New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here


by: Kameron Skiles


Kameron Skiles
GPA 3.8

T. Slack

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

T. Slack
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Sociology

This 131 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kameron Skiles on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOCL 2001 at Louisiana State University taught by T. Slack in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see /class/222565/socl-2001-louisiana-state-university in Sociology at Louisiana State University.




Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/13/15
Social Groups Overview Understanding social groups Group dynamics The power of groups Understanding Groups a People with shared normative expectations and collective identity Share sense of belonging Group norms and sanctions shape social interaction Key element of social structure Understanding Groups Types of Groups Primary amp Small group characterized by close interpersonal interaction I Satisfy basic human need for intimacy I Powerful force in socialization process Understanding Groups Types of Groups Secondmy Group Larger more complex and anonymous formal group Typically based on some common interest or activity ex work school religion Members often occupy formal positions Primary groups often exist within groups Understanding Groups Types of Groups IiiGroups Groups toward which one feels belonging or loyalty We or Us OutGroups Groups toward which one doesagtfeel belonging or may even feel antagonism They or Them Understanding Groups Types of Groups I Division of social world into ingroups and outgroups has far reaching consequences Produces loyalties and rivalries Underlies many of the world39s deepest divisions Ex Racialethnic inequality terrorism Understanding Groups Types of Groups Refermce GmupsA group that is used as a standard for evaluating social behavior Ex Family neighbors teachers oo workers members of religious group Provides a yardstick for behavior and thus social control Group Dynamics Effects of Group Size Dyadm two member group Dial A three member group Whacmes possible in triads Group Dynamics Effects of Group Size I As a small group grows larger It becomes more stable I It becomes less intimate and more formal Our attitudes and behavior change Ex Helping others and the di 39bwbn of The Power of Groups Groups have tremendous power over our attitudes and behavior Conformity and obedience Peer pressure I The power of authority Gmuank Process by which alternative or dissenting views are marginalizeddismissed by maJOHtv Social Groups In 51m I Groups are a key element of social structure Groups exert tremendous in uence on people s social realities Sociological Research Overview The Scientific Method I Major Research Designs The Scientific Method 1 De ne the Probem Clearly state what you intend to investigate Operational De nition Must take a conceptual issue and define in a way that can be measured The Scientific Method 2 Review the Literature Literature The existing body of research and information on a subject I Helps to Refine the problem under study Clarify possible data collection techniques Eliminate or reduce avoidable mistakes The Scientific Method 3 Form ua te Hypotheses and or Research Questions Identify important variables Variable A measurable trait or characteristic Dependent variables Independent variables The Scientific Method 3 Form ua te Hypotheses and or Research Questions Hypothesis A speculative statement about the expected relationship between two or more variables What relationships do you intend to test Some examples Dependent variable Independent variable Level of educational gt Level of income degree r Degree 393 Of br Likelinccd cf suicide Integratl n Into SOCwet quotlei Parents church b lChildren s church attendance attendance Time Spam preparing Performance on quiz fcrduiz Parentgmcome b Likelinccd cfcnildren e enrolling in college The Scientific Method 4 Decide on a Research Design Research DesignA detailed plan or method for obtaining data Major research designs used in sociology Surveys ethnography experiments and use of existing data sources The Scientific Method 5 Collect and Analyze Data Collect data and test for hypothesized relationships Are the independent variables related to the dependent variables in the way speculated The Scientific Method 6 Dra wing Conclusions Do your results support your hypotheses What scientific story can you tell Limitationsdirections for future research The Scientific Method Define the problem Fteuiemr the literature xv Formulate a testable hypothesis Ef Select research design Collect and analyze data H u Ll Observation Experirrient Existing sources xvs Develop the conclusion Ideas for further research Major Research Designs Surveys Typically takes the form of a standardized interview or questionnaire Strength Possible to collect data from large numbers of people Lmtatbn Questions must be standardized and therefore may miss important information Major Research Designs Surveys Some surveys include the