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by: Trace Beier


Trace Beier
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This 75 page Class Notes was uploaded by Trace Beier on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOCL 2001 at Louisiana State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see /class/222568/socl-2001-louisiana-state-university in Sociology at Louisiana State University.




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Date Created: 10/13/15
Theoretical Perspectives in Sociology 8292014 22900 PM THE IMPORTANCE of THEORY Facts never interpret themselves Facts require a framework to interpret them Theory general statement about how some parts of the world fit together and how they work o How two or more facts relate THREE MAJOR SOCIOLOGICAL THEORIES Symbolic Interactionalism o Symbols are the key to understanding our worldview and how we communicate with one another o Facetoface interaction micro Mead18631931 amp Cooley18641929 o Without symbols human social life would be no more sophisticated than animals o Symbols define relationships 0 Hands holding hands how to shake hands symbolizing love etc Functionalism o Society is a whole unit made of interrelated parts that work together macro o Comte amp Spencer 9 viewed society as living organism 0 Parts must work in harmony for society to function properly o Durkheim 0 Normal state 0 Abnormal state o Functionalists 0 Structure how parts of society fit together to make a whole 0 Function what each part does and how it contributes to society o Merten amp Functionalism 0 Functions help keep a society in balance 0 Dysfunctions harmful consequences of people s actions Disturbs equilibrium 0 Types of Functions Manifest intended Latent unintended o Latent dysfunctions unintended negative consequences Conflict Theory o Society consists of groups competing with one another for scarce resources macro Conflict theory founded by Karl Marx o Industrialized Society 0 Bourgeoisie o Proletariat Capitalist exploit workers o Marx studied capitalism in it s beginning infancy o Today sociologist extended conflict theory beyond capitalists and workers o Conflicts occur in every layer of society o Constant struggle over who has authority and how far that dominance goes o Conflict most likely occurs in close relationships PUTTING the THEORIES TOGETHER There s no right theory Lens used to view society o Focus on different features of social life All are necessary to study human behavior Provides more comprehensive picture of social life LEVELS of ANALYSIS MICRO amp MACRO Macro large scale functionalism amp conflict theory Micro small scale symbolic interactionalism o Social interactions o Nonverbal communication How Theory amp Research Work Together o They can t stand alone o Without research theory is abstract and empty o Without theory research is a collection of meaningless facts o Every theory must be tested through research 8292014 22900 PM 8292014 22900 PM Sociology Chapter 1 August 23 2011 Sociology study of social behavior and human groups in society Sociological imagination learning to think sociologically getting away from one s own life and thinking in a different perspective 0 C Wright Mills 0 Having an awareness of the relationship between the individual and wider society Links between the way we feelbehave and what is going on in the world around us 0 Viewing society and societal interactions like an outsider getting the big 39 ture pic Sociologist 0 Study a group of people or something that has an affect on people Study perspective There is a relationship between an individual and society Outside things affectinfluence peo o Surroundings influence cultural aspects most people experience society in a limited way Culture in which we were raised 0 Leads us to different paths Friends that surround us Natural Sciences physical features of nature 0 Ex physics biology Social Sciences social features 0 umans and the way they change and interact 0 History psychology sociology Sociology vs Psychology 0 Psychology looks at individual characteristics while sociology looks at how individuals fit into societ o Sociology what did society contribute to his life that made him become a murderer o Psychology what was going on in his head to make him think that being a murderer was okay Human Behavior 0 Theories come from common sense or past experience 0 Information is meaningless unless it is tested experiments Example who talks moremen or women a Result Same for both Sociological Theory vs Effective Theo Effective Theory can explain why things happen and when they will happen in the future Emile Durkheim s Study 0 Suicide differed by country different lifestyles Made it seems as though it were not so much of a personal decisions so he looked at social factors 0 Social Cohesion how people work together and are connected to each other Lack of social cohesion ba 0 Came up with 4 types of suicide Altruistic TOO tied to community no individuality 0 Ex sports player in the eye of society and then an injury occurs leaving you with nothing left so a person feels as though they have no purpose Egoistic Not tied to other people low social integration No friends possibly no famil 0 Through this study found that married people were less likely to commit suicide because they were tied to at least one person 5 O O O O Anomic societal roles are interrupted or changed rson had a purpose society disrupted so a person no longer has purposerole Fatalistic goals are established by society but are unreachable Life that is going nowhere never making enough money to move away never moving up in a position in a jo Married and religious lower rates of suicide Unstable economy higher rates in suicide Can now predict when more suicides will take place Began to form broader ideas of whywhen things happen instead of generalizing August Comte O Coined the term Sociology o Insists that you can study society the same way that you study natural science Using scientific method Durkheim o 3 important works Division of Labor in Society Suicide ementary Forms of Religious Life 0 Social cohesions all parts of society functioning together eaning that everyone has to agree on certain things Agree on Education upholding laws belief that murder is bad Disagree on abortion 0 Social facts aspects of life that shape our actions as individuals the outside world affects 0 Social constraint society sets limits on what we do as individuals 0 Anomie people becoming disconnected from society results in despair and hopelessness Argument of why people commit crime9 if you are disconnected from society then you no longer have to follow rules Max Weber 0 Placed high importance on people s values and ideas to culture believed they were an important part of social change and affected individual actions 0 Stressed the understanding of how people view themselves and how society viewed itself and others Karl Marx 0 Works Communist Manifesto O Came up with Conflict Perspective Argued that capitalism is what drives everything Capitalism different levels of classsuccess Relationship between class and capitalism is the more important relationship in society Sociological perspectives O O unctionalists PerspectiveFunctionalism Society as an organism each part needs to function property for the health of the whole Everything has a placerole Manifest functions intended functionsconsequences 0 Getting an education so you are able to contribute to society Latent functions unintended consequences Things that are not meant to happen but they do Finding marriage partners in college Conflict Perspective Marx Instabilityconflict in society and it s ability to bring about change Haves and Have Nots fighting for limited resources and opportunities Conflict brings about change that can be positive Feminists theory 0 H ves men 0 Using their power to suppress women 0 Have Nots women 0 Feminists movement caused conflict but brought about change Consensus vs Conflict Models of Crime 0 Consensus assumes that everyone in society has similar morals 0 Everyone agrees that murder is bad 0 As society changes law changes as long as it is a majority opinion 0 Conflict Models of Crime it does not matter if everyone agrees it is just that people with more power decide 0 Tangible way of using conflict perspective 0 Everyone agrees on rules versus the powerful make the rules 0 Interactionist perspective Symbolic Interactionism S ial structure and society can be understand by seeing the day to day interactions between people People interactcommunicate with symbols things that stand for something else has a deeper meaning 0 Salute symbol of respect Society affects symbols and the way we communicate and vice versa 0 Research in Sociology 0 Most sociologists are researchersacademics o The scientific Method Develop hypothesis ideas of what to do research on9 Test hypothesis9 Analyze results 0 Science use of systematic methods of empirical investigation the analysis of data theoretical thinking and the logical assessment of arguments to develop a body of knowledge about a particular subject matter 0 Collecting Data Surveys 0 Expensive paying for paper and mailing a Time consum39ng 0 Low response rate 0 Example census required to fill out Ethnography observation 0 Participant observation only allows for study of small groups and results not necessarily generalize o Gives pretty solid info 0 Risks 0 Researchers become too involved in the groups they join leaves biased opinions 0 Study only very small groups cannot apply results to other groups when only studying a small group Experiments ore common in psychology 0 Participants know they are being experimented upon people may act differently than in their normal lives Secondary Data Analysis using existing data Qualitative vs Quantitative Research a Qualitative quality 0 Substance of the information Quantitative number o mount of information o Quicker but not the greatest info 0 Typically you can get a larger sample size ability to ask more people more generalized response O O O o Tria 0 Example What do you think about the class vs Rate the class 1 1 use more than one Ethics in Sociolo ngulation all methods have strengths and weakness it is a good idea to Opens up a bigger picture Gain bettermore information Ethical treatment of human subject 0 u u u I O u Laud H Patricia Philip 20 o greater risk than they may experience in their daily life IRB Institutional Review Board have to get permission from this group before beginning research and surveys with human subjects Privacy protecting the subject s privac Informed Consent tell the subjects that they are being studied explain nature of the study info for who to contact if they feel as though their rights are being violated Confidentiality People cannot be at any greater risk than they would be in their normal daily life Milgram Experiment 1960 s St nley Milgram wondered how people like the Nazi s at the time could blindly follow orders without considering the affects of their actions Study Obedience to Authority Example Teacher participant student someone in on the experiment got shocked not actually shocked Participant s teachers were emotionally disturbed after the fact because they believed that they hurtkilled someone with the shocks but they did not stop during the experiment because a higher authority told the participants to keep teaching a 65 went all the way to the max voltage and did not stop because they were being told to keep goin umphreays Tearoom Trade earoom public restroom where men go for homosexual encounters Humphreays tracks down the people using these rooms and t en h does research on them to try to find out what type of men are using them Adler s drug study Drug dealing neighbor Befriended the neighbor to learn about drug dealing from the inside She actually began doing dru s The drug dealer did not did not know that she was a researcher so he would be more willing to get information Issue she was engaging in illegal behavior even though she got valuable information mbardo s Prison Experiment Done on students at Standford University 1971 0 Some assigned to be prisoners some assigned to be guards o Guards began taking their roles very seriously torturing OTHER students Prisoners became very passive and were ready to abuse fellow prisoners to improve their own situation 0 Lost control of the situation suupose to be the superintendant but he w as so excited about what he was witnessing he continued to let it go on Called off after 6 days suppose to be 2 weeks Only because Zombardo s girlfriend showed up to make observations and knew that it had to be stopped Guards mad that they had to stop IRB approved shows that what you say is going to happen on paper and what actually happens can be drastically different Chapter 2 0 Culture totality of learned socially transmitted customs knowledge material objects and behavio o Values ideas about what is desirable proper good and bad 0 Norms rules of contact that specify behavior in certain situations What is socially acceptable 0 Material goods physical goods that are created by society 0 PatriotismEverything that symbolizes who we are 0 Being cultured interestunderstanding of music arts is different 0 Sharing similar culture defines groups or societies to which you belong 0 Society is the largest form of human group People living in a certain area 0 Preserved with9 literature art language stories 0 Constantly changing s9 different generations modify it Example influence of technology 0 Cultural Universals 0 Values or behaviors shared by all cultures each way may be different ports Cooking Dancing ames MarriageFamily unit Medicine Religion d ra e o Ethnocentrism judging other culture by the standard of one s own Implying that your culture is the best Example underdeveloped backward way primitive 0 Cultural Relativism judging a society by its own standards 0 Cultures have adapted according to their environments 0 Nature vs Nurture o No longer an argument for one of the other but it s how the two interact that is important Cannot look at a person without the effect of society because society does affect people Some culturalenvironmental influences 0 Both affect people9 not just one Example Twin separated at birth still have many of the same characteristics but developed a little differently because of the environment they were brought up in 0 Even with biological characteristics nurture is still needed to advance Example athletics playing instruments 0 Subcultures segments of society that shares a distinctive pattern of customs rule and tradition that differ from the patter of the larger societ Subculture adaptation inability to reach society s goals so new goals values and rules are developed and adopted 0 Elijah Anderson s Code of the Streets Says that inner city blacks have been disconnected from society Two types of families Decent families 0 Accept mainstream values same values as middle class families 0 Poor but still try 0 Strive to support their family 0 Make money in legitimate ways O o Langua O O 0000 0 Street Family 0 Don t put their family first 0 Abusive physically and verball Teaches their children to solve problems with violence Have adopted The Code of the Streets unofficial set of rules about what are the proper behaviors for being chaHenged Respect is important9defending their own right to be respecte Punish those who disrespect Being tough gainsprotects respect 0 O O Tough Appearance Way they walk Having valuable things Way they talk Not fearing death9 being willing to fight to the death to maintain your image Prison learning experience kind of like going to college for these peop e Challenging other people s respect to gain your own 0 Could not reach the goals that society set for them so they set their own Respect Argot specialized language that separates a subculture from the rest of society and becomes a source of solidarit Examples total crime takes about 15 seconds Cannonclass cannon pick pocketed Mark Stall person stalling the victim Fanning quick look to see what the person has Framing the mark letting fellow criminals know who the victim is o Pratting physically holding a person still A form of subculture sharing things with each other that are not shared with the greater society ge an abstract system of word meaning and symbols for all aspects of culture 7000 languages spoken in the world more languages than countries Includes speech written characters numerals symbols and gestures and expressions Without communication you cannot relate to someone Similarities within each other Helps determine boundaries between cultures Fosters solidarity among groups that chare a language Essentials for communication within cultures Shapes as well as describes reality Eskimos9have more than one word to describe snow This perceives that there are more than one type of snow so for us there is only one type of snow because there is only one word to describe it if there is no other to describe it then it does not exist Feminists language can be limitingenabling Language reinforces gender stereotype Fireman Mailman Policeman 0 Changing to9 mail carriers police officers Use of symbols communication is not limited to words Some vary over cultures some are the same Example9 folding arms stomping feet glaring with eyes 0 Not born knowing a languagesymbols but they are taughtpassed on from generation to generations 0 Norms established standards of behavior maintained by society 0 Widely shared and understood 0 Typically learned and they help maintain order in society Standing in line 0 Help maintain order in society 0 Types of norms Folkways everyday norms