New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here


by: Kameron Skiles


Kameron Skiles
GPA 3.8

G. Stevenson

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

G. Stevenson
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Sociology

This 91 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kameron Skiles on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOCL 3501 at Louisiana State University taught by G. Stevenson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see /class/222552/socl-3501-louisiana-state-university in Sociology at Louisiana State University.

Similar to SOCL 3501 at LSU




Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/13/15
Chapter 7 Suicide I intentionally killing of one39s self 0 could be hard to determine intent o reluctant to claim suicide because of social stigma Facts I Elderly have the higher rate of suicide than the young 0 Teenage suicides get the most attention more traumatic for the young to die 0 Suicide is the 3ml leading cause of death for teenagers accidents homicide but only 11 11 for the elderly I Elderly commit more but also die more often of other causes In the US there are 2X as many suicides than homicides Men commit more women attempt more Suicide rates peak in the spring 0 Suicide rate of suicides population size 100000 0 there are 11 suicides for every 100000 people 11100000 US suicide rate 0 In 2002 31655 people committed suicide but the numbers are much higher for people who have attempted suicide and been hospitalized 132 353 there were an additional 116639 people who attempted and went to the ER an got released Varieties of Suicidal Experiences Threaten Attempt Commit o Threaten threaten explicitly directly or clearly Clearly want to live rather than die threats are intended as a means of achieving some objective in life Doesn39t mean they won39t carry out their threats may if threat fails to achieve objectives I We know the least about because threats are not reportedrecorded the author of the book says that people may threaten to commit suicide to elicit positive outcomes attention prevent breakups etc manipulation strategy 0 Attempt ambiguous in their intent I Often don39t care if they live or die Less explicitly communicate suicidal feelings might communicate depression but too vaguely for people to notice causing them to resort to dramatic amp dangerous methods to appeal for help MethodsWrist cutting Sleeping pills Gas poisoning in the house or car I These can be lethal but are less foolproof than committers methods I Most attempts carried out so rescue is possibleprobableinevitable re ecting lack of determination to die I Attempters more likely to be women young lower class drug alcohol abusers I Gender difference in suicide attempts is narrowing due to increased equality O Commit Most have openly or subtly communicated their suicidal ideas to others Those who actually succeed in killing themselves about 2 3 of committers are known to have had at least 1 prior attempt Most suicides feel so depressed they withdraw from daily activities Many feel apologetic toward their survivors Some feel vindictive toward their survivors or themselves blaming others for their misery amp death they seek revenge by punishing those left behind Sometimes genuinely angry w themselves for doing a wrongful act use selfkilling to punish themselves murderers killing selves after murder atanementsuicide I May become magnanimous generousnoble toward the world donating body Usually become suffused wsurrealistic feelings during the act of suicide calmness before death p 14 4 Use fast acting and more lethal methods guns strangulation Most prominent among I White Af uent Elderly Men Differences in Rates of suicide by Groups I Industrialization more industrialized the higher the suicide rates 0 have high levels of economic development 0 highly industrialized countries have higher rates of suicide 0 they have higher stress o o o o o o o o 0 OO O O 0 places with low inequality have higher rate I aspirations increase I expect more from ourselves and they expect more from us If a country has a suicide tradition culture promotes or does not restrict prevent suicide those countries have higher suicide rates 0 Women killing themselves once their husbands die not to burden their families 0 apan following discount commit suicide kamikaze bombers o Suicide bombers Rural has higher rates of suicide when something goes wrong its your fault traditional ideas rugged societiesquot more whites live in rural areas Top 5 states Alaska New Mexico Montana Nevada Wyomin Lowest 5 states Maryland New ersey Massachusetts New York Washington DC Sex Men are 4 x more likely to die from suicide than women Methods are different intent might also be different Not masculine for men to admit emotions women are more likely to turn to people to talk to and more people are there for them Men turn to wife or mom when mad at both don39t have many people to talk to Men are much more likely to blame themselves Race White men highest rate Native Americans have the second highest but they mostly do it when they are young Blacks they have already faced the same problems at a younger age through discrimination so when that time comes it39s not such a dramatic blow to their identity White men have been differently socialized than nonwhite men Differences in poverty and social worlds Age Older men have the highest rate suicide rate increases with age Dramatic increase among men around 65 years old Leave the labor force men are still defined by their economic role provider their job is a huge part of their identity this is a big and dramatic change Elderly elders positive suggests respect wise knowledge elderly older not positive term societal ideas of being worthless to society being more a weight than a Health declines hearing declines eyesight declines strength declines Sexuality men are suppose to have a large sex drive medicines effect sexual performance and drive Big parts of their identity change and its really dramatic There might be an increase in con ict because the men could be the boss at work but the women is the boss at home Most people don39t live at the same standard of living once they retire Martial Status Divorced gt single gt married Married people have the lowest rate of suicide I If they have kids even lower rates of suicide I They are integrated they depend on people and people depend on them Single people have higher rates of suicide than married couples I Singles widows separated never married Divorced people have the highest rate Divorced gt single gt married Religion Durkheim I One of the 1st sociological studies to apply the scientific method to the study of suicide I If we are looking at why a group over time the members of the group have changed in 100 years but the rates of the group stay the same same rates but different turnover different people in groups O I Religious difference in terms of suicide ProtestantsgtCatholicsgtews I Protestant vs Catholic There is a lot of different groups in the protestant religion and not a lot of differences in Catholic Catholic is very ritualistic and integrated very similar wherever you are feel safe because we feel like we fit it it creates solidarity and cohesion Protestant could be different not very ritualistic a lot of variation some very conservative and come less conservative lot more individualistic Different in terms that you are suppose to meet your salvation Catholics go through priests and Protestants are more individual I The more conservative the group the lower the rate of suicide I The greater church attendance the lower rate of suicide people are integrated Durkheim s Theory of Suicide explain the variation of rates of suicide I 1 social integration belonging to a group Too low integrated egoistic suicide think about themselves individualistic singles not married people Too high integrated altruistic suicide they lose themselves groups needs are more important than their own more focused on others than themselves suicide bombers cults 2 social regulation control that the group has over you Aspirations need to be regulated if nothing is limited nothing will ever be good enough and no one will be satisfied Too low regulated ammonic suicide breakdown of the rules not regulated our behavior af uent white men Too high regulatedf quot quot 39 n n J groups life is somewhat predetermined worried about today only not thinking about the future women in rural china ancient slaves prisoners Rural women in China everything is set for them they don39t have a say in anything that happens to them 4 O I Military very high rate of suicide of military personnel fatalistic no control over what39s going on follow orders egoistic not with families being deployed with different groups not building same sort of relationships that might have been there with Vietnam Situational Factors of Suicide 000 O O O O O I O O Adolescents Have a high rate of suicide but not he highest usually 2ml or 3ml leading cause of death in adolescents 150 change in 1014 year olds between 1970 and 2002 Full of contradictions expect a lot of out of them but treat them like kids a lot more responsibility but still treated like kids taking a new identity asserting more independence A lot more divorces in 2002 than in 1970 less integrated because 1 parent is missing I Lot more single parent households less integration I 1 parent is not as good at supporting you as 2 parents I Parents need to be there emotionally as well as physically Latch key kids home alone from school and end of parents work day home alone from about 35pm 39 more in 2002 thanin 1970 I More women in labor force less people at home effecting integration and regulation Rates of violence peak right after school I Sex alcohol drugs all peak right after school Levels of technology kids not interacting with other kids outside they are playing video games and watching TV and playing on the computer We have fewer people that we can confide in than in 1970 because of the superficial relation on MySpace and Facebook difference in quality of connections Teenagers are less likely to work today less job opportunities doing more preparation for school very competitive schools so kids want to do extra circular activities so it will look good I Not that more 2 parents are working parents don39t need to extra income of children College Attendants Suicide is a major concern for school administrators At least 10 have seriously considered suicide in college 0000 0000 O O O O 00 Less integration bigger classes bigger campuses might not know teachers students feel isolated removed from authority figures biggest classes freshman year and then get more selective feel lost and alienated Difficult to make friends hard to build relationships because new classes every semester Regulation leaving home and not having to answer anyone Could be 1st time away from home for an extended period of time Sex alcohol drugs all increases lots more freedom you have to learn how to manage all the things I You have to regulate everything yourself I Lot of freedom Increases in responsibility and increase in freedoms Smaller universities it is not as bad Many students don39t come back after 1st semester because f the challenges Af uent white people have a higher college attendance and a higher suicide rate AIDSHIV 700 suicide rate of men diagnosed with AIDS in New York Receiving diagnosis lots of uncertainty because people have different outcomes and people are going to treat respond to you differently Stigma radical transformation and identity it is very stigmatizing to have AIDS Master status status that takes priority bring HIV is a master status At the beginning stages and initial diagnosis is when people have the highest rate of suicide Prisoners 5 to 8 X suicide rate higher than the general population Radical transformation and a lot of uncertainty Awaiting sentencing and newly there are the 2 high points prisoners commit suicide I Prison is not good lots of abuse sexual victimization People don39t know what39s going to happen Not hard core offenders but people sentenced for minor offences lesser time radical transformation Integration with family and friends goes way down and regulation goes really up White men are more likely to commit suicide in prison Suicide is higher than homicide in prison In uence of Media News coverage I If someone commits suicide and it is highly publicized suicide rates go up does not have to be a celebrity I Not a lot of news coverage is given to people who have committed suicide if it bleeds it leadsquot I They tend to be contagious rates tend t go up there is empirical evidence to support this Single car fatalities many are suicide following a highly publicized suicide single car fatalities rise People effected by contagious effect I People already thinking about committing suicide I Gives them permission because not doing it by themselves I Could give them courage to do it because not by them self Music I There is a relationship between listening to country music and suicide I Where most people listen to country music there are higher suicide rates I White males rural areas we know that these groups will have higher suicide rates no matter what music they listen to I depressing music content analysis lots of sad themes I going to have effect on people who already at rick to commit suicide I not a causal relationship but there is a correlation I sad people are drawn to sad things will not make you commit suicide I Ozzy Osbourn taken to court because family said that song made child commit suicide I Blink 182 Adam39s Song I Much with themes of suicide tell people that its ok to commit suicide Physician Assisted Suicide Legal only in Organ in the US 0 Death with Dignity Act I Still not very common many physicians do not I Typically elderly white men participate 0 Over 70 are male I There are guidelines 0 Majority dying from terminal cancer 0 You have to be a resident of OR o 97 white 0 18 years or older 0 1z are married 0 Terminally ill and expected to die in 6 months I Most common response of fear of losing loss of 0 Has to be able to communicate wishes themselves autonomy loss of ability to have control over 0 Person has to be able to sallow themselves themselves self regulation not wanting to be I In 19982007 34 1 people participated dependant on others I Every year more prescriptions written than deaths I Median age sis 65 I Take it yourself can back out anytime I Pain is not the issue Chapter 9 Heterosexual Deviance I Relativity some people believe the behaviors are deviant and others do not 0 100 consensus martial couple for procreation missionary position I Any change from this lowers the consensus I Consensus is high at nondeviant end as well as deviant end I Heterosexual intercourse 0 Between a married couple for procreation in missionary position is the least deviant 0 Any movement away from this is considered more deviant 0 Less consensus as we step away that it39s acceptable I Premarital sex 0 Many think that it39s deviant 0 High rate of premarital sex 0 Age of marriage has risen to 30 years old I The older your age the most acceptable it is to have premarital sex 0 A lot of religious groups are against it I Is it deviant even if it39s 2 consenting adults Most religious groups would say yes 0 People want to see if their partners can satisfy them 0 Cohabitation trial marriagequot but not really 0 Have become more relaxed about it between 2 consenting adults 0 I Teen sex 0 Seen as deviant 0 Teen sex is still deviant because they do not grasp the likelihood of the consequences disease pregnancy etc more likely to take risks 0 Conseguences STDs mental status unexpected pregnancy emotional cost 0 the US has one of the highest rates of teen pregnancy teen abortion and teen STDs 0 From teen to early 20s to adults with kids it becomes seen as less acceptable 0 Sex is a status offense under 16 cannot consent to sex I Girls get in trouble more for having sex underage boys don39t 0 Guys are usually older than the girls 0 Doublestandard boys allowed girls not 0 Below 1617 considered teen sex and deviant 0 Why is it deviant I They39re young I Not the same thinkingreasoning capacity as adults to make the choice I lt39s premarital sex not as important as their age I Not making decisions as adults would I Fear of pregnancy I This is why girls get in more trouble o Largest decline in teen pregnancies among African Americans 0 Increase in condom use I See decline in birth rates abortions and std39s 0 Comprehensive Program I Deal with medically accurate information I Deal with birth control I Does increase condom use I Have an abstinence aspect I If given false info cause kids to not believe them once proven wrong 0 What are the 2 major arguments against sex ed I If you talk about sex it makes them engage in sex I Not true if they want to have sex they ll do it anyways I Talking about sex is a parental duty I But parents don39t always talk to kids I Or parents don39t have all the info or even accurate info 0 Pregnancy rates are declining 0 Small decline in teen sex 0 Have seen increase in oral sex I Can39t get pregnant but still can get std s 0 Not seen as deviants to teens 0 Lots ofpressure for them to do it I Oral sex is an adaptation I Maintain technical virginity I Primarily female to male oral sex I Still psycholo gically emotionally changed 0 Doublestandard I Girls with high selfesteem lower rates of sex I Boys with high selfesteem higher rates of sex I Boys are encouraged to have sex seen as men I Girls are seen as whores if they have sex Sexual Education 0 Abstinence programs are not very effective 0 Study in book teens in abstinence only program delayed having sex for about 18 months and when they were less likely to use condoms now they are finding no difference in sexual activity no longer have delay and still have low use of condoms 0 One argument shouldn39t talk about sex in school because it encourages it no true 0 Some think parents should be responsible for it but a lot of parents don t do it 0 They teach children about sex but highly encourage abstinence A high percentage of parents are unaware their children engage in sex Statistics 0 2007 48 12 ofhigh school students has ever has sexual intercourse 15 ofhigh schoolers have has 4 or more sex partners 0 2007 39 of currently sexually active high schoolers did not use a condom during last sexual intercourse 0 We have seen an increase in oral and anal sex maybe because many people believe it is not sex it is an alternative less risk of STDs less risk of pregnancy amp technical virginity most of these teens engaging in oral sex are also engaging in intercourse in intercourse so this theory may not be true 0 2002 11 of males and females aged 1519 had engaged in anal sex with someone of the opposite sex 3 of males had engaged in anal sex with another male increasing I risk of contracting an STD increases with anal sex I Only 2930 do use condoms during anal sex because they don39t believe that its necessary because there is no risk of pregnanc o 2002 12 ofall pregnancies or 757000 occurred among adolescents aged 1519 0 2006 and estimated 5259 young people aged 1324 were diagnosed with HIV AIDS 14 ofall