PRIN OF CONDITIONING
PRIN OF CONDITIONING KIN 2504
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Chapter 1416 Final Exam Kinesiology 2504 Chapter 14 Avoiding Substance Use Abuse amp Addiction What is Addiction amp What Are Its Effects 0 Addiction continued involvement with a substance or activity despite ongoing negative consequences Characterized by four common symptoms Compulsion obsession constantly talk about it and have to be around it cannot survive without it Loss of Control be aware of it and not care or may not be aware of it Negative Consequences nancial relationships scholarships job losses injury criminal charges etc 4 Denial does not think it is a problem Costs of alcohol tobacco and drug addiction exist on a personal as well as societal level Addictive behaviors initially provide a sense of pleasure that the addict cannot achieve in other ways 0 Chemicals are responsible for the most profound addictions along with mood swings Dangers of Alcohol Use amp Abuse 0 Alcohol abuse is common on college campuses 0 Almost half of college students engage in binge drinking males 5 drinks in a row and females 4 drinks in a row Potential for unwanted sexual advances traumatic injuries alcohol poisoning etc Binge drinking is the 1 cause of preventable deaths among college students inthe US Alcohol profoundly affects the body 0 Contains ethanol an addictive drug that is absorbed throughout the gastrointestinal system 0 The higher alcohol concentration the faster it is absorbed by the body 0 Mood also affects alcohol use absorption is much faster when people are tense or stressed Shortterm risks and effects of ethanol 0 Depressed central nervous system function 0 Lower respiratory pulse and blood pressure rates 0 Binge drinkers are at risk for irregular heartbeat and heart damage 0 Vital functions can be compromised causing death 0 Longterm risks and effects of alcohol 0 Disease of nervous and circulatory systems 0 Liver disease including hepatitis 0 Risk of cancer 0 Risk of fetal alcohol syndrome in pregnant women 0 Brain size shrinkage and brain cell damage Alcohol H epatitischronic in ammation of the liver can be fatal or lead to serosis LAN Chapter 1416 Final Exam Kinesiology 2504 Overcoming Drug Abuse 0 Vast body of evidence suggest that its almost inevitable that prolonged drug use will lead to addiction 0 Most addicts need specialized medical and psychological treatment 0 Main treatments are drug programs combined with medications and behavioral therapy Dangers of Tobacco Use 0 Nicotine a powerful stimulant is the major psychoactive substance in tobacco products 0 When smoked nicotine is released and inhaled into the lungs along with tar and 4700 other chemicals including arsenic formaldehyde and ammonia o Cigarette smoke also contains carbon monoxide a dangerous gas when smoked its concentration is 800 times higher than the level that is considered safe 0 Shortterm risks and effects of tobacco use 0 Tobacco is a stimulant Aroused mental state Increased heart and respiratory rates Constricted blood vessels Reduced appetite Feel more alert 0 Longterm risks and effects of tobacco use 0 Cancer 0 Cardiovascular disease 0 Respiratory disease including emphysema 0 Sexual dysfunction 0 Gum disease Commonly Used Drugs 0 Marijuana 0 Longterm studies show it causes lung damage 0 Immune function suppression blood pressure changes and impaired memory 0 Risks for women include lower infant birth weight higher miscarriage probability and nervous system abnormalities in infants 0 Designer Drugs Club Drugs 0 Produced in chemical laboratories made in private homes sold illegally o Commonly include Ecstasy mood enhancer GHB tranquilizer and Special K 0000 O anesthetic o Dangers include brain damage loss of consciousness seizures respiratory distress and cancer Stimulants 0 Powerful drugs that stimulate the nervous system 0 Among most addictive substances available 0 Include cocaine naturally occurring stimulant and amphetamines synthetic agents Depressants 0 Agents that depress central nervous system functions 0 Include opiates such as morphine codeine and heroine Chapter 1416 Final Exam Kinesiology 2504 0 Highly addictive sometimes deadly Hallucinogens 0 Primary effects alter feelings thoughts and perceptions o Mainly consumed for hallucinogenic side effects are illegal Inhalants 0 Chemicals that produce vapors that when inhaled create euphoric effects 0 Include rubber cement model glue paint thinner lighter uid varnish wax spot removers and gasoline Steroids 0 Arti cial forms of the male hormone testosterone used illegally to promote muscle growth and strength 0 Many claims for effectiveness and sideeffects can be serious and lifelong Chapter 1416 Final Exam Kinesiology 2504 Chapter 15 Reducing Your Risk of Sexually Transmitted Infections What are Sexually Transmitted Infections o A sexually transmitted infection STI is a microbial infection caused by viruses or bacteria and spread through sexual contact 0 Infections range from relatively mild to life threatening o Commonly result from having unprotected sex sexual intercourse without a condom or other means of protection Major Types of Bacterial STIs o Chlamydia Most common bacterial STI in United States Often does not present symptoms so may be passed unknowingly If untreated in women it can spread and cause pelvic in ammatory disease PID Pregnant women with chlamydia have a high risk for miscarriage and can pass the disease to unborn children 0 It is treatable with antibiotics if detected early 0 Gonorrhea The second most common bacterial STI in United States 0 It infects the reproductive and pelvic areas but can spread to eyes or elsewhere via hands or body uids during intercourse Men experience more overt symptoms including milky discharge and painful urination 29 days after exposure Women are far less likely to display symptoms so it often goes undiagnosed and untreated until long after exposure Antibiotics are often successful treatments when the disease is detected early 0 Syphilis 0 Usually transmitted via intercourse but may also be conveyed by skin breaks or deep kissing when body uids are exchanged 0 Symptoms often imitate those of other diseases so it can be difficult to diagnose o If left untreated it progresses through multiple stages in the primary phase chancres open sores frequently appear at the initial site of infection Major Types of Viral STIs o Herpes o Characterized by sores or eruptions on the skin One in five Americans are estimated to be infected with the virus Herpes Simplex I is associated with minor cold sores experienced by many people Herpes Simplex H is associated with genital infection Both types can infect and cause sores on any body area The virus remains in the body for life and can are up whenever the body s immune resistance is lowered Genital herpes may increase chances of developing cervical cancer no cure 0000 O O O 0 00000 O Chapter 1416 Final Exam Kinesiology 2504 0 Human Papillomavirus