Education is important in determining financial success Latent function a Social skills Socialization Diversification you learn how to deal with different types of people social skills a Time management 0 Inequality Why would inequality exist Functionalist way a Division of labor o Different jobs have different requirements o People who were functionalist tried to figure out how things worked n n n n n n Conflict Theory o Extension of Marxism 0 Historical Materialism The tale of history of conflict and resources o Society is driven by conflict between competing groups o What is power 0 Influence over others 0 Power the ability to achieve aims or further interests despite opposition 0 Example knowledge o Conflict Theory in practice 0 Education How would a conflict theorist see education Where is the power a The instructor of a class institutionalized power 0 Inequality Why would inequality exist for conflict theory How would a conflict theorist see inequality King owns all the land analogy Symbolic Interactionism Theory o Microlevel theory o Humans act toward things on the basis of the meanings that ascribe to those things 0 What does this mean 0 We make it important You act upon personthings as how you interpret them 0 Humans believe things are the exact things themselves However symbolic interactionism theorists believe that humans believe what things we are by how we perceive them 0 Humans make largescale assumptions about what things mean 0 We act on things on what it symbolizes O O O O The meaning of such things is derived form or arises out of the social interaction that one has with others and the society The meanings themselves are createdascribed These meanings are handled in and modified through an interpretative process used by the person in dealing with the things heshe encounters We react to things on how we perceive the world Humans act on an assumed shared knowledge Example If someone said that they watched something last night we know that they watched TV It s a symbol Taking daytoday interactions and breaking them down into symbols o Symbolic Interactionism is most useful for understanding small group and microlevel interactions 0 O 0 It s difficult to say why 100000 people are doing something When you get down to micro groups it s easier to figure out why people are doing certain things Individuals act based on the meaning the feels things have therefore understanding the meaning and symbol puts you one step closer to understanding their actions People act on how they perceive the world Sociology Feb 2 J39Lexius Rodriguez Sample Question o In their book Some Principles of Stratification Davis and Moore argue that inequality by social class is a natural element of society and there are no classless societies 0 This statement is most in line with which theory 0 Answer Functionalism An Introduction to Sociological Methods Exploring the Social World o Sociological Research 0 Overview of Research 0 Jim Jones had led thousands of Americans to a foreign country and killed them He gave them koolaid with cyanide in it o Disney wants us to forget about the racist shows they used to broadcast on TV Expanding the Imagination o Sociological research can 0 Explore Social Environments Poverty in the Delta 0 Empirically test the Hypothesis and Theories Do children of single mother have lower graduation rates The way individuals interact with other thingspeople When you start looking at larger and larger populations you actually look at larger and larger slots of the population 0 Evaluate Social Phenomenon Disaster recovery How do you measure recovery n There is no scale for that You have to figure it out individually Boundaries of Social Research o Causation vs Correlation o Saying something that directly causes something based on something what you already know o A larger risk of the population is at risk for health complications o We ve reached a point now where really fat food become really cheap 0 In a burger in Japan 7 patties were put on a burger It was called a Window 7 Whopper o Sometimes what you can and can t say is limited by what you know Causation o A causes B 0 Ex Fast food 9 Obesity o Causation is direct 0 We re literally saying that A causes B o This can be problematic for sociologist Because you re trying to say that something actively causes something else 0 It s really difficult to apply direct causes 0 Ex Fast food can cause obesity as well as apples if you eat too many o You ll probably never apply causation with sociological things Correlation o Correlation will be applied to sociological things c When A goes up B goes up OR when A goes up B goes down 0 There could be many re o Correlation is a relationship 0 There can be a spurious relationship In a relationship between two things such that when A goes up B goes up there may be other things that cause that relationship How much can we say o Generalizability the root of this is to be general o IfI wanted to speak general of a national area we would have to get information from everyone However some people may have died or may not want to be contacted 0 Effect size How wide spread is a particular phenomenon 0 Sample Out of this class you can sample from 15 to 30 people a Sampling is taking a chunk of a larger group to represent the larger group Scope of Knowledge o Within social science you will probably never apply causation 0 It s almost impossible Because the larger a phenomenon is usually the more complex it is 0 Relationship is always more likely o Three specific methods 0 Statistical 0 Observation where individuals go into a group 0 Experimental Sociology 2001 Feb 7 Exam 1 is on Friday J39Lexius Rodriguez Sociological Imagination o In order to study something you have to look at it from ALL perspectives 0 Examples of things Poverty Race Gender o Basic primer of