diagnosed that year I Extramarital sex adultery o 20 of married couples engage in adultery o Adultery extra martial sex having sex with someone other than your spouse 0 Men engage in 25 at least 1 extramarital affair I More likely to commit adultry 0 Women engage in 17 at least 1 extramarital affair I Has risen women are outside of the home and have more opportunities to do so I Much more social pressure to be monogamous but also having more opportunity 0 Over the life course as you get older men over 60 28 women over 60 15 I newly married are higher to commit adultery I under 35 years old 20 men and 15 women 0 The gap between me and women has been closing because more women today are involved in adultery o A lot of people think cyber sex is a form of adultery emotional attachment 0 Attitudes I 90 men think it39s wrong I 94 women think it39s wrong I Overlap with number of people who do it 0 Why do they do this I Men are looking for sex I Women are looking for emotional support and love 0 Seductive myth I The encounter seems like it39ll be satisfying but it39s not Sex with their marital partner is more satisfying Guilt plays a big role Seduced by idea that sex with someone else will be really satisfying wild crazy and great myth it39s not 0 Men and women say that sex with spouse is more satisfying than sex outside marriage 0 Guilt makes it not as good even if bad marriage a lot of guilt is involved 0 People with lower income are more likely to engage in adultery I Higher rates of divorce I Stress I Marry earlier 0 Legitimate adultery Some societies approve infidelity I Difficulty in measuring 0 People over reporting or under reporting 0 Why do people do lie about this I They don39t want to admit it or they may define adultery differently o Interviewed 5000 women 1 admitted face to face on a computer 6 admit we are less likely to tell this information if we are face to face but if its selfadministered we are more likely to tell the truth 0 There could be overestimating not all samples are equal only a certain group is buying it and the people that respond are more likely to be on either end not in the middle Comarital sex Swinging I Mutual agreement of couple to sleep with each other and other people no lying or lying Society views swinging as more deviant than adultery It is very uncommon only 1 2 of married people are involved Middle class white suburbanites Generally male initiateddominant and who find the partners Objection Undermine marriage traditional values or marriage Many studies show that there are divorce rates more comfortable with spouse but other studies find it completely different inclusive studies Many show happy couples and close marriages Conservative people who report being conservative are more likely Prostitution I Sex for money or goods drugs gas etc I Arrest statistics what we know about prostitutions come from arrest statistics problem only a small portion are arrested underestimating that rate I US stats 0 Book estimate 84000 336000 probably too low estimate 0 other estimates 250000 500000 people Different between people who do this as their jobs and others do it spatially to make ends meet Some studies have asked people if they have even gotten something for sex 6 ofwomen say yes 1864 years old and dating does not count 1020 ofmen admit to paying for sex at least once Estimated that 1 of men are frequent regular costumers Greenwald book most common customer is not a regular does it infrequently I There is a hierarchy I Calls Girls quot I Brothels quot I Street quot O O O O 1Street Prostitutes 0 Can charge least amount of money and exposed to greater risk Arrest statistics are largely street prostitutes Mo st minorities disproportionate number of minorities more minorities than the general population Estimated that they can be 102 0 ofprostitutes in a given area or as much as 50 high number of street prostitutes I Some have been employed but low pay and low prestige I Mainly in large urban areas need to have enough customers in very highly tourist areas I San Francisco has the highest number of male prostitutes hustlers bigger cities have more males Different women make up street prostitutes White women can charge more Crack whores drug addicted womenwho livework in a crack house low of low Bar girls hang out in bars looking for men to have sex with Convention centers girls day timers Likely to be older less sex appeal or underage can39t get employed bc of age but men will pay for youthfulness 000 00000 I Hours and wages 0 Bottom ofhierarchy so can charge the least 0 This is an economic endure and people are drawn to it to make money 0 Work week averages I 68 hours a day I 56 days aweek I 35 clients a night I Depending on the economic times I Holidays are not good times I Following tragedies not good 0 Prices Charge by service not time I Oral 2050 a lot ofthe exchange is oral taking place in cars takes about 10 min outside OO O Intercourse 50100 can take place indoors cars parks etc takes about 25 min inside Most ofit is not kinky sex most is normal ordinary Protection is available and women have more social power and can demand that customers wear condoms Drug addicted less likely to use condoms Driven down prices Risks Much more likely to be arrested more exposure on street Extremely high rate of violent victimization from 1 customers 0 Great risk to be abused by customers stranger exposed out in the open attitudes toward these women are not deserving our protection lack of response allows high rate of violence to continue 0 Only a small portion are responsible of large portion of the victimization violent 0 Most johns are not abusive I 2 pimp 0 Gets 7580 of the money made book says pimp get all ofthe money made 0 DOES NOT solicit clients 0 customers do not want to deal with pimp they want to negotiate with the woman pimp may cause the expose the customer to violence robbery the customer wants to deal with as few people as possible 0 Steps in when there is con ict between women often live together and have territory battles o Pimp is often sexually involved with all women but there is usually a top dominant women very exploitative relationship prostitutes that work with more customers and better business I 3 police 0 Have the power to do what they want they can use their position of power to perform sexual acts on them or take or drugs I 4 Serial killers o Prostitutes are common targets 0 No one notices if they are missing 0 Society doesn39t care Findings from 2 studies Silver and Hays 70 raped by clients 60 beaten 66 abused by pimps 73 raped totally unrelated to prostitution More brutal if person knew she was a prostitute Iodi Miller 94 sexually assaulted 75 raped by clients 63 raped in other contexts 88 assaulted physically brick bat 40 kidnapped held captive Extreme levels of violence Our culture attitudes not doing more to prevent Small numbers of johns are responsible for large number of violence They don39t get our sympathy when harmed As a society we don39t value these women Belief that prostitutes cannot be raped they can and there are very high numbers Prostitutes have 9x the homicide rate than other women 2Brothals O 0 Women who work indoors Young white women tend to be at the escort level 0 We know very little about them Legal in some rural counties in Nevada Not Vegas population of less than 400000 people in order for a Brothals to be legal more rural areas counties surrounding Ve s About 30 legal brothals in NV 0 Women have to be registered have to go through multiple health screenings and submit to regular health screens also hepatics o Ran by Madam More likely to be young and white or noveltyquotnot underage10 to early 20s Men choose a women and negotiate a price paying for time limit not sex act no set prices starting price is 100 for 1z hour but average is about 300 for 32 hour oral sex and intercourse 0 Usually a 5050 split between women and house but women have to tip cab drivers bar tenders etc women don39t end up with 50 0 Women are safer violent victimization other people are around a lot of them have video cameras in room not as great a risk as street prostitutes o Condoms are required for everything oral anal and vaginal sex 0 Women live at house or brothel for a while then they are off for a few weeks Illegal Brothels I Very hard to know how many women are working most of the info comes from law enforcement reports and new agencies I About 8590 of human trafficking is for the sex trade going to street and illegal brothels I Worst of worst when thinking about prostitution for international women being kept against will take passports visas etc I Women stay because there is nowhere else to go and use threats of violence against families 0 I O O I 0 Call Girls 0 We know the least about them even though they do advertise as escortsquot ex Craig39s list 0 Demographics Most attractive middleclass white young at least high school education 0 Eligible to have other work 0 Variation to charges 100 to 1000s hr 0 Work with escort service much more equal split 0 Can set up things themselves without madam get all the money 0 Full time call girls can earn 75000 to 100000 a year 0 Not at same risk of victimization at a risk but not as large as street prostitutes 0 Middle class john most common client Sex Tourism 0 People traveling to other countries to have sex with prostitutes 0 Growing problems with people seeking underage prostitutes children I Children as young as 4 and 5 I There is a growth in this because they are less likely to be infected and some places believe that sex with children will cure disease 0 See this in extremely economic deprived areas where there is a very low status of women 0 For westerners this is an exotic and different experience I Asian submissive want to please I Latino sass I It39s known that in Thailand about 10 of the women are involved in sex trade United States STDSDisease I Only about 5 of STDs are linkedwith prostitution I Can demand that customers wear condoms I A lot of oral sex not intercourse esp at street level I Women are more likely to contract STD from man not viceversa I Is prostitution harmful to society 0 The church once viewed it as an outlet for men not now a long time ago 0 Challenges family undermines traditional values and can damage family 0 Public health susceptible to STDs and spread of STDs 0 People don39t like things that make them feel unsafe signs of disorder and we don39t like it I Why do women do this 0 Opportunities for work are low pay and bad hours and they may turn to this 0 Economically motivated to make money 0 Ifjust sex work would women choose to prostitute if they had other options I Some would but many would not believed to be very economically motivated I COYOTE Call OffYour Old Tired Ethics 0 Women feminist group I Proprostitution laws against prostitutes are discriminatory towards women I Sex work type of work these laws are wrong and don39t work I To deter women from prostitution 0 Post pictures online embarrasses us Lower class men are more likely to solicit prostitution Deter effect for men more than women ohn Schoolquot How to reduce demand 1st offender programs for soliciting prostitution Will deter many from going this again Could bring previous prostitute to talk to men Keep 1st offender out of prison and lower recidivismspecific I O O O O O 0 Nude Dancing and Phone Sex I Both selling sexual fantasies Phone Sex 0 Not between couples people calling in per minute to talk to an operator I Generally used for masturbation May allow them to not have guilt No intimacy no fear of rejection You can pretend to be whoever you want and they can pretend to be whoever you want them to be Its private and anonymous I Types of callers 0 Quick sex caller most commoncall in do business as quick as possible and get off phone not lingering o Lave forms relationship with operator and becomes attac e o Jealous caller infatuation with operator gets jealous of other callers O O 0000 Psychos call in and yell and curse at operator Likeables the callers are likeable professionals nice and polite I Nude Dancing 0 Selling the fantasy that men are desirable and that they want to have sex with the men 0 Same kinds of men who are going to prostitutes more working class might not be attractive partners lower education 0 Upperscale young white or novelty Asians disproportionate ex Little body big boobs 0 Annual estimate book 25000 7500 0 Huge debate of who has control customer or dancer I Women say that they are in control and feel empowered I Money is the determining factor men have control over that Sexual Harassment I Unwelcomed act of a sexual nature I Supreme Court definition any sexual act that makes the workplace environment so hostile or abusive to the victim that they are unable to perform their job I Workplace is where we tend to focus ideas of sexual harassment but it exists everywhere I Does not have to be a female victim but women have much more likely than men to be a victim o The definition is gender neutral I Men are sexually harassed but usually harassed by other men I 2 types of sexual harassment o Quid pro quo do something for me and I39ll do something for you I Ex sleep with me and I39ll give you an A if you don39t do this I will fire you 0 Hostile environment everything else much more subjective form making the environment uncomfortable that they are so uncomfortable that they cannot do their job I Inappropriate touching comments of a sexual nature starting at people in a sexual way repeatedly asking someone on a date if they keep refusing sexually offensive screensaver I Victims perception very subjective I Harder to prove I Some people are more sensitive I 1z of all working women have been sexually harassed I College about 40 of college women have been sexually harassed I High school about 70 of high school students have been sexually harassed mainly by other students I 1981 20000 federal employees 0 42 ofwomen had been sexually harassed o 15 ofmen had been sexually harassed I Why does it happen especially in the work place 0 Form a social contract done to reinforce that this is the male domain and you don39t belong 0 Much more likely to occur in male dominated professions o If workers perceive that their workplace permits or accepts it it is much more likely to occur I Catcalling Is a form of sexual harassment Cannot really do anything legally Whistling yeah baby etc Not attery not doing it to be irty Some circumstances it could be threatening alone night time Its often done in a group Women are socialized that they are likely to be the victim of rape and women are socialized to view strange men as a threat 0 Men might mean it to be funny nut it might not be funny to the women might be threatening 0 Men who admit to catcalling I Because they were bored and didn39t think about it I At least 15 admitted to doing it to humiliate or make the women angry social control 0 Ex Female Student male Professor I Chose same f student for all examples starting with what if Suzy got a jobquot and moving to what if I rapped Suzyquot I Other students were aware other students perceived her not in a good way don39t like her she is seen as getting special attention undermines what she has done and he accomplishments OOOOOOO Pornography sexual explicit material I Wide range of pornography legal pornography I Obscenity I sexual explicit material that violates community standards having no social value 0 based on community standards I soft core porn and hard core porn 0 how much body shown and sex is real or simulated 0 soft core more likely to be simulated sex 0 hard core both shown men and women parts very explicit I Regulation standards change o I know it when I see itquot o It varies there is a lot of variation I Obscene child porn illegal but exists May have gone down recently but after a huge increase Most people agree that it39s not good at all Illegal for you to access it even 1 time People dressed to look like children was once illegal Monitored by government hard to monitor because its global I How much 0 Online 1A of all internet searches are for porn more people go to porn sites than news sites 0 Hardcore video rentals 75 million in 1985 to 665 million rentals in 1996 Harmful to society 0 Against traditional family value s ruins family 0 If both parties agree that porn and what is being watched is acceptable it is not harmful I Is porn harmful to teens 0 Very distorted view of sex Bodies men larger than average size penis which can give a distorted view to young boys women white young very thin and enhanced Distortion in the mechanics of sex does not last as long as presented in movies Ifnot using condoms Not showing consequences of sex desensitiveation the more we see it the more we become accepting of it increase in anal sex in teenagers more teens are doing anal sex because of porn porn is not the end all of the body image problem because its common place in regular prime time TV might give unrealistic views of relationships and what people want to do increase in viewing of porn is why we see more teen anal sex more people viewing porn and have permissive attitudes I Causing violence in women Huge debate not a new debate 0 Is all porn likely to have same effect on violence against women I Soft or hard core porn consensual and if that increases aggression towards women lab studies very inclusive is what we see in the lab actually our behavior probably not with repeated exposure you will have a greater effect 0 Violent porn range of simulated rape real rapes snuff films killing or simulated a woman I Studies suggest a link between viewing porn and aggression and sexual aggression toward women I May not be causal link but there is a relationship 0 Rates of violence against women are down rape is down when porn exploded in availability and hard core nature 0 Porn 9 greater gender quality 9 violence against women 0 If rapists child molesters viewed porn I Rapists view porn not surprise because millions of other men and women view porn and don39t rape I Porn and violence against women inconclusive link I Conservatives undermines traditional morals and ruining marriages o If both partners agreed with porn type and amount it will not create con ict 0 Conservative states have very high rates of viewing porn I About 1 3 of spouses objected to spouse watching porn because it was committing adultery the other 23 did not Chapter 10 Gays amp Other Victims of Social Stigma I 000000000 0 00000 O I Goffman 3 types of deviance I Blemished of individual character voluntary Prostitution gambling drug use I Abominations of the body voluntaryinvoluntary 0 Physical disabilities obesity tattooing I Tribal stigma of race nation religion involuntary Collective deviance you belong to a deviant group 0 Ascriptive status born into this group Beauty I Beauty is culturally defined but there are certain traits that have been identified as beautiful crossculturally symmet O O O O OO O WomenSmall nose large eyes symmetrical breast youth is very important waste hip ratio of 70 child bearing fertility Men Strong chin large jaw slightly above average height amp muscle tone Weight changes across cultures but the hour glass shape is always there There is a wide range of unattractiveness Being ugly