and customs 0 Based on custom tradition etiquette o Violations do not generate serious outragepunishment Poor tastebad judgment Mores norms based on society s mora s 0 Can generate semi serious condemnation no formal sanction but there will be a reaction sin 0 Having a child out of marriage 0 Threatening social order Alcoholics Laws strongest norms failure to follow warrants punishment or sanction o Violation9 crime 0 Conflicting norms and exceptions to norms Conflicts Hearing neighbor s fighting9 call the police or stay out of people s business Exceptions Do not kill another person but self defense is s justifiable son to do 0 Values what is good desirable and proper o Ty s General 0 Marriage 0 Buying a home Specific o Monogamy valued highly in most societies 0 Cheating in school Approval 10 in 1999941 in 2005 Considered serious 68 in 1999923 in 2005 Survey proves that values can change CHAPTER 3 I Socialization process by which people learn attitudes values and behaviors appropriate fro member of a particular culture 0 Occurs through human interaction starts the day you re born stops the day you die Primarily from people that are important to you family and friends Teaches us how to behave day to a Passes our culture down through generations Has an affect on our self esteemself image 3 stages Primary when you re a baby get info from your family Secondary later childhood and adolescence from friends Adult taking on new roles and experiencing life changes come from yourself I Socialization and self e view ourselves based on other people 0 Charles Horton Cooley stressed the process of how we created ourselves Looking glass self we see ourselves as other people see us 0000 3 Part process of developing self identity 0 S 1 we decide how to present ourselves to others 0 What we should wear based on what other people will see 0 Step 2 We imagine how that presentation will be accepted and evaluate o What kind of reaction people will have 0 Important because it could be based on incorrect perceptions 0 Step 3 We develop feelings about ourselves based on those reactions Parental encouragement is important when we are young and our family s perception is the only thing we have to base our self image on 0 George Herbert Mead stressed how we develop due to our surroundingsothers Developed Stages of Self process by which the self emerges Preparatory Stage children imitate those around them 0 Play Stage children pretend to be others begin role taking No longer just blindly following 0 Game Stage children understand that there are multiple roles and can visualize not just their own but other too o Realize that not everyone s role is not the same 0 Following rules Generalized order general value and moral rules of the culture 0 Idea that when you act you take into account other people 0 Aware of other people 0 Begin to behave because they understand that there is a ertain way that people are suppose o Developed Theory of Self Idea that people evolve in their self identit 0 Start at a privilege position no concept that other people have needs I Get older realize that other people have needs and can even mature enough to put other s before yourself other s have identities that deserve to be respected o Erving Goffman stressed how we consciously actportray ourselves to others Presentation of Self we revolve around putting out a certain persona Impression Management Present ourselves in a manor that pleases people 0 Example test in a class all do well all do bad some do well while some do bad Face Work 0 Make excuses to make yourself look better Jokes to keep distracted from the embarrassmentsituation Always trying to portray a favorable self image I Moral and Cognitive Development Lawrence Kohlber Consider the process of reacting Cognitive aspects of moral behaviors o The reaction you think about or plan 0 3 stages of moral development 0 Preconventional influenced by desire for reward or fear of punishmen Conventional influenced by an understanding for right or wrong 0 Knowing that society has rules Postconventional influenced by a sense of relativity and knowledge of moral principles 0 mor 0 Jean Piaget s Stages of Cognitive Develop Sensori Difference between knowing convention and knowing morality having an actually idea of als ment motor stage physically exploring their environment Being limited to only what you can sense see hear touch mell taste Preoperational Stage kids start to use words and language to symbolize objects Namedescribe things Egocentric Stage kids only see things from their perspective Judging the world only on their own lens of experience No understanding that people see things differently Only one position on situations9 only how they interpret it Concrete operational stage kids can master abstract ideas logic and causalit Formal Y Starting to appreciate causes and consequences operational Stage can use highly abstract reasoning and understand hypothetical situations Can typically review multiple ways of solving problems and multiple outcomes Not all adults make it to this stage9 depends on education9 the more education you have the higher level of cognitation you can reach I Agents of Socialization Who is the most important in socializing us amily most important Family environment differences 0 Schools O O M a ot everyone gets the same experience at home even in the same cultures Example The Amish9 different from our home life Constantly taking in cues from the people around you when you are young this is your family Where we get info at a young age Where reward and punishment come from Foster competition Teach c System of reward and punishment Grades have to do well to have good grades hildren values and reasonin If children do not have some good background from family of values then kids struggle in school School expands on the values that should have already been taught at home reinforce values that you already have Many children are taught that they need to be tough at home while obedience to authority and education is what is important at school9 can cause tough transitions Peers 2quotd most important Especially important in teenage years in the development of self Many teens find it hard to deviate from themhard to leave the group gen s Hard to do things that the group does not approve Can fall into the wrong crowd edia and technology most likely play a less significant role than other t Idea that media and technology influence people Ex violence on TV if you see it all of the time you may begin to think th at it is acceptable Because of reward and punishment from parents they outweigh media and technology People tend to focus on the negative messages but there are positive messages so why don t they argue that good TV makes you a better 7 person Gender Socialization process by which we learn traditional roles based on masculinity and feminini y 0 Each gender has assigned roles 0 Learn gender roes from the examples set for you Foundation usually laid at home 0 Starts at home but is reinforced by society and media Ex stores make pink clothes for baby girls 0 2 types of house holds Patriarchal families 0 Traditional gender roles passed down from generation to generation 0 Males work supporting the family 0 Females take care of the home and children 0 Girls taught to be feminine Boys taught to be masculine Egalitarian families 0 Equal or shared roles and responsibilities 0 Bo parents usually wor 0 Children encouraged to be independent Open minded be what you want to be 0 Media commercials from girls and commercials for boys Girls dolls easy bake ovens Boys toy trucks More important for reinforcing the roles of gender The Life Course socialization is continuous throughout our lives 0 Never sto s 0 Different Rights of Passage Stages Childhood Young Adulthood Midlife or Middle Aged Later life or Old Age At each stages there are events that we go through which bring us into our new group and teach us how to behave learning thingstaking on new responsibilities a First job Moving away from home Retiring Aging a process not an end result ur society is getting older as a whole because people are having less children so there are less younger people to balance out the older people 0 3 Clocks of Life Biological clock physical features loss of strength loss of hearing and eyesight etc Social Clock change in cultural norms and roles Psychological Clock loss of mental acuity and memory 0 Functionalism Activity Theory activity can help older people remain productive in society Still being able to contribute at an older age Disengagement Theory removing people from roles better served by others a How functionalists interpret the aging process 0 Dysfunctional to keep older people in jobs that they are no longer good at keep society moving forward by replacing older people with younger people Brings up arguments of who gets to decide if someone is still capable of their job 0 Conflict Theory social institutions make it so that only older people with money are able to get thing that they ne Not all older people are frail9 it s only those that cannot afford necessities Based on money and power Chapter 4 I Status role or personal characteristic that someone has socially defined position 5 elements of social structure Social Statuses o Positive wealth fame popularity 0 Can mean negative things in sociology Social Roles roups Social Networks Social Institutions 0 2 types Ascribed assigned to you by others usually at birth er race 0 Cannot change the status but you can change the PERSEPTION of that status Achieved a role that you earn yourself 0 Comes to you through your own efforts a Going to school9 become a doctor One of these can lead to another or have an influence over the other 0 Example 98 of dental hygienists are female so for a male this is highly unlikely 0 Master Status more important than the others Judge Doctor President Criminal Defines you to other people9 what most people recognize about you not always a good thing I Social Interaction Why do people interact Pleasure principle people seek to maximize pleasure to avoid pain ang around people who are funny rather than mean people Rationality Principle people will change their behavior based on costs and benefits pros and cons 0 Changing your behavior based on the situation Reciprocity principle treat people as you want to be treated 0 Golden Rule Interacting with other people the way that they want to be interacted with o Pulling your own weight do for them as much as you would expect for them to do for you Fairness principle fairness the rules must be applied equally to everyone 0 Relative Depravation based on where your expectations are 0 Bystander effect in public people strive for anonymity anonymous Blending in with society not standing out9 doing what other people d o Diffused responsibility 0 Example Mosley stabbing the girl at 315 am in the morning 1964 o No one called the cops right away even though they had heard or witnessed various parts of the attack 0 Some people did not want to get involved Most assumed that other people would do it diffused responsibility of the bystander effect 0 I Methods of Interaction Verbal communication Talking about something Tone of voice conveys different things 0 Nonverbal communication Silence 0 Not saying anything conveys that maybe a situation is more serious than you can talk about Visual cues o Gestures shrugging your shoulders giving someone the finger 0 Some are hard to interpret if you do not know the person that well 0 Facial expressions me are universal smiling is happy frowning is sad no matter what country or culture 0 Do not always show your true feelings 0 Eye contact 0 Having it or avoiding it embarrassed Physical contact Positive hugging high five 0 Negative pushing hitting 0 Personal Space Comfortable level of space depends on how well you know someone Norm of social interaction not having your bubble invaded 0 Online interaction Has changed many of the things that we know about interaction Positives 0 Family 0 Many families have become more integrated easier and quicker to keep in touch with people Keeps less personal connections like people that you went to high school with Negatives o Makes it harder to interpret interactions Cannot see the person 0 No tone of voice 0 No physical contact 0 Cyber Bullyingstalking 0 There is no control over what people post or say about you online 0 Can be anonymous Chapter 5 I Groups a collection of people who share a common identity and regularly interact with one another on the basis of shared expectations and behavior 0 Similar norms values and interact with each other on a regular basis Ex team office church group 0 Social Aggregate happen to be together in a place but do no interact People located in the same area but do not interact just because they e in the same place 0 Social Category share a characteristic like gender or occupation but do not interact Way of dividing people by common characteristics but still do NOT all interact 0 Types of groups rimary people with whom you may share intimate face to face interaction cooperation and commitments 0 Typically small friends famil 0 People with whom we spend the most time a Most committed to this group O Networks O O O O Secondary more formal impersonal groups where there is less social interaction In Group a group to which you belong 0 My sorority Out Group groups to which you do not belong and may have animosity toward 0 Other sororities People with whom you do not identify Link us to larger society we are linked to other people outside of the group through people in our group because we are part of multiple groups Social network a set of forma and informal ties that link people to each other Strong and weak ties Strong primary groups Weak people you do not know as well 0 Better to have these ties recommend jobs to you because it expands the circle even larger the idea of a network to give opportunities Group Size the larger the more stable but the less intense the interaction Larger group not dependent on the actions of just a few people but the relationship is weaker between the people Small group would have a better connection between people but would not hold up as well Formal groups organizations a group designed for a special purpose with rules and structure to increase efficiency Typically organizations have identifiable membership Vary in size goals efficienc Structured for large scale operations Bureaucrac 39 Y Bureaucracy uses rules and hierarchy to promote efficiency 0 O 0 Chain of comman Weber s Ideal of bureaucracy Division of labor every person works on a specific task 0 Become really good at one task9 makes everything run more smoothly 0 Issues 0 Marx argued against it because he felt that it alienated people9 people lose the big picture and feel less important as if there contribution is not an important part of the whole picture 0 Lack of communication9 one little mistake turns into one big mistake because no one shares information Example 911 Hierarchy of authority ach position is under the supervision of someone above them Example The Church Written rules and regulations Goal displacement9 focusing only on your job and not thinking about the picture as a whole a Following authority no matter what and not thinking individually Impersonality keeping personal beliefs and issues out of a situation a Suppose to guarantee equality 0 Can be bad if humanity is left out Employment based on technical qualifications 0 Employees should be hired because they are good at the job not because of connections9 to be efficient McDonaldization 9 one of the first companies to successfully put these practices to use Set up so that no matter what McDonalds you go to any place in the world you receive the same food I Society and Organizations Durkheim s Division of Labor Mechanical solidarity everyone performs the same tasks which minimizes individuality and enhances group cohesion 0 Not many options 0 No concern with individual needs because everyone has the same needs Group is the dominating force 0 As society advances there is more of a need for a division of labor and social interactions becomes less personal Organic solidarity once society divides labor no one individual can act alone and we are dependent on others Interdependent9 needing other people to be able to do your taskjob o Agrarian9 Industrial as places have become industrial there was a change in people s connections Less personal O o Gemeinschaft small communities in which people have similar backgrounds rural Cons no privacy when everyone knows your business o Gesellschaft larger more divers communities in which ties are weaker urban I Group Theo O Cons cities are alienating9 too many people ry Conflict Theory Marx Alienation and exploitation unyielding need to focus on capitalism physically isolates feel alienated and exploited can lead to group formation people with common interest protecting themselves and each other can be formed out of necessity o Funcationalism The importance of being connected Durkheim Anomie Being a group gives you a sense of belonging sharing with others For children 0 Teaches team workinteraction o Symbolic Interaction Symbols associated with groups Uniforms Greek letters badges Gives priorities of the grou Example uniforms takes away individuality shows discipline 0 Group Conformity Milligram s Experiment Asch s experiment Testing the lines the subject does not disagree with the group 0 Proves people will deny what they see and conform to the group because they are afraid of the reactions of the group members 0 Group is powerful 0 Some people genuinely thought they were wrong but sometimes they thought