HPV 0 Also known as genital warts caused by a group of viruses 0 An estimated 20 million Americans are infected with HPV 0 Initial infection occurs during intercourse with itchy bumps appearing on genital areas 68 weeks later however most people have no symptoms so it can be passed unknowingly 0 Biggest threat for women is the connection between HPV and cervical cancer 0 A vaccine exists that prevents cervical cancer which is recommended for females ages 926 0 Hepatitis B 0 Seven forms of hepatitis can damage the liver and result in liver cancer the most common being hepatitis B virus HBV o Transmitted via sexual contact sharing infected needles or from an infected mother to her infant o Roughly 13 of people display no symptoms are present symptoms include jaundice fatigue loss of appetite nausea abdominal pain vomiting and joint pain 0 One of the fastest growing STIs in the US because those infected become chronic carriers and infect others 0 Preventative vaccine exists but no cure once infected 0 Can lead to chronic liver disease or liver cancer 0 HIV AIDS 0 Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome AIDS is a significant worldwide threat resulting from infection by the human immunodeficiency virus HIV 0 Over 33 million people worldwide are infected with most cases in subSaharan Africa in the US about one million people are infected with over 500000 deaths since it appeared o Enters body via body uids by way of sexual organs orifices or skin breaks 0 Marked by stages with specific symptoms for each HIV can result in fullblown AIDS there is currently no cure although stages can be treated and life extended in many people for years 0 Other STIs o Pubic Lice I Also called crabs since it comes from an insect that lays eggs I Transmitted sexually although it may be caught from bedding I Treatment includes washing all infected items and may take 23 weeks to kill all larvae o Trichomoniasis I Caused by a protozoan I Symptoms include yellow discharge and painful urination I Transmitted sexually and via uids residing on toilet seats in wet towels or damp locker room furniture Chapter 1416 Final Exam Kinesiology 2504 Chapter 16 Maintaining Lifelong Fitness and Wellness What Happens As We Age 0 Aging is a progressive decline in the maximal functional level of individual cells whole organs and entire organisms 0 Most people reach their peak in physical strength sensory activity reaction time and cardiovascular functioning during their 20s and 30s 0 Signs of aging include wrinkles aches and pains grey hair memory loss mobility vision and hearing deficit more quickly fatigued Theories of Aging 0 The causes of aging are still being debated 0 Wear and Tear Theory 0 Over time an accumulation of damage between both internal and environmental factors wear the body out 0 Cellular Theory 0 From birth our cells are genetically programmed to divide or reproduce a limited number of times once this peak number is reached the cells begin to die and the organs they make up begin to deteriorate 0 Genetic Theory 0 Proposes that the number of cells exhibiting mutations increases with age as we get older more mutations occur Older Adults and Wellness 0 Adults over 65 face the greatest wellness challenges 0 Physical decline is often accompanied by mental cognitive and emotional decline along with grief over losing loved ones 0 Issues in aging broadly affect our whole society including health costs Social Security housing transportation and elder care 0 Education is correlated with healthy aging people with more years of education are healthier at age 70 than those with fewer years Not smoking is the single biggest factor in healthy aging Emotional security strong social support network stable marriage not abusing alcohol exercise good nutrition having a healthy BMI a good education Relationships and Lifelong Wellness 0 Social and emotional support can affect health nearly as much as exercise and nutrition 0 Married people have lower mortality rates than nonmarried people 0 Longterm committed relationships lower stress levels and contribute to overall health including friendships families and love relationships Communication is the main trait common to all successful relationships In particular the willingness for selfdisclosure and the skill of active listening are the essence of good communication in relationships Chapter 1416 Final Exam Kinesiology 2504 Relationships and Support 0 Different types of relationships improve important practical spiritual and psychological support 0 Families are recognizable groups of people whose central focus is to protect care for love and socialize one another Friendships are relationships between two or more people involving mutual respect trust support and intimacy 0 Love relationships include all the traits of friendships but may also include all the traits of friendships but may also include mutual preoccupation exclusivity priority and sexual desire and a willingness to sacrifice for each other and championing one another s interests Being a Smart Health Consumer 0 Take responsibility for your own health care 0 O O 0 Practice selfcare including selfexams first aid selfmonitoring diagnosing symptoms and stress reduction techniques Seek medical advice at appropriate times and understand how to recognize when symptoms or conditions need professional attention Assess health professionals understand coverage options consider qualifications and ask questions Seek out sources of health care coverage that will pay for health care Be proactive and educate yourself about your options 0 Planning for Lifelong Fitness and Wellness 0 To maintain healthy lifelong habits you should O 0000 Continually reassess your fitness and wellness Use chapter labs to assess your needs Set goals and make plans for further efforts Revisit the behavior change contract and add new behaviors that you can improve Realize that wellness needs will change over time KIN 2504 MARCH 14 2011 BMIBody Mass Index BMIweightkg heightm squared Lbs22kg A 01 393 0 inches 254100 m round to one decimal place for everything Body Composition Concepts 1 Percent Body Fatimportant to know bc they ll tell immediately what kind of discease risks someone s threatened by designate percentage of total body weight that is made up of fat tissue 2 Essential Fat body fat that is critical and essential for physiological functioningMen and Women have precise amounts of essential fat they need in their daily diets 3 Storage Fat nonessential deposited near surface of body gives energy insulation and padding Body Comprelative amounts of fat massadipose and lean tissue in the body Body shape body size and body comp will literally define what you look like but also critical indicators for overall health and fitness level Why Body Size Shape and Composition Matter 1 Knowing body composition can help assess health risks a More people are now overweight or obese b Estimates of body composition provide useful information for