is a form of deviance we assign people that are unattractive negative traits amp much more likely to assign pretty people positive traits we use stereotypes which are usually incorrect We don t give unattractive people the benefit of doubt much quicker to judge Studies Looking at how we are more likely to assign negative characteristics to nonattractive people Pretend teacher amp pictures of students with deviant acts attached to the photo I Range of deviant behavior from stepping on the dogs tail mild to hitting the amp causing it to cry serious I If they did a mild form of deviance the attractiveness of the child did not matter I If it was a more serious the more the appearance of the child mattered I attractive child it was explained away accident unusual for the child I unattractive child bad kid causing trouble fights etc Negative Traits do unattractive people really have negative traits or are they responding to our negative traits I Males speaking to women on the phone altered pictures of attractive amp unattractive women but they are not talking to who they think that they are based on the picture shown to them I Women not part of the study not trying to steer subject into a certain way did not know men were shown pictures I Before the phone call based solely on the picture the men described the pictures of the women I Attractive women poised confident humorous social easy to talk to I Unattractive women awkward serious not easy to talk to During the phone call the men act differently toward the type of women that they think that they are talking to I Attractive women flirting easy to talk to humorous I Unattractive women just what they predicted awkward I We attribute negative characteristics to unattractive people amp they are responsive to the traits we give them I We respond to the way that we think people view us looking glass self Real consequences of being unattractive Matters in the workplace Less likely to get hired less money less advancement Obesity 0 0 Trends Majority of states are 2529 obese 3 states are 3035 Obese is a Body Mass Index BMI of 30 or higher 23 of America adults are either overweight or obese BMI measures is height amp weight not muscle problem 15 of children are overweight or obese Rates are increasing Attitudes toward obesity have not changed it is still very stigmatizing to be overweight Goffman abominations of the body amp defect of moral character We tend to only look at personal responsi ility amp choice but other things do sum into the equation illnesses medications genetics Factors What we eat how we eat 0 Fast foodEating out we eat out a lot more we generally equate larger portions with value I Not good high end restaurants real portions which are much smaller than usual Moderationwe need to keep in mind moderation amp serving portions usually much more than 1 serving At Work it39s convenient the extra income allows to pay for eating out much more Longer hours much more sedentary inactive much less physical activity sitting at desk all day long we eat because we are bored at work we use a lot of processed foods amp quick amp easy foods when we prepare meals I convenient often high in sodium amp fat amp usually not good for us meat the cheapest has the most fat higher end meat is usually much more expensive eat at home usually eat in living room amp not in the kitchen table with family I eat less when sitting at table amp not doing other things I has positive family relationships if eating meals with family at table leisure activity much more sedentary TV computer not exercise kids much more likely to play video games amp computer games than play outside I Wii dont really do much exercise not the same as playing outside Free play I Less than 10 of kids ride their bike to school I No true neighborhood schools amp we don t perceive it as safe we know that it is VERY unlikely that our child will get kidnapped on the way to school but we are still not likely to let them ride their bike 0 O O 00 I Studies 0 Children as young as3years I Showed them pictures of overweight people I Lazy mean selfish stupid I We see the same negative traits the adults give obese people 0 ChildrenSyears old I Set of photos of different looking children facial disfigurations crutches overweight missing limbs rank them as who you would want to be their friend I Overweight was the last person the kids wanted to be friends with 0 Kids undergoing chemo with cancer were psychologically better off then obese kids I Attitudes 0 Media I Primetime shows I Women are young amp very skinny I Men are also thin but have a lot more leeway I More accepting ofolder amp heavier male couples I animations show Family Guy women are skinnier I The longer women are on TV the skinnier they get but men age naturally 0 Parents I Parent should be mindful of the subtle amp not so subtle messages we send I Women are worse at this than men when looking in a mirror I look fat my butt looks big etc I When little girls look in the mirror they say the same things that they have heard their mother saying I Kids are perceptive amp smart they can pick up on tone amp what we are saying about people Physical Disabilities I Most of the time they didn39t cause it it is a form of deviance because they are treated differently Their hampicap often become their master status They try to manage the stigma by hiding their impairment False limbs Myths stigmas 0 We tend to equate physical disability with mental disability I Speak louder amp slower like what we do to the elderly 0 We tend to act interact in extremes stare or completely ignore I we need to interact with people that have disabilities more to ease discomfort Tattooing I Men 1020 amp women 7 have tattoos I Under 25 between 1525 have tattoos 0 Young people tend to overestimate the amount 0 Rates have been increasing in the US I Tattooing is deviant because its associated with bad people amp people who have a nontraditional lifestyle 0 Prisoners bikers etc I People that have tattoos usually get it in a place where it can be covered up to manage the stigma I More acceptable for men to have tattoos over women I Differences between men amp women39s tattoos 0 Women smaller back ankles places that can be hidden more feminine flowers hearts stars 0 Men larger arms back panthers serpents more aggressive tattoos I Why do people get tattoos 0 Act of deviance they are unconventional amp to express freedom 0 Commemorate special events child marriage deaths etc o Show group affiliation I When women get tattoos it becomes sexualized Their sexuality is questioned Tramp stamp morally loose women There was is a certain type of women who get tattoos In the past there was an overturned conviction of rape because victim woman had a tattoo ampit suggested that she wanted it 0000 Homosexuality I Sex the biologicalampanatomical differences between men amp women 0 If you cannot tell the difference between if a person is a boy or a girl you don t know what to say babies I Gender the culturallyampsocially constructed differences between females amp males femininity amp masculinity varies culturally o Feminine weak passive emotional o Masculine strong active rational I Sexual Orientation classification of individuals based on their emotional attraction sexual behavior involvement amp selfidentification 0 hard to classify amp hard to measure not necessarily clearly defined people conceal being gayhomosexual because of discrimination 0 Types I Heterosexuality attracted to persons of the other sex I Homosexuality attracted to persons of the same sex I Bisexuality attracted to persons of both sexes I Asexuality not emotionally or sexually attracted to anyone I increasing of people who claim this I Transgendered gender identity do not conform to traditional norms of masculinity amp femininity NOT HOMO 0 Types I Intersexual some form of male amp female genital not both are fully developed Transsexual belong to one sex but feel as if they are another they have a desire to live as the other gender I May take hormones to help change physical appearance I more likely to be men I may undergo treatments to reassignment to change their gender identity Transvestites those who dress in other genders clothing for emotional or erotic pleasure I often heterosexual men but includes women who dress in women39s clothing I Don t feel that they are the other sex theyjust like it referred to as a m I GLBT term amp organization for Gay Lesbian Bisexual Transgendered people I LUGS Lesbian Until Graduation I Cross culturally acceptance of homosexuality varies from complete intolerance to tolerance measured as legal recognition of partnerships US is somewhere in the middle of the spectrum of acceptance o In 84 countries homosexuality activity is illegal 9 of those countries it is punished by death Pakistan Afghanistan Iran Saudi Arabia 0 Some countries have legalized same sex marriage or registered partnerships that convey many of the rights of marriages to samesex couples Germany Italy Canada Spain Sweden I Study by Michael amp Colleagues 1994 o How many people are homosexuals Depends on how it is measured I Same sex feeling 6 of men 4 of women I Same sex behavior 9 of men 4 of women I Men more likely to be in same sex situations amp locations prison army etc I Identify oneselfas a gaylesbian 28 men 14 women I Usually hear that 10 of population is gay overestimation could be asking if a person has ever had a sexual encounter with the same sex I Most studies suggest that around 5 of US population gaylesbian about 10 million people I Kinsey said sexual orientation was a continuum between homosexuality amp heterosexuality amp most people are neither entirely homosexuality or heterosexuality 0 this would explain the higher rate of same sex feelings amp behavior amp lower rates of identification experimenting 0 We tend to think about things in very black amp white terms Kinsey rejected this notion I Men who identify as heterosexual but engage in homosexual activity deviant amp stigmatizing 0 Trades straight men who engage in occasional homosexual behaviors I Anonymous sex bathroom hole sex 0 Street hustlers male prostitutes often heterosexuals who get paid from homosexuals generally take masculine role in sex acts the pitcher receive oral sex 0 Situationals engage in same sex behavior because of the situation usually define themselves as amp live heterosexual lives I Prisoners etc most assume male role that they are taking I Boarding schools I Military I Ethics Must have informed consent of those being observed confidentiality must be kept if you observe in a public place do you need informed consent 0 Laud Humphreys researcher who observed homosexual activity in a public park wrote down their license plates got their information from the DMV ampwent to their homesBAD Facts I Gay men are generally more sexually active than lesbians I Gay men are more likely than straight men to be sexually active amp involved in steady longterm relationships I Lesbians like straight women are socialized to be more interested in relationships amp love rather than casual sex I Majority of lesbians look like other straight women some may choose to look more masculine most lesbians have the same desire as straight women to become mothers I More than 13 of lesbians exhibit a partial bisexual style about 23 are attracted to men I 67 of lesbians are mothers 27 gay men are fathers I Lesbians are more likely to reject the traditional female roles I Adolescent lesbians are usually not aware that they are gay until later in life Coming Out I Sensitization gays feel that they are different from other people I Dissociation begin to feel that they might be gay but refuse to define themselves as gay I Coming out acknowledge sexual feelings as gay get involved in gay subculture amp redefine homosexuality as positive I Commitment positive outlook on life as a homosexual ongoing process Heterosexism amp Homophobia I Homophobia negative attitudes amp emotions toward homosexuals o Heterosexism refers to the societal reinforcement of heterosexuality as superior to homosexuality o Gallup poll 46 of US adults view homosexuality as a sin amp 44 say that is should not be considered amp acceptable alternative lifestyles I Even more are against gay marriage amp raising kids I Social profile of homophobes 0 Less educated Conservatives People over 50 African Americans Christian ideology South amp Midwest people in rural areas I Cultural origins of homophobia 0 Religion Christian ideology is the best predicator of a homophobic I Marital amp Procreative bias may condone sex only when it occurs in a marital context that provides for the possibility of producing children However most couples has sex for pleasure not procreation 0 HIV AIDS concern many people associated AIDS with homosexuality 0 Rigid gender roles people who hold traditional gender role attitudes are likely to hold negative attitudes toward homosexuality I Our society socialized men to devalue anything feminine it39s ok for women to go a little towards the male role tom boy but we are very intolerant of men learning toward feminine I Being called a fag or bitch is considered the most insulting name for a boy 0 Myths amp negative stereotypes I Sexually promiscuous amp lack family values I Although somewhat more sexually active than heterosexual men many homosexual men are involved in long term relationships I Child molestation I however 95 of reported child abuse is committed by heterosexual men I at every age women girls are more likely to be victim of abuse I Homosexuals will turn children gay not true Effects of homophobia amp heterosexism I Work Discrimination although about 85 of Americans believe people shouldn39t be discriminated against because of their sexual orientation it39s still legal in many states 36 Many states have enacted same sex marriage bans This limits benefits partners can receive pension benefits ability to make medical treatment decision for partners health insurance coverage inheritance without a will etc Homosexual parents are often denied custody of children in divorce bc of belief that its unsafe or will turn child gay However the majority of children growing up in homes with homosexual parents are heterosexual I Adoption 49 of Americans believe gay couples should be allowed to adopt 48 oppose it In some states gay couple can neither adopt children nor serve as foster parents Violence 0 Hate crimes kill people who they think are gay 0 Being hit on by a gay man can cause serious reactions JennyJones Case Theories of homosexuality Biological hormones genes amp brain differences Psychiatric hidden but incapacitated fears of the opposite sex repressed feelings from past experience I Sociological homosexuals are socialized to be gay by outside influences Suicid e The intentional taking of one s own life Generally there are about twice as many homicides per year Men are more like to commit suicide than women Women are more like to attempt suicide than men White men are about twice as likely to commit suicide than black men Suicide rates increase in the spring seasonality Elderly people are most likely to commit suicide 0 It is however a leading cause of death in young people because they are not dying from other things such as heart disease stroke etc 25000 30000 commit suicide each year Suicides can be mislabeled as either homicides or accidents 0 Unless the person left evidence they intentionally took their life it is hard to tell what happened 0 Suicide Rate suicides population 100000 quotSuicidal feelings discovered by content analysis of suicide notes 0 Depressed lonely sad 0 Vindictive quotMy blood is on your hands it s your fault o Apologetic quotI m sorry I couldn t be betterquot 0 Magnanimous Opposite ofvindictive hold no one to blame o Surrealistic Atonement Disgraced making amends through death Suicide Attempts 0 Women 0 Younger 0 Drug users 0 Methods include overdosing and cutting Suicide Completion 0 Men 0 Elderly o Af uent 0 Methods include gun and strangulation Groups with high rates of suicide Countries that have high industrialization 0 United States 0 Higher economies 0 Group to individual focus More af uent countries Exceptions to industrialization o If society condones or allows suicide suicide bombers Hindu tradition Three categories of Suicide Threaten threatened but taken no action 0 116639 threatened suicide 200 2 Attempt threatened and taken action but not succeeded 0 132353 hospitalized for attempted suicide 2002 Commit attempt and succeeded 0 31655 complete suicides 2002 0 Number may be underestimated due to insurance social stigmas Urban V Rural Rural areas have higher rates of suicide Looking at states in this case 0 Other levels of measurement cities countries Rural areas people are more individualistic 0 They take care of their own problems 0 They have mistrust of the government 0 High concentration of whites and native Americans higher rates of suicide White men have highest rate of suicide Women are more integrated than men Men do it more because they don t live up to their breadwinner standard Men age 65 retirement finances declining health 0 Loss of anatomy loss ofindependence Protestants have highest rate then Catholics then Iews Catholic is very conservative southern Baptist Blacks tend to be very conservative Depends on how often you attend church more you go to church lower suicide rates Protestants are much more individualistic Situational Risk Factors The rate among elderly is declining though it is still the highest the rate among adolescent is increasing what is affecting these suicide rates Changes in integrationregulation Adolescence 0 Don t have the highest rate but their rate is increasing while others are declining 0 Transition between childhood and adulthood they feel con icted and confused being treated like a child and fearful ofnot being able to discharge adult responsibilities adequately I Often results in defiant behavior drug use delinquency Less likely to have jobs because of economy 0 O Explanations In terms of integration and regulation I Integration 0 Single parent divorced cohabitation two career families Less integration Women usually the dominant parent father s role important 0 Going to church less I Regulation o Latchkey children parents home less children are less regulated o More time with technology TV internet teXting means less socializing 0 Even though they are connected through technology they feel lonely and have less friends College Students 0 Moving out 0 Stress 0 Lower level classes usually largest 0 Less integration 0 Lack of social ties and support 0 College students are mostly single no spouse and children for support 0 Experimentation with drugs sex 0 Financial Independence 0 Time management HIVAIDS 0 Rates about 700 per 100000 patients in NYC 0 Earlier stages I HIV before it becomes AIDS 0 Enormous sense of hopelessness while social stigma attached to the disease brings addition burden of social rejection and isolation Prisoners o 68 times more likely to commit suicide than normal population 0 Leading cause of death among prison inmates I Suicide gt homicide in prisons 0 Earlier stages when they first get there 0 Death row inmates have highest rates then those with minor