MENTAL HEALTH ISSUES
MENTAL HEALTH ISSUES KIN 2604
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KIN 2604 Midterm Notes August 22 2012 Most think of physical health when asked about wellness Wellness is bigger than health Wellness deals with six dimensions listed later In Louisiana 25 of adults smoke 4151 in America American average is about 20 43 of children live in a home where neither parent works fulltime 50 h overall 20 one in five ofadults 1824 are not in school work or are in the military 48 h overall Those 1824 year olds do not have economic stability and probably have selfesteem issues too probably come from the 43 of children not good in mental health participate in nonproductive and selfdestructive behavior alcohol and drug abuse 46 h in violent crime 48 h in obesity 46 h in heart disease 47 h in MVA fatalities 50 h in the countries health rating dead last Six dimensions of wellness must be at the top of your potential in all six 1 Physical wellnessexercise hygiene diet 2 Emotionalmental wellnessthe most important without it you do not have the will to make good decisions in the other five foundation for the other five Intellectual wellnesseveryone can always improve in this area Spiritual wellnessbelieve in something all religion comes down to a belief in a higher power and wanting you to play nice with others 5 Socialinterpersonal wellnessthis is the time in our life where we practice this the best learning about friendship love who you are and who you want to associate with and a time where you do not want to be burdened with drama 6 Environmentalplanetary wellnesscan be a source of stress when our resources run out PS Wellness involves specific changes in behavior Stages of change model or behavior change model involves six steps to change an unwanted behavior Changing behaviors one at a time is how you achieve wellness Pre contemplationyou know you have a problem but you feel you cannot do anything about it Contemplationtry to understand the problem and come to terms with it Preparationcome up with a plan to defeat the problem Actionexecutionactually doing the plan Maintenancereach your goal but have temptation to go back into old habits Terminationchanged the behavior and have no temptation to go back into old ways P P PS JE JE The kryptonite that prevents us from starting or completing this process is procrastination Having proper mental health helps to prevent procrastination denial rationalization ability to bounce back is not good mental health The ability to have effective communication should be a goal of all students two ways to communicate are verbal and written Lack of the ability to communicate causes us to feel frustrated and causes us to have less mental wellness An estimated twothirds of students have a mental health problem Communication is often a part of that problem KIN 2604 Midterm Notes Eleven characteristics of a person who achieves wellness Active responsibility for their own health Stress management Good selfesteem and positive relationships Understand sexuality the emotional and mental attachments Avoid tobacco products drugs and alcohol is used wiselymoderately Eat right and exercise regularly Know when to treat themselves and when to go to the doctor Know how to use the health care system knows about insurance Knows what causes them to get injured or sick and how to prevent those things Has a mature attitude about agingdeath Understand the impact of the environment on health and take proper action DWNP P PPE JE l l l O39 August 24 2012 Mental Health amp Self Esteem Mental or Emotional Health according to the National Mental Health whatever defined by the concept of emotional resiliency how you bounce back from a setback also being comfortable with one self able to meet the demands of life functional ability recapturing stability and enjoying life Some are paralyzed by life events and can no longer function Two ways to practice mental health 1 Through submitting to the mental health care system seeing a social worker or psychiatrist and taking prescribed medications expensive but effective 2 Increased self understanding more time consuming process in which you try to be introspective to increase selfunderstanding you must have good communication skills maintain positive selfesteem possess a strong system of personal values to meet thefour basic emotional needs capacity to love and be loved to feel important or needed to live variety Results of increased selfunderstanding are that you possess integrity or having your actions match your words and doing what you say you will do Selfesteem is a measure of how we perceive ourselves it is the foundation of mental health People with good selfesteem have friends are willing to take positive risks are excellent communicators are rational people they manage stress no such thing as eliminating stress are natural explorers like to learn have a thirst for knowledge like life s mysteries and reject it s cruelties People with bad selfesteem are usually isolated shy and quiet are negative and pessimistic tendency to find trouble and engage in selfdefeating behavior sabotage good things that happen to them fail to meet their basic emotional needs Self esteem has four different parts 1 A sense of connectionhow well you work in a groupcan be a dominator walked over and does all the work KIN 2604 Midterm Notes Iquot A sense of uniquenessa measure of what makes you different and being proud of it Your sense of powerhow much control you have over your life are you intrinsically motivated or extrinsically motivated how you handle peer pressure 4 A sense of modelswho raised you and what beliefsvalues did they give you to did you learn right from wrong and how strong that