11/19 Nigerian Politics
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Date Created: 11/30/14
1119 Nigerian Politics Key Terms Republic of Biafra Niger Delta Sani Abacha Goodluck Jonathan Boko Haram political patronage Boko Haram people frustrated by state s incapacity to controldeal with Boko Haram similar to Mexico Clash of Civilizations Huntington Islam vs Christianity explanation religion vs state Themes Nigerian state resource curse regimes ethnicityreligion vicious cycle overarching theme From Earlier state building in SS Africa weak governing apparatus smush different populations together postcolonialism weak states lack legitimacy Nigerian Statebuilding Precolonial era diverse populations distinct political entities NorthSouth divide North Caliphate see textbook South territorial governance Colonialism 18601960 weak central state British wanted resources didn t care about anything else divide and rule indirect rule through existing leaders manipulated ethnic divisions PostIndependence Ethnic divisions Independence nonuniting movement didn t foster unity no Nigerian Ethnic conflicts Biafran war 19671970 declared independence war ethnically driven Neopatrimonialism corruption ex General 19931998 amassed 36 billion while in office one of the most corrupt countries to do business in political relationships patronclient relationships lack public goods widespread poverty Economic Situation stagnation resource curse economic curse dutch disease deindustrialization currency too expensive country can t compete Nigeria discovers oil evidence 1960 agriculture 80 exports self sufficient for food 1990 agriculture 2 exports must import food oil makes up government revenue no reason to tax country tied to boombust gt debt Political Curse no taxes gt no accountability oil revenues gt increase military to hold the state together oil fuels corruption Abacha uses oiloil refining to prop up croonies refineries collapse country has to import gas croonies dominate gas imports ethnic conflict Biafra would include the oil rich area MEND wants independence of the Niger Delta money comes out of the delta in oil revenue but it doesn t go back in to improving the region Nigerian Political Regimes frequent military rule declining role of military since 1990s Today partly free General Obasanjo 19992006 last eneral transitioned country away from military j zoospresent from Niger Delta accidentally became president reelected in 2011 fairest election ever lots of violence country extremely divided between the North and South Problems of Nigerian democracy partly free Freedom House elections often flawed individual freedoms threatened media is not stateownedcontrolled journalists can be harassedrepressed abusive police force antigay demagoguery small population that can be picked on antigay laws used to divert attention from failing regime reflection that the regime is not popular Ethnic divisions very diverse Fulani Yoruba lgbo ljaw sectional division religious divide spread of more extreme forms of religion Islam North Christianity South communal competition three largest groups economic strength in south political unity in north high stakes for control of government intense competition for power more conflict in 4th Republic because there is no military to control it Plateau state massacres at the NorthSouth border Clash of Civilizations MuslimChristian violence j 2002present Militant lslamist group western education is forbidden very violent how much does religion matter strong in areas of intense poverty effect of state unable to deal w Boko Haram strong military use doesn t work antagonizes the group angers population by highlighting the states incapacity to deal with Boko Haram Conclusions Nigeria is so rich in natural resources and possibilities can it overcome the resource curse tame ethnic violence save state
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