offenses and little time I Currently in local jails awaiting trial or sentencing than instate prisons after conviction and sentencing o Predominantly whites early 20s single divorced or lacking stable and supportive relationships 0 Majority die by hanging 0 Most commit suicide because they are afraid of other inmates or even just being in prison Media In uences O 00 When a person s suicide is highly publicized the nation s suicide rate tends to go up Single car fatalities usually suicides People effected be contagious effect I People already thinking about suicide I Gives them permission because not doing it by themselves I Could give them courage I Relationship between suicide and country music 0 Higher rates of suicide in places people listen to country music more 0 White males rural areas high rates of suicide no matter what they listen to I Depressing music content analysis lots of sad themes I Going to have effect on people who already at risk to commit suicide I Not a casual relationship but there is a correlation I Sad people are drawn to sad things will not make you commit suicide I Ozzy Osbourn taken to court because family said a song made child commit suicide I Blink 182 Adams song I Much music with themes if suicide tell people it s okay to commit suicide Physician Assisted Suicide 0 O O O 0 Legal only in Oregon Not very common Guidelines I 18 or older I Have to be a resident of Oregon I Terminally ill and expected to die within 6 months I Able to communicate wishes themselves I Able to swallow themselves Between 19982007 341 People Every year there are more prescriptions written than deaths I You can take the prescription but back out at any time Typically elderly white men I Over 70 are male I Majority dying from terminal cancer I 97 white 39 12 married 0 Most common response of fear oflosing loss of anatomy loss of ability to have self control self regulation not wanting to be dependent on others 0 Median age is 65 pain not an issue Marital Status and Suicide Single V Married 0 Never married 0 Widowed o Divorced o Separated Married people have the lowest rates 0 Connected to other people support system 0 More integrated on many levels 0 Kids feel the need of responsibility Divorced people have the highest rate WidowSingle never married are somewhere in between Durkheim Theory Social Integration regulation 0 Why certain groups maintain a high rate of suicide over a period of time regardless of the individuals Integration involvement with groups Regulation how the groups we belong to regulateconstraincontrol our behaviors People with too little and too much integration and regulation most likely to commit suicide Durkheim s Types of Suicides Related to Integration individuals voluntarily attaching themselves to a group or society of which they are members 0 Egoistic when integration is too low I Unmarried divorced 0 Unable to receive love affection and moral support from a spouse and children when deeply frustrated with their lives 0 Altruistic When integration is too high so integrated that they lose sight of the individuals I Suicide bombers cults Related to Regulation Individuals being restrained constrained or controlled by a group or society of which they are members 0 Anomic less socially regulated our aspirations are heavily regulated by society ifwe have endless wants we will never be happy and it s uncontrollable I Af uent white males more freedom than other groups I Expect too much from life causes greater frustration Fatalistic more socially regulated absolutely no control oppression O I Ancient slaves women in rural China prisoners When it comes to testing these theories how can we tell the difference you can t be regulated if not integrated 0 Soldiers are egoistic as well as fatalistic poorly integrated under high regulation also anomic because they were under a certain set of rules and now have all the freedom they can handle or can t Heterosexual Deviance Relativity some people believe the behaviors are deviant others do not 0 100 consensus married couple for procreation missionary position I Any changes from this lowers the consensus I Consensus is high at nondeviant end as well Heterosexual Intercourse 0 Between a married couple for procreation is the least deviant 0 Any movement away from this is considered more deviant 0 Less Consensus as we step away that it s acceptable Premarital Sex 0 Many thing it s deviant 0 High rate ofpremarital sex 0 Age of marriage has risen to 30 I The older you are more acceptable it is to have premarital sex 0 Most religious groups are against it I Is it deviant for 2 consenting adults Most religious groups say yes 0 People want to see if their partners can satisfy them 0 Have become more relaxed about premarital sex than 2030 years ago Teen Sex 0 Seen as deviant because they do not grasp likelihood of consequences I Disease pregnancy mental status emotional cost 0 US has one of the highest rates of teen pregnancy teen abortion and teen STDs 0 From teen to early 20 s to adults with kids it becomes seen as less acceptable 0 Sex is a status offense under 16 cannot consent to sex I Girls get in trouble more for having sex underage boys don t 0 Guys are usually older than girls Double standard Boys allowed girls not I Girls with high selfesteem lower rates of sex I Boys with high self esteem higher rates of sex I Boys are encouraged and seen as men I Girls are considered whores if they have sex 0 0 Below 1617 considered deviant I They re young I Not the same thinkingreasoning capacity as adults to make that choice It s premarital sex age isn timportant Fear of pregnancy 0 Why girls get in more trouble 0 Largest decline in teen pregnancies among African Americans 0 Increase in condom use I Decline in birth rates abortions STDs 0 Sex Education I Pros o Medically accurate information 0 Birth control 0 Increases condom use 0 Abstinence aspect I Cons Teaching abstinence only postpones sex for 18 months less likely to use condoms Talking about sex should be up to the parents 0 Some parents wait too late 0 Some parents lie to children give them wrong inaccurate information 0 Talking about sex makes them want to try it 0 Increase in Oral sex I Can t get pregnant but can still get STDs I Not seen as deviant to teens I quotTechnicallyquot still a virgin I Mostly female to male oral sex I Still psychologicallyemotionally changed 0 High percentage ofparents are unaware their children are having sex 0 Anal sex has increased but still considered deviant I Among adults and children Phone Sex 0 Calling a number and paying for services I Operator does it for money it s their job 0 Do it for masturbation o Appealing because it s anonymous 0 Goal of the operator to keep them on the phone as long as possible I Quick callers are the largest groups I Psychos violent angry callers talk about beating and raping women I Lonely calling same operator making plans for the future proposing to her refraining from discussion of sexual matters I Sexually possessive being infatuated with a specific operator but they are jealous ofher sexual involvement with other men and demand she give sex only to them I Likeables group that phone sex operators like professional jobs they are polite nice 0 Buying and selling a fantasy Nude Dancers o 2500075000year 0 High end young white thin surgically enhanced 0 Novelty nude dancers I Porn stars huge boobs 0 Customer perspective I Fantasy 0 More common in working class and lower class 0 Customers in control Prostitution 0 Exchange of sex for money 0 Mostly women lt20 men 0 Myths I Nymphomaniacs having an insatiable desire for sexual intercourse with many men 0 Male fantasy not substantiated by facts 0 Prostitutes started having sex at a younger age then other women 0 Before going into business most didn t have more sexual partners than average women I Prostitutes are sexually frigid 0 When they have sex with their husbands or boyfriends they are more responsive than other women 0 More able to achieve orgasm o Majority of call girls frequently have orgasms with their clients primarily because those men tend to treat them like girlfriends 0 Only streetwalkers unlikely to experience orgasms with their customers much less friendly than call girls clients I Believed to be nasty and hardhearted and on the other hand believed to be romanticized as sweet and warmhearted 0 Average attitude toward her client is similar to that of anyone who provides services to a diverse clientele 0 Some clients she likes others she dislikes towards more of them she feels neutral I Streetwalkers Being paid more and treated better call girls escorts brothel prostitutes more likely than streetwalkers to like their clients I Most prostitutes are drug addicts or have turned to prostitution to support their drug habits also assumed to have emotional problems Streetwalkers are more likely than conventional women to be addicted to drugs but they only make up a minority of prostitutes 103 0 Most that work indoors call girls escorts house prostitutes not drug addicts Relatively free of emotional problems streetwalkers more prone to have psychological problems resulting from stress and danger ofworking on the street 0 Measured by random sampling and arrest rates I Underestimates total number overestimates street hookers 0 Types ofWorkers Less educated more likely to shoot drugs and get AIDS more often arrested by police Tend to solicit in lowerclass areas they can afford to solicit blatantly and less fear of getting arrested Often abused by customers pimps even police 0 O Pimp intervene over problems set the price select clients most likely to be the problem offer minimum protection ones that work with pimps earn more money willing to take greater risks take control of public space resolve con ict through violence sexually involved with pimp he is in control ofher life and profits Customers raped beaten physical abusers refuse to pay raped outside the prostitute atmosphere sexual assault slashed kidnapped harder to report to police because some believe they deserve it Police moral treatment force them to have seX or take their money eXploit their positions small minority Mostly oral 2050 O Intercourse 50100 1025 minutes Minorities older or underage drug problems I Brothels house prostitutes Harder to find them in academic studies legalillegal Nevada has legal brothels only in rural counties women are few minorities and younger pay premium charges get to pick the girl you like and discuss prices although owned by men the quotmadamquot is in charge 0 Less risks more controlled environment cameras health screenings use ofprotection registered taxed 0 Illegal brothels are everywhere massage parlors more illegal immigrants promised legit jobs to help provide for families forced to stay here because they take their papers threat and use ofviolence against them and their families Call Girls 0 Highest status in the sex business 0 Charge several hundred dollars for each sexual intercourse 0 Generally better educated more sophisticated dress exp ensively live in af uent neighborhoods aware of their high status and get offended if treated like an ordinary streetwalker or brothel prostitute 0 Newspapers magazines internet pictures biography contact information o Heavily dependent on their customers for income 0 Customers No strings attached No fear of rejection Variety of sex possible engage in sexual acts that can t be performed by their partner Difficulty in relationships 0 Stopping prostitution Arrests and fines Causes divorce humiliation kids disown Iohn Schools 0 Customers of prostitutes educated in the lifestyle of walking the streets get the emotional side involved decreases repeat offending some cities post arrest reports along with their picture in local newspapers For women it s their job and this will not deter them better opportunity presented might decrease their participation customers do deter and only become one time offenders 0 Coyote women feminist group Call OffYour Old Tired Ethics Proprostitution laws against prostitutes are discriminatory towards women jailing prostitutes violates their civil rights Sex work type of work these laws are wrong and don t work O Porno O O 00 Sex Tourism Traveling to other countries to engage in sexual acts with prostitutes Not new but it has changed Has increased since the internet Age of the worker has declined very young children involved as young as 46 mostly used for oral and want virgins It is illegal to travel abroad to engage in sex with minors Asian women are submissive American women are not submissive Most countries seem to be in extreme value have a lack of value on children and women Mail order brides not illegal very deviant come from rough poverty eastern European countries exploitation comes from both ends graphy Sexually explicit materials in the media strictly made for sexual appetite I Law not strictly enforced because the meaning of pornography is subject to different interpretations Majority ofAmericans are opposed to the distribution and consumption ofpornography yet sexually explicit materials can be found everywhere and most people men have used it Wide variation of what is obscene and what s pornographic Is porn harmful I Kids 0 Illegal for them to watch it minority status can promote teen sex don t have enough contextlife experiences to understand disorient the image of women forcing teens to think they need to look like that socializes men into thinking that is the ideal women men involved are above average size average intercourse time 810 minutes movies go on for hours not realistic boys might want to compete with these images as well porn stars don t use condoms and no consequences are shown Women Tend to be white young surgically enhanced thin increases violence against women experiments measure time one men s aggressive attitudes toward O O 0 women more exposure the more it seems okay increase in porn shows gender inequalities Porn 9 greater gender inequality 9 violence against women Conservatives undermines traditional morals I Conservative states have high porn viewing rates About 13 or spouses objected to spouse watching porn because it was committing adultery other 23 did not Sexual Harassment O O O O Unwanted sexual advances Still prevalent Can be used as social control tend to be in male dominated professions I Majority of harassers are men most victims are women I Men on men harassment Quid Pro Quo sexual Harassment I You do something for me I ll do something for you I An exchange Hostile Environment I More subjective I All other forms of sexual harassment Adultery extramarital sex 0 OOO Attitudes 90 believe adultery is quotalways wrong or quotalmost always wrong Behaviors I Men 25 have extramarital sex I Women 17 I Women s rates increasing because they are interacting with men more in work place outside of home Who does it I Lower class men I Get married younger higher divorce rates more traditional gender roles Why I Marriage difficulties I Idea is exciting and attractive I Escape life Seductive Myth I Seduced by the idea that sex is phenomenal and everything is going to be great I Myth not more satisfying for men or women I Majority do not rate partner as more attractive than their spouse Most people are ashamed Men are looking for sex women are looking for love Men and women do not express things the same I Men express feelings through sex 0 Leading cause of divorce in the US I More likely to lead to divorce in the US than other countries I Not because they accept it more but they aren t looking for the same things in marriage as US is 0 High expectations marriage is usually a disappointment Swinging CoMarital Sex 2 married couples Only 12 of Couples rare More deviant than adultery Who I Men initiate I Middle class suburban whites I More likely to have been previously divorced Some studies report more marital happiness and trust others report more reason for divorce Mostly people that are able to remove the sexual act from the emotional component 0 000 O O Homosexuality and Other Forms of Social Deviance Goffman and forms of social stigma marks Blemishes ofindividual character Abominations of the body 0 Things that go against norms ofwhat a body should look like be worn 0 Physical Disabilities I Either stare or ignore sign of our discomfort I Often equate physical disabilities with mental disabilities I Tend to define them as their disability I How do we get over it 0 Be aware be honest o Tattoos I Ways to hide them managing stigma I Mild form of deviance Groups that used to have tattoos marginalized more accepted now Even when getting tattoos people get them in appropriate places Men upper back legs arms larger than women s tribal signs aggressive Women hearts owers less aggressive lower back ankles wrist hips I Tramp stamp more stigmatizing for women I 1020 ofAmerican men have tattoos I 7 ofAmerican women I Tattoo numbers aren t reported they are found by surveys 0 Beauty I Different beauty norms for men and women I Different cultures have different definitions of beautiful I Trend cross culturally 0 Women 0 Youth most common 0 Symmetry 0 Smooth skin 0 Symmetrical breasts 0 Hip to waist ration 70 smaller waist than hips o All signs of fertility 0 Men 0 Taller 0 Muscle definition 0 Strong facial features 0 Hip to waist ratio 90 0 All indications of strength and good genes I Consequences for not adhering to the appearance norms They aren t given the benefit of the doubt Study attractive children were excused and said they were just having a bad day 0 Study Less attractive children their behaviors were part of their personality Male subjects got pictures of attractive women and were told that s who they d be speaking to on the phone 0 Conversations went better when they thought they were talking to the attractive women were longer Conversations were shorter and went nowhere when talking to the unattractive women See this in sentencing in the criminal justice system salary job interviews 0 Obesity Being unattractive is stigmatizing I About 23 ofAmericans are overweight or obese I Being obese is still incredibly stigmatizing I Structural changes contributing to our weight All individual responsibility Diet and exercise More women in the work place have less time to cook and a higher income they eat out more Portions are doubled at restaurants Bigger plates Fast food Preprepared foods Poorer people get food from convenience stores Leisure and work activities are now less active than before I Children as young as 34 have negative attitudes toward obese people I Parents in uence young children not media 0 Talk about their own weight and looks I Consequences ofbeing overweight as a young female are huge I Obese child psychological well being worse than chemo patients Tribal Stigma o Collective deviance 0 Even ifyou don t do anything wrong just belonging to a group Sexual Orientation Lecture Sexual Orientation April 9 2013 592013 111400 PM o Homosexualitybisexuality O O O llit s easier to make the whole than cut the polequot Masculinity I Strong active rational Feminine I Weak passive emotional Persons with same6 men and 4 women Persons who have ever engaged in samesex behavior 9men 4women Person with gay or lesbians selfidentification 28 men 14women 56 of the population