is inside of you 5 August 27 2012 Value handout due Wednesday Valuean absolute truth something you find worthwhile or highly regard a moral or ethic August 31 2012 Mental Healthdefined above Sense of coherence or SOCthey understand the challenges that they have in life know where to go for help and are aware of certain resources take an active approach to mental health People who have a low SOC think that when things happen to them there is nothing they can do about it People who have a high SOC maximize the overall health of themselves and their communities they have control over who they surround themselves with Mental foundation theorystates that mental health is part of wellness not separate in order to be mentally healthy we must have certain principles of foundations such as food water shelter an inquisitive mind must be integrated into society A person who does not have those foundations end up like the Unabomber he had everything except integration in society he was secluded from society Mental health has very little to do with mental illness a person can be mentally ill diagnosed with a mental disease and still be mentally healthy if they are actively seeking treatment for their illness studies show that many mental illnesses are caused by chemical imbalances in the brain medications solve this imbalance and can allow a person to be mentally healthy as long as they are on their medication Mental health includes four components 1 The physical componentthe brain chemistry and function a person does not have much control over the chemistry and function of their brain 2 A personal componentthe individual caring about themselves includes their selfesteem 3 An interpersonal componentthe relationship that person has with other people their interactions with others 4 The society componentthe social andor cultural conditions that one lives in KIN 2604 Midterm Notes Mental disorders are classified according to the DSM IV stands for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders edition 4 broken down into five partsbooks Adult and child mental disorders Personality disorders and mental retardation General medical disorders and how they relate to mental health Social and environmental problems and how they relate to mental health poverty crime etc A global assessment of mental health functioning mental health around the globe WPF E JI DSM IV statistics Out ofall people that commit suicide 75 have a mental disorder other 25 are categorized as accidental suicides an MD usually does a psychological autopsy at the family s request 25 of the American population will suffer a mental health problem during their lifetime 33 of the American homeless have a mental problem 20 of children or adolescents have a mental disorder including ADDADHD Over 50 million Americans each year have a mental disorder Strategies of people with mental health problems 1 Compensationtrying to cover a weakness by overemphasizing the good in themselves 2 Denialrefusing to accept reality can happen when someone dies MD says you have a life threatening illness 3 Displacementwhen emotions are transferred from one object to another children may transfer emotions from an abusive parent to an inanimate object such as a doll or toy 4 Identificationan attempt to manage anxiety by imitating someone feared or respected 5 Minimizationto ignore someone s behavior 6 Projectionblaming another or a group for your short comings both presidential candidates are projecting on their opponent 7 Rationalizationusing faulty logical to justify behavior such as using strange logic to justify missing class 8 Regressionmoving backward to a time that was better or more comfortable in life Repressionburying or bottling up feelings out of the normal level of behavior 10 Sublimationhaving extreme feelings of aggression and transferring the aggression into socially acceptable and positive activities such as exercise or cleaning apartment 11 Reaction formation phonypeople who act the opposite of how they really feel they act phony 5 Discussion question Is society the cause of mental illness KIN 2604 Midterm Notes September 5 2012 13 categories of difficult people and ways to protect yourself from them 1 Doom and gloomloves to say anything that spreads fear depression bigotry and they get a thrill watching their victim feel bad a Strategy get away from the person by telling them you have something important to do at that moment 2 Bully or the intimidatorcan intimidate using anger size negativity facial expressions or general manner they are a great studier of people and know how you will react before they bully you and they know your weakness a Change your reaction to the bully if you ignore them usually then stand up to them and vice versa Energy thiefa person who drains your personal energy to the point where you are too tired to survive the rest of the day they use their energy and try to steal yours high dramahigh maintenance will one up you a To deal with them when they ask what you think about it simply say quotI understand Mr or Ms Obnoxiousstarved for attention will do any illmannered things to get someone to notice them even if it is inappropriate know only one way to feel special by being rude feed on your attention a Ignore them but they will saydo anything to get you to go back to them like trash talk but you must continue to ignore them Criticizer will criticize anything and everything that you do a Let them finish and when they are done and tell them you see their point and you will look into it with an assertive tone Judgeaka the advanced criticizer are very judgmental always offers their supreme opinion on things whether you want it or not it is natural to judge but it is an issue when