entire population of interest ie US Census But most draw a sample a smaller group from the overall population Random sampling equal probability of selection ensures a sample is representative Beware Nonrepresentative survey data is everywhere Major Research Designs Ethnography Firsthand studies through participation andor observation or interviewing Strength Possible to collect more indepth information Lmtatbn Can only study a small group can t generalize to larger populations Major Research Designs Experiments Divide subjects into an experimental group exposed to IV and a control group not exposed to IV Strength Lots of control easier to replicate Limitation Many aspects of social life can t be brought into a lab ethical considerations Sociologists often study natural experiments Major Research Designs Use of Existing Data Sources Many sociologists use secondary data Examples include census data crime statistics marriage and divorce statistics Strength Don t have to spend as much time and money collecting data Lmtatbn Restricted to what has already been collected The Need for a Critical Eye Was the scientific method used I Who conducted the research I Is the research design appropriate How about variable measurement I Are reasonable conclusions being drawn Overview What is Sociology What is Sociological Theory Major Theoretical Perspectives The Sociological Imagination What is Sociology The scientific study of human society and social behavior Study of the influence of social relationships on people s attitudes behaviors and outcomes Study of how societies are structured and change over time What is Sociology Sociology and Science Variety of ways in which we can acquire knowledge Sociologists use the scienti c method to systematically test and analyze information Sociology is a social science What is Sociology NaturalPhysical Sciences vs Social Sciences NaturalPhysical Science The scientific study of features of the natural or physical environment Examples Biology geology chemistry physics What is Sociology NaturalPhysical Sciences vs Social Sciences Social Science The study of human relationships and the social environment Examples Anthropology economics political science psychology and sociology What is Sociology Sociology and the Social Sciences I The disciplinary boundaries can be blurry I Ant7m Study of the physical social and cultural development of humans I Econ Study of markets how goods and services are distributed I Poi SCI Study of politics and government I Psych Study of mental processes What is Theow Scientists build theories to provide an explanatory storyline Theory39A statement explaining how things work how the pieces fit together Theories explain how and why Data is used to support or refute What is Sociological Theory Sociological Theories Statements that seek to frame an understanding of how the social world works Sociologists use theories to frame studies and suggest relationships that can then be tested Effective theories should explain and predict Major Theoretical Perspectives The Functionalst Perspective Focuses on the macrolevel Views society as a network of connected parts each helping to maintain the system as a whole Each part has a function Emphasizes how parts function to maintain social stability Major Theoretical Perspectives The Functionalst Perspective Manfest Functions Open recognized intended purpose of an aspect of society Latent Functions Behind the scenes functions consequences unintentional Dysfunctions An element of society that that disrupts the stability of the system Major Theoretical Perspectives The Con ict Perspective Focuses on the macrolevel Views society as best understood by understanding con ict between groups Conflict is not necessarily violent Competing conflicting interests Major Theoretical Perspectives The Con ict Perspective Focuses on how those with wealth and power maintain their privileged position How those without wealth and power struggle to acquire it Major Theoretical Perspectives Interactionst Perspective Focuses on microlevel Views social interaction and symbolic understandings as central to understanding social dynamics Symbos may include material objects verbal and nonverbal language Focuses on everyday forms of social interaction to understand the social world Theoretical Approaches Sociologists make use of all three perspectives Represent lenses through which view or frame sociological understandings Each perspective stands to offer unique insights on similar issues by providing different frames The Sociological Imagination Critical awareness of the linkages between personal experience history and structural workings of society Draw connections between personal problems and public issues Ability to view society as an outsider Understanding human behavior and condition as embedded in social context Socialization Overview I What is Socialization I Social Construction of the Self I Socialization and the Life Course I Agents of Socialization The Role of Socialization Nature versus Nurture Examples of extreme isolation Abused and feral children People learn the ways