is gay Homophobia in the US I Groups Older Southern Midwestern African American Conservative Christian ideology Rural Homophobia Negative attitudes toward homosexuals Not everyone with homophobic attitudes are actively discriminating against people because it only has to be an attitude to be considered homophobic People who are most homophobic 0 People who hold a very traditionalconservative gender role attitude People over the age of 50 Non high school grads African Americans Regular church goers People who live in the south or mid west People who live in rural areas Conservative Christian ideology is one of the best predictors of homophobia Marital bias 0 Sex is supposed to happen in the confines of marriage between a man and a woman Procreative bias 0 Only the people who can procreate should be able to marry 0 Most people engage in sex for recreation not procreation Concern over HIVAIDS 0 People still tend to link HIV and AIDS with homosexual behavior but we know that we can contract either of these through any act of unprotected intercourse 0 We first started seeing it emerge in the homosexual community This happened because there are some forms of intercourse that are more risky and people are less likely to wear condoms in some of these actions Anal sex is more risky and people are less likely to wear protection when having this kind of sex So this is not only likely among homosexuals but women toowe just hearsee it more in homosexuals Rigid Gender Roles 0 People who hold traditional gender role expectations are more likely to not agree with homosexuality It is more deviant for a man to be homosexual than it is for a woman Masculine active strong rational Feminine passive weak emotional We tend to value the masculine traitsso its more deviant for men to take on feminine traits than it is for women to take on masculine traits People are much quicker to intervene when they see a boy acting too feminine than they are for a girl acting too masculine We call into question a mans masculinity when they step out of line like we do a woman s virtue when she steps out of line 0 Stereotypes people hold about homosexuals Promiscuity There is a lot of negative talk of promiscuity within the homosexual community Are homosexual women more promiscuous than heterosexual women 0 O No they are actually the least sexually active Are homosexual men more promiscuous than heterosexual men Maybesince there are 2 parties in homosexual men who are socialized to want and have sex more o Reality is most homosexuals like heterosexuals are in relationships o Part of the problem is that we have to realize there is a lot more withingroup variation than there is a crossgroup variation Sexual Abuse c There is a belief out there that homosexual men are more likely to molest children than heterosexual men BUT there is m evidence of this 0 This came about because of our misunderstanding of who is more likely to be abused o The typical molestation victim is a young girl not a young boy At least 95 of known cases of sexual abuse involve a heterosexual male perpetrator The remaining 5 is not only made up of homosexuals but women too 0 Rates Different dimensions of sexuality o People who have engaged in same sex behavior 0 9 men 4 women 0 numbers are a little higher because it s based on everyone who has ever done it even once o People with same sex feelings o 6 men 4 women o People who identify with homosexuality o 28 men 14 women o 56 of people in the US are homosexual most people stay to one and don t move around to different sexualities but somelike LUGS move around from homosexuality to heterosexuality even though they may be primarily one or the other o people in prisons don t stop engaging in sex they will engage in same sex behavior until they get out and then go back to a primarily heterosexual lifestyle o military personnel Kinsey o Rejected the idea of 100 hetero or homo o Read through the coming out process and biological predisposition in the book will have questions on the exam about these Coming out Stage 1 sensitization gays feel they are different from their peers at beginning of puberty around 13 years old Stage 2 dissociation at about 17 years old they begin to feel like they might be gay but refuse to define themselves as such Stage 3 coming out at about 19 years old they admit to being gay Stage 4 commitment mature adults committed to gayness as a way of life Illicit Drug Use 592013 111400 PM o Myths If its legal it must be safe Illegal drugs are the most dangerous All drug users become drug addicts Drug useaddiction only exists among the lower class Marijuana has a positive relationship with the high class There are no risks associated with marijuana use Being natural has nothing to do with being safe Hemlock is a plant and it will kill you Arsenic is found in soil and can kill you c Major Categories of Drugs 0 Classified based on effect they have on the central nervous system 0 One problem with thus system is that drugs can have differing effects on the CNS 0 Categories Depressants o Drugs that reduce depress the activity of the CNS o Relaxes muscles relieves anxiety alleviates pain can boost mood and create sense of euphoria lowers blood pressure heart rate and respiration o Examples heroin opiods PCP alcohol morphine aspirin Stimulants o Drugs that stimulate the activity of the CNS o Produces alertness arousal and excitation increases heart rate and blood pressure diminishes need for sleep and food can improve mood and alleviate anxiety o Examples cocaine all forms amphetamines all forms caffeine nicotine Hallucinogenspsychedelics o Drugs that disturb the CNS altering the users perception of reality crates hallucinations in different forms 0 O O O O o Examples LSDAcid peyote ecstasy mushrooms toad licking o Factors influencing the effect of drugs 0 O O O O Dosage All things being equal the bigger the dose the bigger the effect Purity potency Drugs are cut with different things so if you re used to having only 10 of a drug and then you suddenly have 20 drug 80 other stuff you can overdose Drug mixing Taking a prescription pain reliever with an over the counter pain reliever to increase the effect Administration Enimassuper super dangerous The effect the drug will have is related to the method of administration you use Habituation First time users will have the most intense effect that will never happen again If you keep taking something your body recognizes it and knows how to metabolize it o Effects of Major Drugs in the US 0 O O O Marijuana most commonly used illegal drug in the US Can be physically addictive mildly psychologically addictive Potential problems associated with use memory problems distort perception impaired judgment respiratory illness depression anxiety problems at work Some claim increase of cancer o Heroin O O O Processed from morphine which comes from opium Both morphine and heroin are analgesics Can be both psychologically and physically addictive Withdrawal symptoms happen within a few hours of use Complications overdose HIVAIDS from dirty needles liver disease lung complications collapsed veins 0 Withdrawal can be deadly o Addiction Debate about why users become addicted o Is it to avoid the withdrawal symptoms or is it to continue feelings of euphoria o Methamphetamines 0 Highly addictive stimulant 0 Effect depends on method of administration 0 Complications hyperthermia agitation decreased appetite chronic use can lead to psychotic behavior paranoia hallucinations and violent behavior 0 other issues meth mouth meth bugs accelerates break down of collagen aging o Cocaine 0 Highly addictive stimulant both physically and psychologically especially in its crack form May take as little as 610 weeks for addiction 0 Complications Heart attack stroke respiratory failure seizure Also IV users susceptible to HIVAIDS and hepatitis o Ecstasy 592013 111400 PM o The hug drug 0 More popular among students than older adults 0 Complications brain damage purity issue depression hyperthermia and all that goes with o Prescription Drugs 0 Abuse of Oxycotton and Vicodin has increased in recent years Related to an increase of overdose o More common among whites and women than men and minorities o Measuring Drug Use 0 Monitoring the FutureStudy of schoolaged children 0 Gives surveys to 8th 10th and 12th graders about their drug use Isn t necessarily all valid because people lie Drug using kids are most likely not in school 0 NSDUH national survey of drug use among households household survey of people 12 0 Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring Program ADAM Measures drug use among arrestees People who have been arrested in a sample of cities a researcher tries to get to them within 2448 hours and asks them if they re under the influences of drugs The info can t be used against them This program usually has a good participation rate 75 or more For those willing to participate they ask them to do a urinalysis to make sure they are telling the truth o This has an even higher participation rate 90 This study tries to link illegal drug use and different forms of crime They use this to target hotspots for different types of drug use 2008 strictly among students c any illicit druge 474 o marijuana 426 o heroine 13 o cocainee 72 o crack 28 o methe 28 o Ecstasye 62 Between 2004 and 2008 the rates of each of the drugs use dropped The things that did not decline are c Inhalants o Prescription drugs o Cough syrup o These things are holding steadymeaning not increasing 0 Social Dimensions of drug use According to NSDUH 12 of US population age 12 or older use illicit drugs every year half of them once a month past month use is defined as current user Drugs use higher in US than other similar countries but drugrelated problems addiction overdose and homicide tend to be concentrated among lower class drug abusers IV drug users with AIDS make up a larger proportion of AIDS cases in the US than many other countries IV drug use tends to be concentrates in large urban areas of the US AGE young adults 1825 have highest rate of usage GENDER Men somewhat more likely to use than women depending on the drug and men are more likely to abuse than women 0 Race and Drugs RACE little difference in use between blacks and whites 10 vs 8 and although blacks make up about 13 of the population they make up a much higher percentage of drug arrests and convictions Blacks make up over half the drug related arreststhis is disproportionate o But this does not mean there is a higher use among blacks This could be because whites are able to hide it better Has to do with the types of drugs they re using This also has to do with class 0 Blacks also are more likely to be involved in illegal drug markets It is NOTjust discrimination 107 blacks are current users 9 whites 7 Hispanics 3 Asians 0 Why do people use illicit drugs Economic Deprivation Theory Fulfills need for status Helps people coping with hardship and boredom Environment or saturation SocialPsychological reasons Lack of attachment to conventional people and institutions Having friends who are drug users Being a member of a drug using subculture Easy access to drugs Psycological poor selfconcept low self esteem self rejection feelings of distress powerlessness risk taking behavior 0 Does drug use cause crime There does seem to be a relationship between drugs and crime Drug users are more likely than non drug users to commit other types of crimes But is it the drugs that cause crime Drug Enslavement Theory People are forced into a life of crime to pay for their drug habit o According to one study about 20 of incarcerated offenders reported committing their offense to support their drug habit o Doesn t explain leisure users o Poor people are more likely to use and abuse drugs to cope with the everyday stress of being poor General Deviance Syndrome Theory o Those with general tendency toward deviance are likely to be involves in illegal drugs and other types of illegal activities o Drug users may be more likely to take risks o Often people are committing deviant acts before using illegal drugs thus the drug use is just one form of deviance and may intensify criminaldeviant behavior 0 Drugs and violent crime Competition for drug markets and customers Disputed and ripoffs among those in the drug market Tendency toward violence of individual who participate in drug trafficking CONCLUSION most crimes result from a variety of sources personal situational cultural and economic However many sources indicate that drug users are more likely than nonusers to commit crimes o War on Drugs 0 Punitive vs Supportive sides economic supply and demand Punitiveusing law enforcement strategies designed to reduce the supply more of our antidrug budget goes to law enforcement Supportive designed to focus on the demand issue prevention strategies 0 Legalization If you legalize it you can tax it regulate it and the crime rate should go down in the illegal economies Cons if its legalized the use will increase and the problems related to addiction will increase as well o Decriminalization Not legal to sell it but if you get caught with small amounts of marijuana you wont go to jail The goal of this is to try to empty out some of the prisons LA has the highest prison rate 0 Drug Courts Designed to provide programs for drug users who agree to help Benefit for the criminal is that of they can complete the drug court program the charge will be dropped from their record This benefits citizens bc of recitivism if they finish these programs it will lower recitivism o Are they effective Yes they save billions of dollars every year Drug Treatment 0 Chemical treatments 0 Psychological treatments Aversion therapy Individual or group counseling o They are free and avalible all night long 0 Therapeutic community Facilities Halfway houses Alcoholism 592013 111400 PM o According to national institute on alcohol abuse and alcoholism NIAAA alcoholism is define7d by a strong craving loss of control one beer turns into 10 even when it causes them to be ill or harmed physical dependence may get ill when drinking stops and tolerance o Extent 0 According to the text 63 drink mostly moderately and about 37 abstain 0 About 6 of Americans are alcoholics o This last figure corresponds to the number of drinkers 12 yrs o Effects of alcohol 0 Mental and physical impact Alcohol is a depressant it reduces Sensorimotor skills It does NOT improve dancing sexual performance or driving 0 It does not cause people to insult or harm others this is more of a selffulfilling prophecywe expect it to make us this way so it does We even make excuses for peoples bad behavior because they are drunk o Social Effect how is it affecting society 0 Alcohol and Motor Vehicle Crash Deaths In 2002 alcoholrelated motor vehicle crashes accounted for 41 of all traffic related deaths More than 23 of children who die in motor alcoholrelated motor vehicle crashes were riding with the drinkingdrunk driver 0 Alcohol and Violence About 42 of violent crimes were committed under the influence of alcohol including 52 of negligent manslaughter 45 of murders and 75 of spousal abuse Nearly one half of the cases of child abuse and neglect are associated with parental alcohol or drug abuse o Health Effects mostly for sustained heavy drinkers 0 Alcohol and Unintentional Iniuries Approx 311 of those who die from unintentional non traffic injuries in the US have a blood above the legal level Patients treated in an emergency department for an unintentional injury are 135 times more likely to have consumed 5 or more alcoholcontaining beverages within 6 hours of their injury 0 Alcohol and Pregnancy Health effects related with drinking while pregnant includes miscarriage premature delivery low birth weight SIDS and fetal alcohol syndrome Incidence of FAS in the US range from 215 per 1000 live births 0 Alcohol and STD s Alcohol use by young adults is associated with earlier initiation of sexual activity unprotected and have multiple partners and an increased risk for sexually transmitted diseases In 1998 an estimated 400000 college students 0 Heart Disease and Strokes 0 Moderate drinkers are generally healthier and live longer and suffer less from heart disease Its believed that these smaller amounts of alcohol help protect against heart disease by changing the bloods chemistry thus reducing the risk of blood clots in the hearts arteries Heavy drinkers on the other hand face an increased risk of heart disease and stroke Liver damage cancer including breast cancer premature aging impaired memory alcoholic myopathy muscle disease which causes swelling and cramping Different health effects for men and women Negative effects affect women much quicker than they do men Social Factors and Drinking 0 Gender and drinking In general more men than women drink and are alcohol dependent or have alcohol problems Why 9 gender norms and masculinity however more women today drink than before Among women age 12 and older 42 were current drinkers and 55 men were current drinkers Alcohol problems are highest among young adults ages 65 and oldergenerally drinking decreases with age 0 Drinking and Socioeconomic status People with higher SES more likely to drink than those from lower SES but those from lower SES are more likely to have drinking problems This has to do with WHY people are drinking to escape problems vs social facilitator o RaceEthnicity and Drinking African Americans are less likely to drink but more likely to abuse alcohol As a result they suffer from a higher rate of alcohol related problems Native Americans In general NA s have a very high rate of alcoholism and alcohol related problems This varies depending on the tribe As with other minority groups poverty is a major factor Other ethnic groups Irish Americans have very high rates of alcoholism whereas Italian Americans and Chinese Americans have very low rates of alcoholism despite alcohol consummation being part of their culture Region and Religion Southerners are less likely than others to drink but if they do drink they are more likely to become problem drinkers o Why 9 SES Poverty like above but also conservative religion traditions o Conservative religions like Baptist are less likely to drink but are more likely to develop alcohol related problems 0 Binge Drinking About 44 of college students engage in binge drinking consuming 5 drinks in a row or short timeusually 2 hours Half of the binge drinkers did so frequently 3 or more times a week Who are they They tend to be white male under 23 and a resident of a fraternity Why do they binge drink To get drunk because of peer pressure and academic stress status associated with drinking and the culture of alcohol consumption on campus 0 Causes of alcohol abuse Risk of developing alcoholism does run in familiesboth genes and lifestyle factors affect this Risk is not destiny though Internet Deviance 592013 111400 PM o Internet Pornography 0 Why this 9 easy anonymous sexual outlet typical for O masturbation but not always private can access all types of fetishes m 9 white middle class more likely to watch INTERNET porn not porn overallsitting at their desks working class men at least 12 are married How much and when About half of internet