abstract concept 0 It is not concretethere s no museum where you can view functionalism c We have a bias that is inherent so we have to move passed our biases when looking at things History of Sociology o Each of the following guys has their own ideas and perspectives among things 0 There perspectives are abstract o Comte o Positivism 0 Social Physics The idea that social sciencesocial life function the same way hard sciences did This ties in with positivism Positivism you are uncovering the truth There is one truth When you do research there is one truth which means there is something concrete found 0 Modeled sociology o Marx 0 Historical materialism o Believed that the history of the world was brought through by social conflict over stuff Marx was talking about feudalism n Fight over land n n o Durkheim 0 Organic solidarity We worked together 0 Believed all people were connected in some kind of way o His idea is relevant for the longterm 0 People facilitate other in some kind of way Example Somebody had to wrap your breakfast Someone had to make sure all of your classes were scheduled o Proved his point by examining suicide rates in France Believed a lack of integration will push someone into suicide Also if you felt too involved in society you can also be pushed into society 0 Why would an individual experience things different from a group On different levels different phenomena are experienced in different ways o Weber 0 Subjectivity object When something is subjective it s something that appeals to your own taste Example n Some people will be empathetic with people but some people are not empathetic Verstehen German word empathetic understanding a You often have to go beyond to see yourself in someone s shoes We all live in a lot of different situations and we all have different life experiences a It s ok to see the flight that someone is in but you have to see it in hisher perspective Theories o Abstract explanation o You gather information and you try to piece together a story o These theories have to be abstract explanation because it s really hard to find something concrete as to why something happens o First theory Functionalism 0 Every social event or phenomenon has a function Society is driven by function Social events are driven by function In functionalism you re examining what it does for society There are two forms of function Manifest function u Obvious Latent function a Not so obvious hidden functions As the middleclass goes away there are going to be poor or rich groups This is a manifest function because people are going to lose their jobs The latent function is the poor people moving out of the city to the suburbs and rich people moving into the city A functionalist would explain something through manifest function and latent function o Second Theory Conflict Theory Marx 0 Conflict o A lot of areas of social change or phenomena are explained through conflict o Functionalism Theory and Conflict Theory are on the macro level o Third Theory Symbolic Theory 0 In order to function on a higher level you have to have a mutual understanding There is some concept of a table police force or violence 0 If all of us watch the same TV shows and reference the same material we all develop the same symbol but we may interpret them differently o By interacting with people we reinforce the symbols 0 O O 0 Methods of Sociological Inquiry We have to think about how to measure things Not every method works the same way The larger your sample the more representative to come 0 Some people may lie 0 With smaller groups they may lie and they might not represent the large population Qualitative o Nonnumeric What was you social class you lived in How did you grow up 0 Detailed questions 0 However because the results are nonnumeric you re not going to find a national result Therefore it s a limited scope o Quantitative 0 Numerical How many people who are Christian live in a city 0 Quantitative is broad You can t really put a result of numbers into paragraph 0 The problem is when you try to sum something up you lose some of the detail that you re trying to get at Methods of Data Collection o Data is just information o A data set is just a lot of information gather in sets Qualitative and Quantitative are categories we use to describe the research that sociologists do and the data they collect There are many different methods today will focus on three 0 Participant observation least generalized We re going to look at ways to find things of different groups Tally s Corner book Really interested in how old men in the city You re observing phenomena while participating in it It takes a long time before you understand their motivation This method is used in areas where it s difficult to find thing out B These people wouldn t normally give you information The presence of someone else can change your behavior especially if they know you re observing them Has low level of generalizability n For example you observed one particular club and one particular time Example n Tearoom Trade o A place where people would go to go have sex o Homosexuals usually went here o Impersonal Sex in Public Places book by Humphrey o In the sixties you couldn t get much information o Homosexuals wouldn t say that they had sex in the bathroom 0 A researcher went to the bathrooms and became the Watch Queen 0 All the people worked together to protect the group 0 Humphrey would write down their license plate once they left the bathroom Then he would ask his police friend to look at their names etc He was able to bring the people in for questioning and more experiments follow up interviews He drove to where they lived etc This ruined his career because everything was achieved unethically The things you talk about in participation observation are going to be descriptive rather than analytical 