of society values norms symbols through interaction with others The Role of Socialization Socialization Process by which people learn the cultural practices of their social group Learn values norms and symbols Learn about all things of social significance social statuses roles etc Learn to be a member of society Social Construction of the Self CH Cooley and The Looking Glass Self Sense of self develops from interaction with others Why do we spend so much time looking in the mirror uWe want to know how we look to others Social Construction of the Self 3 Elements of the Looking Glass Self 1 We imagine how we appear to others 2 We interpret others reactions to us 3 We develop a selfconcept Never a nished product Social Construction of the Self GH Mead and Stages of the Self 1 Preparatory Stage Children imitate people around them lt3 yrs I Begin using symbols gestures objects and language to communicate Not roleplaying but prepares child for that Social Construction of the Self GH Mead and Stages of the Self 2 Play Stage Children develop skill in communicating through symbols 36 yrs Taking the role of the other occurs Grow increasingly aware of me Social Construction of the Self GH Mead and Stages of the Self 3 Game Stage Children come to grasp not only their own social position but also those of others Begins with 5 nitquotcant others and grows to the genera izea other Gain understanding of the values norms and expectations of others In general society Social Construction of the Self GH Mead and Stages of the Self The self begins as a privileged central position in a person s world egocentric As an individual matures the self grows to reflect greater concern about the generalized other 39 the general values and moral rules of the culture Social Construction of the Self E Goffman and Presentation of the Self Dramaturgica Approach People resemble stage performers Impression Management Altering the presentation of the self to create distinctive appearances and satisfy particular audiences Socialization and the Life Course Development of the self a lifelong process Shaped by roles we play throughout the life course and by changing social norms Rites of passage Means of dramatizing and validating changes in a person s social status Mark stages of development in the life course Socialization and the Life Course Anticipatory Socialization Process of socialization in which a person rehearses for future social relationships Future occupations parenthood Resocialization Process of discarding former behavior patterns and accepting new ones as part of a transition in one s life Rehab programs eXconvicts Agents of Socialization The Family Primary agent of socialization Socialization begins shortly after birth Agents of Socialization School Schools teach children the values and norms of the larger society Expand recognition of the generalized other Agents of Socialization Peer Groups I As we grow older peer groups increasingly become our syn cant others Exercise a great deal of social control th rough peer pressure Agents of Socialization Other Agents Mass Media The Neighborhood The Workplace The State Etc Socialization In Sum While biology has a lotto do with who we are much of who we are is socially learn ed The process through which this learning takes place is socialization Religion Overview The Sociology of Religion Sociological Perspectives on Religion Religion in the US Religion Worldwide The Sociology of Religion Sociologists are NOT interested in mm of religious teachings Seek to understand interrela onships between religion and society I How are religious institutions organized How does religion shape beliefs values and behavior How doa religion relate to the larger in which it is embedded The Sociology of Religion Re glon as 4 mm Key agent of socialization Teaches values and norms Facilitates social solidarity Practice and organization of religion takes many forms having varied social consequences In uences social change ex Civil Rights Movement strati cation Religious Affiliation and Income 2007 Percentage of each group making Less n semnuo s5a mu s75uun 5100009 sscmoo 549999 74w9 599999 Tolal us Population 31 22 13 1 a Hindu 9 1 O 1539 22 43 Orthodox 2D 24 3916 1 3 23 Buddhist 25 1 9 71 17 22 Main ne 39 r Prmesiant Churches 25 21 13 1 5 z i Momnon 2E 21 122 Unaf liated 29 23 Catholic 31 20 3915 Evangelina Prmeslant Churches 34 24 Musiim39 35 24 Jehovah39s Witnm 42 23 Historically Black Protestant Churches 47 25 i TILE Pi w F VIRHA UN 1121414711014 I39E The Sociology of Religion I keligionm cultural system of shared beliefs and rituals 3Comanme m Shared ideas that translate into values and norms Rituals Special behavioral practices and activities WA social group organized around shared beliefs and rituals that provide a sense of meaning Sociological Perspectiva on Religion Durkheim WWW Religion is a system of beliefs relative to the sacred and profane Mad Elements of world that inspire awe respect and fear People participate in the sacred through rituals Praline The ordinary and commonplace These understandings provide essential