users admit to looking at porn online About 25 of internet searches are related to sex on a daily basis at least 14 are about sex Much of it takes place during work hours 70 of traffic 12 of internet websites 42 million contain porn o Child Pornography O O O 0 Children s 0 O O 0 Illegal to make possess view or exchange m 9 More common among White middle aged men Many are considered pedophiles and many are collectors or pornographic images With the internet it can be distributed throughout the world making it difficult to track However the number of websites offering child porn has declined Doesn t mean child pornography has declined just the websites offering it Exposure to Porn Average age of first exposure to online porn 11 90 of kids aged 816 have viewed porn online 1 out of 7 youths using the internet have been solicited for sex 14 of kids 717 would freely give out their email address compared to 29 who would give out their physical address o Cyber Sex 0 What is it 9 exchanging erotic pictures emails andor messages in chat rooms for sexual stimulation Who 9 more common among white middle class males college educated Many are married Why 9 anonymity easy sharing of sexual fantasies outlet for masturbation can lead to real sex can be anyone you want to be online 0 Women are more likely to want to meet offline o Online Affairs 0 Internet can facilitate online affairs marries people engage in cybersex 0 Why this Anonymous easy escapism may not consider it real cheating can lead to real sex Is it infidelity Most people say yes Even though the participants may never meet online affairs can be just as damaging to a marriage as offline affairs o Emotional Affairs 0 When people have strong emotional relationship with someone other than their husband work husband or work wife not physical connection but emotional energy and investing a lot of time with that person just because no sexual contact doesn t mean it isn t harmful a lot of people think that it is cheating and can damage a relationship Intimacy more than sexual there is an emotional one and an investment in that relationship If something good happened to you ideally you call your partner or vise versa If it is not that s a flag of something that is wrong typically when calling a co worker of the opposite sex Where our emotions go we are likely to go Where our bodies go at some point our emotions are likely to go 0 When have deception feel like you need to hide something from your partner should be doing it or if you and this person are hiding it together bring you two closer and distances you from your partner o Stalking 0 Cyber Stalking Defined as the use of the internet email or other electronic communications devices to stalk another person 0 O O O Stalking generally involves repeated harassing or threatening behavior than an individual engages in o appearing at a persons home or place of business making harassing phone calls leaving written messages or objects or vandalizing a persons property State law may require credible threat of violence other states may only require implied threat o States don t always define it the same way 0 Major Similarities between CyberStalking and offline stalking Majority of cases involve stalking by former intimates although stranger stalking occurs in the real world and in cyberspace Most victims are women most stalkers are men Stalkers are generally motivated by the desire to control the victim 0 Major Differences Removes need for geographic proximity between victim and offender Electronic communications technologies make it much easier for cyber stalker to encourage third parties to harass andor threaten a victim o Ex impersonating the victim and posting inflammatory messages to bulletin boards and in chat rooms causing viewers of that message to send threatening messages back to the victim Electronic communications technologies also lower the barriers to harassment and threats a cyber stalker does not need to physically confront the victim o Is it a real threat yes Just because physical confrontation is not necessary doesn t mean cyber stalking is not a real threat In addition the ease and use if non confrontational and impersonal and sometimes anonymous nature of internet communications may remove disincentives to cyber stalking As with physical stalking online harassment and threats may be a prelude to more serious behavior including physical violence 0 Prevalence of Stalking According to the most recent National Violence Against Women Survey which defines stalking as referring to instances where the victim felt a high level of fear o In the US 1 out of every 12 women 82 million women and 1 out of every 45 men 2 million have been stalked at some point in their lives o Women are far more likely to be the victims of stalking than mennearly 4 out of 5 stalking victims are female o Men are far more likely to be stalkers 87 of the stalkers identified by victims in the survey were men o Women are twice as likely as men to be victims of stalking by strangers and 8 times as likely as men to be victims of stalking by intimates o CyberBullying Defined as the willful and repeated harm inflicted through electronic text Examples o pretend they are other people online to trick others o spread lies and rumors about victims o send or forward mean text messages o post pictures of victims without their consent 0 How common is it and who does it Depends on how it is definede if defined as repeated online bullying then about 20 of students age 1118 report being bullied at some point About the same number report cyber bullying others at some point 10 report being bullied and bullying others online o 10 of the victims of cyber bullying have then bullied others Little gender difference in levels of offending and victimization o fits girls gender roles more so this is interesting Most common places chat rooms text messages email 0 Is cyber bullying illegal Currently most cyber bullying is NOT illegal It only becomes illegal if it becomes cyber stalking making direct or implied threats to a person or their family 0 Online ID Theft 50 of offenders insiders very prevalent bc risk low and rewards are high o over 50 of the people are INSIDE people like employees will fire that person but not press charges because don t want image tarnished key logging 9 program put on computer that records all the ke Set One Suicide taking one39s own life intentionally a lot of times it is more difficult to tell if it is intentional or not especially with drug overdoses e Heath Ledger In the US Men commit more suicide but women are more likely to attempt suicide The elderly have the highest rate of suicide not teens or middleaged We don39t think usually think about the elderly and rate of suicide bc they are dying of other things It is not a leading cause However suicide is the second or third leading cause of death for teens We hear about these more bc teens aren39t already dying of other things More likely to commit suicide in the spring bc people are more selfinterested and not around people that much Twice as many suicides than homicides Suicide Rate suicidespopulation 100000 Can make gender specific age specific population specific etc US suicide rate is about 115 usually bw 10 12 read as 115 suicides per 100000 people But there is a lot of variation going on win certain populations and distributions We get about 30000 ppl commit suicide per year in the US However this is just number of ppl who commit suicide it doesn39t include all the people this affected by contemplating suicide family members those who threaten suicide etc There is more to suicide than just a person being depressed Different ways people are affected by suicide Threaten These people have threaten but never attempted We know the least about this group bc many not taken seriously and don39t get any kind of help usually since they don39t take the following steps Thio book talks about how threatening suicide may use it to get a desired outcome which can be manipulative However not all threats are manipulative some time they want to ask for help but just don39t know how and just threaten suicide Attempt These people may have threatened but have attempted We know a good bit about this bc usually when people attempt they try to get some kind of help later More likely to attempt suicide Women much more likely to attempt suicide than men quotyoungerquot under 45 more likely to attempt Lower SES socioeconomic status combination of income education and Traditional women These women are cut off from the world and not having a social network People who abuse drugs Not accidental overdoses These ppl don39t have very good coping skills since they turn to alcoholdrugs to solve their problems Methods Knivescutting Overdose leading method in women attempting suicides There are some people who really just want to be in the quotattemptedquot category they aren39t committed to completing suicide So that could be why certain people choose certain methods because it is easier to come back from certain overdoses certain cuts They want a suicide attempt and not a suicide completion Commit These people actually commitcomplete suicide This is the group we know the most about bc the gov39t keeps track of howwhen we39re born and when we die More likely to complete suicide Men quotolderquot The affluent Methods more immediate methods in those who complete suicide more fool proof Gunsfirearms Strangulation hanging Reported Study methods Measurement Suicides a more likely to be underreported by official data collection measures Content analysis used to analyze the content of different things and identify themes In this case Suicide note themes in the textbooks this discusses peoples feelings Depressed Apologetic about what they are about to do 39sorry I wasn39t good daughter39 Vindictive 39you are the reason I39m committing suicide39 Magnanimous opposite of vindictive blames no one and almost charitable Surrealistic this person could39ve caused enormous pain to themselves but they say they feel happy it is not what you expect Atonement trying to atone for past sins ie 39couldn39t take the guilt of hitting the little girl39 Issues The more difficult part is determining bw accident and suicide rather than differentiating murder and suicide People do commit suicide in their cars single car fatalities Industrialization We39re gonna look at groups of high rates of suicides Generally higher rates of suicide in industrialized society The relationship bw people are not that strong Exception is that have a suicide tradition in other societies so regardless of industrialization we see higher rate of suicide e suicide bombers kamakazi pilots Hari kari suicide tradition the warriors if they lost or caused great embarrassment then they would commit suicide Hindu tradition of seti women committing suicide after her husband dies by throwing herself on the funeral pyre bc women are seen as financial burdens Urbanization Used to see that urban areas had higher rates but now that is not so But it also depends on the level of measurement Ruralality Would think that the ties bw people in rural area would be stronger but you still see a higher rate of suicide in rural areas Look at the chart in the book quotStates with Highest and Lowest Suicide Ratesquot The states with more rural areas have the highest rate of suicide Most of the states that with the highest rate are also outwest where as the states with the lowest are Northeast The type of ppl out west have a different kind of mentality they have a ruggedindividualistic mentality Also white men have really high rates of suicide and the states outwest are mainly 39white39 states so that is another contributing factor to why those states have the highest suicide rates Racial GenderAge Differences Overall whites have a higher rate of suicide with Native Americans coming in a close second White males commit the more suicide followed by Black men and then woe Gender Women are geared toward relationships and thus possibly less suicide Talking about problems goes along with gender roles doesn39t seem as a sign of weakness by talking about problems Men are socialized to express 39anger39 White males tend to have a lot of power and hierarchy they are the more dominant and affluent people are more likely to commit suicide Native americans are a close second bc they already have so many obstacles including poverty substance abuse extreme racism etc Age Males are defined by how strong they are bread winner autonomous sexual prowess Around 60 years old all those things start to change Men start retiring and they feel like they are losing their sense of identity Also when they retire they have to change their standard of living Takes time for old couples once retired to reintegrate themselves to each other At the same time older men39s health and sexual prowess starts to decline another part of their identity gets 39taken away39 For women they don39t feel completely identified by their employment or strength even when they become widows Even African American males don39t have as high as rates as white males because they don39t have that much power to being with All these changes aren39t that severe bc they39ve already been exposed to it before Marital Status People think that widows and widowers have the highest rates but that is not true Single vs married Singles have higher rate than married Divorced are the highest rate bc huge life style adjustment Widowsnever married have second highest rate Married people have the lowest rate Having kids makes it even lower ReligionReligious groupps one of things Durkhiem39s looked at Durkheim found that suicide rate as follows Protestants gt Catholics gt Jews lowest rate One of Durkeim39s factors is Integration how socialized we are to each other Protestant is more individualistic than Catholisicm Protestants can just talk to God but for Catholics they go to a priest and a chain of command Catholics have more rituals which is good for integration bc we know what is coming Levels of conservatism also is a factor Religiosity how often you go to Church The higher your level of religiosity the lower your probably rate of suicide Siituational Factors groups that didn39t have the highest rates but still had a pretty decent number Adolescents don39t have the higest rate of suicides but it is increasing and the elderly who have the highest rate are go Look at chart in the book This happens bc of technology Makes us lonelier bc more loose ties and less strong ties Playing on the computer doesn39t let them interact in person with other people Happens bc different family structure has changed Both parents working Since the parents aren39t there the kids aren39t that integrated with them Don39t have Higher regulation meaning they have the more time and energy to go toward them DivorcesSingle parent households Again less integration Latchkey kids The kids come home from school to an empty home for a couple of hours Less regulated Less likely to go to church Less likely to go to work bc the jobs worked by kids in 1970s are now worked by adults Plus since there are more two parent working households they don39t need kids to work and can let them concentrate on being competitive for school Elderly less integrated than before College students getting higher rates of suicide The kids most likely going to college would be those of higher SCS and it used to be mainly men A lot less regulation bc first time not always under parent supervision See a lot more drinking drugs sex and other things Having to learn how to moderate freedoms A lot less regulation in schoolclasses as well We don39t spend a lot of time with instructorsprofessors Professors don39t know you by name often Introfirst year classes are your largest classes Changes in integration bc the first year classes are often the largest so you don39t know many people until you get into the upper level classes when you see the same people over and over again If you39re the first person to go to college then your parents and other people just don39t understand what you39re going through Your diet and sleeping habits change Students who are in ivy league type schools see a lot higher rates of suicide bc of the competition and the changes and transitions in integration Having AIDS high rates of suicide Going to Prison high rates of suicide about 6 8 times higher than regular population D and E are both kinda similar They cause a change in identities and they are heavily stigmatizing Theo calls it a Radical Transformation If other people see your statuses then that bcomes your 39Master Status39 Master status that is what people first identify you as until they get to know you better ie that person is an Excon or HIV patient Uncertainty People aren39t sure what is going to happen to them as far as health is concerned so people who are first diagnosed are in the early stages are scared and are more likely to commit suicide People who first get to prison there is a major transformation and uncertainty so those are the people who most likely commit suicide Also people awaiting their sentencing might Not being able to adjust to the new norms and rules Those most likely to commit suicide in prison are white males with relatively short sentences Could be bc the change in identity and a radical change in the integration with family and friend Media Highly publicized suicides cause an increase in suicides as well See more suicides after the suicide of a celebrity or anyone else However suicides of regular people do not get as much coverage as celebrities e school shootingssuicide Country music Places where there is a dominant listenership of country music sees higher rates of suicide Wel people who tend to listen to country music is more older white rural people This study was done 20 years ago but country music tends to be more sad Talks about sad things and turning to alcohol Doesn39t really affect people who are well integrated and just have a bad day every once in a while but will affect more people who are already predisposed to have a higher rate of suicide But don39t see the same correlation with Blues music Mainly listened to by black poor people who are not predisposed to suicide It also has to do with the fact that people who feel sad or depressed at the time will draw them to more sad and depressed music Durkheim Theory of Suicide will be on the test Durkheim identifies two factors Social integration just being integrated with people belonging to groups At very low levels and very high levels of social integration there are very high rates of suicide Make sure to look at graph in the book Social regulation talks about how belonging to groups can affect our behaviors Not just regulating our behavior but that our aspirations also needed to be regulated If our aspirations are not regulated then we would never be content 4 types of suicide egoistic suicide Social integration is too low A lot more self oriented e divorcedsingles bc not as integrated elderly could be in this category bc isolated from friends and deaths of those around them soldiers could fall in this group bc they are often moved from one place to another and don t39 have time to build those bonds altruistic suicide