0 Experiments Are very time consuming Social psychology is focused on social processes B Your looking for social elements things that are related to the group You need to remove all elements you can t control You re pinpointing very precise mechanisms things Are focused on empirical testing a This means that you re going to have to make a comparison a You compare things to a control group You re applying some kind of stimulus however the other group does not receive the stimulus Low generalizability Milgrim experiments a This experiment was to test how people would follow authorities a One person was in a room with a shock button A second person was in another room with shock wires attached to them The person in the room with the shock button would press the shock button when told and the person was able to hear the scream from the other room It was found that even though they heard the scream they still pressed the button The still pressed the button when the screaming stopped Zimbardo Experiment a He held prisoners in a jail in a basement Surprisingly the people act like prisoners even though they knew they weren t in a real jail cell a The people were told to act like prisoners and prison guards n Some people developed stress symptoms and had to be released n Zimbardo forgot he was a psychologist conducting an experiment and he became a prison guard n This experiment is talking about perception and expectations n The experiment was called off early because things got too intense n The point is that behavior is defined by the perception of their environment a This information is not something that you can acquire through participant observation n This experiment is unethical o It is not used nowadays because it can leave severe scarred psychological problems 0 Statistical methods most generalized We re exclusively talking about numerical information a Methodology of Numbers You re getting large amount of not too detailed information The things that matter in this method are sample size and surveys n You re taking a part of something and representing the whole o For example you re not going to get everyone in Louisiana to answer your questions You find that surveys are the number one way to get large amounts of information Generalizability B Your sample size will determine generalizability o Your sample size in fundamental Methods Today o Quantitative Methods 0 Most prominent though Mixed Methods are also popular Several largescale surveys exist with complete data that researchers can download o Experiments are least common Ethics o How much can you mess with someone before you cross the line 0 DO NOT harm a research subject should encounter no more harm than he or she would have in their everyday life You should never touch a respondent You can t harm them physically or psychologically 0 Voluntary Participation each research participant must participate voluntarily They may also leave the study at any time o Informed Consent every research subject has the right to know what they are participating in You have to inform people on a certain level Sociology 2001 Notes Feb 14 2011 J39Lexius Rodriguez What is Culture o Behavior o Traditions o Ritual o Culture the values norms and material goods of a given group 0 Values ideals held by individuals about what is desirable and good or bad Social Construction o Something people take to be inherent or natural that is constructed by society OR dependent on society o Individuals establish meaning over time o Calling someone a bitch or slut is socially constructive o Part of values are these things called norms o Norms unwritten rules of conduct that dictates a particular type of behavior in particular circumstances Material Culture o Material culture is everything physical that is part of culture This includes technology 0 Food Crawfish in Louisiana Haggis sheep gut in Scotland 0 Musical instruments 0 Japanese Train Station Norms They crammed all the people onto the train High and Low Culture o What pop culture 0 It just happens 0 High Culture The opera Going out to a dinner that cost more than 20 an entre Fur coats Drinking nice liquor o Perception is reality for most people 0 Whether something is real or not you have to believe in it because others do o Individuals become shaped by these norms o Hipsters Goth Emo Scene Subcultures o A subculture is social group that exists within one culture but has traits that separate it from it s parent culture There is a group that sets themselves apart from a broad social group o Subcultures can also exist within subcultures o You can do what you want to do No one is going to stop you Sociology 2001 Notes Feb 16 2011 J39Lexius Rodriguez Material Culture o Physical aspect of things o Not explanatory mechanisms o Different things that cultures can have o Subcultures have subcultures inside of them which separates itself from the rest of society Cultural Universals c There is a lot of things we find that differ o However there are a lot of things that are similar 0 Almost all cultures have some kind of bond 0 Examples Marriage Language Incest Taboo n Taboo means not cool Deviance stealing Art Religion for the most part a Soviet Union is atheist What determines culture o Cultures are different o Culture goes from place to place to different individuals o In a lot of culture scenarios there s this thing of adapting to natural elements 0 Culture is adapting to it s environment 0 You have to make new with what s around you c How many of these things are inherent within society 0 On some level a group of people want to be with their culture 0 Usually since you ve spent so much time in a society you re used to it Older Societies c We need to look at other elements outside of culture itself c There is not really a point in measuring a culture o Cultures o HuntersGatherers