you start verbalizing it a Must get them to understand a certain theme you cannotjudge a person until you walk a mile in their shoes before you speak of another person you must asked yourself three questions Is it true Is it kind Is it necessary answer to all three must be yes 0 P Equot 9 September 7 2012 7 Trash personmight disguise themselves as your best friend insists on dumping their problems on you so they can avoid taking responsibility for their own life initially it makes you feel good for someone to go to you for advise but it results in that the advice works which satisfies you but then they keep going back to you for advice or your advice does not work and makes the situation works and they will blame you which leads to drama a Don t give them advice encourage them to be selfreliant you can listen and be their shoulder but giving advice is something you should avoid giving 8 Persistortrash person becomes the persistor because they keep persisting to get advice from you a Treat them the same as a telemarketer just hang up an ignore them their presentation is relentless and they rely on you to fee rude and empty 9 Moanergroanerthey whine a lot can easily be recognized want you to feel sorry for them wants you to ask what is wrong so they can suck you into feeling sorry for them a Do not go along with them feeling sorry for them engaging in their selfpity hurts everyone not going along with it almost snaps them out of their selfpity mood KIN 2604 Midterm Notes 10 Moocherfree is the most appealing word to them want something for nothing everyone has a little moocher in us which is why we play the lottery most likely will end up as MrMrs Obnoxious at the end of the night a Everyone has to establish boundaries within friendships very clearly ahead of time 11 T 39 quot r will do 39 39 U for you to get something back from you which does not equal what you gave them a Must be emotionally secure and mature do not play trading games or barter with people when you do something for them it is only because you want to there is no reciprocation afterwards it takes a lot of emotional security to behave that way 12 MrMrs Sensitiveyou have to tip toe around them with what you say or do lives with their feelings hurt allows that person to control all of their relationships because everyone else has to walk on egg shells a To deal with them you do nothing do not change who you are or worry what you say if enough people do this the person will become tougher or go get a new group of friends 13 The most difficult person of allthey think they are never wrong WE are the most difficult person we think we are never wrong we justify our behavior because we do not want to feel or look bad it is our human nature if you learn skills to manage yourself you can easily manage the other twelve a Strategy lwhen you have a dilemma you work it out rationally instead of emotionally using your brain instead of your heart we have diarrhea of the mouth step outside of your body when you have a problem and solve the problem as an objective observer Strategy 2exercise your responsibility respond abilityresponsibility we have the ability to respond any way you want to what another person says or does 57 These are all designed for you to deal with people and to protect your mental health September 10 2012 1 What are specific mental health outlets that are available in our community a Suicide hotline called The Phone Baton Rouge Mental Health free or low cost but it is first come first serve LSU SHC has mental health services free for fulltime students religious organizations selfhelpsupport groups EKL MHER program 2 How would you create an ideal mental health program for a community Education more outpatient programs cheaper than inpatient 3 What can affect the mental health of a community Natural disasters PTSD after disasters places where there is high poverty there is high crime and people do not have a sense of security therefore high mental health issues among the population 4 How would you describe the mental health of our city state and country Slowing down the fast paced society Health promotion is the process by which people are empowered to increase control and improve their wellness However there are certain institutions that must be able to provide those services such as the government the health care system in general someone s family structure KIN 2604 Midterm Notes A good mental health program has five characteristics 1 Includes the entire population and is available to everyone not just to those with money and that can pay for it 2 It focuses on the cause of mental health problems not just delivering health services 3 It includes education fiscal policy and community development keeping roads fixed and trash picked up 4 Has direct public participation 5 It is influenced by health professionals and not government bureaucrats A good mental health program involves health care and public policy working together The goal ofa good community mental health program 1 Promoting literacy in mental health issues 2 Members of the community having good selfesteem 3 Maintaining the community keeping the roads nice maintaining parks tearing down abandoned houses instead of letting them be used as drug houses The ideal program can be broken down into three components 1 To strengthen the individual or to give them power done through life skill training job training parenting training conflict resolution training in schools 2 Strengthen the community done through social interaction social services in the community selfhelp and free meetings AA having a safe community 3 Reducing health disparities increasing access to health care to those that cannot afford it September 12 2012 