Social integration is so high that the individual is lost and the group is put before the individual e suicide bombers cults Anomic suicide Low social regulation so their behavior is not being that regulated e the affluent could fall into this category bc your aspirations are going to be a lot higher and a lot more opportunities Males also in this categories along with whites Fatalistic suicide High social regulation people are overly regulated Their behavior aspirations and many other aspects are heavily controlled and regulated e ancient slaves women in rural china women are more regulated especially in rural areas bc of the status inequality and female infanticide and periods of martial law these are the examples of the book Our examples would be like prisoners and can include soldiers bc heavily regimented lifestyle Read the Modern Durkeimian theory in the book Physician Assisted Suicide PAS In the US it is not legal to help someone commit suicide that would be homicide In the US there are two states that have legalized PAS Oregon and Washington states A lot of controversy around this bc physicians are supposed to save lives and they39re supposed to do no harm and we usually consider death as doing harm It could be do the fact that we think of death as something bad Death with Dignity Act these are the rules that go along with it Have to be over 18 and resident of Oregon Terminally ill Their death is imminent You have to be able to communicate your wishes Have to communicate your wish three separate times over a period of time Have to be able to swallowadministering the medicine to yourself This is the difference bw PAS and homicide Doctors can voluntarily participate in with Death with Dignity Act in Oregon The book says that this could be dettered with better pain management Stats say that the reasons why people said they wanted to go through with PAS said they wanted to bc of Loss of autonomy Loss of dignity Inability to do things that made life enjoyable Pain was not mentioned Some western Europeans countries also have legalized PAS Read in the book about survivor39s issues Set two TE ST 2 Suicide a Intentionally taking one39s life b Can be dif cult in determining whether or not it is accidental or on purpose c Very difficult in drug overdoses i Example 1 Heath Ledger 2 Ruled as an accident overdose d Must determine the intention e Conventional Wisdom on Suicide i In the US men are more likely to commit suicide ii In the US women are more likely to attempt suicide iii The elderly have the highest rate of suicide 1 You don39t hear much about it 2 Don39t realize it because the elderly die from other things iv Generally think that teenagers have the highest rate 1 One of the leading causes of deaths for adolescents v What time of the year are people more likely to commit suicide 1 Spring 2 We often think holidays and winter vi In the US we have more suicide than murder 1 Usually 2X more suicides in a given year than homicides 2 Around 30000 suicides on average f Suicide rates are calculate the exact same way as crime rates i suicide rate 100000 X w ii US 2 115 around 30000 g There are 30000 people actually committing suicide but that doesn39t even touch on the number of people that it affects i Doesn39t show attempts ii People that threaten iii Families and friends h People who Threaten Suicide 1 i Have threatened but not made any attempt ii Know the least about these people iii May not be taken seriously iv Suicidal ideation v Can be used to get a desired outcome vi People threaten suicide because they just don39t know what else to do seeking help People who Attempt Suicide i Have attempted but haven39t completed ii If they have actually harmed themselves they will probably seek medical attention iii People that attempt 1 quotYoungerquot 24 44 people 2 Lower Socio Economic Status 3 Drug abusers I Don39t have good coping skills I Way to deal with stress and con ict 4 Women are 3X more likely to attempt suicide in their lives I Especially traditional womenquot I Housewives I Cut off from everyone don39t have the same types of relationships to other people iv Methods 1 Cutting 2 Over Dosing j People who Commit Suicide i People who went through with the action ii Know the most about these people 1 The US government keeps track of people39s births and deaths iii People Statistics 1 More likely to be male 2 older 3 Af uent iv Methods 1 Guns 2 Strangulation I Currently increasing in teen girls 3 Foolproof 4 Immediate k Suicidal Feelings i Emotional distress ii Content analysis 1 2 Review suicide notes Try to identify themes across multiple suicide notes iii Try to gure out what people were feeling at the moment in time iv Not everyone leaves a suicide note v Commonalities 1 143 9 53 Depressed Apologetic Vindictive Magnanimous I Opposite of vindictive I Holding noone to blame I No illwill Surrealistic Atonement 1 Measurement Issues i A lot of people 1 n kill 1 I with J 1 ii It can mean a lot to the family of a reason can be found iii Single car suicides m Groups with High Rates of Suicide i Industrialized Countries 1 Higher rate of suicide 2 Motivation to succeed is very high 3 Relationships are more distant 4 Not integrated to the same extent as less industrialized countries ii Urbanization 1 Lower rates of suicide 2 Unless there is a tradition of suicide 3 Example I Suicide bomber I Kamikaze I Hindu Nations i When a husband dies the wife throws herself on the memorial re ii Women are seen as financial burdens n Standardization 39Ruralityquot i Higher rates of suicide 1 Less people to interact with but those people have tighter bonds ii States in the bottom tend to be in the northeast 1 Not typical for these people to go out and talk to people iii States in the top tend to be in the Midwest 1 Open areas 2 The people iv Demographic issues v Higher rate for white males i Whites have the highest rate of suicide ii For all people suicide rate is approx 11 iii Men are much higher than what we expect them to be 1 2x the national average 2 For elderly white men it is 34 iv Native American men39s rates are higher but not overall v Blackmales get up to the national average but never surpass it vi In social hierarchy white men have the top spot vii Why don39t we see this large number with African American men 1 They aren39t in the same position of power 2 Have already faced enormous obstacles and discrimination 3 May be easier to adjust to declines in older years viii Health 1 Blacks v whites whites due to money ix Why would Native Americans have high rates 1 Poverty and high levels of unemployment 2 Drug problems p Why do we see gender differences i Women see their relationships as very important 1 Very strong relationships and gives them people to talk to ii Admitting you have a problem is not masculine 1 Men feel emotions but they are socialized to express anger q Age i ii Men 1 Higher rate 2 Retirement I Will be leaving their primary job that de ned them I Big adjustment I Lots of time on their hands I Start having sex more i Their ability changes ii May be taking medications that diminish their abilities 3 Health and strength are declining 4 To be a man it means being strong autonomous employed having seX Why don39t we see this among women 1 Family relationship 2 Decrease in standard of living but does affect like men 3 We aren39t de ned by our strength 4 Much more likely to be a widow I Usually outlive spouses r Marital Status i Single gt Married 1 Single never married divorced widowed separated 2 Highest 9 divorced I Huge lifestyle adjustment I Loss with a grieving process 3 Middle 9 widowed and never married I Women are more likely to be widows and they have a lower rate of suicides 4 Lowest 9 married even lower with kids s Religion I pt I iquot E E lt Durkheim wanted to apply scienti c methods to sociology and look beyond the individual Group differences Looked at different denominations Christianity and Judaism 1 Catholics 2 Protestants 3 Jews Found that PROTgt CATHgtEWS Some contemporary researchers have found a smaller differences between PROT and CATH Protestants groups can be broken up into different groups 1 Can be variation within those groups Integration 1 How connected we are with other people Protestants v Catholics 1 Protestants are more invidualistic 2 Catholics like rituals It has more to do with the level of conservatism t X Religiosity 1 How often you go to church 2 The more often you attend church the lower the suicide level Situational Factors i Adolescents 1 Don39t have the highest rate but has been increasing 2 Why are we seeing an increase among teens I Technology facetoface communication is dwindling I Playing outside isn39t occurring as often I Both parents are working I Increase in singleparent household I Kids are less likely to go to church today 3 Teenagers are less likely to work today partially due to the economy ii Two working parents in the household 1 With the two parents working outside of the house it means they aren39t there as much 2 When they are home they are distracted and tired 3 Are going to have more time and energy than 1 parent household 4 Latch Key Kid I Between 35pm kids are alone at home I Cuts down on parent integration iii Elderly 1 What has changed to cause their levels to decrease iv College Students 1 Increased risk 2 Who is going to college I SES I Men 3 What changes with young people transitioning from high school to college I More freedom I Drinking I Drugs I Sex 4 Now you have to make yourself go to school and study and work etc 5 First generation college students I Their families don39t get it 6 College canbring out the symptoms of manic depression Some studies have found that students at the smaller highly prestigious universities that have the higher rates v AIDS HIV 1 High rate within suicide rates 2 Radical change to their identity 3 Master Status I This is how other people see and view you I How they define you until they really know you 4 Great deal of uncertainty I Unclear how the virus will progress I How long you have to live vi Prison 1 Between 6 8 times higher than normal population 2 Suicide is higher in prison than homicides 3 Master Status I This is how other people see and view you I How they de ne you until they really know you 4 Time periods I Death row highest rate I Initial stage I Awaiting the sentence 5 Uncertainty I When are you going to get out 6 People I Relatively short sentences I White young males vii Media In uence 1 Following highly publicized suicides causes rates to increase I If they did it we can and obviously it39s a little more acceptable I It doesn39t have to be a celebrity I Example Columbine 2 Country Music I Places that have higher listenership have higher suicide rates I Tends to be depressin quot u Durkheim39s Theory of Suicide VERY IMPORTANTENTIRE THING WILL BE ON TEST i Two factors that explain rates of suicide over time 1 Social Integration I Being integrated and connected with people I High rates means low integration I Types of suicide i E goistic 1 When integration is too low 2 Focused on themselves 3 Not integrated with other people 4 Much more individualistic self oriented 5 Example a Divorced or single b Don39t have people dependent on them c elderly ii Altruistic 1 Integration is too high 2 The group is much more important than the individual 3 Concerned with others 4 Example a Terrorists b Suicidebombers V c Group level d cults 2 Social Regulation I Explains how belonging to groups regulates our behavior I Important that societies regulates our aspirations and behavior I Types of suicide i Anomic 1 Break down of anomie norms 2 Breakdown of regulated behavior 3 With aspirations comes expectations 4 Example a Af uent males b whites ii Fatalistic 1 Regulationbecomes too high 2 People are being over regulated 3 Most aspects of their lives are heavily controlled and regulated 4 Example a Ancient slaves b Women in rural China a Much more regulated in all societies b High rates of infanticide killing female babies c Periods of martial law d Prisoners e Military personnel a Deployments are different than they have been in the past More often Different groups unable to build the same connections 957 Physician Assisted Suicide viii Washington state and Oregon have both legalized physician assisted suicide Until the last two years it was only Oregon Great deal of controversy Physicians are supposed to be saving lives Death cannot be cured Our view of physicians has been changing staying with them a lot longer Death with Dignity Actquot Oregon 1 Over 18 2 Terminally ill 3 Death is imminent 4 Have to capable of communicating your wishes 5 Request three times 6 Ability to administer the medication to yourself Not very common ix For 2009 1 95 prescriptions written under the Death with Dignity act I 53 took the medication I 30 died related to something of their illness I 12 were still alive at the end of2009 X Relatively small percentage of participating physicians xi Argue that if we were able to better maintain the pain people would request this xii End of life Concerns 1 Loss of autonomy 2 Loss of dignity 3 Decreasing ability to participate in activities that made life enjoyable xiii Participants 1 White 2 Male 3 old I 5584 I Median age 70 11 Sexual Deviance a Least Deviant acceptablequot or normalquot i Most consensual and agreed upon ii Sex between married couples for procreation in the missionary position MOST AC C E PTABLE iii As you take out parts it will move down the line to unacceptable iv Premarital sex 1 Becoming more acceptable 2 People are delaying marriage older when they get married 3 Our attitude about teen sex hasn39t changed b More Deviant i Teen Sex 1 US has high rates of teen sex pregnancy STDs Abortion 2 16 andyounger 3 Potential Consequences I Teen pregnancy I More likely to drop out of school and not go back I Iob security and salary i Health care ii Living situation I More likely to smoke and drink during pregnancy 4 Abortion rates are high but lower than adult women 5 11 teen girls has an STD estimation 6 Girls are at higher risk to catch an STD thanboys 7 Emotionalconsequences I Breakup rejection I Double standard c Sex Education i Comprehensive Programs 1 Most effective 2 Proabstinence 3 Show age appropriate and medically accurate information ii Everyone has a right and a need to understand how our bodies work iii Why it is opposed 1 Believe if you talk to them about it it will give them permission to go out and do it 2 Argue that it is a parent39s right I Parents don39t talk to their kids about it I Don39t know the medically accurate information iv More likely to use condoms v Kids who go through these programs are more likely to postpone sex for 1 year 1 Less likely to use condoms when they do start having sex d Increase among Teens i Oral sex 1 Kids are turning to oral sex as a REPLACEMENT to intercourse 2 Remain technical virgins 3 If you engage in oral sex are you avirgin I Yes I Doesn39t mean they aren39t sexually active 4 All the emotional baggage comes with it ii Anal sex 1 Are you a virgin I No 2 Increase among teens and adults 3 Engaging in this to maintain their virginity 4 Percentage of teens involved in anal sex is very small less than 10 5 Risks I Contracted STDs much greater than vaginal intercourse I Not taking necessary precautions I More emotional consequences and fall out it is seen as SO DEVIANT 6 Example AIDS gay male population e Double Standard i Applies to one and not the other ii Girls that are involved in sex are seen as deviant iii Guys are not seen as deviant iv Girls get kicked out of schools guys don39t v More emphasis on girls sexuality and regulated more heavily vi Expectation that guys are supposed to be more sexually active vii A lot of pressure on males to live up to that expectation viii Pressure on females to suppress their sexuality f Extramarital sex i Adultery ii Considered deviant iii How much 1 90 of adults see extramarital sex as almost always wrong 2 Even though we have negative attitudes about it many people still do it iv vi F r5 0quot Why 09 NF Squot Men I 25 admits to having sex outside the marriage Women I 15 admits to having seX outside the marriage 20 of married people commit adultery Men have more power higher percentage Its not AS deviant for men The gap between men and women is closing because women39s rates are increasing I Women are gaining economic power I Out of the house more ability to leave a marriage Lack of satisfaction Pregnancy Intoxication Gender differences in what they are looking for in a marriage I Men seX I Women commitment Men Lower income Lots of economic stress Married sooner People who engaged pre marital seX Less religious Younger people have a higher rate Adultery as a Seductive Myth 9 Theo 1 2 3 g Co marital seX i Idea that the seX with someone else is going to be amazing and sparking and fireworks BUT it39s not Measured by I Ask men who have participated in adultery I Ask women if they are more likely to achieve orgasm with their spouse or this other person most say with their spouse A lot of guilt associated Swinging being with another couple More deviant than adultery Couples know the other is cheating How much 1 1 2 of couples Who 1 2545 years old younger 2 Middle to upper class 3 Describe themselves as conservatives but less likely to attend church 4 White 5 Maledominated maleinitiated WN h Phone Sex i Gives them different sexual experiences but they aren39t deceiving their spouse People doing the act think that they are helping their marriage Not MORE likely to divorce People paying for the service pay by the minute service ii Creating a fantasy The better they are at selling the fantasy the more money the will make iii iv Customer is seeking this out for sex v Easy access More of a fantasy imagine them as whatever you want and can pretend to be a different person Typology of Phone Sex Callers vi vii viii i ii iii vi 1 9199 Quick sexquot I Most common I Call and want it to happen as quickly as possible because they are paying by the minute Love wornquot Iealous onequot Psycho The Likeablequot I Describe them as professional men I Polite I Operators feel that they t the idea of a professional men 391 S Link status and desirability with money for men i Nude Dancing Creating a fantasy 1 Making the manbelieve that she wants him Face to face Why is it attractive iv Dancer perspective 1 Money it39s ajob 2 Making 2575000 3 Wide variation of establishments 4 Believe they are in control 5 Find it empowering v Who are they 1 White 2 Young early mid 20s Customers 1 Working class 2 Men vii viii Form of escapism Who is in control 1 2 Different perspectives say different things Customer I They have the money j 3 Dancer I They can dance over to someone with more money ix The whole establishment is set up to protect the dancer Prostitution I Selling seX It is NOT selling your body iii Deviant and illegal Legal in parts of Nevada 1 Brothels only 2 No street prostitution How to look at numbers 1 Sting operations 2 Arrest numbers I Problem underreported vi of prostitutes for the US 1 840000336000 low estimate book 2 250000500000 higher more realistic estimate 3 Discrepancy pt I E lt I Estimation I De nition of prostitution may be different Will primarily be talking about women viii