that they were right but said what everyone else said Some are harmless Following trends Piercings o Uniforms Can be bad a When someone is at risk but no one wants to stand out to help 0 Pressure coming from within groups for a person to do something that they would normally not Groupthink when you do have ideas that go against the group but you do not voice them 0 Knowing that you are right but not saying anything because of the pressure of the group CHAPTER 1 1 Governmenta formal organization that has the authority to make and enforce laws p 197 D quotquot 39 39 wh1c quot quot rnnp acquire and exercise power p198 Powerthe ability of a person or group to affect the behavior of others p198 Authoritythe legitimate use of power p 199 traditionalbased on customs thatjustify the position of the ruler ex Tribesclanskingsemperors charismaticpower based on exceptional individual abilities that inspire devotion trust and obedience ex HitlerFidelCastrodictatiors rationallegal power based on the belief that laws and appointed or elected political leaders are legitimate mixedWeber s idea political leaders can wield power and authority in many ways use both types of authority Types of Political Systems Democrmycitizens have control over the state and its actions Totalita aniMngovernment controls every aspect of peoples lives autho ta aniMnthe state controls the lives of citizens but permits some degree of individual freedom monarchyoldest type of authoritarian regime where power is allocated solely on heredity generation to generation monarchs power is legitimized by religion p Political Partyorganization that tries to in uence and control gov by recruiting nominating electing members to public office 203 Specialilnterest Groupvoluntaryorganized association of people that 39 quot quot anu puiiL make on diliLuldi i p 204 Lobbyistrepresentative of a specialinterest group who tries to in uence political decisions on the group s behalfp 205 Political Action Committee PAC7group that raises money to elect one or more candidates to public office p 20 Pluralismpluralist idea that people rule through this system in which power is distributed among a variety of competing groups in a society p210 Power Elitecon ict theorist idea that US is ruled by a small group of in uential people who make the nations major political decisions p 212 Functionalist Theon39st believe the People have Political Power that the power is distributed very broadly no group dominates politics and the leaders speak for the majority of the people Con ict Theon39xt believe Rich upperclass people top levels in business government and military have Political Power the power is distributed vary narrowly wealthy people in gov business coorps the military and media is the source of political power believe one group dominates politics the leaders don t represent the average person but the leaders are most concerned with keeping or increasing their personal wealth and power Fanim39st Theon39st believe white men in Western countriesmost men in traditional societies have Political Power power is distributed vary narrowly the source of political power is being white male and very rich one group dominates politics political leaders do not represent the average person the leaders white elite are most concerned with protecting or increasing their personal wealth and power P 211 CHAPTER 12 P215 oonomya social institution that determines how a society produces distributes and consumes goods and services P215 Workphysical or mental activity that accomplishes or produces something either goods or services P 215 Capitalisman economic system in whichwealth is in private hands and invested and reinvested to produce pro ts P216also review Capitalism A Love Story that we watched in class Monopolyidomination of a particular market or industry by one person or company reduces production P 216 Oligopolyia market dominated by a few large producers or suppliers ex CBS time warner walt Disney etc now own 90 percent of US media market P 216 Socialisman economic and political system based on the principle of the public ownership of the production of goods and services P 217 Communisma political and economic system in which all members of a society are equal would become dominant around the world because exploited workers would revolt against the yoke of capitalism communist run industries have dissolved p 217 Globalizationgrowth and spread of investment trade production communication and new technology around the world changes political systems culture language migration and the environment P 217 Corporationa social entity that has legal rights privileges and liabilities apart from those of its members P 218 Conglomeratea giant corporation that owns a collection of companies in different industries grow by acquiring companies through mergers P 21 Interlocking Directoratethe same people serve on boards of directors of several companies or corporations because they sit on each others boards the members of interlocking directorates can set the prices for food gas cars and movie tickets P 219 Transnational Corporationlarge company that is based in one country but operates across international boundaries can avoid also stimulates countries economies by creatingjobs P219 Transnational Conglomeratecorporations that own a collection of different companies in various industries in a number of countries P219 Deindustrializationa process of social and economic change due to the reduction of industrial activity especially manufacturing employers replaced workers with the lowest level skills usually those on assembly line with robot and automation also accelerated by globalization P 220 O shoringsending work or jobs to another country to cut company s cost at home transfer ofjobs overseas P221 How Americans Work has Changed Contingent Workerspeople who don t expect theirjobs to last or know theirjo s are tem orary Downu39zingfirin a large number of em loyees at Work P once Dtscouraged Underengployedpeople who have parttime jobs but want illtime work or whosejobs are below their experience skill and education level the highest unemployment rates are among young latinos highschool drop outs people in construction and food preparation and serving industries such as fastfood chainsiacross the country Americans take lowpayingjobs and working nonstande hours and part time ifthis fails they are unemployed r work provides income and structures peoples lives and give them a sense of accomplishment Con ict theotixtbelieve capitalism enables the rich to exploit other groups mostjobs pay little and are i nmin and creating an en 39 Feminist theon39xt believe gender roles structure women s and men s work experiences differently and inequitably Symbolic Interactionist believe how people define and experience their everyday lives affects their workplace behavior and relationships with coworkers and employers P 228 CHAPTER 13 Familyan intimate group consisting of two or more people who live together in a committed relationship care for one another and children and share close emotional ties and functions also includes households whose members aren t related by birth marriage or adoption families must ilfill at least 5 important inctions to ensure a societies survival sexual regulation reproduction and socialization economic security emotional support social placement P233 Incest Tabooa set of cultural norms and laws that forbid sexual intercourse between close blood relatives such as brother and sister father and daughter or uncle and niece P 234 Marriagea socially approved mating relationship that people expect to be stable and enduring P234 Endogamythe practice of selecting mates from within ones group The partners are similar in religion race ethnicity social class and age VS Exogangi the practice of selecting mates from outside ones group EX States prohibit marriage between rst cousins P234 Nuclear Familyin western societies the typical farnily form made up of married parents and their biological or adopted children VS Extended Familywhich consist of parents and children as well as other kin such as aunts and uncles nieces and nephews cousins and grandparents P235 Residence Patterns Matrilocalinewly married couples live with their wifes family Patrilocalinewly married couples live with their husbands family most common residence pattern Neolocali the newly married couple sets up its own residence 235 Boomerang Generationyoung adults who move back into their parents home a er living independently for a while or who never leave home in the rst place P 235 Family Systems Matrilocalthe oldest women control cultural political and economic resources and have power over males Patrilocaloldest men control cultural political and economic resources and have power over females Egalitarianboth partners share power and authority equally P236 Marriage Marketcourtship process in which prospective spouses compare the assets and liabilities of eligible partners and choose the best available mate 236 Monogangione person is married exclusively to another person VS Polygamya form of marriage in which a man or woman has two or more spouses Polygynyone man married to two or more women Divorcethe legal dissolution of a marriage P237 StepiFamilya household in which two adults are biological or adoptive parents with a child from a prior relationship who marry or cohabit P238 Cohabitationan arrangement in which two unrelated people are not married but live together and have a sexual relationship P239 Dual arner Couplesboth partners are employed outside the home P241 Fictjve Kinnonrelatives who are accepted as part ofthe farnily P243 Family Con ict and Violence Intimate Partner Violenceoccurs e between people in a close relationship Child re includes a broad range of behaviors that place a child at serious risk or result in serious harm including death and neglect and physical sexual and emotional abuse ElderAbuxeany knowing intentional or negligent act by a caregiver or any other person that causes harm to people 65 and older P244246 Gerontologistsscientist who study the biological psychological and social aspects of aging P247 Life Expectancythe average length of time people of the same age will live 78 years P247 Sandwich Generationpeople in the middle of generations caring for their own children and their aging parents P 247 Activity Theoryproposes that many older people remain engaged in numerous roles and activities including work and that those who do so adjust better to aging and are more satis ed with their lives Exchange Theoryused to explain mate selection andfarnily roles the fundamental premise is that people seek through their social interactions to maximize their rewards and to minimize their cost in mate selection people seek to trade their resources for more better or different assets C0ntinuity Theoly older adults can substitute satisfying new roles for those they have lost P 249252 Ageismdiscrimination against olderpeople including insulting okes disrespect patronizing behavior and assumptions about being frail or unhealthy FunctionalixtTheorixt believe that Families are important in maintaining societal stability and meeting family members needs believe Older People who are active and engaged are more satis ed with life Con ict Theon39st believe Farnilies promote social inequality because of social class differences and believe many corporations view Older workers as disposable Feminixt Theo st believe Farnilies both mirror and perpetuate patriarchy and gender inequality believe women have an unequal burden in caring for children as well as Older family members and relatives Symbolic Interactionixt believe Farnilies construct their everyday lives through interaction and subjective interpretations of family roles and believe many Older family members adapt to aging and o en maintain previous activities P249 CHAPTER 14 V quot39 39 institution that ueiiei kill to 39 formal systematic training VS Schoolingis formal training and instruction provided in a classroom setting US education and chooling have undergone four signi cant transitions during a relatively short period universal education has expan ed community colleges have ourished public higher education has burgeoned student diversity has increased P 255 Intelligence Quotient IQ7an index of an individuals performance on a standardize test relative to the performance level of others ofthe same age P 259 Hidden Curriculumpractices that transmit nonacademic knowledge values attitudes norms and beliefs that tend to legitimize economic inequality and the staffing of unequal work roles P 260 In effect the hidden curriculum reproduces the existing c ass structure and rovides workers forjobs and occupations in the strati cation hierarchy e people have certain skills educational attainment levels 0 quali cations P261 Functionalist believe that credentialism rewards people for their accomplishments sorts out those who are the most quali ed forjobs and stimulates upward social mobility Con ict theorist believe that people don t need credentials for manyjobs because most can gain skills on thejob during a few weeks of training or will succeed because of ability or other factors Cred ntjalisman emphasis on certificates or degrees to show that r 39ob Trackingassigning students to specific educational programs and classes on the basis of test scores previous grades or perceived ability Voucherspublicly inded payments that parents can apply toward tuition or fees at a public or private school oftheir choice P 271 Charter Schoolsare selfgoverning public schools that have signed an agreement with their state government to improve students education Magnet Schoola public school that offers students a distinctive program and specialized curriculum particular areas of study such as business science arts or technology Homeschoolingrefers to teaching children in the home as an alternative to enrolling them in a public or private elementary middle or high school P 272 Functionalis39t Theoristbelieve education contributes to society s stability solidarity and cohesion Corg id Theoristbelieve education I ill udiil I I rigid social class structure Fanim39st Theoristbelieve education produces inequality based on gender Interactionist eon39st believe education teaches roles and values through everyday face toface interaction and practices P 257 CHAPTER 15 Religiona social institution that involves shared beliefs values and practices based on the supernatural that unites believers into a community VS Religion39W the ways people demonstrate their religious beliefs includes many variables but most common are religious belief affiliation and attendance at services P275 Sacredanything that people see as mysterious aweinspiring extraordinary and power il holy and not part of the natural world VS Profaneanything that is not related to religion P275 cularthe term sociologist use to describe worldly rather than spiritual things P275Secula zati0nindustrialized nations have been undergoing this process of removing institutions such as education and government from the dominance or in uence of religion P 281 One of the most divisive secularization issues has been the con ict between religion and science Scientistbelieve human being evolved from earlier animals through natural selection creationism argues that earth an the universe was created by God Many don t want scientific theories about evolution taught in schools Types of Religious Organizations Culta religious group that is devoted to beliefs and practices outside of those acce te in mainstream society usually organized around a leader whom the followers see has having exceptional or superhuman powers and qualities EX Islam began as cult organized around Muhammad amp The Church of Jesus Christ of Latterday Saints or Mormons began as cult around Joseph Smith Secta religious group that has broken away from an established religion EX Amish the Jewish Hassidim Jehovah s Witnesses Quakers Seventh Day Adventists and Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints Denomination a subgroup i in a religion that shares its name and traditions and is generally on good terms with the main group some scholars describe a denomination as somewhere between a sect and a church denominations have a professional ministry view other religious groups as valid and don t make claims that um r l pica larger society instead of trying to dominate or change it EX Many Protestant denominations include Episcopalians Baptists Lutherans Presbyterians Methodist Churcha large established religious group that has strong ties to mainstream society members follow tradition or authority people are usually born into a church typically bureaucratically organized have formal worship services and trained clergy often maintain some degree of control over political or educational institutions o en become dependent on the ruling of classes EX Roman Catholic Church Anglican Church P 277worldwide the largest religious group is Christians followed by Muslims Fundamentalismithe belief in the literal meaning of a sacred text such as the Christian bible or Muslim Qur an or the Jewish Torah Many sociologist argue that the extent of secularization is greatly overstated and that fundamentalism has increased in the US and worldwide Civil Religionipractices in which citizenship takes on religious aspects EX In US the phrase one ation under God in the Pledge of Allegiance inscribing coins with the phrase In God We Trust routinely asking God to bless the nation in presidential inaugural addresses closing NY Stock Exchange on Good Friday Protestant EthiciWeber called this view a belief