History of Mental Health Primitive times Little evidence to prove mental health existed in primitive times All disease was suggested to be because of divinity spirits demons etc If you were mentally ill you were possessed by an evil spirit and were forced out of the body by medicine men that would use magic Would also drill a hole into a person s skull to let the evil spirits out called trephining Exorcisms faith healing astrology also prevalent in those times Ancient civilization in India They developed yoga which means union Yoga is an ancient system used to keep the body in balance also described to maintain harmony between the mind and body Yoga is widely accepted today as a way to improve and maintain good mental health It is a good way to clear the mind and relieve stressors Ancient Egyptians We know a lot about them because they recorded their history by drawing hieroglyphics They learned that the brain was enclosed in a membrane and was enclosed in two hemispheres drew pictures of what the brain looks like There are also descriptions of people that have hysteria alcoholism sadness among other mental health issues The sorcerer was their quotdoctorquot and they had knowledge of drugs to treat mental health issues KIN 2604 Midterm Notes Ancient China Systematic Chinese medicine was developed by Huang Di Di emphasized the importance between the yin and yang in a person s body yangmasculine yinfeminine Balance between yin and yang meant good mental health Di treated mental health problems through acupuncture Needles are placed at specific points in the body that correlate to different parts of the body the needles are supposed to release positive energy Chinese also specialized in massage Ancient Greece Our way of medicine and treating mental health issues can be traced back to Greece Hypocrites the father of modern medicine treated disease in a rational fashion and wrote 70 books on medicine The foundation of Greek medicine had three categories that had to be in specific balance for a person to be happy 1 Humors blood phlegm black bile and yellow bile 2 Elements fire water earth and air 3 Qualities hot cold moist and dry And imbalance in these caused and illness Depression was caused too much black bile this was the first time religion and superstition was not used to try and cure mental health Hippocrates was also the first to classify people by the way they behave and for the first time the mentally ill were treated humanely Mentally ill were treated with respect He would also use drugs such as opium to help calm people down He would have slow people exercise and be active He would even record sessions with his patients where he would analyze their dreams Ancient Rome The mentally ill were also treated with respect Selcus was an important doctor in the Roman Empire He differentiated between different types of insanity some were too happy too sad violent etc He used diversion therapy entertained stories of sad people etc Dark Ages Generally Greece and Rome were humane in how they treated the mentally ill This changed during the Middle or Dark ages after the Roman Empire collapsed Everything rational was thrown out the window and religion controlled society Medicine was replaced with witchcraft and superstition During this time human civilization took a step backward to where lifespan was only about 31 years Mentally ill people were locked in asylums starved beaten chained up and treated very poorly Families were scared to have a mentally health person in their home because they might be considered mentally ill so they threw their family members out of their house to roam the streets When asylums became too full the ones declared most ill were burned at the stake The Renaissance After the Dark Ages religion took a back seat to culture art and science They studied the ancient Greeks and Romans and people became more intelligent but it was still believed that mentally ill were possessed by evil They were locked in medical asylum and denied care They were burned blistered and bled so that the evil could leave the body Some lived in a strait jacket or heavy chains on their arms and legs An important revelation was made during this time by Rene Descartes a mathematician and philosopher He said that the mind and body are independent of each other The body should be treated by doctors and mind treated by religion No real advancements were made in caring for the mentally ill until the 18 h century KIN 2604 Midterm Notes 18 h Century The first American that wrote the first book on mental health was Benjamin Rush In his book he suggested that the mentally ill could be helped mental illness was not permanent and they should be treated with dignity and respect A section of his book was devoted to remedies on how to cure mental health Remediesfor Mad People He went through how to help people with mental illness to get better While he was influential in American in Europe was being advocated by Philip Pinel He went into the major asylum and Paris and unchained people chained up and divided up the people in the asylum by the type of illness they had He would observe and talk to his patients about their problems and record their sessions like a therapist He believed that you need to have friendly contact with the mentally ill to help them would discuss what they were feeling and would give them meaningful and fulfilling activities in between sessions He divided all mentally ill into four categories 1 Manichigh uncontrollable 2 Melancholysad depressed 3 Dementialost their mind hallucinogenic 4 Idiotstoday called mentally handicapped For the first time he advocated that environment could cause a person to be mentally ill and they were not just born with