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by: Ola Treutel I


Ola Treutel I
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A. Sikes

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A. Sikes
Class Notes
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ola Treutel I on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to THTR 1020 at Louisiana State University taught by A. Sikes in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see /class/222578/thtr-1020-louisiana-state-university in Theatre at Louisiana State University.




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Date Created: 10/13/15
CHAPTER 2 The Audience is a Community 0 House the collective audience 0 Differences in audience makeup can change the performance of a play 0 Because every audience is unique every performance is unique 0 Many things can affect us as an audience member 0 Understanding of culture or context 0 Personal experiences 0 Theatre experience 0 Theatre attempts to bridge the gap between our personal experiences and understanding and the content of the play through creation of empathy o Empathy the capacity to emotionally identify with someone else 0 Theatre artists can also exploit empathy to create distance 0 The Free Southern Theatre s production of Slave Ship in 1968 used empathy and distance to divide audiences along racial lines o The content and performance of the play was meant to alienate and disturb whites and empower blacks o The Classical Theatre of Harlem used similar techniques of dividing the audience along racial lines in the 2003 production of The Blacks o The play Heroes and Saints by Cherrie Moraga uses themes of religion and sexuality to provoke unique responses based on the views of the audience members 0 The play Vagina Monologues by Eve Ensler elicits different responses from the audience members based on gender because of the play s intimate subject matter 0 Performances that address sensitive or intimate subject matter race gender sexuality religion attempt to create awareness o What we personally take away from a performance depends on how we filter the events of the performance according to our personal histories The Passive Audience 0 The convention of a passive audience did not come about until the development of the theatrical style of realism o Realism the presentation of a stage world as a believable alternate reality where things happen much as they would in real life and people behave in seemingly natural ways 0 a passive audience is required to maintain the lifelike appearance of realism 0 Fourth Wall the theatrical convention of an invisible fourth wall that separates the audience from the stage 0 Realism developed as the result of o Darwin s ideas that humans are objects of scientific study 0 Birth of sociology and psychology 0 Playwrights interested in applying these new ideas 0 Advances in lighting 0 Realism draws the audience in causing them to lose some of their aesthetic distance 0 Aesthetic distance the ability to observe a work of art with a degree of detachment and objectivity o Aesthetic distance differs for each play and can range from icy dispassion to overwhelming emotional involvement 0 Some amount of aesthetic distance is always required in order to keep the sanity of the audience intact Political Theatre 0 With the development of realism came artists who sought to tear down the fourth wall and reengage the audience 0 Playwrights have always used theatre as a way to voice political commentary even all the way back to Ancient Greece Aristophanes 0 20h Century political theatre is aimed at activating audiences for social change in the world Agit Prop o Developed in the 1920s in Russia 0 Conveys information in a simple and entertaining way to persuade an audience to its point of view 0 Became a model for political theatre in many countries 0 Red Megaphone Troupe 0 Used during the Spanish Civil War to inspire people to fight against fascism o The Federal Theatre Project during the Great Depression performed Living Newspapers to provide jobs for unemployed theatre artists 0 San Francisco Mime Troupe and El TeatroCampesino used agitprop to fight for civil rights immigrants rights and fight against the Vietnam War BertoltBrect 0 Wanted to turn audience into critical viewers and think about the production so they would take sides and come up with solutions for the subject at hand 0 Brecht built on the work of Erwin Piscator 0 Used the alienation effect seperation of the audience emotionally from the dramatic action to allow them to see the material as if for the first time Augusto Boal o Involved the audience with Theatre of the Oppressed 0 Forum theatre 0 Invisible theatre 0 Legislative theatre Living Theatre 0 Confronting the audience Engaging the Audience Today Turning everyday places into spontaneous performance Rev Billy used audience participation to teach spectators how their activism could bring change Tony and Tina s wedding involves the audience and treats them as guests The Donkey Show set in a nightclub invites the audience to participate and act as if in a real club CHAPTER 3 Dramatic Structure 0 Climactic Structure a late point of attack usually limited scope of time and location 0 Episodic Structure multiple characters locations often a long time frame and subplots 0 Angels in America Tony Kushner 0 Circular Structure the plot ends at the same point it begins a comment on absurdity of life 0 The Bald Soprano Eugene onesco 0 Serial Structure discrete scenes that do not tell a single story often scenes related by a theme 0 The Colored Museum George C Wolfe 0 Playing