that hard work diligence selfdenial frugality and economic success would lead to salvation in the afterlife Weber believed this was a self ilfilling prophecy False ConsciousnessiMarx viewed religion as an acceptance of a system of beliefs that prevents people from protesting oppression EX Those who own the means ofproduction such as factory owners profit if the masses the workers console themselves through religion instead of rising up against exploitation religion legitimizes social inequality and sometimes leads to socia disruption and violence Symbols Rituals amp Beliefs are three of the most common vehicles for learning and internalizing religion Ritualia formal and repeated behavior in which the members of a group regularly engage Many secular rituals include college graduations and the ceremonies marking the beginning and end of the Olympics Religious rituals strengthen the selfidentity of each participant Symbolsanything that stands for or represents something else to which people attach meaning many religious symbols are objects a cross steeple or Bible but they also include behaviors kneeling bowing ones head words Holy Father Allah the Prophet and aspects ofphysical appearance wearin head scarves skull caps and ceremonies Beliefs bind people together into a spiritua community One ofthe strongest beliefs around the world is that prayer is important Functionalist Theorist believe Religion benefits society by providing a sense ofbelonging identity meaning emotional comfort and social control over deviantbehavior Conflict Theorist believe religion promotes and legitimates social inequality condones strife and violence between groups and positions and legitimizes patriarchal control of society Symbolic Interactinn39st quot quot 39 39 39 39 i everyday life through symbols rituals and beliefs and binds people together in a physical and spiritual community Lecture Notes Exam 1 Intro to Research and Methods 0 Sociology the study of social behavior and human groups 0 Social relationships behavior and the change and development of societies 0 Study anything that involves two or more people or something that has an effect on people 0 Sociologicallmagination o C Wright Mills Having an awareness of the relationship between the individual and wider society Viewing society and societal interactions like an outsider Getting the big picture No matter how personal you think a decision is there is always some type of influence acting on our decision 0 Take into account all the other thinks that act on us not just biological 0 Natural Sciences versus Social Sciences o Is a member of the Social Sciences as opposed to Natural Science 0 Sociology versus Psychology 0 Psychology looks at one person at a time in study Sociology looks at more than one person 0 Sociological Theory a set of statements that seeks to explain problems actions or behavior 0 Base all of research on theory 0 Sometimes common sense is not enough You have to ask questions and come up with ideas 0 Purpose of a theory is to explain and predict why something happened and when it will happen again 0 Emile Durkheim s suicide study 0 His theory had predictive power and was the first to explain how society effects individuals 0 Studied this in the 1890 s 0 England 67million France 135million Denmark 227million 0 Four types of suicide I Altruistic TOO tied to community no individuality o Individuality is shadowed within a group Loose a sense of who you are as a person Group is more important than the individual 0 If you leave the group all of a sudden you have nothing Your only existence was for the group I Egoistic NOT tied to other people low social integration 0 Not tied to other people at all You have nothing but yourself No reason to exist except for yourself I Anomic Societal roles are interrupted or changed 0 Say America changes from free to communist Everything you know changes and now you don t have a place in society industrial revolution I Fatalistic Goals are established but are unreachable 0 Have goals but can t reach them We are not going anywhere in life 0 Religious and married lower rates of suicide 0 Economic instability higher rates of suicide 0 August Comte o Coined the term quotSociologyquot 0 Use of the scientific method for study of society 0 Said you could use other science methods to study sociology o Durkheim 0 Got sociology going 0 3 important works I Division of Labor in Society I Suicide I Elementary Forms of Religious Life 0 Social Cohesion society should function together but has to have rules for it to function well 0 Social Constraint o Anomie people become disconnected from society this tends to produce despair OOO 0 Max Weber pron Vayber o 2 big works I The Protestant Ethic I The Spirit of Capitalism 0 Values and ideas and their contribution to our culture 0 We need to understand how societies view themselves 0 Placed high importance on people s values and ideas can change the culture 0 Said they were just as important for shaping a community or society as economic factors 0 Karl Marx o Communism was based on his work and he wrote Communist Manifesto 0 Conflict Perspective class and capitalism o Came up with the conflict theoryperspective says it s all about class and capitalism o Functionalist PerspectiveFunctionalism 0 Society as an organism each part needs to function properly for the health of the whole I College serves a purpose to society Some people say college also keeps young people out of the job market until it is their turn 0 Manifest functions Intended functionsconsequences I Intended functions and the functions that are supposed to come 0 Latent functions unintended consequences I Colleges are also extremely important to find relationship partners 0 Conflict Perspective 0 Instability in society and its ability to bring about change 0 quotHavesquot and quothavenotsquot fighting for limited resources and opportunities 0 Looks at instability opposite of functionalist o Feminist Theory Haves men havenots women 0 Consensus versus Conflict Models of Crime I Everyone agrees on rules versus the powerful make the rules I Conflict brings about change Marks said this and also said it was good for society I In order for laws to change the majority of the people have to agree 0 n c L I I Symbolic Interactionistlook at how People communicate through symbols 0 The Scientific Method 0 Develop hypothesis test hypothesis analyze results 0 We use an extremely simplified method of the scientific method 0 Is Sociology a Science 0 Science the use of systematic methods of empirical investigation the analysis of data theoretical thinking and the logical assessment of arguments to develop a body of knowledge about a particular subject matter 0 Sociology is a science indeed 0 Collecting Data 0 Best thing to do is use more than one method of research 0 Surveys I Call someone questionnaire face to face I Most of data comes from surveys o Ethnography I Participation observation only allows for study of small groups and results not necessarily generalizable I observation either outside study other people participant 0 Experiments I Difficult to control society and social behaviors I Risk to changing the participants behavior because they know they are being tested I To do a successful experiment you have to control all external variables in society which is hard to do 0 Secondary Data Analysis I Use existing data collected from someone else I Most data comes from the census and criminal reports 0 Qualitative versus Quantitative research 0 Qualitative is descriptions open ended questions llhow did you like the textbookquot I This gets better data but not as much data as quantitative 0 Quantitative is in numbers rate your textbook from 110 I Allows for more data 0 Ethical Treatment of Human Subjects 0 No greater risk than they may experience in their daily life 0 IRB Institutional Review Board decides if an experiment can be carried out 0 Institutional Review Board 0 Privacy I The subject has to be able to decide if their information is to be made public I The researcher has to prove to the board that nobody can get the data collected if it is to be made private 0 Informed Consent I The person being tested has to know they are participants and you have to tell them what they will do in the study and that it is voluntary Also have to get participants signature 0 Confidentiality I If participant request data to be private and not public measures of confidentiality must be taken 0 Milgram Experiment 0 Took place in the 1960 s 0 Milgram couldn t believe that all the Nazis were killing because they were simply told to do so 0 Milgram experimented on obedience to authority 0 He shocked people if they got an answer wrong went up to 450V 0 26 out of 40 tested did what they were told even though they thought they were hurting other people 0 Laud Humphrey o Wrote book Tearoom Trade 0 Tearoom is a public restroom where homosexual encounters take place 0 Humphrey followed the people from the restroom home and asked questions to whoever was home at the time 0 Participant never new that they were being observed Patricia Adler s drug study 0 Did participant observation 0 She studied the upper level high end drug dealing market with her husband 0 Their neighbor was a drug dealer 0 They wanted to know more of the drug process so she participated in the activities and gathered info as they went along 0 They did not sell drugs but did drugs to blend in o Zombardo s Prison Experiment 0 Was IRB approved 0 1971 at Stanford University 0 Students were assigned to either a prisoner or guard 0 Things got out of control and guards were taking their role way to seriously 0 Zombardo lost control of the experiment and his girlfriend showed up and shut it down Society and Culture 0 Culture 0 The totality of learned socially transmitted customs knowledge material objects and behavior I Values ideas about what is desirable proper good and bad I Norms rules of contact that specify behavior in certain situations I Material goods physical goods that are created by society I Patriotism to our flag and country is an abstract concept that is part of our culture Graffiti is as much cultured as painting Everyone values their own culture 0 Sharing a similar culture defines groups or societies to which you belong I Group of people who share the same culture is a society You share norms material goods live in the same area Just because you have a lot of people in one area doesn t mean it is a society 0 Society is the largest form of human group The people within it share a culture which members transmit from generation of generation Consist of people who share common culture and heritage You are taught this by people around you parents friends etc Culture and heritage is transmitted from one generation to the next You know the rules and how life is lived in your culture Culture is always constantly changing didn t always have cell phones 0 Cultural Universals 0 Values or behaviors shared by all cultures I Sports cooking dancing names marriagefamily unit medicine religion trade 0 Ethnocentrism judging other culture by the standard of one s own I Some of the words we use to judge other cultures exhibits ethnocentrism What is valuable to them might not be valuable to us That doesn t mean that it is not valuable at all You have to look at both sides of the issue 0 Cultural Relativism judging a society by its own standards I Culture develop as an adaptation to circumstances climate technology environment Hunter gatherers were extremely successful I Everyone was provided for and put forth effort I Catalyst for change was the idea that we need to gather more and save it then lock it up so people don t steal it Culture starts to change 0 Nature vs Nurture o No longer an argument for one or the other but it s how the two interact that is important 0 Nature determines some things but we also know that our culture and society can change and override some things 0 Hardly any characteristics are purely nature and few entirely nurture o Subcultures o A segment of society that shares a distinctive pattern of customs rules and traditions that differs from the pattern of the larger society 0 Subcultural adaptation inability to reach society s goals so new goals values and rules are developed and adopted I Some cultures develop within another culture subculture May develop their own norms that are different than other culture s norms o Elijah Anderson s Code of the Streets I Looked at inner city neighborhoods I Decent families accept mainstream values 0 Poor set out for education for children the strive for success and value that society sets out for them even though they may not reach it Street Families opposed mainstream and middleclass values 0 They say if they cant reach their goals then the goals are pointless They value different things than what society value Made up their own norms They may not have a lot of money but they do have a lot of respect and pride for themselves Their entire lives revolve around gaining and maintaining respect subcultural adaptation o Argot specialized language that separates a subculture from the rest of society and becomes a source of solidarity I Helps to separate them from the rest of society I Cannon was the pick pocketer I Mark the person you re going after target 0 Language Tool person in the moment taking something out the pocket Stall sets up the distraction for the pick pocketer Fanning quickly exploring the contents of the pocket Framing the mark signaling to your conrads who you re going after and where Pratting physically detaining the person being robbed stalls job 0 An abstract system of word meaning and symbols for all aspects of culture Includes speech written characteristics numerals symbols and gestures and expressions Helps determine boundaries between cultures Fosters solidarity among groups that share a language Essential for communication within cultures One of the major boundaries between cultures is language 7000 or so languages in the world right now North Korea entire country speaks one language Other countries may have more than one language Language defines our reality If we can t interpret it then It pretty much doesn t exist 0 Shapes as well as describes reality Eskimos 0 Have many different words for different types of snow 27 o Feminists Language reinforces gender stereotypes Many say mailman fireman and policeman when there are women that do those jobs too If we can t come up with another way to say something then it limits our culture and development of females as a gender 0 Use of symbols 0 Norms Some vary over cultures some are the same Obvious way to communicate is through words but we do use symbols and other forms We are not born with expressions we learn them Can include a gold star and that everyone knows it s good Facial expressions are pretty much universal throughout cultures 0 Established standards of behavior maintained by a society Widely shared and understood It s how you are supposed to act and behave in certain situations Typically learned and they help maintain order in society 0 Standing in line o In movie theaters most people know you are supposed to be quiet Folkways everyday norms and customs 0 Simple norms based on tradition or educate 0 It s more like poor judgment or taste Mores norms based on society s morals 0 Based on social valuesmorals Will generate more attention if not followed having kids before marriage 0 It s more like a sin Laws strongest norms failure to follow warrants punishments or sanction 0 Specific and serious 0 Rules are reinforced by punishment 0 More like a crime 0 Conflicting norms and exceptions to norms 0 Values You hear neighbors fighting and you call the police for help You re going against the norm of mining your own business but then you go with the norm of helping someone out Exceptions are during times of war o What is considered good desirable and proper I General democracy is a value of the United States love and companionship is as well I Specific owning a home In the United Sates we value home ownership I Norms are based on what we value and what we think is good and bad I Trying to protect our value with our norms Try to tell people how to behave as what we believe as a society is good 0 Monogamy Cheating I Students were asked if plagiarism is bad or not I Those that thought it wasn t bad increased from 10 in 1999 to 41 in 2005 I Those that considered it wrong decrease 68 in 1999 to 23 in 2005 Urbanization Population and the Environment 0 Rural America 0 2500 residents or less who live in open country I Urban area is like the country 0 Reliance on industries such as I Farming I Mining I Manufacturing I Makes up a big percentage of their agriculture and income 0 Lack of growth due to residents particularly young people leaving for bigger cities with more opportunities I Not sticking around and taking on the family farm or business 0 Other problems I High child poverty 95100 counties with highest child poverty are in rural areas 0 Child poverty is particularly a rural phenomenon There are higher rates of poverty that is very concentrated High rates of motor vehicular fatalities Low level of health and educational services Gender inequality 0 Rural women are more likely to marry early Women in rural areas don t have a lot of opportunities They are the lowest on the totem pole I You have to go into urban areas to get quality services I Some countries are selling cheap land to get more people to live there 0 Civic engagement I Rural communities are more stable Civic participation is high residents often involved in more than one aspect of community life Areas are