it social and psychological stressors could cause mental illnessHe had case studies on specific patients were he would track them over time write down treatments and the response to those treatments He saw mental asylums and mental health hospitals where people could be treated instead of imprisoned He also said that the mentally ill could eventually be returned to society He influenced how mental health was treated throughout Europe September 14 2012 Jean CharcotFrench man who did a lot of detail studies on hysteria He was one of the first people to conclude that mental health disorders had to do with brain chemistry and perhaps mental health disorders were passed on genetically through families In America during this time the first female to study mental health was Dorothea Dix She was the superintendent in charge of nurses during the Civil War Due to her job she travelled throughout the country and saw the deplorable conditions the mentally ill had to live in inside the insane asylums Dix concluded that the mentally ill in the US was treated among the same level of criminals She used her position in the US Army to convince the Congress and Legislature to pass laws that will care better for the mentally ill The first training program to train psychiatrists was started at McClean Hospital in Wavery Mass 20 h Century One of the most important American figures was Clifford Beers He had a nervous breakdown after his brother passed away and he was hospitalized in an institution He kept a diary of how poorly he and the other patients were treated how they were abused and dehumanized Somehow he managed to regain stability on his own and wrote his book based on his diaries called A Mind that Found Itself The book became a best seller and it brought national attention to how poorly they were treating their most vulnerable citizens Ghani said you can measure a nation on how it treats its most vulnerable citizens and its animals This changed public opinion and after Beers saw the success of his book he founded the KIN 2604 Midterm Notes Minnesota Committee for Mental Hygiene It was so successful within a few years it became the National Committee for Mental Hygiene This committee went around to communities and fought governments to improve opinions and services for the mentally ill it also promoted the conditions for the mentally ill By the time Beers died in 1943 the mental ill push in the US was very well established During this time and Austrian scientist named Sigmund Freud spent time in the US and he created the Psychoanalytic School of Psychology Some would argue that Freud was the founder of psychology as a field In Germany AmilKraepelin was a psychiatrist that classified hundreds of mental disorders Alzheimer studied a form of dementia that became known as Alzheimer s disease Across the world there were improvements in the care of the mentally ill Australia passed the Mental Hygiene Act of 1933 which changed the names of asylums from Hospitals for the Insane to the term Mental Hospitals instead of calling someone a lunatic they were called a mental patient Mental health care was also influenced by three unrelated discoveries 1 Psychosurgerycutting a hole in the brain also a lobotomy 2 Electroconvulsive therapyshock treatments 3 Neuroleptic drugshappy pills Lobotomies were started by Antonio Monze who was from Portugal The idea was to severe certain brain connections He won the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1949 for his work The first American to do it was a neurologist named Walter Freedman This surgery was used in the past to treat depression anxiety disorders etc Between 1936 and 1955 20000 lobotomies were performed in the US The issue of the side effects were listlessness dullness and after drugs were invented lobotomies fell out of favor to the point where they were banned in several countries Electroconvulsive therapy was started in Italy in 1938 by UgoCerletti who was a psychiatrist He first tested it on patients In some extreme cases it is still used for people who do not respond well to drugs It s used for people with schizophrenia manic depression and severe depression Some people swear it works and some people it is cruel n y In the 1950s neuroleptic drugs were invented 39r and I quot39 The very first traditional drug was called Chlorpromazine in 1952 It was for people with schizophrenia and other major mental disorders In the 1960s lithium and haloperidol made people calm and it was a precursor to current antianxiety drugs such as Xanax In the 1960s a person with a mental disorder was probably put in a mental hospital At its peak mental hospitals held 422000 patients in 1960s In the 1970s because of the alarmingly rising health care costs the idea of staying in a mental hospital was no longer popular you would only go in for a brief period of time They wanted to get you out of the hospital back into society and have you function like a normal person Today there are short hospital stays with quick reentry into the community Since the 1990s brain imaging through MRIs and CTs and newer antipsychotic drugs have further improved the understanding and treatment of mental illnesses Drugs today have fewer side effects except for cosmetic side effects such as weight gain and allow the used to live a normal and balanced life Several people in the world are on antipsychotic medications such as for ADDADHD anxiety depression or schizophrenia The issue is people relapse because they get off the medication because they feel normal and feel they do not need it anymore The drugs specifically target the way chemicals are released into the body KIN 2604 Midterm Notes September 19 2012 Most people with a mental health disorder have