with Time temporal variations with techniques like flashbacks or backward progression 0 Death ofa Salesman Arthur Miller 0 The well made play keeps the audience on the edge 0 Foreshadowing Inciting incident Cliffhanger Crisis 000 Resolutions Dramatic Characters 0 Archetypal Characters These embody traits that are often understood to be shared by human beings across many eras and cultures 0 Psychological Characters These exhibit internal mental processes based upon the development of psychology in the nineteenth century 0 Stock Characters These represent recognizable types interchangeable from one play to the next like the Grumpy Old Man or the Dumb Blonde 0 Dominant Trait Characters These possess a single overriding personality characteristic often derived from earlier understandings of medicine and health 0 Depersonalized Characters These are stripped of personal or individual characteristics and invite identification with their situations not their personalities o Deconstructed Characters These reveal 39 as 39 39 with no selves but instead with identities constructed by socially prescribed roles Dramatic Language 0 Dialogue is the primary form of language in the theatre 0 Dialogue has several Purposes o Advancing the plot Expressing Character Provoking and Embodying Action Compressing Emotion OOO Setting Mood Tone and Style CHAPTER 7 Universal Qualities of Acting in the Theatre 0 Energy The actor must call on reserves of physical mental and emotional stamina 0 Control The actor must manage the body the voice thoughts and feelings all at once 0 Focus The actor must channel effort through a heightened awareness and concentration 0 Purpose The actor must communicate to the audience meanings and intentions of actions 0 Dynamics The actor must attend closely to the unique rhythms and tempos of performance 0 Enlargement The actor must heighten and intensify performance to reach audience members 0 Transformation The actor must undergo a physical mental and emotional change of character Constantin Stanislavski o The psychological approach to acting is rooted in the work of Constantin Stanislavski who created the rst systematic approach to acting that included script analysis and role interpretation 0 Believed tat the methodology of science could be applied to acting 0 Worked to develop a training methodology that could address psychological realism 0 Concentration of attention technique developed to keep the actors focus within the stage reality and not on the audience 0 Psychophysical action term for physical behavior that reveals the character and the objective 0 Biomechanics physical training system for efficient and expressive movement Freeing the Actors Energy 0 New forms of theatre broke down the barriers between audience and performer and an new form of actor training focused on releasing the blocks to expression 0 To achieve free energy ow ideas and techniques drawn from Asian philosophy and religion that emphasized the impossibility of separating the physical from psychological human functions were applied 0 Understanding of the importance of relaxing and breathing techniques 0 The process through which an actor reaches the integrated body state is called centering Traditional Asian Acting Styles and Training 0 Spend years mastering codes of performance 0 Begin training at early age 0 Study and perform particular role types CHAPTER 8 Before Directors 0 The director as we know it today did not begin to develop until the late 18m early 19 h Century o In prior eras the role of organizing the play was done by either a playwright and actor or a manager but the role was simply that It did not allow for visionary or interpretive input about the play 0 Actormanagers in the 17quot119 h centuries in Europe and America this was the head ofan acting company who organized a production 0 Pageant master in the middle ages those responsible for organizing theatrical events 0 Theatrical traditions outside of Europe had no need for a director type role becaue they had preestablised codes that dictated their theatrical performances The Rise of the Modern Director 0 Late 18 h century in Europe there was a desire to have a more organized and natural approach to staging a performance 0 The development of the modern director is marked by several key figures 0 Johann Wolfgang van Goethe I Experimented with new methods of theatrical production Established rules for actors comportment onstage so that the company could form wellcomposed stage pictures in their performance I Had actors perform and understand the lines of the play rather than just memorize them I Played rhythm to the lines to make them sound more unified I Drew a grid on the floor of the stage Georg II the Duke of SaxeMeiningen O I Brought the idea ofa detailed visual unity in production to new heights 0 Richard Wagner I Developed the idea of a thematically unified stage work gesamtkunstwerk I Asserted a directorial vision in the operas he composed 0 Andre Antoine I Made great efforts to create a realistic environment on stage 0 Constantin Stanislavski I His system of acting gave birth to the director as a visionary unifier and actor guide The Director as Interpreter The director as the interpreter of a play guides the play s journey from the written word to the pperformed action Choosing the Text 0 The production begins with a play which must be carefully selected 0 The director chooses a play based on what his goal is in producing the performance I What message theme subject matter etc does the director want to convey to the audience Establishing the Directorial Vision 0 From reading and analyzing