determining disease risks 2 Evaluating body size and shape can motivate healthy behavior change a Changes in body size and shape can be more useful measures of progress than body weight b Looks can be deceiving as far as disease risk scales can t assume anymore body Composition for Men and Women 1 Men a more muscle than females b more perecentage weight from bone density c 3 essential fat 2 Female a need more essential fats than males12 b store more nonessential fat How to Evaluate Body Size and Shape 1 Calculate your body mass index BMI a not a percent body fat different reading b Check top of notes for formulas 2 BMIa common measurement to assess disease risks W Understand the limits of BMI 4 Measure your body circumference a waist circumference direct correlation to abdominal fat and heart disease b Ifa male is greater than 102 centimeters or women with greater than 88 centimeters they are associated with increased risk for type II diabetes high blood pressure and coronary heart disease c WHRwaist to hip ratiowaist circ hip circMales who have 94 or greater and women who have 82 or greater are seen as having increased risk for chronic disease 5 BMI can be skewed by petite individuals athletes body builders BMI SCALE not a percentage 185 or belowunderweightputs you just as much disease risk as being overweight or obese 185249normal 25299overweight 30obese E Identify your body s patterns of fat distribution 1 Android Pattern a APPLe shaped b Excess body fat on upper body and trunk c Associated with greater disease risk 2 Gynoid Pattern a quotPearquot shaped b excess fat mainly on lower body hips and thighs F Assessing Body Comp 1 Skinfold Measusrement a Use calipers to measure skinfold thickness b Accurate eassessments require exereience and practice 2 Dual Energy XRay Absorptiometry DXA a The quotgold standard for assessing body compostion b Uses low radiation xrays to distinguish body components 539quot Hydrostatic Weighing Underwater Weighing a requires an equipped facility b used to be the gold standard bc of the equipment costs 1 Air Displacement Bod Pod a measure total body air displacement b used with other measures for a full assessment 0quot Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis BIA a Measures resistance of tissues to electrical currents b Accuract depends on machine quality and participant coop Estimate from Circumferences or BMI a Provide rough estimates b Can provide a starting point for weight management Fquot March 21 2011 Guest Speaker A the Obesity Epidemic 1 Americans overweight or ovese a 72 of adult men 64 adult women 13 of all adults are obese BMI indeX of 30 or more 999 2 American Colelge Student ACHANCHA Data a2 2 overweight b 115 obese c LSU data available summer 2011 B Top 10 sources of caloriesamericans 1 Children and adolescents ages 218 yrs a C Balanced diet 1 nutrient balance a balancing out calories with nutrients 2 health maintenance a chronic diseases 3 Weigth maintnence a put us at risk to chronic diseases 4 Diseases prevention a prevent cancer promote longevity 5 Disease treatment 6 Activity enhancement D energy Requirements 1 moderately active people 2 18 years old 3 20002200 caloriesfemale 4 26002800 men 5 depends on weight goals activity level and an individual s age and size E different Types of Nutrients 1 Macronutrients a Carbohydrates b Protein c Fat 2 Micronutrients a Vitamins b Minerals 3 Water F Carbohydrates 1 funtions a primary source of energy for all body functions and muscular exertion b glycogen is stored as quotfuelquot for the muscle and liver c glycogen depletion leads to muscle fatigue d symptoms of liver glycogen depletion i uncoordinated ii lightheaded iii unable to concentrate iv weakness e energy value i 1g carb4 calories of energy f dietary reference intakeDRI i 45 to 65 of total calories G Protein a Funtions i Buld and repair muscle and other tissues ii Component of hormones iii Transports oxygen to muscles b Energy value i 1g4 calories of energy ii 10 to 35 of total calories c Sources i Beef poultry fish dried beans eggs nuts dairy grainis vegetables and tofu H Fat a Funtions i Concentrated source of energy for physically active people ii Source of essential fatty acids iii Absorption and transport of fatsoluble vitamins ADE and K iv Protective membranes around the cells b Energy value i 1 g fat 9 calories of energy c dietary reference intake i 20 to 35 of total calories d sources i butter margarine oils mayonnaise salad dressing fried food fatty meats ice cream fullfat cheese nuts buttery or creamy desserts ii pastries crackers and pies contain quothiddenquot fat 1 Water a Funtions i Helps cool the body ii Transports electrolytes and nutrients throughout the body b Recommended intake i 2 quarts ofwater for every pound lost I Vitamins a Thirteen known vitamins b Watersoluble vitamins i B vitamins and vitamin C ii B 812 and folate stored within the body c Fat soluble vitamins i Vitamins A E D and K ii Absorb with fat and stored in fatty tissue d Facilitate metabolism K Vitamin C a Aids in wound healing and resisting infection b An antioxidant shown to fight dnadamaging free radicals c Meet the RDA i Citrus fruits and juices ii Tomatoes iii Strawberries L Vitamin D a Enhances calcium absorption to promote healthy bones and teeth b Meet the RDA i 3 12 02 serving of salmon ii 1015 of sunlight two or three times weekly M Vitamin E a An antioxidant shown to fight DNAdamagin free radicals b Meet the RDA i 1 c raw brocolli ii 2 oz almonds or sun ower seeds N Minerals a plants animal sources b important funtion in the body c adequate amounds N Calcium a Essential for bone health b Aids in proper funtion of nerves heart and muscles c Meet the DRI i 8 02 glass skim milk or yogurt ii 1 c cooked spinach iii 1 fig 0 Iron a Transports oxygen to and from the cells b Prevents irondeficiency anemia c Meet the DRI i Large spinach salad ii 1 c lentil soup iii 3 02 red meat P Zinc a Supports a healthy immune system b Aids in wound healing c Meet the RDA i Cheeseburger on wholewheat bun Q Grain Group a Daily recomm i Women6 oz equivalents ii Men 8 oz equivalents iii At least 12 of the grains should be whole grains b Benefits i May refuce the risk or coronary heart disease and constipation ii Increase satiety c Tips to increase whole grain intake i Substitute a refineds product with whole grain product ii Snack on whole grani readytoeat cereals 1 Cheerios frosted miniwheats R Vegetables a Daily recomm i Women2 21 cups ii Men 3 cups b Benefits i May refuce risk of developing kidney stones ii Maintain healthy blood pressure iii May lower the risk of heart disease iv Keep eyes and skin healthy c Tips to increase veg intake i Make vegetable kabobs as part of a barbecue menu S Fruits a Daily recomm op T Milk a b c 2cups2 pieces a days tips to increase fruit intakes i keep a bowl of whole fruit on the table or in the refrigerator ii add fruit to cereal pancakes or low fat yogurt iii add few slices of ruit into your Daily recomm