unusually high levels of stress and poor ways of dealing with it We all face challenges in our lives These challenges create high levels of anxiety and stress in our lives which can affect our health in the short or long term These pressures tension and anxiety have psychological effects to them Even things we find enjoyable or pleasant can cause us stress something good that causes stress is eustress such as winning the lottery and something that is bad that causes stress is called distress such as getting caught in the rain with no umbrella or traffic Stress is defined as how you respond to a threat when you decide that something is a threat your body starts going through the general adaptation syndrome HannsSeyle identified this general adaptation syndrome and spent his entire career studying stress He concluded that while you are dealing with something that causes stress you will go through stages 1 Alarm stagefight or flight reaction During this stage several physical changes occur within the body and occur due to the sympathetic nervous system Specifically the adrenal gland produces adrenaline and sends it into the blood stream your BP goes up vessels constrict blood moves to muscles and away from the extremities blood leaves your stomach which can cause just acid to remain in the stomach and cause ulcers any stored sugars and fats get released into the blood stream as energy blood becomes thick because of an excess of platelets eyes dilate and hearing improves all to help your body prepare to fight or run and to deal with the stress Your liver produces extra cholesterol which clogs blood vessels which lines blood cells for quick repair By products from this reaction gets stored in the blood stream and 1500 chemical reactions can take place in just one alarm stage In the first 12 minutes of exercise you burn what is in your blood stream this is why it is important to exercise if you are a person with a high amount of stress The thing that causes the stress is called a stressor If you cannot deal with the stressor or the stress lasts a long time you go into the second stage 2 Resistanceyou utilize personal coping strategies that help to get the body back to normal and reduce the stress playing with the Couj or clean We either cannot perform our coping strategies or do not have any or have negative coping strategies drinking Ultimately our coping strategy is either successful or unsuccessful if it is successful then the stress ends but there is always a small cost to the wellbeing of the individual If it is unsuccessful you go to the next stage 3 Exhaustiona negative stage that equates to failure and resulting in a physical illness irritability inability to concentrate etc One of the best stress reducers or managers is time management Two issues that causes stress is time management school and money workbills Three major classifications of stressors 1 Cataclysmic eventeffects a lot of people at one time such as natural disasters bomb threat etc 2 Personal stressorsmajor life events that everyone goes through such as deathfunerals divorcebreakups major failureslosing a job moving to a new place life threatening diagnosisdeformity etc 3 Background stressorseveryday stress such as traffic appliances breaking noise deadlines parking issues irritating behavior of others etc KIN 2604 Midterm Notes Everyone needs to develop their own coping style that is either positive exercise or sleep or neutral taking care of bills etc Negative coping styles are denial deflecting problems drug or alcohol use etc If you are going to plan your life with a list or planner plan your leisure time into your schedule Stress can cause burn out which is a negative consequence of stress We need to schedule more recreational or down time to help reduce possible stress which is a precursor to anxiety disorders depression personality disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorders If you do not manage stress your mental health will suffer Counselors psychologists social workers etc help to evaluate past and current stress and help people to make a life plan and coping strategies to help manage stress when it comes around September 21 2012 Time management activity due next Friday September 28 2012 Put into groups exchange contact information decide what mental health drugs you would like to do report on by Monday October 1 you and a partner must turn in a list of seven potential mental health medicines that you can do a report on then drug will be selected for you Will create a ten minute report on medication need a power point history ofdrug what the drug does the cost of the drug if the person does not have insurance what the drug is supposed to do potential side effects can add testimonial to powerpoint Group 9 with Michael Saco September 24 2012 Human Emotional Theories Human emotional development occurs in an orderly fashion We achieve certain milestones for how we process information how we utilize language and how we behave socially We are constantly developing until we die We operate on both internal and external factors While we often have similar milestones the individual rates of achievement of those milestones are different from person to person They vary due to heredity and the environment you are in We will study several theories of social development many are similar but each of them focuses on a different thing that is important in social development Humanistic theory believes that human beings are different from all other creatures and should be considered different psychologically They minimize studies of animal behavior Abraham Maslow lived from 19081970 He looked at healthy individuals instead of dysfunctional people he considered them