the play the director can begin to establish a vision for the production 0 Research topics that pertain to the play to help build the vision Conceiving the Play for the Stage 0 Envision a concept for the physical world of the play that can be formed with the help of collaborators lighting scenes etc managers 0 Choose a style in which the play will be pysically embodied realistic abtract that capturres an essential part of the play and brings is potential to life 0 Some directors develop a spine a superobjective for the play to establish a central line of dramatic action that can guide actors in their choices 0 The conception of the physical world of the play all depends on how the director chooses to interpret the play HighConcept Directing 0 Sometimes a director will make a substantial change in the staging of a particular play in order to better reveal the meanings of the play this is called a highconcept production o Deconstruction the movement in literary criticism that questions the idea of fixed meanings truths or assumptions about texts o Shaping the Visual World 0 Gather a team of designers technicians and stage managers that will help the director achieve his vision for the play 0 Often a director will seek out a particular person that they feel can best achieve the particular vision that they have for the play 0 Working with Actors 0 Auditions and Casting I The director seeks to find actors that can best fit the particular roles of the play and best embody the particular characters Some directors want actors with certain skills when casting certain characters Auditions allow directors to test an actor s range of skill and see the flexibility of the actor 0 Leading Rehersals and Determining Staging The first rehersals give the director the opportunity to set the tone for the production and explain to the cast their particular process and vision as well as expectations they may have At following rehersals the play is broken down into smaller units and performed to achieve a successful goal for each unit In the final rehersals all the scenes are performed together in a runthrough of the play performance from beginning to end without stopping 0 Integrating the Elements of Production 0 Technical Rehersals give the director the oportunity to see how all the concepptual features of the play will fit together on stage 0 Paper techs a time when the director walks throught he technical aspects of the production with the designers and staff 0 The technical rehersals allow the director to make decisions about certain things such as timing and sound CHAPTER 9 Space amp Theatrical Convention 0 The theatrical space encompasses the world of the actors and the world of the spectators 0 Theatre spaces develop within a cultural framework that establishes the codes of interaction between actors and spectators Space amp Performance Evolve Together 0 Theatre spaces evolve organically to serve the needs of performers audience members and the larger community 0 A gathered circle is the most basic of audience formations 0 Provides optimum proximity ampsight lines o Raked seating seating on an incline 0 Performance forms can define their spaces just as spaces can delienate performance forms and possibilities The Boundaries of Theatre Spaces 0 The exact entry into the world and boundary of the theatre is not always easily defined 0 Some would argue that one enters the theatre the moment they step away from reality and step into the aura of a theatrical event Cultural Meanings of Theatre Spaces 0 The location of performance spaces within the larger community says something about the nature of the performance and the way it is valued by its society 0 Theatrical performances that are essential to a culture are accompanied by a theatrical space that is loccated in a central or significant location in the society o In times when theatre was not approved of theatrical spaces were built on the outskirts of the city to reflect the fact that theatre was not approved Theatre Spaces and the Social Order 0 Teatres have always reflected social hierarchy o In some cultures there is a special seating area for those of higher classes or of nobility 0 Green room a space where actors could socialize and audience memmbers could greet and interact with them after a performance 0 Developed in the late 17 h century in England Theatre Space Reflects Technological Change 0 Theatre spaces change to accommodate technological changes 0 Lighting sound and scenery advances all affect theatre space Theatre Architecture as Symbolic Design 0 Theatre forms tat evolved from religious ractice occurred in spaces that contained spiritual meaning 0 The architectual space of early theatres was itself an expression of the dominant values of the culture Proscen Ancient GreekTheatre sace reflected both its ritual origins and dramaticthemeswhile serving the structure ofthe plays The Japanese noh stage is modeled offthe porcheswhere ancient performances were held 0 Painted pine tree on the backwall amp real pine trees alongthe bridgeway to the stage 0 Hashigakariibridgeway to the stage ium Stage The Proscenium Stage is a configuration ofa theatre space in whichthe audience facesthhe actors on only one side 0 Resembles a view ofa picture frame The proscenium arch separatesthe audiunce from the perfrormance space Stage Curtainicurtainthat can be raised and lower at times to concealtechnical actionsthat take place onthe stage set changes Apronia raised extension ofthe stage Wingsiempty spacesthat conceal actors techs props and scenery and can be moved laterally Loftsihigh ceilings behind the proscenium