of people arrested 1 50000 per year 2 This number includes men too lt E I Not as prostitutes I Solicitation 3 Street walkers will be over represented 4 Overrepresentation I Older women I Minorities iX of women who admits to prostitution at least 1X 1 1864 yo 2 6 X of men who admit to paying for seX at least 1X 1 1020 2 Does not mean these are regular Ioes customers 3 Only 1 go to prostitutes on a regular basis Xi Hierarchy 1 Lower level I Stree prostitutes street walkers I Bar girls I Day timers working infront of big corporations I Know the mos about these beause they get arrested I Earn the least amount of money I Greatest risk 2 Middle level I Brothes I EX Illegal brothel 9 massage parlorquot 3 Top Level I Call girls I Don39t get caught often I Advertise Xii Street Walkers 1 Daily jobwork I 56 days per week I 6 8 hours per day I 35 clients per shift 2 Money average I Oral seX i 2050 ii 10 minutes iii Mostly outdoors eXhanges iv Big part of their income I Intercourse i 350100 ii 25 minutes iii Could involve both iv Mostly indoors 3 Overrepresentation I Minorities I Older mid30s or older I Underage i Runaways ii Druggies iii Truckstop circuit I Not going to have steady work history I Lower levels of education 4 Increased Risks I Arrests I Violent victimization Homicide victimization is very high Rape high rates Assault iv Level is extreme E39 I I v They are so stigmatized that many people see them as almost deserving it v1 Favorite targets of serial killers 1 Outside 2 Late at night 3 Possible distanced from their families 4 Police response is low lt Small number of customers targeting a wide number of women causing severe damage 5 viii At great risk of their pimp 1 2 He 3 main risks I Customers I Pimps I Police Pimp isn39t going to help her work The more money she makes the mre money he makes Pimp takes about 8 of the money she earns Women that work with pimps earn more money a Pimps control the best spots b Take greater risks to obtain a certain amount of money Complicated relationship i Exploitation ii I wont arrest you tonight if you do xyzquot Sociology 3501 Test 1 216 3 Deviance Violation ofa social norm that illicit a negative reaction this can be voluntary or involuntary disabled people 3 Social Norms the rules of social behavior they tell us what we should or should not do 0 Our rules ofinteraction 0 We are usually not aware of the norms until they are violated because they break down our social interaction 0 There is NEVER 100 agreement of what these are 3 Deviance is relative because norms are relative and norms change from place to place or in time 3 Different types of social norms o Folkways every day norms elevator behavior telephone what we wear our edict o Mores more serious has to do with moral values and a lot of our laws some may not be re ected in law like cheating on your wife 0 Taboo this is even more serious incest every culture has taboo about this 3 Deviance is NOT 0 Deviant is not Different 0 Different is not deviant o A lot of things we do are deviant Things that are deviant are not necessarily harmful When things become associated with a powerless group they are likely to become illegal 3 3 218 3 3 Characteristics of Positivist Theories o Absolutism deviance is real implies that people who are deviant are inherently different a behavior can be deviant regardless of context 0 Determinism our behavior is at least in part determined by social factors not everyone has the same choices and opportunities there is a common pattern in decision making and there is evidence to support this 0 Objectivism approaching the study of deviance in a very objective way positivist think large scale while constructionist think case by case 3 3 Characteristics of Constructionist theories o Relativism 7 deviant acts are only deviant because they are labeled as such 7 the context changes the label ofthe behavior 0 Voluntarism 7 behaviors are voluntary and actions are solely determined by free will 0 Subjectivism 7 stress the importance ofwhat is going on fromthe deviant person39s point of view 2 Since these two theories approach deviance in very different ways then they compliment each other 0 Positivisttheory7 studies high consensus deviance o Constructionist theory 7 studies low consensus deviance 2 Merton 7 Strain Anomie theory Positivist theories W mm 3 0 Wanted to explain lower class deviance 7 Looks more on how society can influence behavior rather than the individual 0 Goals 7 Society tells us what our goals are and which ones we want to achieve 0 Means 7 Society tells us how to get our goals These means are available 0 m 1 E 1 l n 3 D E D n 1 w n 3 D 1 05 lt D E w m 9r x m Anomie Break down ofthe norms because they no longer work so you think of a new way to achieve the means 0 123 gt Strain Theories these are all Positivist theories 5 Merton This is a group level theory set to explain the lower class 7 Also a differential Legitimate Theory and done the same with the means o Conformity 7 you choose to conform because you still buy the original goals and means 0 Innovation 7 most linked with crime 7 you still want the goals but you create new means 7 Deviance becomesthe means 0 Retreatism7 These are society39s drop outs 7 hardcore drug addicts and alcoholics o Ritualism 7 they are not trying to achieve the goals butthey are just going throughthe motions but for no reason gt Cohen 7 Status Frustration Middle Classquot Measuring Rod 7 Adds in Status Frustrationquot right after Anomie on Merton39s chart 7 this is what leads to deviance 0 Still trying to explain the lower class 7 says kids are socialized into the beliefs and values of the middle class and the lower class kids are socialized differently 7 kids who don39t do this are labeledtrouble makers and then you are that because you start to believe it and you begin to ban togetherwith other trouble makers 7 they start to act up together and set their own standard of behavior 125 gt Cloward and Ohlim 7 Differential Illegitimate Theory 0 Same thing as Merton but add in Differ Illegitimate after Anomie 0 You have to look at the areas which people are living 0 Not all areas going to have a crime enterprise so they can39t do economic e 0 Three different types of gangs I Cr39minal 7 organized enough so that they can make money I Retreatist7 drop outs hanging out together 7 mostly drug dealers Gang formation depends on what area they are in 5 Agnew39s Theory7 General Strain Theory 0 This applies to all people regardless of class Negative A mmmg Ex Depmssinn anger fear up 1 Failure to achieve m 1 inability to achieve goals 2 removal of stimili 3 Presence of gt Control Theory 0 Hirschi I Says that all people are going to be deviant because it39s in our nature I He is after why people conform I Social Bond how much control society has over you the more you have the more you are going to loose 0 Attachment Emotional bond makes you want to conform because with deviance you jeopardize this 0 Involvement you want to keep people involved in convention activities this takes time and energy ifyou are busy you don t have time to be deviant 0 Commitment The more committed you are to a convention way oflife then the more likely you are to conform because you don t want to jeopardize it o Belief ifyou believe in the norms and rules then it more likely you believe they apply to you 3 Learning Theories o Sutherland Differential Association just like you have to read and write you have to learn to be deviant I You first learn to do things steal cars I You learn the motivation I You learn how to deal with the fear and emotional guilt ofbeing Deviant I Learning is taking place through social interaction I People are therefore deviant when they receive more messages definitions saying that deviance is ok 128 0 Glaser Differential Identification extension of Sutherland s I Not all messages are the same so the people that we identify with the most are going to be the ones with the strongest messages not really a matter ofwho we know so this could be celebrities o Burgess and Akers Differential Reinforcement I We try a bunch of different behaviors and the behaviors that are reinforced and rewarded are the ones that are likely to continue if you like doing the behavior that can be reinforcement as well 3 Deterrence assumes that people are rational decision makers lowers deviance or crime by targeting everyone general or by trying to stop people from doing it again specific usually this is associated with jail There are 3 components to how to do this 0 Swift our just system is not swift 0 Certain there is not a high degree of certainty to get arrested 0 Severe has to fit the crime cannot be too severe 3 Functionalist view society as being made up of many interdependent parts so that you change one part and all the parts are affected 3 Constructionist Theories 3 Con ict Theories they see society made up of competing groups unlike functionalist o Chambliss about legal reality emphasized the differences how laws are implemented and how its in the books laws in the books are blind but in reality they are not law is applied more harshly to powerless groups 130 0 Quinney Social Reality a lot of the same ideas of Chambliss the powerful get to define the laws or rules and then they in uence how these laws are applied argues because the poor is powerless they have a higher rate of breaking the rules then we turn around and use this rate to support the rules themselves 0 Marxist Theory can be applied to all class and can explain a lot of crimes Capitalism is bad and the purpose ofit is to make money which usually huts the workers There are ways to increase profit I Increase productions assembly lines computers which lowers jobs Increase hours and decrease the pay Outsourcing jobs to other countries which again lowers jobs Because jobs are being cut this leads to marginal surplus workers and this leads to unhappy workers If we focus on the workers then we see deviance such as sabotage companies through reputations stealing from companies vandalism increase in spouse and child abuse and white collar crime is motivated by greed 0 Power Theory we put a lot of our attention on lower class deviance the upper class has a lot more deviance than we know and power is the driving factor I Greater motivation greed relative deprivation means according to them they are poor or deprived I Greater opportunity because they are more powerful they have the opportunity to commit bigger economic crimes at a lower risk I Weaker social control most people who are powerful have resources and because they are at the top they don t have to answer to anyone 3 Labeling Theories Labeling some people as deviant and others as not 0 Tannenbaum tags when people are deviant some of them will get these tags and these tags very in uential can cause them to be more deviant o Lemert picked upon the tag theory I Primary deviance the deviant behavior that people do before even thinking its deviant I Secondary Deviance the deviance that results as a result of being labeled deviant 21 Phenomenology Const Theory focuses on subjectivism and importance of understanding the behavior from the actors point ofview call themselves Ethnographers Ethnography a method observing people in their natural environment and understanding what is natural environment and understanding what is going on in their environment and how they see it Iack Cats research on convicted criminals they did not see themselves as wrong their victims were deserving ofit quotsneaky thrill 9 did it for the thrill Data and Methods Official data most common form Uniform Crime Report UCR o compiled by F819 police agencies fill out and submit report of convicted crimes FBI produces annual report on crime in US 0 problem is not all statescities classify crimes the same 0 must fit FBI s definition when filled out comes in 2 parts 1 Index Crimes 2 22 other offenses Index Crimes 8 offenses Violent Property murder burglary most likely aggravated assault larceny theft most common robbery motor vehicle theft rape forcible arson difference between robbery people get robbed and burglary breaking and entering into a structure only record the most serious of offenses if multiple offenses occur and one time Crime Rate ofHomicides X 100000 population if you have a rate of69 6 people per 100000 were murdered biggest limitation ofUCR only based on crimes known to police reporting factors are big issue Factors that in uence reporting victimoffender relationship 0 crimes involving strangers are most likely to be reported more serious more likely reported involves weapon and or injury more likely rape is often not reported but occurs often 0 embarrassment fear shame guilt property crime more valuableinsured more likely people have to feel like police can and will help organizational issues why motivated to make it look like crime up money down elections unmeasured crime quotDark Figure of Crime Victimization Survey NCVS National Crime Victim Survey 0 don t include murder why good because asks great detail about offenses who where how weapons injury reported asks demographic details about victim O O O o lying is an issue ADAM arrest drug abuse monitoring program 28 what about drug use nation wide 35 cities do this pick sample ofpeople arrested and ask if they would be willing info cant hurthelp them submit to urine test can see if drug use is related to crime most test positive for 1 alcohol 2 marijuana 3 cocaine can show which drug use is updown quothot spots etc 3 A high number of arrested people test positive for drugs 3 Any time your surveying people they tend to lie you can cut down on or see if they are lying by asking them obvious question you already know the answer to people are much more likely to be truthful regardless ofwhat we think 3 Sampling you want to do a random sample ofyour population that your trying to study because that gives you the over all characteristics of the population 3 Two Sex Studies 0 Kinsey 40 s did a sex study ofAmericans interviewed 18000 people I Was not a random sample I Over estimated a lot of sexual activity 0 Chicago School sex study in the 90s that interviewed 3500 people I Random Sample I People s sexual lives are pretty boring 3 You have to consider ethics when doing seX studies because you can cause emotional damage 3 Informed Consent They have to tell you that you can stop at any time and that this is voluntary 0 You don t want to tell them exactly what you are doing 3 Humphey s Tearoom Trade same seX behavior in public places this was used to show how not to do research there was no informed consent and he was deceiving people was unethical he didn t harm anyone though 3 Adlers husband and wife team that researched a group of drug dealers Some people knew they were researchers but a lot didn t All the research was based on memory bad The Adlers did drugs with their subjects also bad One of the concerns was they would become one of the subjects 213 Suicide suicide is intentionally killing oneself suicide rates are higher in the spring9 people become more self involved vacation outdoors they may not pick up on clues9 you are coming off of long holidayfamily time the elderly have the highest rate of suicide we often think that it is higher among teens because it is in the top 3 causes of death but it is higher with the elderly Because the elderly die of so many more causes it is not in their top 10 which is higher suicide or homicide suicide is twice as likely In 2002 0 31655 suicides o 13 2353 attempts hospitalized 0 116639 attempts treated and released women are 3 times more likely to attempt men commit more9 especially white men 3 groups 1 threaten9 had to have made explicit threats that they were going to commit suicide but never attempt 9 don t know much about this group because it is not documented 9 they threaten to get an outcome that they want9 to prevent a break up get married to get special treatment etc 2 attempt9 much more likely to be female 9 more likely to be young9 lt45 9 more likely to be substance abusers 9 traditional women9 stay at home moms9 don t have a work environment 9 most attempters don t want to commit they just feel they have no other way to get the help they need 9 likely to use slower methods less fool proof 9 overdose wrist cutting etc 9 more staging 3 commit9men more likely 9 older9 gt45 9 white men gt65 9 quick acting methods 9 firearms and hanging Suicide rate is 1011 per 100000 people homicide is only about 5 Groups with higher rates Industrialization have high levels of economic development highly industrialized countries have higher rates of suicide 0 they have higher stress 0 places with low inequality have higher rate I aspirations increase I expect more from ourselves and they expect more from us Suicidal traditions9 period of war9 suicide bomber 215 3 Suicide 0 Highly Industrialized Societies have higher rates of suicide It s not about inequality It has to do with aspirations We expect a lot out oflife Rural areas have a higher rate of suicide than urban areas this was a recent change There are twice as many suicides rate of10 or 12 per 100000 per year as homicides In rural areas there is an emphasis on the individual The homicide rate is higher in urban areas Whites also tend to live in rural areas o Whites have the highest suicide rate Native Americans have the second highest but they mostly do it when they are young Men have much higher suicide rates than women Well offpeople are more likely to commit suicide than poor people Women more likely to attempt men much more likely to commit At 65 a big change happens since men are not working and men usually define themselves through their work Other races define themselves by the family not by the jobs 0 White men deal with these changes very abruptly Married people have the lowest rates while divorced the highest 0000 O 0 218 3 Relationship between religion and suicide 0 Dirkman found some results showing that some religions had higher rates of suicide than others Catholics are very traditional and ritualized protestant churches are varied Catholics lower rate of suicide than protestants and Jews had lower rates than both 0 People who are more religious are less likely to commit suicide also people who belong to more conservative church are also less likely 3 Social integration how connected people are with a group 0 Suicide rates peak at high and low social integration I Egoistic Social integration low eX SingleDivorced I Altruistic concerned with a lot of other people eX Suicide bombers 3 Social Regulation same peak at high and low levels concerned with the groups that we belong to regulate our behavior 0 Anomic Our behavior is not regulated if our aspirations are not regulated like af uent people 0 Fatalistic Slaves Periods of Martial Law Women in Rural China 3 An increase of suicide among adolescents and a decline in older group suicides 0 Divorce reduces integration and then there has been an increase in divorce 0 Women working reduces regulation 0 Kids are less likely to go to church 0 Kids are less likely to work 3 Prisoner suicide rate 0 Drastic change in identity 0 A lot of the unknown 0 White men who have been sentenced for minor offenses


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.