geographically separated and so are insulated from outside problems 0 Areas are rural areas are insulated from things going on outside their community Things that happen in urban areas don t affect rural areas as much Knowing your neighbors being involved in your community being a concerned citizen everyone pretty much knows each other In urban areas neighbors don t really know each other and in rural areas everyone knows everybody I Jobs overlap people know their politicians o Positives that help buffer residents from negative consequences I High rates of home ownership I High number of civic associations churches I High voter turnout I Many small businesses selfemployed I Residential stability knowing everyone 0 Economic development affects rural areas I More rural areas become like big cities and start acting like them Q o Suburbia o Towns surrounding bigger cities associated with lower cost of living and less spacial restriction o Becoming more populated by minorities I 19902000 percentage of the suburban population increased 0 14 for Blacks o 40 for Latinos o 45 for Asians 0 Only 76 for Whites I Moving for the same reasons better and more affordable housing schools etc I Still minorities only account for 25 of suburban populations 0 More space lower cost of living connected to cities by slightly geographically separated 0 Increase in minorities living in suburban areas 0 Urbanization 0 Movement of people into towns and cities away from open land I Britain was the first to start this trend 0 Concentric Zone Theory about the layout of cities I From inner city central business district all the way out to suburbs I Concentric Zone Theory all cities are laid out the same way You have the center of the city in the middle one zone out you have working class apartments suburbs rural areas I Living conditions get better as you move away from the cities 0 Problems I Spacial Mismatch Blue collar jobs no longer located in center cities where the blue collar workers are 0 Happens when the workers for a particular job do not live close to wear their jobs are Only affects the low income people I Global Cities location of transnational business and corporate headquarters 0 Especially susceptible to urban problems 0 Like a mega city major things are happening in these cities Supper abundance of technological and financial jobs Everything you know about city is amplified As a salary for wealthy go up it decreases for low wage workers I Residential segregation minorities or low income residential areas are having less and less contact with high income residential areas 0 Gentrification movement into and renewal ofold city buildings by the wealthy I Low income residents often forced out I As minorities started to move more often to the suburbs there has been a new interest of the wealthy moving back into the cities I Making it nicer so it cost more to live there 0 Are cities inherently alienating I Large numbers of people living in close proximity with no privacy I More diversity for people to find others with like interests I Some people say you can carve out a niche for yourself you go to the same five restaurants and get to know the people who work there I Cities have so many people that you can t get to know everybody It s just impossible o Urbanization in Developing Nations 0 Migrant workers move into cities and rely on less formal forms of employment enough of which cannot be created to satisfy the need I By 2025 a billion new jobs would need to be created to meet the demand I Formal economy are salary jobs or jobs you get with experience or education I Informal economy are not based on salary or education background 0 Problems I High poverty I Poor health care I Poor educational opportunities Low levels of public services Huge demand for health care services education opportunities The need for education for young people is extremely high If family is really poor you probably would have to work instead of getting an education 0 Population Growth 0 900 years from now there will be 60000000000000000 people on the planet I 100 people for every square yard of space on the face of earth including water I In 3040 years the population may have already reached unsustainability I Our population is multiplying so quickly that soon our resources won t be able to support us 0 A century ago there were only 15 billion people now there are 7 billion 0 Demography the study of population and its size movement composition and change 0 The I I 39 39 grows 39 quot so it is 39 doubling not just multiplying I 1 population growth doubles in 70 years I 2 population growth doubles in 35 years I 3 population growth doubles in 23 years I Most developing nations have a 23 population growth I Developing nations don t have the same kind of resources that already developed nations have 0 Malthusians 0 Thomas Malthus I Population growth is exponential but food supply is finite I We only have a certain amount of resources which will eventually run out 0 Critics maintain that I We are rational beings who will not just blindly reproduce if we cannot support more life I Technology has allowed us to produce more food and use the land more effectively 0 Developing countries still very much in danger from this issue I Lack the advantages of technology and are particularly susceptible to drought and land shortages I Reproduction is desired and culturally important 0 The Case of China China s population accounts for 1 out of every 3 people on the planet 0 I Programs have been enacted to reward families who only have one child and penalize larger families I Problems include higher rates of adoption and abortion I 13 of the world s population is in china I They are growing the fastest Get better housing health care and education if you stick with having 2 or less kids They wanted to stop people from having so many kids I China has very high rates of abortion and giving kids up for adoption 0 Pollution due to urbanization I 16 of the most polluted cities in the world are in China I Chemical spills water pollution air pollution acid rain China will produce more greenhouse gases in the next 25 years than all other factories in the world combined 0 Effects on the Environment 0 Global warming I Greenhouse gases that humans release into the air get trapped in the atmosphere and act like the glass on a greenhouse trapping in heat I Will eventually lead to o Melting polar ice caps and glaciers o Widespread flooding o Drought 0 Increased hurricane and tropical storm activity Sustainability economic growth that recycles natural resources instead of depleting them and attempts to preserve biodiversity I Your awareness of your impact on society and trying to do things to help out and be more environmentally friendly 0 Did you know I Americans produce an average of 5lbs of trash a day per person in 1960 we produced 27 lbs Logging destroys 50000 species a year with about 17000 more in danger of extinction 0 These species are largely responsible for producing new medicines Most humans have up to 116 toxic chemicals in our bodies that didn t even exist in the environment 75 years ago Americans use an average of 151 gallons of water a day showering cooking drinking flushing toilets etc compared to 23 gallons in China and 3 gallons in Mozambique Socialization o Socialization the process by which people learn attitudes values and behaviors appropriate for members of a particular culture 0 Occurs through human interaction I Primarily through family and friends I Most important people to you is where you will get the most information I Also learn things from TV magazines and others you meet 0 From how to behave day to day to the intergenerational transmission of broad aspects of culture I Learn self esteem o 3 stages I Primary when you re a baby from your family Secondary later childhood and adolescence from friends Adult taking on new roles and experiencing life changes 0 Socialization and Self 0 Charles Horton Cooley I Lookingglass selfour selfimage is fundamentally based on how others see us Came up with the idea that we develop our entire sense of self by interaction with other people looking glass self we see ourselves through the eyes of others Step 1 we decide how to present ourselves to others Step 2 we imagine how that presentation will be accepted and evaluated 0 You imagine the reaction you will get from others Step 3 we develop feelings about ourselves based on those reactions Said parental support as a child is important because that can have an impact of who you become Felt that most important part is step 2 because it involves us picturing what others perspective will be based on our own perspective 0 George Herbert Mead I Developed the stages of self process by which the self emerges I Stages of Self o Preparatory stage children imitate those around them 0 A child is watching his dad hammer something and he begins to hit toys together monkey see monkey doo 0 Play stage children pretend to be others begin roletaking 0 Become something superhero teacher etc Game stage children understand that there are multiple roles and can visualize not just their own but others too 0 Start to understand multiple roles at one Start to appreciate that everyone has different roles and they work together Generalized order general values and moral rules of the culture 0 When you act you take into account a whole group of people instead of just yourself The needs of others can become important than our own I Theory of Self above includes theory of self 0 Erving Goffman I Presentation of self 0 Our daily activities are an attempt to convey an impression of who we are 0 Many of our daily activities are to convey who we are to other people I Impression management making conscious decision to present ourselves to others to present favorably I Face work when you do something that makes you look bad and you have to correct the situation and make up for it having an embarrassed moment and making a joke about it to let it blow offreforming people s opinions I At any given time we are trying to give a positive presentation of ourselves to others 0 Moral and Cognitive Development 0 Lawrence Kohlberg I Did a study and presented children with moral dilemmas Guy has a wife and she needs expensive medicine Considers stealing the meds to save his wife because they couldn t afford it After studying children s answers came up with three stages of development I Cognitive aspects of moral behavior I The reaction you think about or plan I 3 stages of moral development 0 Preconventional influenced by desire for reward or fear of punishment 0 Shouldn t steal because its bad 0 C 39 39 39 quot 39 b an 39 quot U for right and wrong 0 More abstract have a greater understanding of right and wrong They know what social norms and rules are 0 Postconventional influenced by a sense of relativity and knowledge of moral principles 0 Most developed Brings morality into play Notjust against social norms but it is morally wrong 0 Jean Piaget s stages of Cognitive Development I Sensorimotor stage physically exploring their environment 0 Last till age 2 stage where some babies can t see past their surroundings limited I Preoperational stage kids start to use words and language to symbolize objects 0 27 start to talk Reality is expanded from things they could express to words can t see it but can ask for it I Egocentric stage kids only see things from their perspective 0 Seeing things only from your own perspective Only able to take one position and not anyone else s opinions I Concrete operational stage kids can master abstract ideas logic and causality 0 711 start to finally be able to master abstract ideas think outside the box start to appreciate consequences I Formal operational stage can use highly abstract reasoning and understand hypothetical situations 0 Can concept hypothetical ideas Can review multiple ways of solving a problem and chose best one Pros and cons Not every adult reaches this stage 0 Agents of Socialization 0 Agents of socialization the people or stimuli responsible for giving us ideas of what is right and wrong 0 Family I Family environment differences I When you are young you are like a sponge You take in all kinds of information 0 Schools I Foster competition I Teach children values and reasoning I Parents often rely on the school to socialize their child School might teach a different way of socialization than that at home O 0 Peers I Especially important in teenage years and in the development of self I Friends teach you a lot Once you get older you begin to stop listening to your parents Media and technology I Least influential compared to the others I One thing people argue the most in TV and violence I Does watching violent TV make you violent If a child is already pre exposed to the violence and their parents don t do enough to correct their behaviors is when violent TV and games may be effective I The idea of reward and punishment has the most effect on you changing your behavior Only in the top three areas Gender Socialization O O O O The process by which we learn traditional roles based on masculinity and femininity I How you are supposed to behave if you are a boy or a girl Begins at home but is reinforced by society and the media I Teach us how we are supposed to act I Parents model us for what or gender roles are Patriarchal families I Traditional gender roles I Males work and women stay home to take care of the child Egalitarian families I Equal or shared roles and responsibilities I Children encouraged to be independent I Both parents work and kids are raised to be independent weather male or female I It s ok to be a firefighter of CEO if you are a girl The Life Course 0 O O 0 Aging 0 O O O The life course is the idea that socialization never really stops Socialization is continuous throughout our lives There are different stages based on milestones reached in peoples lives I Childhood Young adulthood Midlife or middleaged Later life or Oldaged In each of these stages you socialize to the next stage 0 Getting a job going to college getting married What about quarteraged Aging therefore is a process not an endresult As time goes by we are having fewer and fewer children There are not as many young people to average out the old people The US is getting older Biological clock I Physical features loss of strength loss of hearing and eyesight etc I Getting wrinkles appearance hearing loss lose muscle mass Psychological clock I Loss of mental acuity and memory I Mental impairment loss of memory you don t think as quickly don t learn as quickly as we get older it is more difficult to learn new things Social clock I Change in cultural norms and roles I As we age our roles in society change Your norms and how you are supposed to behave in society are different from age 18 to 70 o Functionalism I Activity Theory Activity can help older people remain productive 0 It s better if people can remain active Ifolder people are busy and engaged then it helps their health I Disengagement Theory removing people from roles better served by others 0 Dysfunctional to keep older people in jobs or roles that they are no longer good at or efficient at Conflict Theory I Social institutions make it so that only older people with money are able to get the things they need I It is basically poor older people who can t afford an active lifestyle 0 Symbolic Interaction I Those negative things about old people have developed over the years I Old use to mean honorable and respectable now we think of them as week and frail I Our views over people change over time 0 Social Interaction I Status 0 When you see the term status you incorporate it with wealthy and high positions 0 Five elements of social structure I 1 Social roles I 2 Groups I 3 Social Networks I 4 Social Institutions 0 Statuses I Ascribed assigned to you by others typically at birth 0 Given to you that you did not work toward and you can t change race gender age 0 Often influence achieved statuses I Achieved a role you earn yourself 0 It does change and you do have control over it 0 Master status more important than the others I Judge president criminal I Carries more weight than the other statues Like if you re a judge it becomes you master status People call you judge outside of the courtroom I Social Interaction 0 Why do people interact I Pleasure principle people seek to maximize pleasure and avoid pain 0 Want to have anything with the least amount of risk We will seek more of what we want and less of what we don t want You choose who you will interact with based on how pleasurable it is Rationality principle people will change their behavior based on costs and benefits pros and cons o The idea that you are calculated cost and benefit someone may be funny but have no manners at all I Reciprocity principle treat people as you want to be treated Golden Rule 0 Pulling your own weight you seek out fun interaction and you need to input fun as well there has to be contribution on all sides Everyone puts in equal input I Fairness principle fairness the rules must be applied equally to everyone 0 We want to feel like everybody is being treated fairly and all the rules apply to everyone 0 Bystander effect in public people strive for anonymity I Diffused responsibility I Affects our social interactions I People try to blend into the crowd I Girl drove home early in the morning parked far away from door Winston Mosley attacked her stabbed her twice in the back she started screaming one neighbor shouted at guy and he ran away girl is trying to get inside Mosley came back 10mins later looked everywhere and found the girl again stabbed her several more