healthy if they were healthy and maximized their potential as a human being In general Maslow s theory is that human beings are internally driven to maximize their potential The word he used for maximized is actualized Maslow stated that reaching your potential was known as selfactualization and if you did not reach your potential it was because of the society around you and the environment you are in He also believed selfactualization was the result of you meeting other things along the way and he put it on the top of a pyramid Firstbottom was basic needs food shelter thirst and safety Next is meeting your psychological needs such as meeting other people being accepted into society feeling a sense of approval that what you are doing is right selfesteem etc KIN 2604 Midterm Notes The top is self actualization and a person who has selfactualized is a person who has a sense of fulfillment in their life and they are doing the best they are capable of doing It varies from person to person Famous selfactualized people Beethoven Einstein and Abe Lincoln Maslow additionally described characteristics of the selfactualized person they are independent spontaneous had an appreciation for people had humor were creative and could easily be in an intimate relationship free from drama He believed that deep inside we are all trying to be self actualized because everyone was born from a good nature Some people have an issue with Maslow s theory because they thought Maslow only studied people who were already selfactualized and there is a debate if people are inherently good or not The major outcome on his work was that he focused healthy people and what made them healthy instead of the mentally ill and what made them ill he opened up an entire new school of through Another humanist that was influenced by Maslow was Carl Rogers lived from 19021987 had the opportunity to meet with Maslow and study his school of thought Rogers was the first therapist who called his patient s clients instead of patients He thought the word patient focused on the negative and he believed in a client centered approach in therapy He said almost all children were all victims of conditional positive regard cond Pos regard is when a parent hold love and praise until the parent received the response that they want parents want children to conform to specific social standards As adults we maintain conditional positive regard by keeping some of our feelings inside as well as some of our thoughts otherwise people would hate us Some parents take conditional positive regard too far and if taken too far it destroys your spontaneity which helps you achieve the variety part of the four basic human needs Rogers said that to handle people who keep everything inside is through talk therapy the role of the therapist in talk therapy is to allow the client to speak their thoughts freely and to support them no matter what Conditional positive regard prevents you from feeling accepted as you are growing up without praise and love This type of client centered talk therapy is most commonly used today The behaviorist model of social development means that development is a function of learned responses to the environment All humans have a basic drive or desire and your behavior is your response to that drive or desire Reinforcement occurs when we satisfy that desire some refer to reinforcement as reward Albert Bandura is the father of social learning theory he said that people learn as young children by imitating what they see from their parents friends or on television Even if that behavior is problematic such as aggressive or physical abuse that child will learn that aggressive or physical abuse is the way to solve problems Bandura also believes that everyone is unique because no one is raised the exact same way and no one has the exact same experiences growing up This theory accounts for the differences in human beings Bandura suggested that detailed instructions combined with demonstration and supervision is the way to change behavior Cognitive behavioral therapy is showing you why your behavior is bad and then you will receive instructions on how to change the behavior and then you have homework of actually practicing the changed behavior Carl Jung pronounced Young was a student of Freud he lived from 18751961 He developed his own theory called psychodynamic theory His theory was that people looked into the future and developed goals for themselves the goal development and behavior is guided by prior knowledge or past experiences He believed that people maximized their potential by developing all parts of their personality and his goal was called individuation which is the top of his quotpyramidquot of his theory After achieving this he said that is when a person is able to become a fully functioning human being Jung said KIN 2604 Midterm Notes there were two basic psychological types introvert which is quiet creative and is more interested in ideas more than other people and the extrovert is social interested in people and interested in the environment around them Jung also divided human thought or how people perceived the world into four categories Sensingare aware of things in the environment but have no thoughts on it Thinkingyou give things a name in the environment Feelingour opinion over what the object is worth in the environment Intuitionhaving a hunch when you do not have information available PPN If you were a thinking extrovert personality it means you live by very fixed rules are very dogmatic such as a scientist If you are a feeling extrovert you respond emotionally to objective reality they change their feelings based on the situation and what is appropriate for the situation a person might