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by: Kameron Skiles


Kameron Skiles
GPA 3.8

Makiko Hori

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Makiko Hori
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kameron Skiles on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOCL 2001 at Louisiana State University taught by Makiko Hori in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see /class/222563/socl-2001-louisiana-state-university in Sociology at Louisiana State University.




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Date Created: 10/13/15
CounterCulturesubculture adheres to set of beliefsvaluesthat reject elements of dominant culture it s a part of Delinquent gangshare ltrishna religious sect 39ght 39 g 4 religious vrnIIn quot 39 hhvr cII tm created by group Laugh at 39cashew39 evrylelse say wtfdealReal Culture what ppl r supposd 2do ampwht they actullyDo CulturalUniversals ALLppl face death illness incest taboo Social Institution familyreigionpoliticalmedicine transportation entrtnmnt SocialStructureRelatively stable patterns of society such as ways in which pplgroups r related n the charctristcs of groups influencing our bhvrSocia Status Status socially defined position an indiv ncrl n39e 39 39 39 39 39 39 grad parent StatusSet combo of all statusesindivholds ISll tII ent 39 39 39 dmwhter fRavRKevin statusthat s far more important than ur otherls how ppl see u celeb39s kidfameAthlete can open doorsOR excon AIDs carrier cause ppl 2 dislikeUSocia Role Role expectationsbhvrs of any given role RoleSetmultpl roles attchd 2 indvul statuses PrescribedRoles what society suggests we should doRolePerceptionhow u understand a particular role RolePerformance how u play the rolewil uiner 39role 39 39 39 39 39 of a given status are unclear Estranged fatherson can father c his grankids RoleStrainresults frm a role overload or contradictory demndsexpctns of a given status a single mom playing a role of motherprimary makerjuggle diff roles RoleConflict occurs when demndsexpctns assoc w2 or more statuses are incompatible StudentampBartenderBffs want free drnksampboss wants honest work Heated debate ofsoclgsts whetherthe indvl shapes role or role shapes indvClassification39 39 L39ning in diff g 39 39 39 39 39 quot interact StatisticalGroup Formed by sociologistsstatisticians CategoricalGroup ft of pplshare a common characteristic teenagersmillionaires AggregateGroup Collection of ppl who r 2gther n1 place U join when riding a bus waiting 2 cross streetAssociationalGroupPpl whojoin together in organized way 2 ursue common intrest College vball teamPrimanGroup Smallinformal groups of ppl intimate actions emotionally attchd 2 eachother FamilyclosefriendsSecondanGroupMembers interact in impersonal manner have few emotional ties come 2gthr 4a specific purpose Classroomgrps committees profssngrpsnGroupppl feel they belongmembers have consciousnessawareness ofkindFeel they share common fate comefrm common bkgrnd LSU alum exprnce sense of camaraderieOutGroupppl feel they don39t belong We feel our ingrps are superiorto them Don39t affiliate w themPeer Groupinformal primary grp of ppl who share a similar status n same age participants r of rank amp often same sexReference Group sourcesof self evaluationinfluence how we thinkactampbelieve our aim ist like the grps that r imprtnt 2us RelativeDeprevationwhen ppl feel deprived bc compare themseves2refGroupdyad2ppl triad3ppl dramaticShift when dyads bcome triads InstrumentalLeadersfocusOn groups goals directs activitiesmakes group decisionsExpressiveLeadersresolve conflicts n create grp harmonysocialcohesionSociathwrksstrong ties by emotional invlvmnt Weak ties by occasnl contact maprpl we only knowthey only knoUsFormal organization corporation university govt tends 2b large 39 J Bureaucracyformally organized structure that dirctscrdinates efforts of pplinvlvd in various tasksHierarchicalarrngmnt of an orgnization39s parts based on division oflabrampauthority Labrdvded n2 units hierarchy of authorityrunBy chain of cmmnd Public Office files not kepthome hire personnel based on stndrdizd criteria Dysfunctions of bureaucracy Hierarchy trained incapacity Runaroundindecisive or evasive treatment esp in response to a request trnsfr calls anainNavam of Society 39 39 39 39 efficient LiiIlE