Territories and Nomads There culture was shaped by a need for food Kind of like hoping you find food in the morning 0 Agrarian Sustainability n Found a way to not worry about finding food everyday They planted food in the same place and knew when to do it Localization a They localized what they were doing 0 Industrialized Society Talking about the development of large societies the shift to machines more modern ways of mills Industrialized society societies where majority of individuals work outside of agriculture n 3 work in agriculture o These people have a lot of things to do that is not outside of their house o Industrialized society changed this by taking work and moving it outside of your house Public and Private a Public outside of home a Private inside of home a Factory Work and Culture n 5 day work week o Invention in the 20th century Urbanization central cities n Say for instance you move place to place to find food You can localize this by planting food in one location field This is the Agrarian society n Urbanization you centralize work but you move close to work and go to local places grocery store gas station mall etc c We develop these large central cities These shiftsdevelopments of different societies are large shifts Culture will change based on different characteristics Measuring Culture o Empirically testing culture issues is difficult 0 Why The main reason is that culture is more informative It s not something you can find or touch o Culture Relativism the practice ofjudging a society by it s own standards 0 When you examine a society from the outside you try to judge it by it s own character 0 Examples of Cultural Relativism Giant crawfish Fried tarantulas o Ethnocentrism looking at other cultures through your own eyes 0 The exact opposite from culture relativism Sociology 2001 Notes Feb 21 2011 Socialization Scope Culture provides part of the setting 0 It s what makes a setting different 0 Culture influences you Individual element 0 Agency the idea that the individual has things that they can do Agency is the ability to do something The individuals ability to act When we talk about the agency we are not saying the individual does not have the ability to do things Needs a mechanism 0 A way that happens How does one acquire an accent What is socialization 0 Example You bring a dog to a dog park the dog eventually figures out the social norms For the most part dogs learn how to deal with other dogs Socialization is the process through which individuals internalize the values and norms of a society 0 Think of a 5th grade dance The boy must always ask a girl to dance a This is a norm Socialization does not happen overnight it s a long process Socialization starts when we are young 0 Children are indoctrinated into society through their parents friends and any adults they are exposed to Even the most basic social norms are instilled through socialization 0 Basic Behavior Don t touch hot things 0 Speech and Language All come through socialization 0 Authority of Socialization J39Lexius Rodriguez o Research into feral children show that a substantial amount of what we know is developed through socialization 0 Example Eating with a fork 0 Boy smoking cigarette video Ugh 18 month old smoking 2 packs a day He would cry or get sick if he didn t get cigarettes If anyone teaches you smoking outside from your parents it would be your peers That does not mean that human nature and biological dispositions aren t important Socialization comes from everywhere Agents of Socialization c We are also socialized outside of our close families 0 Examples school teachers bus drivers peers media o Gender of Media 0 They argue that people are all the same 0 They act like we re all socialized by media in the same way For instance they talk about the affect of Barbie on little girls a Table How Would A Real Woman Look with Barbie s Proportions Magazine covers a Cosmopolitan Lauren Conrad cover Naked ladies n The average BMI of a women is going up n The average BMI of a playmate is going down Men n Shows actors are a fat guy with a really hot girl A Theory of Interaction o Women need to way a certain amount It doesn t matter how fat that you get if you re a guy Too fully examine socialization we need a framework or lens to view it through 0 Social Construction of Reality Extension of Symbolic Interactionism Social Construction is an explanation of the way we give meaning to things or ideas through socialization and interaction a People gain meaning a The things we do with people gain meaning If enough people believe something is legitimate and real then on some level it is real n Afather locked his daughter in the basement and had sexual altercations with her They had 3 children and he fathered them in the basement These children did not know that this was illegal They saw is as there home and knew nothing else Sociology Notes Feb 23 2011 Participation Point Social Construction of Authority J39Lexius Rodriguez Socialization so far o Socialization as a social mechanism o Culture was something that existed o It instilled their beliefs 0 We had to explain how these beliefsideas got into people 0 Somehow all of these things have to be put into a person o Socialized by individuals and social institutions 0 School is a formalized place where people learn You re punished if your wrong o Socialization is an ongoing process 0 It doesn t stop past high school 0 You have to learn if you get a new job 0 There are norms around specific jobs 0 We have to know new ways to exists A Theory of Interaction c To fully examine socialization we need a framework or lens to view it through 0 Social construction of reality 0 Louisiana has 3 distinct social identities 0 Social construction of reality is an extension of symbolic interactionism Social Construction Reality o