archthat can house set piecesthat are flown in from above Proscenium theatres provide the possibility of rapid set changestrough both horizontal and 39 ofscenely 39 39 39 magic 0 Cheat out turn at an angle when talkingto another onstage Stage Directions Upstagerighf Upslagecemer Upstagele Right center Center Downstage right Downstage center Downstage left Arena Stage 0 Also called Theatre in the Round 0 Embodies the naturally way of gathering in a circular formation 0 Voms aisles for actors to enter named for the vomitoria or entryways of ancient Roman amphitheatres 0 Places demands on directors actors designers and audience 0 No large scenery pieces 0 Physical action must be contiunal 0 Greater challenge to direct focus Thrust Stage 0 Audience seated on three sides of a performance area that projects into the audience while the fourth side provides a backdrop for the action and a place for storage and concealment of costume and scenery 0 Used in ancient Greece and Rome CHAPTER 10 Design in Performance Traditions 0 performance traditions have some of the most sumptuous artistic and tasteful stage designs in the theatrical world 0 set costume lighting and sound complement each other to create a singular theatrical environment 0 Chinese opera is a realm of rich colors and elaborate details 0 Noh designs are minimalistic and relaxing to the eye Costume Makeup and Masks o In most traditions in which the actor is the focus of the performance the actor is the primary visual element onstage o Colorful dress masks and makeup enlarge their prescence and convey important information about the character such as age social status and personal affiliation 0 These elements form a visual symbolic language tat describes the characters and their roles in the dramatic performance Costume 0 Traditional costumes differentiate young from old peasants from nobility and good from bad through conventions of color and style 0 Lighthearted patterns ofkyogen costumes VS the somber dignified costumes of noh o The recognizable Harlequin diamond design of Commedia o In Iranian theatre color of a costume signifies the characters political stance o In kabuki a change of costume can indicate a change in a character s temperament or a moment of magical transformation 0 The transformation of Narukami into the God of Thunder Makeup 0 The use of makeup in theatre evolved from use of makeup in religious rituals o Conventions of color and pattern allow the audience to read even the most abstract or ornamental of designs 0 Kathakali makeup follows strict protocol I Green characters I Red white and black bearded characters Masks 0 Can refashion the face to the very limits of imagination and make possible the portrayal of an entire range of beings humans animals ghosts gods devils 0 Half masks leave the mouth uncovered and allow the actor to speak more clearly o The material of the mask can dictate how the actor performs in it o In Bali only the ritually strong are chosen to wear masks and are then blessed 0 At the end of Korean pyolsandae performances the masks were traditionally burned 0 African masks are used in ritual performances Clowns o Clowns wear traditional costumes masks or face paint that signify their foolishness and irreverence Set 0 Set elements tend to be sparse in actorcentered performance 0 Noh cineseoperam and commedia dell arte all have very frugally designed sets with very few but often standardized set pieces 0 Kabuki has flamboyant sets but they are still based on established conventions o Vast stage with vivid backdrop o Rotating platforms 0 Constructed interiors Light 0 Traditional performance traditions established before electricity made the use of natural light candles lamps or torches to increase visibility and create special effects 0 Kathakali is performed at nigt by the light of a single flickering oil lamp 0 Adds to the serious nature and spirituality of the play Sound o In performance traditions sound is used to 0 Alert spectators of the start of a performance 0 Establish the mood of a scene 0 Provide musical accompaniement 0 And create effects that reinforce the stage action 0 Traditions use specialized vocal techniques unique to their performance tradition o Noh performers chant in a low guttural hum 0 Chinese opera singers use high pitched nasal sounds Master Artisans 0 Because set costume and mask designs have generally developed over time there are no designers creating new designs for particular performances 0 Instead tere are craftsmen who build the visual elements of the erformance according to the traditions of the theatre Realistic Design 0 What we see and hear on stage closely resembles the natural world 0 Presentational stage worlds make no attempt to disquise their theatricality Abstract Design 0 Created by artists who believed there was a higher truth that could nit be found in the objects of real life 0 Expressionism further captured thhe emotional force through the dramatic use of angles lines and distortions to paint the world as perceived by the inner character CHAPTER 15 Criticism and Culture 0 How we analyze a production and what perspective we take in our scrutiny says a lot about what our culture finds interesting and valuable 0 When a play can be mined repeatedly over centuries for contemporary relevance we know it has spoken profoundly about the human condition Professional Criticism and Cultural Theory 0 Theatrical theories developed by each society become the tools of criticism 0 These theories relfrect the biases and interests of its culture The Critic as Cultural Insider 0 Critics that are of a certain culture can