Calculability calculate ingredients etcNonhuman technlgyCH5Socialization lifelong processthru wichppl r prepared to participate insociety this learng of culture rulesexpectatns occurs in all interactions HMMH onhow we 39 I 39 39 on IIrnatIIre 39 changes as result of learningBody too affected by stimulus nstinctwe have certain instincts2 protect our elv 39 39 hat 39 39 39 quot 39 as a result of internalization of meaningsampuse of languageGHMeadquotMind Self and SocietyquotgradStudntspblshed his lecturesDemnstrtd the unique feat ofhumanMind is its capacity to II eSvmbolsP39 9quot 39 39 quot 39 quot 39 D 39 39 39 39 oftheir significant others they bttrundrstnd their own roles as kids Stppin into another playrs shoes to undrstndGeneralizedOtherkids learn2c othrs not as indvls blur distinctns of indivls filling diffRoleshelps kid dvlp sense of selfown prsnlityquotSelf ampMEquot39 quot39 39 H 39 39 btwn 2parts of self quotIquot isthe spontaneousunique aspect of self quotMequot is how 1 is expctd 2 behave More concerned w societies expectations of myselfPpl expect quotMEquot 2 go 2 class but quotquotam sleeping in 2day quotLookingglass selfquot by CHCooleyidea of self devlpinginA process tht requires reference to other ppl How we think our behvr appears 2others Ur interpretation of others reactions and developing who u r off of them Our imagination bout our own lookingglass self isn39t always accurateSelfFulfilling Prophecyif we imagine othersthink we are a certain type of person we may believe that theirjudgemnts r trueamp as result we act in manner that results in us becomingthat way Ex you thinking ppl think urfunny u put out xtraeffrt to learn newjokes tell them parties now u39vebcome funnySelfconcept amp 20 statement testselfconcept is stable cluster of thoughtsampfeelings about ourselvesOn paper write 20 stmnts beginning w to describe urself results should describe u relatively wellHierarchy of dentityorder of statements that make up urself concept Role Identity how society gives u a particular role Ex Im a woman ampa college student Selevaluation help indicate 39 39 g 39 39 39 39 39 39 soccer player 5398quottall DramaturgybyGoffman compares social interaction 2 stageDrama we prepare ourslvsbackstage present ourslvsfrontstage all behvr Is a presentation ourframe isthe setting behavrs is our scriptlmpressionManagement our cnstnt effrt2 manipulate the impression others have of usAccountexcuseIf were late n want 2 avoid giving impression that were always late we make excusesDisclaimerphrases that tell audience that the self is not what it appears 2b quotIm not racist butquot disclaiming a role even while were acting in it Teamwork n embarrassment When on front stage u dont embarrass other people because u dont want ppl 2 embarrass u Other people try to cover up just like how actors try 2cover up other actorsmistakesforgetting a line audience doesntnoticeAgentsTargetsof Socialization the most influential interactions that socialization is found inFamily Primary agentof socialization mostcritical for ur life teach lifelong values Socialization throughout ifeisnt over ur still socialized by urparentssibingsspouseCultural capital Wat we learn frmfamly helps u some characteristics u possess like being educated valuable in upper class Small girl w parents in restraunt dressed nice n cutting her own food obviously wealthy n knows how 2behaveReciprocal nature of socialization ur parents socialize u but u socialize u parents at same time like that in all relationships Peer groups get socialized by pplur own age ur most intimate relationshps r w ur peers Role conflict learned something fromurfamly or edu amppeers r contradictingthat ideaMass media learn social values history norms common sense deprivationMay affect usbut we may not be able 2 affect them bc it cant b touchedWedont have much power 2 fite backchangeit Oneway process to teach you Socialization is usually twoway so mass media is unique Work PlaceCareer is a role transition a series of different statues related to a particular setting Socialization through life course doesnt end Total institution Uhave 2become soml else military prisoner or mental patients strictrules as 2 watucancant do Mortification of self u get rid of ur identity u must strip shower personal possess taken away leave behind famfriends