Social Construction is an explanation of the way we give meaning to things or ideas through socialization and interaction Link on Moodle o If enough people believe something is legitimate and real then on some level it is real 0 Jim Jones Killer He poisoned people with Koolaid People believed in him Exercise in Social Construction o Meaning Making 0 The cycle of meaning as a way to build understanding of things o Shared Meaning 0 Someone has to tell us what a meaning is 0 Common Social Themes It allows us sometimes that culture beliefs greatly influence culture behaviors Social Construction of Food o Food is socially constructed because the idea of what is or isn t food often derives from social opinion and not nutrition or safety 0 There are larger cultural preferences that go on Social Construction of Gender o Gender is socially constructed because the values and rules we typically associate with it are decided by society not the presence of biological parts 0 Which is the Boy Example o In the time of feudalism pink was a boys color What is Authentic o If something is authentic than it has value c Social Construction 2 Fake Importance of Social Construction o Extending of symbolic interactionism 0 We establish meaning off of things 0 Act on shared meaning o Social Environments o Theoretical perspective on socialization 0 Individual groups can shape the culture It can have latent or manifest functions Conflict Theory Your taking something preexisting and comparing it to something else Socialization WrapUp Mechanism or Process Social things don t just happenculture doesn t just happen But at the same time they aren t just constructed from a painter Instills norms and ideals o What the rules are and what the individuals believes Influence of Groups 0 Child Socialization o The incidental social situations matter 0 Adult socialization By our coworkers Social Construction 0 Analytical tool for examining social environments a J Sociology Notes Feb 25 2011 J39Lexius Rodriguez Aging and the Life Course We age in years and we age as individuals but other people are aging too Hard to get information on younger people and it s difficult to analyze stuff over time Aging Process The life course We re all going to die eventually Cohort analysis different generations age in different patterns and different ways 0 Cohort group of people who are around the same age ex your class 0 21 replacement fertility keeps population steady Perception of Aging the way society itself values individuals or how society sees the aging process 0 Theoretical Concepts Functionalist Approach The Graying of America There s more and more older people every year Predicts to have a ton of elderly in 2050 o What to do Disengagement of the Old natural that we lose function as we age eventually older people were seen as disengaging from society Old people will withdraw from the community 0 Grumpy Old Folk wouldn t want to deal with anything Disengagement it is a function of societies to remove people from their traditional roles when they become elderly 0 Larger families use their grandparentsauntsuncles to help take care of their large families Sociologists focus on what the elderly like to do What happens to society as people become elderly Conflict Theory Problems of Aging 0 Poverty won t be able to work 0 Poor Health Product of Society 0 Capitalism favors productivity older people would have a harder time finding work Competition over resources 0 We have the same population competing with the same resources Alternative Perspectives Active Aging and Life 0 A little different than previous generations they have more money 0 They re not fading away the elderly are actually doing things with their lives 0 As technology increases older people still engage Social Connections 0 Inperson community gatherings 0 Online Sociology Notes Feb 28 2011 A J39Lexius Rodriguez Chapter 1 o Behavior 0 Why do we do what we do o Measurement o Descriptive 0 Characteristics of culture o Difference between an individual and the group 0 How do these different groups affect things 0 How the group influences the individual 0 All these people make up something larger Within this larger group there exists culture a Culture imparts on the individuals o Values and o Norms n We interact with our friends social institutions school jail subway etc o All these things interact Sociology Notes Feb 28 2011 B J39Lexius Rodriguez Social Interaction o The process by which we act and react to those around us Social interaction can be giving someone change or meeting an old friend This is a micro level process This is the basis of socialization These are long standing processes that start from something small Nonverbal and Verbal Communication o Body Language 0 People view body language as some kind of secret code 0 However you can t predict someone s body language Example This guy has his hands in his pockets This must mean he s uncomfortable o Edge of Culture 0 If these things rely on all people where does socialization beginend o Paul Ekman studied how far expressions can go o If people didn t have a face We wouldn t know someone s age The face is how you tell someone from another 0 He went to different cultures and showed people photos of different faces with different expressions FACS Experiments The people had a common understanding of fear and happiness o Animals are really predictable o A dog can t trick you but people can c We use nonverbal and verbal communication all the time World s a stage o Dramaturgical Theory Irving Goffman 0 Applied to drama and theatre o Goffmonian applies to Irving Goffman o Goffman saw that when individuals communicated they didn t communicate honestly at all times o Social Role The expected role of a person holding a particular social position 0 The idea of a social role will stay very