accurately and better comment on cultural based plays The Critic as Interpreter 0 Provide a framework for comprehension 0 Martin Esslin analyzed the unique and difficult to understand plays of the 1950s and made tem comprehensible to a larger audience The Critic as Artistic Muse o Criticism is often the inspiration for artistic creation and directly influences new theatrical styles or the rediscovery of old ones The Critic as Visionary o Antonin Artaud Lecture Outline Experiencing Theatre Week One A Key Terms Exercise Make a list of three related words for these three terms Drama Theatre Performance We will use your lists to formulate working definitions for the terms View Videos Examples of Theatre Carmen with Anna Caterina Antonacci httpwwwyoutubecomwatchVE2XyH 50yE 4 14 Swan Lake with Gillian Murphy http www youtube comwatchVJI7AsZGnyi4 447 Cirque du Soleil Juliana Neves and Ivo GeorgieV http wwwyoutube comwatchV86hM47Cg i QE 614 77115 T 00 Shall Pass by OK Go httpwwwyoutubecomwatchVgybUFnY7Y8w 354 So Is There a Single De nition of Theatre Is Opera or Ballet a form of Theatre What about a Rock Concert A Football Game A Performance by a Ventiloquist A Magician A Juggler The qualities of theatre often apply to other forms of performance There is therefore a great overlap between theatre and these other forms Itherefore resist giving a single stable de nition of theatreithough others have What is Theatre Scholars and artists use theatre refer to many practices from different eras and cultures From your Textbook The need to make sense of our world is the drivmg force behind all theatrical forms and every culture has developed some form of theatrical presentation through which to eXamine the mysteries of life and the most pressing concerns ofits society Theatre is therefore a tool for re ection and communication among human beings From your Textbook The mirror is an apt metaphor for the stage In it we are ourselves and not ourselves real and an illusion true and yet false In the theatre we are always aware that we are watching real people pla yfictions that ha ve a greater reality than our own lives for the duration of the performance Theatre operates according to codes or conventions that make communication possible From your Textbook Theatre as the most social of all the artshuman beings coming together in the same space to share an eventalso has its rules of conduct and understood communication codes We call these codes theatrical conventions and just as we use social conventions to na viga te in the larger world so do we na Viga te in the world of the theatre according to the conventions of the stage gtllt Some Key Aspects of Theatre Theatre is Live Without these two elementsthe live actor risking all and the live audience responding and creating in visible lines of cominunica tionthea tre cannot eXist So theatre overlaps with but is separate from mediatized performances Theatre is Ephemeral If the theatre is live then no element can be em ctlyreplica ted because it depends on the interaction of live actors and audience and what they bring to a fleeting uncapturable moment in time and space So the moment that theatre is recorded it ceases to be theatre anymore Theatre is Collaborative The success of the theatrical event is the result of a community of people working toward a common goal It requires putting trust in a company of individuals to create a seamless imaginaryreality with no possibilityfor retakes So even a one person show requires collaboration between actor and audience Theatre is a Synthesis of Arts Ybe tbeatrical form is a syntbesis of otber arts and tbe work of many artists It uses language painting sculpture costume music dance mime movement ligbt and sound to create its effects Ybea tre is a complex composite art form So theatre is not created in isolation like a painting sculpture or music composition gtllt Aristotle and an Early De nition of Theatre Theatre is derived from the Greek word Ybeatron or Seeing Place Athens developed an early ourishing theatre culture in the sixth century BCE Aristotle wrote the Poetics around 335323 BCE It is a treatise on qualities of good poetry especially drama Drama at this time was form of poetry all drama written in verse Aristotle de ned two distinct types of drama Tragedy and Comedy Aristotle Ilie Poetics Tragedy is an imitation of an action tbat is admirable complete and possesses magnitude in language made pleasurable eacli of its species separated in different parts performed by actors not tbrougb narration effecting tbrougb pity and fear tbe purga tion ofsucli emotions The most crucial point theatre is understood as mimesis or imitation Actors play characters other than themselves they imitate the actions of others According to Aristotle imitation ful lls two important functions Imitation is instructive we learn lessons from imitating acts of others Imitation is pleasurable we have fun viewing or performing imitations gtxlt gtxlt Theatre Reality and Imitation The notion of imitation therefore plays a crucial role in understanding theatre But the relation of reality to imitation changes from one form of theatre to another Sometimes even the relation between actor and character is blurred consider Reality TV View Video Gay Straiglit or Taken httpwwwyoutubecomwatchvkCttiOgnTko Begin 130 Are the figures on Reality TV themselves or are they playing characters Am Inow playing the role of teacher Are you now playing the role of students Even the convention of imitation cannot separate theatrical and nontheatrical practices gtllt


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