social glue Sociological Perspectiva on Religion Nauru Grimm Religion the opiate of the massesquot Impedes social change and class con ict Encourages focus on otherworldly concerns diverts attention from inequality and exploitation Legitimates social inequalities listing social arrangements represent will of God Sociological Perspectiva on Religion webs Religion and Soda Change Pointed to connection between religion and social change mm Viewed rise of Protestantism particularly Calvinism as central to development of Western capitalism Viewed material success as a sign of divine favor Encouraged hard work thrift and investment Religion in the US Compared to other highly developed nations the US is a very religious nation 39Weaalth and Importance of Religion Indonesia Jordan 0 1T viiv Elia FFZ Tanzania 0 A ric HarriI Aimrice Hi aria H g f TurkEy Latin du39nerica Pa itanquot M93130 CU 53 Western Europe 30 a Ez z Eastern Europe H Africa 5 AsiarPacific quotE Ger I Middb East m 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 393 397 39E sira li a 39 39 39 lg E H r39ea Spquot 4 3 40 EUWI391 3 France Japan 3e 20 o 0 ll 101120 ID J39DENJ39 ammo 40mo 505W Cgrreilatm 50 Purchasing Power Parity Question 33 Source Pew Research Center Religion in the 05 hands in Religious W8 mm Compared to other highly developed nations US a very religious nation A 56 of Americans say religion is very important in their livesquot A majority 58 say they pray daily A majority 71 say they believe in God with absolute certainty Pew Research Center 2007 Tremendous power in American politics especially among social conservatives Religion in the 05 hands in Relbious Beliefl Af liation I Americans are predominately Christians About half identify as Protestants Baptists are largest Protestant denomination About one quarter identify as Catholics Baptist Summem Baptist Cnnven m 6 7 Nailhnai Baptist Cowman 1 3 American Eap sf Chmhea in the USA 12 Omar HEP ai 5 E TE H FEM ETVfi39iilL h C H 13 I I I39ll I JYV PU N If H F i Iquot If A f If I33 U 1 If lair2 Religion in the 08 m in Religious Belief amp mm I Standard measures of religiosity have all been in decline since 19505 Religious memberships attendance at religious services etc Increasing numbers claiming no religion Currently about 16 of Americans claim no religious af liation more than all non Christian religious adherents Young People Less Religiously Affiliated Pm rx rll lmqf l f l39ed with a rcllglim by JIL39J39HLHIMM39ELH39I H Earl1 3939 Lane quot73933 Early 3915 Late 39BDS Early 9l115 Late 39EIDs Early 1305 Lane Source General Social Surveys Quu on wording What is your religious nmlcrcncc39r39 Is it Protestant CEEthl C Jemmh slamE rather religion 0r m religion Millennial born 1981 DI later Gen 1394 barn 196530 H Bummer barn 194564 0 Silent burn 1928455 0 Grimm alt bum baton 1925 5339 IndieEta point when gammtions mm all comparable ages Pew Revsear39ch Center39s Forum an Religion 8 Public Lilla Religion in the Millennial Genevramcn February 20110 Religion in the 05 momma arkelbious Revival I US growing more secular in many ways Examples of secularization can be seen throughout culture At same time have seen rapid growth in conservative evangelical Protestantism Growing in numbers and political in uence Religion Worldwide Islam fastest growing religion worldwide growing at roughly twice pace of nonMuslims Musll onws as a Shiasre Df W39Drlld P Gpuilaticin 199111 2039 1L l ll39lu n n J F 11h u I w J39ILJ 5quot g2 199G EDD 2010 21120 2330 r lul a l quot 15 Percentages are La ualed hum ammunded r umlcers Cross hatching nancier re ected gures new Reaea FCI39I Center39s FDth on Religion B Public Life The Future on the Giana Must Papurat an January 2011 Religion Worldwide Islam most concentrated in Asia MidEast and Africa but Muslim numbers growing worldwide EWUSIWH Papula artby Raginn 201D IDED ESTIM 39ITED PREIJECTED PERCENTAGE PERCEHTA E E ESTIMATED UF BLLO AL F RDJVE39ISTIED DF GLOBAL HUSLEH MUSLIM MU LIM MUSL H F39DPULA39HDH FUPULA IRGN PDFULATIOM POPULATION World 1010314000 1000 2190154000 1000 Asia Paci c 1005507000 021 1205025000 502 Middle EastAl iorth Africa 321000000 100 430453000 201 Sub Saharan Afnca 202540000 150 305039000 16 Europe 44130000 27 50209000 2 l Americas 5250000 03 10321000 05 P g dlal ur l esliwiales Jan 9 rDuquot ed 22 llquoth u53quotld PE39Ll lagES are alalniu Bled quot39I Jr39n Ll lrz JUr ILIEEI r1n39lb e39s FiQJI fil may rm add mind If due3911 murming Flew 00000020 Center s Fnrum 00 Religiun EA Public Life T00 Future GFt E39 134003 10030 MullSmitty January 239311 Sociology of Religion In Sun Religion is a key social institution Major agent of socialization In uences norms values and worldviews social behavior and organization a Changing contours have important implications for domestic and global sociological considerations Social Control and Deviance Overview Exam I Social Control De ned Deviance De ned Theoretical Framings of Deviance Exam I Class Average 82 IA25 IB43 IC20 ID 9 IF 2 Where Do You Stand Your current grade is calculated as Exam I Bonus Points 100 I A 100 895 I B 894 795 I