steady 0 We each have different social roles with different expectations o Social Position the social identity an individuals has in a given groups or society Can be general across groups gender or specific as an occupation o If you own a company you have a higher expectation than others in the company 0 This is talking about the way social roles influence people 0 If someone thinks of women as low it s not because of the women s jobit s all in general o Status the social honor and prestige a particular groups is given by society 0 High status job doctor 0 Low status job janitor o A student worker may clean up an area etc This is the same as a janitor however a student worker has a higher status than a janitor o A nurse has a lower status than a doctor but the job description of a nurse and a doctor really aren t all that different 0 Yourjob type may explain how to interact with a customer Impression Management o Controlling impressions 0 Some people have a take it or leave it attitude 0 Different people value how other people think of them in different ways o Augmented behavior 0 Consequences o Ex Awkward Conversation Social Roles Social Positions Status o Social roles o Social position is a title or place that people have within social circles Goffman on a conversation o This conversation can function in a mechanic shop or a restaurant 0 Did you change the oil No we didn t have time Well it s smoking Do it now Sure thing Mechanic shop between boss and mechaniccustomer and mechanic Restaurant between top chef and chef O O O Expectations and Interaction o An expectation is a predetermined belief about how a individual will act 0 Example I expect this out of you and not her o Stereotypes and interaction o Perceived characteristics 0 Individuals often take characteristics that may not matter in a situation Things that we do go way beyond the places that we work Diffuse characteristics Characteristics have a similar affect have a similar affect across areas a Flipping hamburgers doesn t matter in class or at the gas station for example Specific characteristics Matter at a very specific settings a Flipping hamburgers only matters in a very specific area o Ridgeway was concerned about when stereotypes may affect things where gender does not matter o Expectations 0 Beliefs can influence expectations of others 0 O Focused and Unfocused Interaction Not all interaction takes place between people standing next to each other Focused interaction 0 Direct and facetoface 0 Together like a crowd A group playing a game or watching a movie a This happens even if you don t know people Unfocused interaction 0 Not focused not oneonone 0 Think of people walking in a crowd 0 Example people on the buss Unfocused because their not purposefully interacting even though they re going to the same place Watching TV 0 Depends Ritual 0 Something that happens when people come together to do a task 0 You and your friend get together to watch a showyou go to church with your family Social Networking Then and Now Video 0 Internet archeologist Social Groups A collection of people who regularly interact with one another on the basis of shared behavioral expectations and a common sense of identity 0 Example Bowling group Sociology Notes March 4 2011 J39Lexius Rodriguez Social Groups o Can have identities o There s kind of a lot of them 0 Dyad Group of 2 The smallest that can remain social The most intimate form of social life because the two members are mutually dependent on each other if one member leaves the group the group ceases to exist You can get a sample of groups this small 0 Triad Group Primary Groups o Have limited membership and have a strong influence on members o A group that individuals are involved in frequently o This primary group could be your family or close friends or intimate relationships o Everyone is part of a group on some level 0 A club a family etc o However some groups are more important than others Secondary Group o Less personal and exist as a means to an end 0 This means that they have a goal 0 There is a reason you re involved in this club etc o Labor unions 0 The point of a labor union is to protect their own rights o Clubs 0 There is a lot of people who do get really involved in clubs primary but if they go once or twice a month secondary o Neighborhood Associations o People that talk on primary groups they have to deal with it more frequently The InCrowd o Despite beliefs about the importance of individualism we display high levels of conformity o Is that bad On an individual level it may be bad Different stresses are placed on students 0 Homophily individuals tend to stay in similar social groups You hang around people who are like me 0 Housing patterns This could be by race People live by who they want to live by Friendship patterns We hang out with people who like to do the same things we do 0 Racial segregation Outside of housing patterns a This is in terms of outside things Religious groups The larger group is agreed with the smaller group splits off and starts anew O O From Groups to Networks o A social network is a set of relations held together by ties between individuals o A tie is the story why you know them that connects two members of a network o We re actually connected to more people than we realize Embeddedness c We are embedded within social networks o Embeddedness is the degree to which ties are reinforced through indirect paths within a social network o Lesser embedded or weak ties often give valuable new information or insight This is called the Strength of Weak Ties 0 Your weak ties are the ones that are the most important 0 Q Triad o o O Q Connection Triad Granovetter s Theory on Weak Ties The people you are connected to winds up to be more than just your friends Who you know Your social network is like a wire that connects