takes place in total institutuion CHGDeviance and Social ControlDevianceany behavior thatviolates norms or shared social expectations13 yr old girl refuse2 take off blacklipstickviolated dresscodeMailman determined 2wear shorts thruout who systemndicate Defects High rates of some kind of deviance may expose prblms in the social order Lrg of parking violations indicates not enough parking spotsFacilitates Social Changeuntil 1950s black ppcant sit front of bus wo being deviant Fllwing court cases agnstsegreg this bhavr no longer deviant DVSFUNCTIONS Disrupt Social Order violating norms can disturb status quo Teachers who refuse to teach parents who ignore their kids keep system from functioning smoothly Disrupt Will to Conformif norm violations go unpunished the desire 2 confrm is decreasedDestroy Trustfevery1 was completely honest we wouldn39t need legal contracts lawyers orjudgesDivert resources criminal activities cost billions each yr we could be spending those 5 on schools 39 39 39 39 that violate law f 39 39 quot 39 quot 39 L39IlEy get fair sentencing Deviance is a violation of norm 3 types of norm folkways customary mores beach code laws crime as violation of law crime rate on the increaseNoCrime rate in US is decreasing bc Mass Media ppl around u mite tell u otherwiseWehavewrong idea that crimeon wrong idea abdivorceWrong idea ab society Society good directionritenow1992homiciderate inUS was more than 10now its ab 61Thats 61 per 100000 pplevry yearBR is ab 3 V2 x more dangerousthan countrysavge 2 reasonsLocationmurder rates are higher in the south than in the north Maybe povertyculture violencegun ownershipcantexpainCity urban area homicide rates higher in urban citiesthan countrysides Index Crimes Indexed by FBevry city reports their stats evry year ViolentCrimemurderra perobberyagrvtdasslt PropertyburglarytheftmotorvehicletheftArsonOther crimes FBI doesntcoverwhite collar crimes prostitutionorganizedcrimedrugs llnifnrmf 39 39 y FBI evrwear Frimef FBI statshow often do ppl get killedmuggednUSevry V2 hr somel getskilledNational Crime Victimization NCVSdone by census Bureau ampsociologistsinstead ofgoin2 FBI theyask ppl how manytimes they have been victimized in pastyrTheycompard results amp FBI reports r undercountBut no matter what u look at u get same results because they r parallelWhite collar crimeembezzlementbanktellers professors corporate executives steal money or prop frmcompanyuniversitygovernmentHugeproblm in USMost hiddenThesepphav power in governmentss n organizations so punishment is light in comparison to stealing frmsomebdy39s pocketpunching someone ExAutodealership on Sherwood manager stole 2 mill frm dealership so itshut down Street crimes hurt society whitecollar crime hurts usjust asmuchOrganized Crimegangmafiawere problematic 1015 yrs ago especially w drugs n gambling 39 39 39 Deviance amp Social f Controlexist within the particular indvls moral and social codes of behvrExternaControlcomesfrm outside indvlFormal formal rule ab leaving class early written down Informalchangeur behavior bc of peoples reactions Legitimization of Controlwhen other ppl control urbehaviorusualy 3 diff bases of authorityLegaofficerhas legal power 2 give u ticket Charismaticmay be charming officer so u listen to himTraditionalur supposed 2isten2 himTheories on DevianceBiological amp Psychological Theoriesearly on we believe most of crimes are done by ppl w a generic effect or biological factor Even now there r crimes committed by ppl w a biological defect but its notmajorityPpl believe its something psychological may not beinbornMost criminology think we need 2 look at interaction w othersAl theories r based on how we interact w others n how we r affected by othersLabelingTheomarrest increased abuse among unemployed ppTry 2 conform 2 label othersgiveu Primandevianceu get involved indeviant behaviorthen labeled Secondan devianceu get involved in deviant behavior 2nd time n labeled Labeling occurs btwn primary n secondary deviance 39 39 quot quot raceif somel commits murder n has son whose a teenSon gets labeled as quotquoter r r 39 39 39 quot 39 Snrial control theom Arrest decreased abuse among employed ppUr behavior can b controlled by ppl outside but it haslil 2do w 39 39 f 39 39 39can control urbehaviorbetterdontwanadestroyrelationship or disappoint