choose their mate based on money age and social standing rather than their actual feelings for that person September 26 2012 If you are a sensing extrovert personality type you are a realist and only concern themselves with facts not opinions or theories Feelings are repressed only the tangible or the concrete has any value to them An intuitive extrovert person sees outside reality in many possibilities There is little concern with other people therefore this person can be seen as immoral or unscrupulous Sociopathic people fit into this category people with jobs on Wall Street politicians etc also fit into this category A thinking introvert is determined by subjective reality These people follow their own thoughts no matter how dangerous they are meaning they are seen as cold ruthless and inflexible People with OCD fit into this category A feeling introvert have trouble communicating with others they are seen as unsympathetic and egotistical Sensing introverts such as artists and intuitive introverts are aloof distant and misunderstood However they are very intelligent Philosophers fall into this category studiers of religion Carl Jung defined the stages of development as childhood young adulthood and middle aged Jung believed in middle age we start understanding or creating our own meaning of life and religion becomes more important to us to where our religious convictions are as important as our need for food and shelter Psychodynamic theory Eric Erikson studied with Freud saw life as eight stages In each stage there was a conflict and in order to develop properly the conflict must be resolved in a positive manner Infancyconflict of trust versus mistrust if the infant is cared for in a loving and consistent manner it will develop trust if the parents reject the infant the infant will develop mistrust Can trust this by leaving the room the infant will allow the mother to leave the room if they trust the mother if the infant does KIN 2604 Midterm Notes not trust it will get fussy if mom leaves the room The child is able to take risks in their life if they can trust and the child is not overwhelmed when something goes wrong is disappointed or has a setback Early childhoodages one to three conflict of autonomy versus shame and doubt During this stage children are mastering a number of skills such as talking walking and pulling One important task of this stage is a child holding onto something and being able to let it go this not only applies to tangible objects but also their bodily functions toilet training Parents have to be tolerant but firm to assure that their child s behavior is socially acceptable The danger here is if parents become overprotective and children will develop shame and doubt thinking they will never do anything on their own By being tolerant but firm the child learns to do things on their own such as using the bathroom properly Preschoolconflict of initiative versus guilt ages four to five During this stage children have a very active fantasy life and are learning what type of person they will become f parents allow this imaginary life to occur then the child will have a healthy sense of initiative If the parents make fun of this imaginary life then the child will develop feelings of guilt Initiative is important in children because it gives them a sense of purpose Children with a high level of initiative will have a high sense of hope Schoolaged ages 6 through 11 the conflict is industry versus inferiority Children are learning how to live learning social skills to get along with other people and learning elementary economics If the child is able to have a high sense of industry they will become a productive member of society If they do not learn that industry they will feel inferior and if they feel inferior they will develop conduct disorder Adolescenceages 12 to 20 identity versus role confusion During this stage people are searching for a personal identity feeling comfortable in their own body If they do not develop this identity they develop role confusion which means they can become an outcast to society Young adulthoodages 2024 the conflict of intimacy versus isolation You are learning the true meaning of love and the true meaning of work Only individuals who feel secure or confortable with themselves can have a successful and meaningful relationship People who do not feel comfortable with themselves become isolated and they have negative relationships that can end up being abusive etc Adulthoodages 25 to 64 conflict of generativity versus stagnation During this stage if you have a high level of generativity you are working have good relationships and begin passing on your life knowledge to future generations such as towards raising your children If you are stagnant then you have a sense of no hope you simply just exist without doing anything for others Old age or late adulthoodages 65 or older conflict of integrity versus despair If you have integrity it means you are satisfied with what you have accomplished and you do not fear death If you have despair you look back in your life with frustration and regret and you are not ready for death because you do not feel as though your life is complete Erikson felt that all stages relate to one another and the last stage is directly related to the first The idea of therapy was to strengthen a person s ego so they can cope with all parts of their life The opinion of some people is that the theories reflect the personal background and struggles of the theorist example Erikson s views are based on what has happened in his life Each theory is a small piece ofa large puzzle of human 39 39 r a lot of is still a mystery 1 r
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