members of a network Who you know does matter That wire transfers a variety of resources between individuals 0 Money 0 Opportunities 0 Community benefits Social capital 0 The way individuals extract resources from their social network 0 The benefits that people get from their group 0 Being close with other people actually matter 0 Do better than people financially but it depends on the group Think of a community like a spiders web 0 As bonds increase and become stronger the entire web starts to see the effects Sociology Notes March 11 2011 J39Lexius Rodriguez Basic Social Networks o Groups and Interaction 0 Groups tend to naturally group 0 People like being in groups they like spending time together o Homophin 0 Similar types of people hang out together This stretches out on a broader perspective a By class 0 Social networks can be connected but people in similar groups have similar networks 0 Example These two groups are not connected but internally they are c Networks 0 We re really concerns with not the connections themselves 0 It s the story of how they know each other 0 Who you know can be incredibly important in terms of your outcomes It s easily to track financial help job 0 You can think of resources in this as material things Example Having a friend who s a lawyer or a friend of a friend that s a lawyer can help you c We talked about this thing called social capital 0 Individuals that are more connected to their community have better health They didn t go to doctor s as much and didn t feel depressed They also make more money Opportunities a way in which your social network can help you out Community benefits safer This is what we call social capital 0 When you re trying to measure how healthy a community is it is difficult So doctor s take selfreported health o Places where you can measure where people know each other 0 Community events O O O O Parties a Not weddings because this is personal and you invite specific people Fair Visiting Civic City meet town hall meeting It s really difficult to get measurements from civic engagement Selection effect for certain events certain people go These people are already engaged in this The best way to get results is from selfreported surveys A perspective on Social Capital This will have a name it s different than what we ve been talking about Robert Putnam 1995 wrote a book about Bowling Alone 0 0 He argues that we re in an era of declining civic engagement and social capital He believes that people are getting less and less involvement in the community Because of this it can have consequences He argues that while the number of bowlers has gone up overtime the number of bowling teams have dropped People have been doing things individually than as teams Is this something you can observe He never really finds a way to measure social capital Everyone connects to this universal whole Think of a community like as spider s web Effects of Social Capital 0 We re using this one word concept to explain how people have better health outcomes and live in a safer community Better health outcomes mental and physical Community satisfaction Lower crime rates 0 Social capital is a coverconcept that explains all of these things o Putnam Bowling Alone theorizes and Social Capital has decreased in recent years 0 Being connected is better for the longterm 0 He uses a metaphor Number of bowlers increased while the number of bowling leagues decreased Sociology Notes Review J39Lexius Rodriguez Culture o Something that we influence c We perform aspects of cultures 0 Example we tell our kids what to eat and what not to o Norms beliefs material goods 0 Norms Unspoken rules of behaviors o Beliefs This whole system of right and wrong o Individuals are the ones that carry out culture o Nature v Nurture 0 Nature What things are inherent o Nurture Experience 0 How much of your behavior winds up being learned or inherited Can t answer this 0 Is a larger debate o Culture does things but doesn t get things going Socialization o Process by which norms beliefs and materials goods culture become instilled in the individual Cohort o The group of people you re born around or you come with o A way to track people in that group o Example 0 All the people who came to LSU at the same time for instance fall 2010 are a cohort o All the people born between 1945 and 1964 baby boom Replacement fertility o 21 children per female in order for the population to survive o No definition Conflict theory o Competition over resources o Example conflict on aging o All people alive are competing for resources There are only so much cash and so much wheat Social construction o Norms and beliefs are influenced by culture 0 marriage c We are socialized into these beliefs and norms o These things are universal c There is always a taboo of incest o The beliefs of individuals are influenced by their environments o The idea that perception is reality o If someone truly believes something you probably won t change that belief Diffuse characteristics o A characteristics that occurs across many territories 0 Whether it s going to a job hospital or just driving c We could talk about race gender job cereal or kids o Some sociologist find that some of the above characteristics are more important 0 For instance your favorite cerealis that really important No o Has the same affect in multiple settings Goffman o Social interaction is not just talking 0 It s also nonverbal Embeddedness o A way to measure how close a social network is o The more people you know in a social network the more you are embedded The closer you are to the network the less new information you ll know Strong ties 0 Strong embeddedness Weak ties o The strength of weak ties 0 Weak ties connect people to information that they don t already know


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