i 3 cups a day for men and women helps buold and maintain bone mass and strengthen teeth lowers blood pressure U Meat and Beans a b Daily recomm i Women5 oz equivalents ii Men 6 oz equivalents Health benefits i Provide protein act as bulding blocks ii Provide vitamin B E iron magnesium and zinc Mypyramidgov Kinesiology 2504 Test 3 1 Good Nutrition Gear Up for Health Guest Speaker A The Obesity Epidemic 1 Americans overweight or obese a 72 of adult men b 64 of adult women c 13 of adults are obese 2 American college students ACHANCHA Data a 22 overweight b 115 obese 3 LSU data available summer 2011 B Top 10 sources of Calories for Americans 1 Children and adolescents ages 218 a Grainbased desserts 138 kcal b Pizza 136 kcal c Sodaenergy sports drinks 118 kcal d Yeast breads 114 kcal e Chicken and chicken mixed dishes 113 kcal f Pasta and pasta dishes 91kcal g Reduced fat milk 86 kcal h Dairy desserts 76 kcal i Potatocomother chips 70 kcal j Readytoeat cereals 65 kcal 2 Adults and older adults ages 19 a Grainbased desserts 138 kcal b Yeast breads 134 kcal c Chicken and chicken mixed dishes 123 kcal d Sodaenergy sports drinks 112 kcal e Alcoholic beverages 106 kcal f Pizza 86 kcal g Tortillas burritos tacos 85 kcal h Pasta and pasta dishes 78 kcal i Beef and beefmixed dishes 71 kcal j Dairy desserts 58 kcal C Balanced Diet 1 Nutrient balance 2 Health maintenance 3 Weight maintenance 4 Disease prevention and treatment 5 Activity enhancement 6 Peak performance D Energy Requirements 1 Moderately active people 2 18 years and older 3 20002200 calories for females 4 26002800 calories for males 5 Depends on weight goals activity level and an individual s age and size E Different Types of Nutrients l Macronutrients a Carbohydrate b Protein c Fat 2 Micronutrients a Vitamins b Minerals 3 water F Carbohydrates 1 Brain is fueled by carbs Primary source of energy for all body functions and muscular exertion Glycogen is stored as fuel for the muscle and liver Glycogen depletion leads to muscle fatigue symptoms of glycogen depletion low blood sugar a uncoordinated b lightheaded c unable to concentrate d weakness 6 energy value lg carbohydrate 4 calories of energy 7 dietary reference intake DRI 4565 of total calories 8 sources a simple carbohydrates sugars found in fruits juices milk yogurt honey syrup and candy b Complex carbohydrates starches found in whole grains vegetables pasta rice cereals and breads 6 Protein 1 Build and repair muscle and other tissues 2 Component of hormones growth hormones adrenaline insulin 3 Transports oxygen to muscles 4 Energy value lg protein 4 calories of energy 5 Dietary Reference Intake DRI 10 to 35 of total calories 6 Sources beef poultry fish dried beans eggs nutsdairy grains vegetables and tofu H Fat Concentrated source of energy for physically active people Source of essential fatty acids Absorption and transport of fatsoluble vitamins ADE and K Protective membranes around the cells Energy value lg fat 9 calories of energy Dietary reference intake DRI 2035 of total calories 20 to 35 of total calories Sources a Butter margarine oils mayonnaise salad dressing fried food fatty meats ice cream fullfat cheese nuts buttery or creamy desserts b Pastries crackers and pies contain hidden fat with trans fat I Water 1 Functions a Helps cool the body b Transports electrolytes and nutrients throughout the body 2 Recommended intake a Depends on the individual and their activity level b As many as 2 quarts of water per hour can be lost during exercise UIAUJN IONUIAUJNH J N 94 ON Vitamins 13 known vitamins Watersoluble vitamins a B vitamins and Vitamin C b B6 B12 and foliate stored within the body Fat soluble vitamins a Vitamins A E D and K b Absorb with fat and stored in fatty tissue Facilitate metabolism Aid in disease prevention Vitamin C a Aids in wound healing and resisting infection b An antioxidant shown to ght DNAdamaging free radicals c Meet RDA Citrus fruits and juices Tomatoes Strawberries Vitamin D a Enhances calcium absorption to promote healthy bones and teeth b Meet RDA 3 12 oz serving of salmon 1015 min of sunlight 2 or 3 times weekly Vitamin E a Antioxidant shown to ght DNAdamaging free radicals b Meet the RDA lc raw broccoli 2 oz almonds or sun ower seeds K Minerals UIbUJNt I 7 Plants and animal sources Important function in the body Adequate amount of minerals obtained from a balanced diet College women often consume inadequate amounts of iron and calcium Calcium a Essential for bone health b Aids in proper function of nerves heart and muscles c Meet the DRI 8 oz glass skim milk or yogurt l c cooked spinach 1 fig Iron a Transports oxygen to and from the cells b Prevents irondeficiency anemia c Meet the DRI Large spinach salad l c lentil soup 3 oz red meat Zinc a Supports a healthy immune system b Aids in wound healing c Meet the RDA cheeseburger on whole wheat bun L Grains 1 Daily recommendation a Women 6 oz equivalents b Men 8 oz equivalents c At least 12 of the grains should be whole grains 2 Bene ts a May reduce the risk of coronary heart disease and constipation b Increase satiety 3 1 oz 2 cup of ready to eat cereal 1 cup of oatmeal 12 cup of cooked rice pasta cereal 5 whole wheat crackers 12 8 inch tortillas 4 Tips to increase whole grain intake a Substitute a re ne product with whole grain product b Snack on whole grain readytoeat cereals cheerios frosted miniwheats c Add whole grain our or oatmeal to baked goods d Substitute 12 or more of the pancake waf e or muf n mix with whole grain our M Vegetables 1 Daily recommendation a Women 2 12 cups b Men 3 cups 2 Bene ts a May reduce risk of developing kidney stones b Maintain healthy blood pressure c May lower the risk of heart disease d Keep eyes and skin healthy 3 1 cup 2 cups of raw leafy greens 1 cup of raw or cooked vegetable juice 4 Tips to increase vegetables a Make vegetable kabobs as part of a barbecue mean b Include chopped vegetables in pasta sauce or lasagna c Add shred carrots and zucchini into meatloaf quick breads or muf ns d Vary vegetable choices to keep meals interesting N Fruits 1 Daily recommendation a Women 2 cups b Men 2 cups 2 Bene ts a May reduce risk for stroke b May protect against certain cancers c Increased wound healing d Keep teeth and gums healthy 3 1 cup 1 small banana 1 small apple 2 small oranges 12 cup of 100 fruit juice l3 cup of dried fruit 4 Tips to increase fruit intakes a Keep a bowl of whole fruit on the table or in the refrigerator b Add fruit to cereal pancakes or low fat yogurt c Add few slices of fruit into your salad d Eat a whole fruit or 12 cup of dried fruit for snacks 0 Milk 1 Daily recommendation a Women 3 cups b Men 3 cups 1 Cup 8 oz oguri 1 Cup ofpuddmg 1 12 oz ofnatural cheese about 2 shces 13 Cup ofshredded cheeseZ oz ofprocessed cheese about 273 shces 3 Tlpsto makewrs chorces a Snack oh lowrfat or fatrfree rhdk products such as yogurt erh fresh frults b Top sa1ad soup or casseroles w1th shredded lowrfat cheese c Drmk lowrfat or famee rank PMeat and