C 794 595 I D 694 595 I F 594 0 Social Control Social Control Means by which members of society encourage conformity to norms Positive and Negative Sanctions Conformity brings rewards Nonconformity carries penalties Social Control DWI vs Formal control WW antral Use of informal sanctioning to facilitate normative conformity mum Use of formally de ned sanctioning mechanisms to facilitate normative conformity gags Codi ed norms enforced by the Social Control Conformity and Obedience Cbnl39ormity Going along with the group without necessarily being formally obligated to do so Obedience Compliance with the directions of authoriw gures Ex The Milgrim Study Deviance What is Deviance Deviance is behavior that violates the norms of a group or society Vrolation of infomal or formal norms What is deviant is not set in stone Differs across and within cultures Changes over time Amie Social condition where norms lose their hold on behavior Deviance 119 Funcabnalist Perspecme Deviance can be both functional and dysfunctional for society Helps to de ne acceptable behavior and thus contributes to social stability Can rise to a level where social stability is disrupted Deviance m Chum Perspective De nition of deviance serves the interests of elites Control the criminal justice system and the legal system Law is an instrument of oppression Ex white collar vs crime powder vs crack cocaine vs racial sentencing disparities Devia nee Me mm We Di hmntial mm theory One learns criminal behavior through interactions with others Not just techniques but motives and rationalizations values and norms What is deviant and how we understand that depends on group membership Deviance 119 Mist respective labeling My Notion that social labels shape selfperception and perception of others Labels channel behavior into deviance or conformity Key question is who has the power to apply labels Social Control and Deviance In Sum Social control maintained through group sanctioning What is considered deviant is socially constructed The de nition of deviance has profound consequences fer society Social Structure Overview What is Social Structure Elements of Social Structure Elements of Social WhatisSoath The way in which a society is organized Framework of relationships between people and groups that form a society I 5 key elements uStatuses roles groups networks and institu ons Elements of Social swam Socially de ned positions within a society or social group Serve as a reference for roles 513215991 All the positions an individual occupies Elements of Social Sadalsratuses Asaibed Status that is assignedinherited by an individual involuntary Adrieved Status that is acquired by some effort or activity Master Status Status that cuts across or overshadows others in a status set Dormitory resident Employee Aeeribed Statuses Achieved statueee Elements of Social Snaillaatuses Do oppositw realb39 attract Think of three statuses you desire in a partner Nouns of Homogamy Norms that encourage people to interact with those occupying similar status positions Elements of Social Soda Rom The behavioral expectations and obligations of those who occupy a status Role mmwnen or more statuses held in common create incompatible expectations Role strain When the same smtus imposes confliCting expectations Role an Ending of a role happens when a status changes Elements of Social social Groups Two or more people with shared normative expectations and collective identity not just a social aggregate It is within groups that most daily social interaction takes place Group norms and sanctions shape social interaction Elemenm of Social SodaW Web of relationships that link people together directly and indirectly Can empower people by making resources available Le networking Can also limit our range of interactions Soda Capital Ability to mobilize resources through social networks Elements of Social Sodallnslitutions Basic modes of social organization I followed by a majority of members of society and protected by strong sanctions Marriage and the family religion education the economy the state Have tremendous sociological signi cance Ex The market economy in capitalist societm Interaction and Social Structure In 5m Social structure is determined by and changes through social interaction Its basic elements include Statuses roles groups networks and institutions I Provides the context within Which our interactions take place and our social realities are de ned Organizations Overview Overview for Exam I u The Rationalization of Society Formal Organizations amp Bureaucracy Exam I Thursday February 17 a What is Sociology Chapter 1 Sociological Research Methods Chapter 1 a Culture and Society Chapter 2 Socialization Chapter 3 Social Structure Chapter 4 m Groups and Organizations Chapter 5 Exam I Thursday February 17 Multiple choice Bring a small scantron sheet 50 itemsside and a 2 pencil Be there and be on time regular room regular time Study Hard and Good Luck The Rationalization of Societal shift from tradiabnal orientation to social life to a rational orientation Traditional Custom and tradition are the