times for a long amount of time then someone calls police and they arrive girl was taken away and died in ambulance more than a dozen people herd her scream and nobody acted I If there is other people with you then you feel someone else will act if you are buy yourself then you would act immediately 0 Methods of Interaction o Verbal communication 0 Tone of voice 0 Nonverbalcommunication o Silence I Giving someone the silent treatment is still giving someone a message without saying anything 0 Visual cues I Gestures not always easy to interpret gestures and they vary throughout cultures I Facial expressions may smile on purpose to be polite even though you hate the situation I Eye contact show embarrassment by looking away Anger by looking deep in the eyes I Physical contact 0 Personal space I The amount of space you want around you is determined by who you are talking to I Families are usually 2 feet away I Someone you don t know you would want them to stand further away 0 Online interaction I Men and women are pretty even on the internet use I Only 38 of adults 65 and older use internet and in the 90 percentile for younger kids I Men use it for business women use it for email I Many people predicted that the internet would separate families and stop personal interactions I 25 of adults say that internet has made our family closer I Can be miss communication Without the nonverbal cues helping the conversation it is difficult to interpret internet sarcasm I Negative part of the internet is cyber bulling and gossip People can be mean without suffering consequences Ian 202012 SOCL 2001 The Sociological Imagination o Stepping outside ofyourself o Challenging the common sense you take for granted 0 quotBecause that s the way it is Seeing the general in the particular 0 Being able to know things about people without knowing them but being able to generalize ideas by the general pattern ofa group 0 Not a stereoptype 0 Looking out for general patterns in social life Seeing the strange in the familiar o How has quotsocietyquot affected you CWright Mills author of The Sociological Imagination 0 quotTurning private problems into public issues Ex I m poor Ex I have a college degree but cant find a job 0 quotThe intersection ofbiography and history 0 Example 91101 Our indvdl lives can be profoundly affected by events that take place during our lifetime 0 Example Internet No matter how smart you may be if you lived in a time before the internet you would have far less info to work w during your time in college We live in an individualistic society 0 All events take place in a larger social context More than just the indvdl people involved Social Context quothistory according to Mills Countless other outside factors Deeper understanding of quotwhy people do what they do quot The Forest and the Tress Allan Johnson 0 Individuals v Society 2 ncient Greece 0 Just one example ofa culture 0 Food example ofmaterial cultre 0 Importance of sharing a meal nonmaterial culture 0 We all exist in many cultures A more familiar culture 0 Cravvfish Boil National Culture A culture is made up of many different things 0 Symbols Liberty bell MtRushmore 0 Language 0 Norms Language 0 Based on a system of symbols 0 How we first learn about the world and our culture culture transmission Norms o Unwritten expectations rules 0 Familiar taken for granted 0 Different depending on time place social statuses etc Values and Beliefs 0 Values what is rightwrong o Beliefes what is truefalse 0 Also change evolve over time 0 Con ict over traditionaccepting change 0 Issue of cultural lag Cultural Con ict 1960 S o Technological change TV 0 Vietnam War Civil Rights Movement 0 Status Quo of warinequality vs increased freedoms Cultural Change 0 Invention Ex Computers and the Internet 0 Discovery Ex Fire 0 Diffusion Ex Capitalism democracy Popular and High culture 0 Popular forms of culture that are widespread in the culture Many Cultures in Globally Connected World Ethnocentrism vs Cultural Relativism ax Weber 18641920 0 Born into a wealthy fam profiting from the industrial revolution in Germany 0 Student ofjust about every subject 0 In uenced greatly by Marx s writing Expand improve on Marx s ideas The Proteestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism 0 New Religious group Calvinists Main teachings focused on denying selfpleasures and focusing on hard work discipline 0 Predestination 0 Created a quotsalvation panic Those who could earn the save it and use it to expand their work business were quot saved Weber key terms 0 Idealism Ideas beliefs values are the key to social stability change 0 Rational vs traditional societies Rationa1 Progress improvement and efficiency Traditiona1 based on traditional customs keeping things the same 0 Ideal Type does not exist in real life but helps to describe quotessential characteristics of social phenomena 0 Rationalization of society Weber and Marx 0 Social change more than just economic explanations Ideas religion 0 Social classes more than just workers vs capitalists Managers middlemen Workers have different levels of status 0 Agree that alienation exists but not why it exists Rational Societies and Bureaucracy o Weber alienation us due to rationality o Bureaucracies the result of a rationalized society High division of labor Durkheim Characterized by numerous rules regulations routines levels of authority Weber and Symbolic interaction 0 Verstehen need to understand a culture from it own point ofview as fyou were actually in it Interpretation from an outsider will be different from an insiders interpretation 0 Symbolic Interaction importance of individual interpretation Herbert Blumer 0 Outside forces Symbolic Interacton and sOCIALpSYCHOLOGY o Blumer studied under Mead theory ofI and me 0 Social interaction takes place between individuals and within individuals I interacts w me 0 According to SI society is made up of these Symbolic Interaction vs functionalism amp Con ict o Functionalism and Con ict Macro level 0 Symbolic interaction Individual interacions interpretations Micro level 0 Role of the individual Macrosma11 Micro large 4132009 64300 PM oo o ogjy Exam motes Marriage and Family Every society has rules The family is also a way to provide for various people who are dependent and can t take care of themselves children elderly people and people who are physically disabled In most societies the primary duties fall on the family for taking care of these people The family is also first in line of different agents of socialization The family teaches young people things they need to know to become part of the society The family is the oldest form of socialization that we know of Long ago government societies were organized according to families or clans Most of us will have two forms of families in our lifetimes Famin of Origin the family we are born in primarily consist of our parents and siblings Some societies include grandparents who we live with Famin of Procreationwhen we get married and have children ourselves Some of the rules about families 0 Society places rules on who we can marry and how many we can marry Patrilineal societies the line of decent is figured from father to son 0 Q The old Testament is full of different family trees Almost all of these have names of men rare you will find a women s name Matrilineal Societies the line of decent from mother to daughter Bilineal Societies the line of decent of males is figured from father to son and the line of decent of females is figured from daughter to mother 0 However societies do it this line of decent is usually strongly connected to inheritance ex family property t is va Societies have ruies about incest not because of u angers it causes oioiogicaiw but because it screws t e iine of decent a ruies that Sav we have to marrv outside ot a certain h Ruies of incest are about who We can marrl E gaml group 0 wouid marrv voui39 15 cousin on the opposite side of the tamiiv is mother39s s xo 0 Here in the u s vou can39t i39riai39i39v vour rnother tathe sibiings 1539 cousin sons or daughters and sorne states 2quotd ouid be c cest c usin Other Societies have different ruies about incest but to marrv onsidei ed in o orneone in voui39 own cian w 1n the Did Testament it was okav to marrv voui39 haitsister or cousin Endogamfruies that Sav vou have to marrv within a certain group orne societies vou wouid have to marrv within voui39 own ciai39i These ruies often have cornoinati h Pbratriesr a cian but describes a group that is dwided up in two a iea Eagie has to choose a bride trorn the Bear cian You ide so a bov has to v a 15 cousin arr a wornen wouid have to tather39s side Then thev Wouidn t consider this to be incest 0 Had rule y u must marry a first cousin on opposite side of the family o Only in America s society did we not have any laws for a while stating that you couldn t marry someone from a certain group except you couldn t marry someone from a different race Percentage of Races in the US Non Hispanic or whit 69 is the biggest group African America 12 Hispanic 132 Asian American 6 Native American1 Table for MenThis is a table of men who married outside of their race 1990 2000 Men NH White 30 4 African American 83 142 Native American 588 568 Asian American 502 458 Hispanic 353 319 o The reason for the whites being so big is because they are the biggest race so it will happen most often in this race o Native Americans have the highest rate of intermarriage but this is because they have the least people o African American We would expect to see more African Americans intermarriages then there are c More African American males married outside of the race both years c Unequally sex ratios means that there is a certain percentage that doesn t have an available male partner within their race o AsianHispanic there are slight drops o The numbers are far lower then what would be predicted by chance o Numbers for interracial cohabitation people living with people who are not married are higher We also have rules about how many people we can marry o Monogamy you have one spouse Who ever you marry is you spouse for you life 0 True Monogamy a person can have one spouse only We like to think this is the way it is in America In America things are not true monogamy because many people do wind up having more than one spouse 0 Serial Monogamy we can only have one spouse at a time but we can have one after another 50 of marriages today wind up in divorce and many of these people remarry sometimes multiply times o Polygamyis where a person can have one or more spouse at the same time o Polygy y where a husband can have more than one wife at the same time It is common in many different parts of the world Western Researchers have heavily criticized this because it tends to be in societies where women are viewed as men s properties and women have low status It seems to be a form of depression of women Places that practice this have societies where a handful of people have all the money and most people have little or nothing So women who have been a wife of a rich man in these societies view this as a good thing Their place in societies is to be based on who they are married too So women in these societies view themselves better off if they are married to this rich man even though there are 3 other wives Tends to occur in societies of inequality and the wives and children are property O The more wives and kids the higher social status are you better off with 25 of a rich mans wealth or 100 of a poor mans nothing Polyandry a system where women can have more than one husband at the same time This is rare but it does exist in some parts of Central Asia and the Himalayas Where this exits the women can t just choose the man Often time the women will have to marry a set of brothers This provides a certain degree of protection for the women In societies where people have short life spans because life is dangerous This adds protection to the wifeif something happens to one husband you still have 3 others so you are not on your own o The Chippeweyan central Canada just below artic circle 0 O O O O 0 Women had low status Had to do most of the hard labor Beaten by husbands Many women committed suicide Divorce was allowed and was easy to do Few divorced husbands because neither husband or wife could survive without the labor of the other Marriage arrangements are done based on economic agreements that child will be provided for o In modern industrial societies we have a system of courtship 0 It is the decision of the young person in the end o One of the trends we have seen over the last 40 years or so is for people to get married later and later but for people to start having sex earlier There was a time in this country when many people held the idea that they should only marry a virgin These days that is not very likely Before the 70 s 25 of men and 45 of women were virgins at age 19 In the 70 s and 80 s that number had dropped to 15 of men and 17 of women were virgins at age 19 By the early 80 s it dropped just under the age of 16 In the 90 s and up until now there has been a slight rise because people are more aware about safe sex The average age now is around the age 16 Workforce Participation 1960 and earlier There have been trends that have led to these changes in our behaviors In terms of our marriage patterns getting later and later we have to look at the fact that people are being more educated Certainly women s education has gone up also If you are in school longer you will want to wait to start a family 25 have a 4 year degree 10 have some type of professional graduate degree In times of economic depression people delay marriage because they can t afford to leave their families and live on their own Times of uncertainty lead people into delay areas Social norms also change by economic conditions and by way of life in the future Many people look at these trends of sex as having to do with the sex revolution in the early 60 s The process of industrialization was boom times Our economy from 19201930 was going full blast Workforce Par 39 39Qa 39 n 1 Evervone had ioos evervone was making monev and the future iooked ori ht Researchers have found that women oarticuiarw have much more iioerai attitudes about a bunch of things smoking drinking oremaritai sex 1929 we had the Great Depression which prettv much iasted to the 193039s foiiowed ov WWII in the 194039s The automooiie was invented and we had in oarticuiar the invention of the piH in the 6039s We aiso saw an increase of both parents of the famiw working Before 196039s a in workforce Just over 90 of men were working fuii time Before 196039s a women wouid Stav home and take care of the babies and mavbe go back to work after their chiidren had grown 960 and ear er Coiumn on ieft is percent of workforce too being 100 middie being 50 and bottom being 0 15 w omen 20 25 3O 35 4O 45 50 55 6O 65 7O 75 From 1975 on wornen went to scnooi and worked more and started nawng iess cniidren and staving norne n want to have a good career thev are going to start deiaving rnarriage and cniidren Z o E E o 3 Women Up dntii tne 6039s rnost tarniiies onw nad one adtornooiie The rnen wodid take it to work and wnen thev got norne tnen tne otners codid have access to tne car Now ittne ndsoand and wite ootn work VOU need rnore tnan one can More and rnore tarniiies got two cars Getting rnarried and nawng cniidren is Just one ottne stages of iite There are oniv two tnings VOU don t have a cnoice aood 1 Being born 2 Dwng There wiii be a consideraoie arnodnt ottirne trorn voui oirtn to deatn nooet uiikiiii You go tnrodgn different stages inrbetween tnose tirnes wnat stage o ife we are in wiii have a ndge irnoact on our status in societk Aging and the life course 1 cniidnood 2 adoiescence teen veers 3 young adulthood late teen early 30 4 middle age late 305 early 505 5 old age 60 o Childhood and Adolescence we are in a state of dependence people are providing us with our needs food clothes and shelter they are also making decisions for us 0 More and more we are given the right for ourselves and we begin to plan our future 0 We start going to college and handling our own finances and moving into young adulthood o Young Adulthood and Middle Age this is where we reach a state of independence and we are providing our own needs and making our own decisions 0 We may be taking care of others who are dependent on us particularly children 0 This state last to the middle age Elderly the older we get we start slipping gradually into a state of dependence again 0 Our bodies don t work like they use to o More and more we will need someone to help us with the routines of our daily life 0 The more this is true the more people will think they have the right 0 Most people during the US today are providing care for the elders nursing homes still most people would say taking care of the elderly is their responsibility as long as they can handle the job Rights of Passage transitions in our life that mark our different status in society Ex birthday Graduations marriage and retirement We consider retirement a drop in status due to loss in income To do this first we tend to be a highly mobile society We are able to get to our elderly easily 13 of caretakers of the elderly are the son or soninlaw Either way if this is the case that can lead to a certain problem if we consider people who are VERY OLD like 80 s and up This means that the caretaker is old too The primarily fertility ages for women is between the age of 2025 years old This means that the primarily caretaker is only about 2025 years younger This means they are pretty old to and they are starting to have