Beans Da1ly recorhrh a We n P 1deprotem act as buddrhg blocks b Provrde Vitamin Bv1tam1n E1ronmagqes1umandzmc oz 1 oz ofmeat poultry and sh v1 cup cooked dnedbeans 1 egg 1 tbsp peahmbuner 12 oz nuts or seeds 1 oz rs about 25 a1rhohds and 9 whole walnuts 5 oz steak 1 2 oz ham 3 oz chxckm breast 2 oz shrrrhp 4 Tips for making Wise choices a Choose lean meat 7 skinless chickenbreast 7 Round steak 7 Pork loin 7 Leanluncheon meat b Trim away all visible fats from meats and poultry 0 Try poach egg instead of panfried egg il 1 Daily recommendation a Women 5 teaspoons b Men 6 teaspoons 2 Health bene ts a Oil contains essential fatty acid that our bodyneeds 7 Omega 6 fatty acid 7 Omega 3 fatty acid 7 Both could be obtain from fatty fish walnut corn oil b Provides increased satieg fullness 3 1 tbsp 3 teaspoon equivalents 2 12 tsp oil 4 2 tsp 1 tbsp peanut butter 5 3 tsp 12 avocado 1 oz nuts 6 Tips to make Wise choices a Choose oil that is liquid at room temp 7 olive oil canola oil soybean oil b Avoid oil that is solid at room temp 7 Butter margarine c Avoid transfat 7 In many processed foods 7 Partially hydrogenated oils R The Plate Method I I Swutrh to fabfr e m lowrfat Wu milix Make walru ium 39 piale fruits ana VEDELables Drink water lnsl ead olngary drinks 5 Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 l Balancing Calories to Manage Weight a Increase physical activity and reduce time spent in sedentary behaviors b Balance intake with expenditure Make small decreases in calorie intake and increase physical activity 2 Be Physically Active a Engage in regular physical activity to promote health psychological wellbeing and a healthy body weight b Achieve physical tness by including cardiovascular stretching and resistance exercises c Aim for 150 minutes per week 3 Emphasize Certain Groups a Eat 59 servings of fruits and vegetables daily b Choose a variety of fruits and vegetables including dark green orange legumes starchy vegetables and other vegetables c Get at least three oneounce servings of wholegrains a day d Include three servings of lowfat dairy products a day 4 Eat the Right Fats a Consume less than 10 percent of calories from saturated fatty acids and less than 300mg day of cholesterol b Keep trans fatty acid consumption as low as possible c Aim for 20 to 35 percent of calories from fat choosing polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids such as fish nuts and vegetable oils 5 Make Your Carbohydrate Count a Make high fiber choices like whole grains fruits and vegetables b Choose foods with fewer added sugars and arti cial sweeteners 6 Shake the salt Get more potassium a Consume less than 2300 mg approximately 1 teaspoon of salt of sodium per day b Choose and prepare foods with little salt c Eat more potassiumrich foods especially fruits and vegetables 7 Go Easy on Alcoholic Beverages a If you drink do so in moderation b Consider the empty calories and harmful consequences of excessive drinking 8 Keep Foods Safe To Eat a Wash hands and surfaces b Avoid cross contaminations c Cook foods thoroughly d Chill and defrost foods properly e Avoid raw or undercooked foods T Eating on a Budget You can save a great deal of money by preparing your own meals instead of dining out Buy store brands as opposed to national brands Read weekly sale iers Buy fresh fruits and vegetables at produce stands produce in season will typically be cheaper Clip and use coupons from the Sunday papers Many stores offer double face value of the coupon However check the cost of the store brand it may be cheaper than the national brand even with the coupon savings 8 Buy in bulk if you have the space to store the extra and if the food won t spoil before using it IONUIAUJNH 11 Chapter 8 Improving Your Nutrition A Nutrition Concepts 1 Nutrient a chemical in food crucial to the body s growth and functioning includes proteins carbohydrates fats vitamins minerals and water 2 Good diet can a Help sustain desirable body mass and weight b Alleviate feelings of stress and depression c Act as preventative medicine against disease and infection BThe Main Nutrients in Food 1 Essential Nutrients a What we need to obtain from food for normal functioning b Proteins fats carbohydrates vitamins minerals and water 2 calories Calories and Kilocalories a Energy released by the body is measured in calories lowercase b A larger measure used by nutritionists is Kilocalories or Calories uppercase c l Calorie or Kilocalorie 1000 calories C 6 Groups of Essential Nutrients Six groups of essential nutrients Carbohydrates quot V gt Provide energy 10 Facilitate ener growth re air and reproduction L m r 4 D Proteins 1 Biological molecules composed of amino acids 2 The building block of bodily structure and function 3 Functional proteins perform crucial bodily tasks 4 Nutritionists recommend getting about 10 of daily calories from protein 5 Protein needs for most people are met in a typical diet39 higher amounts are needed only if ghting off serious infection Eaten in the right combinations plantbased foods can provide complementary proteins and all essential amino adds Legumes and grains Legumes and nuts and seeds Green leafy vegetables and grains a Green leafy vegetables and nuts and seeds 7 Determining daily protein requirements Dally protein requlrement Gladting your daily Example lgkg body weight protein requirement for average adult Most adults 08 gkg 0 Determine your Q Weight 2 110b bod wei ht Recreational y 9 athletes 1390 391 391 gkg 8 d lb lbk Convert poun s 110 221 g El39te athletes 12 15 gkg to kilograms about 50 kg 39 tmmng b221bkgkg Q Multiply by 08 gkg for 9 50 kg X 08 gkg 40 9 average adult to get requirement in grams Result 3 110 lb adult would a need 40 grams of protein a day E Carbohydrates l A class of nutrients containing sugars and starches and supplying most of the energy for daily living 2 Carbohydrates may be simple or compleX a Simpl sugars that are common in Whole unprocessed foods such as beets sugarcane carrots and other fruits and vegetables b CompleX starches found abundantly in grains some fruits and vegetables amp many root vegetables F Fiber 1 Indigestible carbohydrates that speed the passage of partially digested food through the digestive tract 2 Helps control appetite and body weight by creating a feeling of fullness Without adding calories a Insoluble f1ber speeds the passage of foods and reduces bile acids and certain bacterial enzymes Found in bran whole grain breads and cereals and in most fruits and vegetables b Soluble f1ber attaches to water molecules and appears to help lower blood cholesterol levels Found in oat bran dried beans and some fruits and vegetables 3 The Glycemic Index measures how foods raise blood sugar levels dietary ber can help you avoid eating more highsugar foods 6 Fats The common term for lipids a class of molecules that includes fats and oils At room temperature most fats are solid and oils are liquid Chains of fats and oils are called fatty acids which