fam by commitingacrimeStronger ties uhave w othersur behavior tends 2be straight Commitmentstimeenergyinvestment in pastDontwana losejob by doinganythingstupidnvolvementcurrent involvement w others legalnondeviant behavior sportsorganizationskeeping busy makes u unlikely to be involved in illegal drugs etcBeliefssome have more conventional belief others may have less trust in govlawenforceauthoritybelief in personalfreedomal make some easier 2be controlled Ladyshopliftschoice have gone2jail for 3 days or stand in front ofLows 4 3 hrs w sign am a shoplifterquotjudgebelieved in socialcontrol StrainampAnomie Theom l deviant pathsDeviant behavior is a result of mismatch btwnwat we want n whether we can getit or notMost evryl wants 2hav material socialsuccessGates r open2 those in college can get degree4many ppl the gates r closed bc of fampove Anomiecan btranslatedintoEnglish as state of normlessness Udon39t know wat 2dowenur in chaotic state Ppl commit suicide 4 3 diff reasons Disappoint inselflost honorAltruistic suicide common onbattlefield hrowurself on bomb 2save othersTo help other ppl or get insurance for fam Anomie normlessness so many changes in ur life u lose sense of whats right n wrong dont know waturdoingafterfam death divorce moving winning lottery Lose friendsget depressed Modes of Adaptation last three are anomie Conformity we agree on cultural goals material successfam life culture Innovationconflict between goal and means They have the same cultural goals but not the institutionalized means Maybe no encouragement to do well in schoolStructural strainRitualism some people are given the structural means but don39t share the cultural goals People who don39t care about social success who slack off at work don39t39 care about responsibility Teachers who don39t care about students learning and come for the money Deviant because they are not doing what they39re supposed to do culturally Theirjob is a ritual not putting effort into it Retreatism they don39t share cultural values and they don39t have an institutionalized means May not have education goodjob or work history Homeless people might apply to thisRebellion have certain cultural goals but that partic goal dosnt match watwehaveHave some sort of means often illegal Good Excult or movementGroup in Japan 10 yrs ago Buddhist movement goal trying to take over Japanese government and establish their own Prime minister ministry of education military etc They have money by selling illegal drugs Conflict theow whether a certain thing is deviant or not is result of who has powerChild labor was legal bc those who hired kids made it legaHow harshly you get punished is a result of a power struggle Power and inequality in this culture decides what39s deviant what39s not who gets punishedwho doesn39t When a group is small nobody cares only after they become somewhat powerful they become a target and scared Sociocultural Learning Theories Cultural transmissionif you came from a particular background fam or neighborhood of drug users you commit a crime sent to prison The norm in prison among inmates is that drugs isn39t a bad thing becomes your norm Where you come and who you associate with affects what you do Might learn that it39s okay to steal cheat etcDifferentia association your behavior is affected by who you go along with You have a choice to what group of people go get close to You have a need to be liked by other people Differential reinforcement Same behavior may be punishedWorking hard trying to get good grade Miss party on Friday to do well on test Monday If the group doesn39t care about the grade you might be labeled or ostracized The same behavior may be rewarded or punished depending on the group 4 Mechanisms of Getting rewarded or punishedLPositive Reinforcement added good work hard get the grade parents may praise you and your friend praise you Something good was added Negative Reinforcement something bad was subtracted and it39s good for you Supposed you39re grounded for 2 weeks Duringthe grounding period you work hard listen parents and do chores Parents saythey39ll cut down grounding from 2 to 1 week Positive Punishmentyou get grounded coach makes you run laps because you39re slacking Negative punishmentsomething is taken aw


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