central organizing principles Serve as guide for values and norms The Rationalization of Rationalization Shift toward the values of ef ciency calculability and uniformity as guide for social organization increased reliance on formal rules Rationing of social life I Results are emphasized rather than traditional relationships 50 in household economics Formal Organizations Rationalization of society led to increased prominence of formal organizations Formal Organizations A secondary group designed for a specialpurpose or objective with on39nalized positions and procedures I uArmy I Department of Motor Vehicles US Postal Service I Bureaucracy Dominant form of formal organization de ned by the following characteristics Division of labor Hierarchy of authority Written rules and regulations Impersonality I Employment based on technical quali cationscredentials Bureaucracy LSU s organizational chart Bureaucracy W forgedety Division of labor Produces ef ciency HMMy afautfm ty Clari es chain of command lowmen rules and regulaa ons Clari es eXpectations Impersonal n Reduces bias I Bnpbnnenthaxd an credentials Promotion bead on meritability Bureaucracy Mum folIndividuals oflabor Alienation and trained incapacity Hierarchy of authon ty Employees often lack voice in decision making Mitten was and regulations Can sti e initiative and imagination Impawnallty Alienation Em Whasedm 06090038 Can serve to advancement of quali ed individuals Bureaucracy Mum Ibr Olymth oflabor Can produce narraw PEI39SDECWE Hierarchy of authority Permits concealment of mistakes mitten rules and regulations Can lead to goal displacement I Impawnallty Can discourage loyalty to organization Em mien tbased an aealenaials Allows Peteprlgrindple to operate Bureaucracy Dys mctims Iron Cage of Bureaucracy Over bureaucratic rulegoverned hyper rational contexts can be dehumanizing Iron Law of Oligardm Greater organizational complexity can lead to less democratic and more centralized control rule by the few Organizations In Sum Rationalization of society has given rise to increased prominence of formal organizations Rise of bureaucracy in particular Absolutely organizational form in modern society but not without dysfunctions Culture Overview Culture and Society Elements of Culture Culture and Society Culture is the totality of learned socially transmitted customs and knowledge Shared ways of understanding and behaving Includes language values norms material objects Culture and Society I A society is a group of people defined by a shared culture rule and territory Since sociology is the study of human societies and human behavior understanding culture is critical Elements of Culture Material amp Nonmateria Culture Material Culture Material objects that distinguish a cultural group Examples Art architecture utensilstools clothingjewelry Elements of Culture Material amp Nonmaterial Culture Nonmaterial Culture The ways of thinking being and doing that distinguish a cultural group Beliefs values and other assumptions about the world Common patterns of behavior including language gestures and other forms of interaction Elements of Culture Material amp Nonmateria Culture Symbolism is a key aspect of culture I A symbol is anything to which people attach meaning What meanings do you attach to the following symbols it39llIii iiE nuE414 1343 it39ll139 iiiK it39llIii iiiHIE IREIii in llE ill39 E Elements of Culture Language A system symbols spoken and often written that allow people to communicate Critical to transmission of culture Represents our culturally shared reality How we perceive the world I Who we are group identity Elements of Culture Gestures Ways in which people use their bodies to communicate with others Nonverbal language Hookiem horns thumbs up Elements of Culture Values Culturally defined ideas about desirability goodness and what ought to be Underlie our belief systems Statements about the world that we hold to be true Elements of Culture Norms Rules by which society guides the behavior of its members Unquestioned ways of thinking Like an instruction booklet for social living Shared understanding of norms allows for social control Culture shock occurs when we don t understand cultural norms Elements of Culture Sanctions Rewards or penalties for upholding or violating social norms Positive sanction Reward for following norms EX a smile a medal of honor Negative sanction Penalty for violating norms EX a frown execution Elements of Culture Types of Norms Mares Norms that society takes very seriously and enforces strictly carry severe sanctions Folways Norms that society takes less seriously and enforces less strictly Widespread disobedience of either leads to social disorder Elements of Culture Subcultures I A social group that shares distinctive cultural characteristics within a larger dominant culture Cajuns street gangs sororities and fraternities RV campers In Sum Culture fundamentally influences social dynamics Personal and collective identity Behaviors and expectations The very way we understand the world we live in


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.