occur in the body in the form of triglycerides Essential fatty acids are those that we can t construct in our cells must be consumed in our diet Different kinds of fats a Saturated unsaturated mono and polyunsaturated and trans fats partially hydrogenated 6 Generally lipids high in saturated fats are unhealthy and those high in mono and polyunsaturated fats are healthier 7 Trans fats can be even worse than saturated fats on health Omega3 and Omega6 Fatty Acids 9 Fats and Health Guidelines a Check food labels for fat and saturated fat levels b Beware of low fat food claims not necessarily healthy c Reduce consumption of saturated and trans fats d Choose foods higher in mono and polyunsaturated fats H Vitamins 1 Organic compounds we need in small amounts to promote growth and overall health 2 Some vitamins can be toxic in high doses 3 Watersoluble vitamins dissolve only in water 4 Fatsoluble vitamins dissolve only in fat 5 Because they re not stored in the body watersoluble vitamins must be replenished regularly 6 A balanced diet supplies most vitamin needs some people would benefit from supplements such as those with special needs or who don t eat sufficient fruits and vegetables I Minerals 1 Micronutrients that enable key bodily functions and help us absorb vitamins 2 Major minerals macrominerals are needed in larger amounts 3 Trace minerals microminerals are needed in smaller amounts 4 Three mineralsisodium calcium and ironiplay crucial roles so excesses or deficiencies can cause serious health concerns J Water 1 Maintains proper salt and pH balance and helps transport substances within our bodies 2 Without sufficient water most people get quickly dehydrated Several days without water can result in shock and death 3 Individual water needs vary by age body size diet exercise level overall health environmental temperature and humidity 4 Energy drinks should not be longterm substitutes for consuming water K Achieving a Balanced Diet 1 Follow guidelines for good nutrition including a DRI Daily Reference Intake b RDA Recommended Dietary Allowances c DRV Daily Reference Values d DV Daily Values UIbUJNt I 00 4 Use Food Pyramids and o39her dietary too1s 5 Acquire skills to improve your numtion ABC News Nutxition Discussion Questions 111 Chapter 9 Managing Your Weight A Finding Body Fat for 3 site 1 Find body density a Fema1es 7 Find the sum omie 3 skinfolds Take average from eae1i site meeps supei i1iae and thigh c1ass x 1 a Bod densi 1 00009929sum ofskinfolds0000023sum2 00001392age a FJK 10994921 0000992945 0000023462 0000139233 10994921 70043734 0004866 700045936 105 body density bMales B dens 1inmonn i i i nnnm n 2 bod fa 4570body dmsityr4142x 100 3 t ard enoris 13 38 4 i ii i BWeight Management Concepts 1 17 u I 2 Negative Calon39c u I 1 41socalon39c Balance calories consumed are about equal to chose used 5 i ii viimi exercise and activity 6 Caloric Balances w Enuwlnul39 e um quotmean a Mummyquot 1 7 Determining BMI BMI 19 20 21 22 23 Helght Weight in pounds 43910quot 91 96 100 105 110 43911quot 94 99 104 109 114 539 97 102 107 112 118 5 1quot 100 106 111 116 122 5 21 104 109 115 120 125 5 3quot 107 113 113 124 130 539quot 110 115 122 123 134 5395quot 114 120 125 132 138 5396 118 124 130 136 142 141 145 150 155 124 129 134 123 133 Healthy weight Overweight BM l 19 20 21 22 23 26 27 28 Height Weight in pounds 5 7 121 127 134 140 146 5 8 125 131 138 144 151 5399quot 128 135 142 149 155 5 10quot 132 139 146 153 160 53911quot 136 143 150 157 165 639 14 O 147 154 162 169 144 151 159 166 174 148 155 163 171 179 6 35quot 152 160 168 176 184 224 Healthy weight Overweight b C Why Obesity is on the Rise 1 Worldwide trend a Globesity is reaching epidemic rates due to diets high in processed fats meats sugars and re ned starches combined With more sedentary lifestyles 2 Energy imbalance is common in America due to 12 D US Obesity Rates Obesity rates l No data Cl lt10 j 10 14 I 15 19 20 24 I 2 25 1 7 E How Body Weight Affects Wellness 1 High BMI and abdominal fat are associated With higher chronic disease risk 2 Body weight 3 Metabolic s ndrome A condition marked by high blood pressure cholesterol and abdominal fat deposits along With insulin resistance a It increases chronic disease risks related to in ammation an immune reaction F Mortality Risks and Body Weight Lean t body Lean un t body Normal t body Normal un t body Obese t body Obese un t body 0 05 1 Relative risk of all cause monaIity 6 ABC News Managing Your Weight 1 Why do you think obesity is more prevalent among lowerincome Americans 2 How does innercity lack of transportation affect obesity rates 3 How does the cost of fresh fruits and vegetables compare to the price of foods high in calories carbohydrates and fat l l 10 15 20 25 30 H Effective Tools for Weight Management 1 Recognize the role of metabolic rate metabolism slows with age over time so food intake must also diminish a Basal metabolic rate BMR rate at which body uses food energy to sustain functions such as heartbeat breathing body temp b Resting metabolic rate RMR BRM energy expended in digesting food 2 Assess your current weight and choose a realistic goal 3 Recognize your body s set point a preprogrammed weight that your body tends to return to naturally when you gain or lose small amounts of weight 4 Learn from successful weight maintainers a Exercise most days of the week b Eat nutritious diet low in fats and calories c Don t skip meals or indulge d Cut calories and increase exercise if weight increases e Successful strategies for coping with stressors 5 Balance your energy equation maintain an isocaloric balance 6 Establish a regular exercise program 7 Modify your behavior and attitudes for longterm weight change I Why Most Diets Don t Succeed l Diets often lead to weight cycling repeatedly losing and then gaining back weight 2 Rigid diets are restrictive unpleasant and discouraging a Calorie consumption types of foods and restrictive eating patters 3 Flexible diets tend to be more effective and better at encouraging changes in longterm eating habits a Focus on portion size and make allowances for variation 4 Yoyo dieting refers to following a series of diets and gaining back the weight lost on each 5 Many diet products and plans are ineffective J Eating Disorders 1 Disordered Eating abnormal consumption of food that diminishes wellness but usually doesn t last a long time 2 Eating Disorders disturbed patterns of eating that result in serious medical problems amp are long lasting 3 Body Dysmorphic Disorde a syndrome in which a person becomes obsessed with a physical defect 4 Three Common Eating Disorders a Anorexia nervosa deliberate food restriction b Bulimia nervosa binge eating followed by purging c Binge eating disorder usually overweight or obese 5 Eating disorders have distinctive symptoms and identifiable features 6 Eating disorders can be effectively treated through medical and psychological therapies K Creating a Weight Management Behavior Change Plan 