some of their own problems In the US we are keeping people alive longer and longer with medicine This is becoming more of a problem because their health care also cost lots of money In America s society we spend 90 of health care societies Retirement for a person means you can drop that income and for some people their only source of income after retirement is social security While income usually drops with retirement most wealth is in the hands of elderly Income is how much money you have coming in Wealth is how much you own 0 Elderly people have had a lifetime to accumulate wealth o Younger people have not had as much time and are trying to provide for their families 0 They don t have the opportunity to put money away Theories of aging 1 Disengagement theory the oldest theory of retirement and ageing It looks at the process of how an older person disengages from society Retirement reduced incomefor most people this means drop an income Health problemsmore and more you encounter health problems The more years of wear and tear on your body the more they will have an affect Restricts ActivitiesThese two things combine to restrict an elderly person s activity It cost money to do things The more health problems you have the more you have to buy things to help you do things 0 For most people what they do for a living is very important Retirement not only means you lose social status in society but now you have a lot of free time So trying to structure your time is a major problem with elderly people 0 More and more we can t do as much of things we use to because of money and health Network Attrition for most people their friends will probably be the same age so some of their friends will have already died or are having the same problems 0 So our social network is strained 0 When we do leave this earth it will affect a small number of people 0 This engagement is a structural functional theory 0 How would you get a job if no one ever retired How would we every find a piece of earth to live on if no one who was ever born died 0 Through this process this means when a person does leave that loss will affect a small number of people and have a small impact on society as compared of someone who dies early in the 40 s People are living longer and longer and living healthier and healthier 2 Functionalist Theory the older the people are when they die the less effect it has on society because the people around them are the same age and have the same problems middle age man dies and a bunch of people work under him has larger impact than old retired man that doesn t have workers 3Alternative Activities Theory retirement can provide new beginning have time for leisure activities and new hobbies new hobbies into new business opportuniteis to travel and go back to school problems with aging 1 loss in status 2time management not bc of too much today but bc of too lil to do 3osteoperosis 4loss of brain activity dimensia and allesmheimers Most fill their time with watching TV The older we get the more help we need with others help with income or with health problems this help can come from family or nursing home 23 of caretakers are daughters or daughterinlaws 30 of sons or son in laws nursing home is last resort main problem with sons or daughters helping elder elderly 85 is that the kids may be in their sixties or seventies so they too are experiencing similar problems The Demographic Transition Demography the study of population and population change o Determined by two factors 0 number of births 0 number of deaths in 10008C 50 million 0 370 million 1300 AD 400 million 1822 1 billion 1930 2 billion 2008 67 billion c this is because better technology more food being produced better sanitation and better healthcare Stats that demographics use o birthrate number of live births per 1000 per year 0 144 US birthrate o mortality rate number of deaths per 1000 per year 0 88 in US o total fertility rate number of live births the average ages 15 to 49 has 0 Gross fertility rate is not age specific 39 39 rate 7 iii how many kids each woman must have to keep population constant One to replace each parent This excludes immigration 0 Germany 14 in 2006 0 Japan 13 in 2006 o Infant mortality rate number of infant deaths per 1000 live births per year US 68 10 in 1990highest in any industrialized nation Germany 42 2006 Japan 33 2006 US Washington DC has highest LA is 105 highest of all states i iif lit ii flitquot O O O O CHART 1995 Population Change Tokyo 27 Million 36 Mexico City l65 Mi 47 Sao Paulo Brazil l65 mil 65 New York city l63 mil 3 Nimbus Bombay l5l Mi l 2l Los Angeles l24 Mi 39 Lagos Nigeria l03 Mi 212 Bangladesh is the most densely populated country in the world Fertility and morality was high Eventually fertility will drop Today we see very low fertility and very low mortality We see the population decline The effect on North American and Europe was not so dramatic as everywhere else in the world because we are getting everything imported Underdeveloped countries makes economic sense to have more kids 1 No social security 2 Labor Market 0 children go to work at very early age 0 Family is producer in society 0 Job requires little or no education Industrialized countries makes more economic sense to have less kids 1 children are economic liability cost is expensive for kids 2 Jobs require more education so kids stay in school longer pg 430 Demographic transition KNOW THIS F H 9quot nghFeltlHlty High Mortalltv Explosive grm All LOW Slow 6mm Law Mortallw Low FertlHtv Most oK hlstory Process of Fully Moderlnzatlon lndustrlllzatlon Postr Parmm Sex taboos Thomas Mathus 176671834 English o is the first person we have any record of looking at population growth I You can see from the dat of his life that he wamhed these changes first hand He said population can expand exponential oonsmntly doubled in a Short amount of time He also said our food supply can only grow arithmetically F ECPLE ExruNE HALLV So there will be a gap between the amount of food we produce and the amount of people we have m feed This will lead to world wide famine The more people you have the more land their going m be living on which means the less land you have to grow food He also said not only will they have a world wide famine but they will be susceptible to all kinds of disease Also people will be fighting over food supply and land for living All in all it was not going to be a pretty picture Positive checks on population Natural disaster Warfare Famine The only way to fix this would be delayed marriage which means you produce children later or Celibacy Thought that if you controlled population in any other way it was immoral or a sin 0 O O O O O O O 0 What Mathus didn t foresee o The reduction of fertility in modern industrial societies since people were working more they delayed having children o technological advances allowed us to grow a lot more food Population Pyramids c We usually represent the age structure to population pyramids o The number of people being born and dying determines that society s age structure 0 This can have a big impact on a society and the problems it faces Constrictive Population Pyramid low fertility rate Europe o Most industrialized nations most of Europe as well as Japan have a Constrictive population pyramid o It looks like its wearing a gurtle o The fertility rate is below the replacement rate c There are fewer and fewer young people o You are not having enough babies to replace the population This leads to a number of problems o Certainly if you look at the government s role in society the strains are at the top of the pyramid usually the people who need the most health care and attention o have fewer tax payers and workers to support the programs Stationary Pyramid US o a little bit broader at the base We have the baby bombers o After WWII all the soldiers came home got married and had a bunch of kids o Now they are getting to that age where they are reaching retirement c There has been speculation about our SS system c There will not be enough younger people paying taxes to pay for all these retirement baby bombers c We call the SS system a trust fund which congress oversees o Social Security has brought in more money then is paid out every year since 1992 o The problem is Politicians have been taken money out of the excess Social Security system and spending it on other things Expansive Pyramid developing countries Brazil o Shorter and much wider at the bottom o the fertility rate is very high in many of these countries o the average age of the population is 15 half are 15 or younger and half are 15 or older o People at the bottom are trying to provide for all these young people o What happens here is even if you bring down your fertility rate below the replacement rate you have huge numbers of women and men who are 2030 years old o These are the ones having lots of babies o Even if you reduce this number the people are getting to the age when they are 15 and going to have children and even if they only have 2 children that s still a lot of 15 year olds having children EuropeCorrstrrctua U Svastanonarv BraerExperrswe ra oeoote movmg h or out ot a regroh The other thhg that affects ahv Societvquot Emigrationrpeome movmg out otah area Pu ooooo factorr reasohs Wm oeoote eave Pohtica or rehgrous oersecutroh oorheht ofnatura resources Natura dwsasters Enwronmenta change s chrhate chahgea North Afnca tended to be the bread basket ot Europe h Ahcreht times out then the chmate seeh thrs h the atso You can compare tree rhgs to other tree rings aho m 1 or lt 0 Loss of Resources Egtlt rhhe 5 the coat and vou have a ghost town because there are ho rhore natura resources h a town Naturat dtsastersr oods earth quakes vo camc eruotrohs It vou are who h ah area that s COnStantW at ak some oeoote mav decide rt rs better to move etsewhere Into erancepohttca or socrat chmate of into erance re eoote are SubJeCt to discrtminatton or oreJddrce M7 or some extreme cases geho r Lack of obsa fvou can39t make a descent hvrhg where vod are mavoe vod ought to move Somewhere etse Where vou c Immigrationa oeoote movhg hto an a e pd t s a reas hs whv oeoote move to an area 0 Job opportdmtres o pohtica or socrat chate ottoterahce abundance of economic oooortdmtres aInternationaI migratio a e migratton from one codhtrv to a drttereht codhtrv most focus on thrs migratt h aInternaI migrationa oote movmg From pace to pace wrthrh a certain Countrv The u s started as just 13 cotomes 1 peoote starthg movhg out West In the late 1800 s we saw people leaving the rural areas to get factory jobs We also saw a big migration from South to North 2 People were leaving the agricultural South to go to big cities in the North Move to North was by a lot of African Americans 1880 to 1920 After reconstruction Jim Crow laws restricting rights and activities of African Americans 0 1940 s to 1950 s a big movement from the South to the West 3 Over the last 55 years or so since the 1950 s we have seen a reverse of this Movement from Northeast to the South and Southwest The Northeast or Great Lakes areas are losing people People are moving to the South There is one major reason for this big shift Air conditioning made living in the South or southwest an option this was intertwined with finding cheap labor and moving away from factory life 0 O 1970 cotton patch disappeared due to mechanical harvesters 1960 reverse flow from north to south and southwest Reasons 1 manufacturers were looking for cheaper labor and could get it from out ofjob southerners 2 Air conditioning was reasonable now ONE MIGRATION FLOW THAT WE HAVE NOT SEEN IN THIS COUNTRY IS WEST TO EAST NOT SURE NOTHING REALLY DRAWING US THERE Rural to Urban flow is taking place in many countries and causing problems in economy One of the big problems that many developing countries see is rural and urban migration People leaving the rural areas and moving to the cities At the beginning of the industrial Revolution England went through this process about 140 150 years ago The US was at this problem about 100 years ago Today it is a big problem in countries undergoing it today 1995 Population Change Tokyo 27 Million 36 Mexico City 165 Mil 47 Sao Paulo Brazil 165 mil 65 New York city 163 mil 3 Nimbus Bombay 151 Mil 121 Los Angeles 124 Mil 39 Lagos Nigeria 103 Mil 212 Percent changes are from 19751995 Tokyowe consider Japan to be an industrialized country Tokyo has seen rapid growth but not nearly as much as some in developing countries New YorkSome states are losing population so NY is doing well to even have a population growth Largest city in the US NimbusMore than double in just 20 years Los AngelesLos Angeles is doing better than NY because people tend to shift where the sun is better climate then NY so you have more migration Second largest city in the United States NigeriaMore than tripled in just 20 years Population Incline More people gt more demand for goods and services Economy will be growing more jobs This also means more people looking forjobs This is good for employers the more people looking for jobs the less you have to pay them We see high degree of inequality The higher the demand is the more people they can charge Developing agents are seeing rapid growth in their cities Subsistence Farmingpeople grow what they need If your economy is based on this then there is very little need for money money would be in short supply any ways When a country starts to modernize more and more are moving away from subsistence to a money economy More and more people want things they can t make themselves they have to buy it This leads to problems LLMany of these farms change from subsistence farms growing to what people need to growing products what sells for export For ex people stop growing food and start growing cotton which means now you have to buy your food If you have a growing population there are just a number of people who can make their own living on a farm So people come to the cities they need money they need jobs so they can have money AThat brings us to another problem These people come to the cities with very little money if any at all The skills it takes to grow rice are not very hard so these people come to these cities with few skills that they can market pretty tough for them to find a decent job They also have to find a place to live So these people end up living in shaky homes on the edges of the cities They make what ever kind of shelter they can with we kind of material they can find They live with no sanitation or clean water They are very crowded and bad situation They are disease epidemic just waiting to happen The local and national governments usually don t have the resources to provide these people with adequate living quarters clean water or money These slums become a big problem This world of urban migration in developing countries is a big social problem If you look at the effects of society with population growth or decline both have disadvantagesadvantages Huge migration is a big problem for cities undergoing industrialization problems 0 skills that used to keeep them alive are no longer useful bad housing gov t doesn t know what to do with these people start growing cotton fluctuation of income these people need infostructure roads storage bins so they can bring items to city to sell 0 O O O Disadvantages This leads to environmental degradation more people more pollution More people mean more people looking forjobs This makes it an employer s market Workers have to compete with each other Business owners make more money while workers get very little The same thing is true for profit More people looking for some place to live means higher demand which means prices go up Advantages More people mean more goods in demand and services This means there is more of an incentive to provide these substances You can charge higher prices and those who have the opportunity to make money will do so To expand the economy will also wind up meaning more opportunities for each other Structural Mobility people can move up in the economic system because there are more opportunities More demand means more jobs It increases the incentive for production but also for innovation finding newer better ways of doing things Innovation leads to better benefits 1 Better extraction of resources through new technology So if we are talking about non renewable resources innovation does not increase the amount we have on earth but it will increase the way we can access it we will be able to get oil better but it doesn t increase the amount of oil there is on the earth 2 New occupations new ways to make a living Before your economy only let you move up in the social system if someone else moved down Innovation allows you to not have to wait anymore because there are new ways to move up in society now Pogulation decline not using resources as fast they last longer fewer people looking for land so it will be cheaper fewer workers means employers have to compete for the workers so they offer higher pay and better benefits less demand for goods gteconomy will slow down people get laid off when economy is down people who aren t working don t buy things which means demand goes down and more people get fired That is how Great Depression happened Advantages Fewer people means you will be using up resources more slowly and creating less pollution In the short term fewer people also increase wages Fewer people mean fewer workers Employers have to compete for workers workers are paid well because if they are not they will leave and go work for someone else who will pay them higher Disadvantages In the long run fewer people mean