1 Contemplate weight management a Weight goal no higher or lower that 10 of current weight 2 Prepare for better weight management a Examine your beliefs and attitudes b Consider your motivations include long term goals c Identify your barriers to change d Visualize new behaviors choose nutritious foods get social support e Write out specific goals f Commit to your goals g Set up support 3 Take action and maintain new weight levels 15 IV Chapter 11 Reducing Your Risk of Cardiovascular Disease A What is Cardiovascular Disease CVD l Broadly encompasses a range of diseases of the heart and blood vessels 2 Induces other potentially devastating diseases like heart attack or stroke 3 9715 of men and women under 40 have some form of CVD After age 40 the rate climbs to 40 4 Among all age groups in America about 1 in 3 people have CVD in some form 100 Percent of population with CVD 20 39 40 59 60 79 80 Age Key Males 5 Females B Why Worry about CVD l CVD is America s biggest killerimore than any other single cause of death for both women and men 2 CVD reduces quality of life causing chest pain39 shortness of breath39 internal organ damage39 and in the form of hypertension cognitive decline 3 CVD can begin in adolescence or childhood from waxy buildup in vessels caused by poor diet lack of exercise high body mass index or early smoking 4 CVD damages the heart and blood vessels affectingblood oxidation and carbon dioxide waste removal 5 CVD takes many forms including a Hypertension leading cause of in ammation 13 of Americans diagnose with blood pressure increase in systolic during exercise is normal but increase in diastolic is not b Atherosclerosis hardening or stiffening of the arteries as plaque accumulates at injury sites in the inner linings of arteries buildup of in ammation in arteries c Coronary artery diseaseatherosclerosis in the main arteries that supply oxygen and other materials to the heart muscle occurs in main blood vessels d Peripheral artery disease occurs in the feet ankles calves hands or forearms e Myocardial infarction medical term for a heart attack39 involves permanent damage to an area of the heart muscle brought on by a cessation of normal blood supply f Angina pectori chest pain due to reduced blood ow in the heart g Arrh hmias irregular heart beat Tachycardi racing heart in the absence of exercise or anxiety Bradycardi abnormally slow heartbeat h Congestive heart failure heart muscle is too weak to pump blood throughout the body 16 i Congenital heart disease heart disease present at birth j Strokea sudden loss of function in a region of the brain caused by blockage in or rupture of a blood vessel leads to oxygen deprivation cell damage or death Ischemicresult of a plaqueblocked vessel or a oating blood clot that lodges in a vessel and cuts off blood supply to a brain region Hemorrhagicoccur when a blood vessel bursts spilling oxygenated blood rather than transporting it to a distal brain region allowing that unsupplied area to become damaged through oxygen deprivation C Deaths from Coronary Heart Disease High blood pressure Heart failure Artery diseases Coronary heart disease 52 Death rates per 91 00000 population 1 D CVD AgeAdj usted Death Rates by State if 2111t02483 3 2491 t02716 I 2726t03073 3085 to 3819 1 ENormal anPlagueFilled Coronary Artres A i 1 391 squot wr w L F CVD Risk Factors you can Control 1 Tobacco use 70 higher risk in smokers than nonsmokers 2 Hypertension reduce sodium weight and lipid levels in the blood 3 High levels of blood fats a hyperlipidemi high levels of cholesterol triglycerides and other fats in the blood b Stay away from saturated and trans fat 4 Overweigh and obesity 5 Physical inactivity 6 Diabetes mellitus 7 Metabolic syndrome 8 Stress 9 Alcohol 10 Diet 6 LDL Total and HDL Cholesterol Levels 17 LDL Cholesterol lt100 100 129 130 159 160 189 190 Total Cholesterol lt 200 200Z39 240 HDL Cholesterol lt 40 2 60 Triglycerides lt 150 150 199 200 499 500 Optimal Near optimalabove optimal Borderline high High Very high Desirable Borderline high High Low Desirable Normal Borderline high High Very high 1 H CVD Risk Factors You Can t Control 1 Heredi CVD in several generations increases risk greatly 2 Age 75 of heart attacks occur in people over age 65 3 Gender Men are at greater risk until age 60 women are at greater risk after menopause 4 m African Americans are at higher risk 50 4o 20 Percent with cardiovascular disease Key Male Female Gender Caucasian American African American Mexican American a IHOW to Avoid CVD lower your controllable risks 1 Don t smoke 2 Practice sound eating habits 3 Exercise regularly 4 Manage stress 5 Control diabetes or the risk of developing it 6 Don t abuse alcohol or drugs J ABC NEWS Cardiovascular Disease 1 How does in ammation account for nearly 85 of all heart attacks 2 What test measures in ammation and what does it cost 3 Why have doctors been hesitant to order tests to measure in ammation 4 What dietary changes are recommended to lower in ammation K Avoiding CVD Making a Plan 1 Identify your controllable risk factors 2 Identify concrete changes you can make to reduce your risk factors 3 Understand that by reducing your risk of CVD you also reduce other serious disease risks Deborah 8 Dailey MS Fall 2011 KIN 2504 EEEHTIEI7 EETVIY39MVEIJL 3 Understanding F ness Janet L Hanson P n c i p I Rebeca J mate e Tanya Hum COD ll Ight 2009 Pearson Education Inc The Three Primary Levels of Physical Activity 1 Physical Fitness The ability to perform moderate to vigorous levels of activity without undue fatigue Measured in MET levels metabolic equivalents METS are grouped into three activity categories Lifestylelight lt 3 METS Moderate 3 6 METS Vigorous 6 METS Copyrlght 2009 Pearson Education Inc The Three Primary Levels of Physical Activity 2 Physical Activity Any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles resulting in an expenditure of energy 3 Exercise Planned or structured physical activity done to achieve and maintain fitness Copyrlght 2009 Pearson Education Inc Examples of Physical Activity Levels Lifestyle Light Physical Activities Ilt 3 METSI Flemi Light yard work and housework A moderate increase in health leisurely walking selfcare and and wellness in those who are bathing light stretching light completely sedentary reduced occupational activity risk of some chronic diseases Moderate Physical B n Activities 3 6 METS ene r 5 Walking 3 45 mph on a level Increased cardiorespiratory surface weight training hiking endurance lower body fat levels climbing stairs bicycling 5 9 mph improved blood cholesterol and on a level surface dancing softball pressure better blood glucose recreational swimming moderate management decreased risk of yard work and housework disease increased overall physical fitness Vigorous Physical Activities 6 METS Jogging running circuit training Increased overall physical fitness backpacking aerobic classes decreased risk of disease furt er competitive sports swimming laps improvements in overall strength heavy yard work or housework and endurance hard physical labor construction bicycling over 10 mph up steep terrain a znoa Pearson Educnhm Inc Copy 2009 Pearson Education Inc The Five HealthRelated Components of Fitness Cardiorespiratory Endurance the ability of your cardio and respitory systems to provide oxygen to your working muscles and tissues while you exercise amp physical activity Muscular Strengththe ability of your muscles to exert force Muscular EnduranceThe ability of your muscles to contract repeatedly over time Flexibility the ability to move yourjoints in a full range of motion joint specific Body Composition the relative amounts of fat tissue and lean tissue in yourbody Copyright 2009 Pearson Education Inc The Six SkillRelated Components of Physical Fitness Agility the ability to rapidly change the position of your bod w speed and accuracy Balance maintenance of equilibrium while you are stationary or movnng Coordinationthe ability to use both your senses and your body in orderto perform motor tasks smoothly and accurately Power the ability to perform work or contract muscles with high force quickly Speed the ability to perform a movement in a short period of time Reaction Time the time between a stimulus and your initial physical reaction to that stimulus Copyright 2009 Pearson Education Inc The Principles of Fitness The Overload Principle In order to see gains in fitness the amount of training should exceed what your body is used to Training Effect and Adaptation consistent overloads will bring about adaptation a change that we see due to an overload we put on that part of the body as a result of training DoseResponse the amount of body adaptation you see is directly related to the overload that you do what you put in is what you get out training is related to amount of overload or close Diminished Returns the rate of fitness improvement will decrease overtime as your fitness levels reach their potential limit the rate of improvement diminishes over time as your fitness level approaches its limit Copyrlght 2009 Pearson Education Inc Overload Principle Beginning Progression Maintaining Hi h A VI 3 2 H 8 a II 395 a u 5 E 5 Low l Training overload Key g Beginning Progression Maintaining 02005 Paarscn Educatlun in Copyright 2009 Pearson Education Inc The Principles of Fitness Principle of Progression in order to increase your fitness you must increase your work out 10 Percent Rule you never want to do more than a ten percent increase on yourtraining at a timeyou increase yourtraining frequency intensity or duration by no more than 10 per week To effectively increase fitness you must apply an optimal overload level within a certain time period Principle of Specificity the improvements to a particular muscle or whatever depends on if you overload that Improvement in a body system eg cardio respiratory will occur only if that specific system is targeted in training Copyrlght 2009 Pearson Education Inc The Principles of Fitness Principle of Reversibility Use it or lose it Everything you trained will go back to how it was when you stop training Fitness levels must be maintained or they will revert Principle of Individuality the results and adaptations are different from person to person Training results will vary from person to person oDon t compare look at overall picture Rest and Recovery Principle of Recuperation you have to give your time to recover from the increased physical and philological stresses you put on it Your body needs time to recover between training sessions Overtraining can result in fatigue and soreness Copyrlght 2009 Pearson Education Inc How Much Exercise Is Enough Reliable Resources for Information on Recommended Activity Levels Government Agencies Professional Organizations Reputable Private Organizations Physical Activity Pyramid A visual summary of minimal activity and exercise guidelines Cardio recommendations 3t05 days a week minimum of 20min Physica1 activity daily stuff at least 30min a day Copyrlght 2009 Pearson Education Inc The Physical Activity Pyramid quot OccasionakWatching TV surfing the Internet etc activities Work on your muscle fitness and exibility 2 3 daysweek Include all major muscle groups and joints Exercise your heart and lungs with aerobic andor sports activities Szlg quot r Be physically active a 3 5 daysweek220 60 minutes 39 per session Every day 30 minutes accumulated per day uuwl 920119 Pearson E ucaiiom Inc Copyrlght quot2009 Pearson Education Inc How Much Exercise Is Enough The FITT Formula Guideline to help you plan a personal exercise program Frequency Number of times per week Intensity How hard to exercise Time Amount of time per exercise session Type The kind of exercise performed Copyrlght 2009 Pearson Exercising Safely WarmUp Two Phases General warmup overall total warmup 310minutes light activity Specific warmup 35 minutes of range of motion movements specific warmups for particular muscles CoolDown transition from exercise to rest cool your muscles down and your heart rate back to homeostasis Exercise to rest transition should last 515 min Take time to learn an activity s skills Important step to enhance enjoyment and avoid injury Copyrlght 2009 Pearson Education Inc Exercising Safely Consume adequate energy and water Don t exercise on a full stomach Eat a small meal 15 2 hours prior to exercising Tailor water intake to the individual and the exercise being performed Consume 17 to 20 ounces of uid 23 hours before activity Right before you start consume about 710 ounces Drink whenever your thirsty during workout Change shoes every 300miles Select appropriate clothing and footwear Proper footwear fit and cushioning is crucial for safety and comfort Dress appropriately for the activity and temperature Copyrlght 2009 Pearson Education Inc Individual Factors for a Fitness Program Age older adults may require extra precautions Older people will need moderate activity and have medical clearance before they start 45 yrs male 55 females need medical clearance Weight overweight or underweight people have a higher risk of certain kinds of injuries Overweight people are more prone to more stress to their joints and things limit the types of weight baring activities they do weight baring activities anything they have to do that makes them support their own weight Current Fitness Level select activities appropriately from your personal starting point Make sure what their fitness level history is know what kind of workouts they can do Copyrlght 2009 Pearson Education Inc Individual Factors for a Fitness Program Disabilities Fitness can be incorporated into daily life via adaptive courses equipment instruction andor facilities Know their disabilities and what they can and cant do Special Health Concerns Pregnancy asthma heart disease hypertension and diabetes all require medical supervision Know their medical conditions to make sure you know what not to do Copyrlght 2009 Pearson Education Inc