less demand for goods and services If your population is shrinking for business owners you have to find new markets If your domestic market is shrinking you have to find an international market in order to keep your business open This forces globalization because big corporations set up factories all around the world There are limits to how much this can be done Over the course of time less demands means suppression people are getting laid off of work This can increase your domical spiral so now there are even less demands for goods and services because you can t afford them This is how we spiraled into the great depression in the late 30 s France is undergoing population decline for about 150 years now So they have a shortage of workers How do you get workers You bring in more immigrants and people from other countries This shrinking population means less demand people getting laid off of their jobs The first people to get laid off are the ones who have been there the shortest amount of time which is all the new workers you have been trying to get to come to your country So now you have Xenophobia problems fear or dislike of anything that is different from us loving one s own country Pogulation Incline and Population Decline Population growth and decline can affect not only the overall equality but also on gender equality Have effects on status of women High fertility rates low status In rapid population growth women are having lots of children high fertility This means there is less time for women to be in the work force This makes women economically dependent on their husbands Women tend to have low status in these countries Low fertility rates more industrialized cities higher status In modern industrial countries whose populations are station or declining it means low fertility This means they can spend more time in the work force They can make their own money so they are not finically dependent on their husbands They have higher status in these societies Social Movement and Social Change o Social movement is just one cause for social change o Over the last 50 years we have seen many changes in society c We have seen dramatic changes in the way we delivery goods o Everything is delivered through market instead of to your home you go to grocery store to buy milk whereas it used to be delivered to your home o Communication has changed as well o It s only been within the last 20 years that the internet is common o Long ago only certain people have access to the internet o The internet has changed everything o If you want clothes and don t want to go to the store you can go online and buy them c We don t notice most of these changes until we stop and look back or we move away for a while and then come back and realize the changes Social change any significant modification or transformation in social structure or social cultural process If we talk about something having a significant change we mean it has a lasting effect Some significant and lasting change in the way our societies are how our society is organized a change in our institutions or the way we go about doing things our educational system has changed caused by social changes Social cultural process means how people relate or interact with each other Certainly this is a change in how we relate to each other Causes of Social Change 1 Environmental Change 2 New Technology computers change the way we find info o better microscopes help us learn about bacteria o discovery and invention someone coming up with new machin o cultural diffusion borrowing cultural elements from neighboring societies 0 can create culture lag technology can increase faster than a societies norms and values 3 New Ideas free market capitalism was a new idea in 1600s o democracy was never new idea o communism o Most of 20th century was free market capitalism vs communism 4 Economic changes Great Depression led to massive gov t spending welfare legalization and labor unions 5 Population change 6 War and Revolution create most rapid and democratic social change o often results in destruction of gov t and formation of a new one 7 Social Movement conscious effort to bring about social change from outside the political system c Ex women s stuff Group Civil Rights Group Social Movements c We classify then by how they begin 1 IndigenousGrassroots movements begin spontaneously in several different places as a result of local social conditions o civil rights movement started as little events here and there 2 Organized Professional movements organized from the beginning o social movement organizations SMO s people get together to start a group for purpose of creating social movement 0 Example MADD o Moral Entre reneurs individuals who take it upon themselves to change some part of society Ex Moral Majority Ex Students against drunk driving Laws against porn started this way by Anthony Comstock mailman He made it illegal to send porn through mail Types of Purpose 1 Revolutionary want to overthrow eisting social structure and replace it with a new one o Ex communism 2 Reformist don t want to destry current social structure they want to change one part of it o most common types 0 temperature movement 0 students against drunk driving 3 Countermovements abortion rights movements then we have prolife movements o every action has equal and opposite reaction o early laws to raise drinking age now we have people who want to lower it o conservative movements want to keep status quo o reactionary want to bring back the old ways 0 want a change but not new one want to go back to simpler ways 0 Ex hippie movement 4 Millenarian predict the end of the world Life course of movements 1 Disorganizationtrue for proff and grassroot movements 2 Organization must be organized to be successful 3 Institutionalization NAACP labor unions 4 Disintegration they fall apart final stage of life course o Fracturing and splintering breaks up into small groups and fight for control of the movement and its future goals o Goal Displacement find new goals cause they reached other ones or goals failed so they must find new ways to reach them Theories of Social Change o Social evolutionSocial Darwinism he looked at society like organisms and talked about how society evolved form simpler forms to more complex forms In this evolution signifies societies abilities to adapt to their environment more complexbetter adapted They provide not only more control over their social life but over their physical life as well It means a steady increase in knowledge It allows us to protect yourself feed ourselves and protect ourselves better from disease For people who follow this these changes we have seen represents steady progress Each society is a better adaptation then previous There are a couple of downfalls with thinking this way Problems 0 One this idea of social evolution has been tied with the idea of survival of the fittest This idea has been used to look at societies with more technology So it has been used by powerful nations with advanced technology to take over lands and dominant sometimes people get killed but they have the idea that it doesn t matter bc those people are uncivilized o If we view human history it doesn t have to be viewed as steady progress Karl Marx Conflict theory and economic determinism we are in conflict and competition with various groups Marx ideas is that the economic idea of any society shapes the rest of that societies social structure Every epic of human history can be marked off by the domination of one particular economic system Social change comes about bc each economic system allows a hand full of people to make themselves wealthy by dominating in that society No matter what economic system a handful of people can use the system to make themselves wealthy by dominating in that society When that economic system fails they replace it with a new one It still has the same features just a different ways Cyclical TheoryArnold Tovnbee over the course of human history we have seen many civilizations rise and fall Certainly the rise of the Roman Empire had declined and disintegrated leading us into the Dark Ages Europe wasn t the only area in the world that has seen great societies it happens all over the world It is similar human history is not just the stead increase of knowledge Knowledge can be gained and lost Minoawas a very advanced Greek society They would trade with neighboring cities And have very advanced knowledge We have records that there was a doctor who knew how to cure cancer It was completely destroyed by volcanic eruption so much of their knowledge went with their society and we are still trying to figure out how to cure cancer Causes of Social Change Environmental changes changes in climate of the things we see is both North and South America and other continents when humans arrive there large mammals disappear they became extinct Could be from over hunting diseases We don t know These instances also occurred over the last Ice Age We do know that the buffalo was over hunted Natural disasters and various others can cause social change Using up your resources means you have to use new resources which can bring about social change Technology when we look at the history of humans they divide various time spans up by technology Where would we be today if we didn t have electricity fridge and so on we can also acquire technology through this process called cultural diffusion Cultural diffusion borrowing cultural elements from neighboring societies There will be societies that are much father away so they will be much slower at developing cultural diffusion Social change can be not only a matter of what you do in your own society but also who your neighbors are Ideas new ideas can bring about social change Some new ideas can come from new technology Certainly technological advances and allow us to learn about new disease Historians have set aside 20th century and free market capitalisms and communism ideas about how society should distribute goods Population Changes certainly the discovery in the new world by Europeans caused dramatic social changes In Europe for the people who moved and even more for the people who lived here already Economic changes the great depression brought many social changes It changed are political and legal systems It changed our ways of thinking about the roles of government in society War and Revolution they usually bring about the most rapid and dramatic social changes First they almost always bring physical and social destruction destroying one government It is easy to see the immediate changes with war and revolution but they also have long term affects 0 Social Movements social movements are conscious efforts to change a society to means that go beyond the normal political process Social movements try to bring about change in other ways like through demonstrations meetings and political ways The first thing we need to look at with social movements is how they begin IndigenouslGrass Roots movement indigenous means native to a particular area these are movements that start out spontaneous from one place to another in response to local conditions the impact of WWII We started seeing protests all over gradually gaining strength in response to our countries segregation rules Organized Professional Movements another way social movements starts Social Movements organizations SMO sThey start by having a purpose of creating a social movement Mothers against drunk drivers MADD Moral Entrepeneurs an Entrepeneurs is a person who goes out and does something on their own A moral Entrepeneurs is a person who starts a social movement trying to change some aspect of our society We can also look at Social movements as what is their term what is their cause Types of Social Movements o Revolutionarythey like to overthrow the existing institutions of society and replace them with different ones the French Revolution o Reformist they don t want to overthrow the existing institutions they just want to change some aspect They want to change to make it better in their eyes o Conservative is generally designed to oppose the changes that are pushed by reformist Reactionary these want to overthrow existing institutions and go back to a previous social order After the French Revolution in a very short time the next thing you saw was new revolutions trying to restore the monarch Millenarianthose that predict the end of the world as we know it As some particular time It usually picks some millennium period Despite the fact that none of these be in a millenarian movements have been right we still keep seeing them Social movements tend to be in a catch22 situation They Also tend to have certain stages Life courses of Social Movements Turbulence and Disorganization this is especially true for grass roots organizations You have all kinds of people trying to do all kinds of different things Organizationyou will have to get organized and people will have to get on the same page and make sure they are planning with each other Institutionalization if the movement is successful you will see this This is where we accept this movement as part of our social family labor unions for most of our countries history labor unions were considered illegal once we did this we accepted this group as a part of American Life Disorganization the final stage is where we reach the point of what are we going to do now There are two factors that go into this stage Fracturing and splintering little fighting with each other over control of the organization and who s going to set the goals now This will be true whether you are successful or not Goal displacement if you weren t successful in achieving your goals then you need to try something else But sometimes those different goals can be completely different then what you were originally trying to achieve And if you did achieve your goals now what is your purpose for existing There are certain factors that will have a big influence or not Determinants of Success 1 Goals coincide with broad values of society 0 you need to be able to justify your goals in terms of society s norms and values 0 ex Justice and equal opportunities 0 A social movement that would want to overthrow our government is not going to get much support in our country bc there values aren t the same 2 Demands are specific and focused 0 what exactly is it that you are trying to achieve 3 Demands are negotiable 0 you can t expect other people to just accept every one of your demands 0 You need to allow room for compromise 4 Gain Support of influential 3rd parties 0 you need to gain the support of 3rd parties individuals other organizations that maybe share or have some similar goals Attracting media attention getting celebrities to jump on your band wagon o This helps in being able to get money get resources as well as getting your point out there to the public eye 5 Pressure responsibleparties without hurting others 0 you need to be able to apply pressure with hurting other parties 0 One of the big issues in the last decade or so has been teacher pay 6 Use innovative techniques techniques that the authorities aren t familiar with and will grasp the attention of the media 0 Sitins don t work anymore bc police are familiar with them now 0 CHART GOES HERE Relative Deprivation Theory o Says oppressed people are more likely to revolt when rising expectations are mathematical o Examples Great Britain and Canada Alternative explanation Resource Mobilization Theory o Revolutionary movements start when things are getting better for the oppressed group o Bc when things are getting better the oppressed have more resources to create a bigger wound o Example some Native American Groups Culture Shock sometimes a society can go into this when they are not used to something Back in ancient times there was a considerable amount of cultural diffusion But there were some major differences with some of the big cultures back then The Greeks were horrified at some of the things the Portuguese did They can go into this when you see people doing things you don t think they should Final Study Guide o The Family Chapter 9 o Aging and the Life Course o Population Chapter 14 Chapter 10 pp 304307 o Social Change Chapter 15 Chapter 2 p 49 o Wednesday December 10 10am noon OR Wed Dec 3 130230 o 2 types of families we will have in one lifetime o rules for marriage groups and numbers changes in labor force participation between women and men since 1960 age of marriage since WW2 stages of life when are we more dependentindependent different ceremonies to mark transition of one stage to another problems retirement health care growing old caretakers and those problems 2 theories of aging know different between 2 population diff types of stats that demographers uses in terms of birth and death one number to remember for final exam replacement fertility rates all of them why do some societies have high birth or death rates also for low charts of demographic transitions 0 in book Thomas malthas Age structure of society 0 3 styles of pop pyramids 0 know all bout them immigration and emigration 0 factors rural to urban migration 0 problems it creates in what countries effects of pop growth and decline 0 results of both lot of pop questions on test 0 think about question don t freak out If you have a question about a lot people the answer will have to do with a lot of people and vice versa social changes causes processes of culture diffusion and culture lag social movements 0 2 types based on how they start 0 based on purpose 0 life course o Determinates of success and 2 theories


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