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by: Zelda McCullough


Zelda McCullough
GPA 3.63

A. Pfleegor

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A. Pfleegor
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Zelda McCullough on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to KIN 3800 at Louisiana State University taught by A. Pfleegor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see /class/222600/kin-3800-louisiana-state-university in Kinesiology at Louisiana State University.

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Date Created: 10/13/15
KIN 3800 Midterm Review Format 0 Don t need a scantron 0 Questions on APA lecture discussions 10 fill in the blank 0 Three short answer Chapter 1 Intro to Sport Ethics 0 What s sport and game I Sport games ofphysical skill using Gross Physical Skill 43 I Game has constitutive rules that set up necessary obstacles to achieving a particular goal by defining permissible and impermissible ways ofachieving it rules are accepted just to allow participants to attempt to meet the challenges so created Suit s voluntary attempt to meet unnecessary obstacles 44 0 IAPS I International Association for the Philosophy of Sport 0 What s philosophy I Philosophy Love ofwisdom examine our beliefs clarify principles on which they rest subject them to critical examination 5 I Philosophy of Sport to clarify systemize and evaluate the principles that we believe should govern the world of sports 6 Descriptive vs Ethical Relativism I Descriptive the moral judgments people make amp the values they hold arise from or are relative to their culture socioeconomic state ethnicreligious background 7 I Ethical the view that each culture s moral code is right for that culture 8 o What is absolutaphobia I Absolutophobia viewing something as unethical people who are unwilling to make moral judgments and views people who do as opinionated or judgmental 11 using moral language to My or intimidate people into accepting a speaker s position 11 people have a reluctance to make moral judgments because ofa misinterpretation of multiculturalism 12 Dogmatism and Fanaticism can be avoided ifwe base our moral views on REASONING and we encourage CRITICAL EXAMINATION of them 13 O w WE I Sport is DYNAMIC by nature therefore our theories may constantly evolve ppts o APA format be able to write stuff in an APA reference I journal textbook and internet sources Chapter 2 Competition and MGFE 0 Reasons people participate in sport I Emphasis 0n Competition winning defeating an opponent or oneself 18ppts I Emphasis Elsewhere improvement exercise social love activity outdoors 17 0 CR vs RR vs AR skills example of skill and know what type it is I Constituent Skill Rule skills that the game is designed to test dribbling passing shooting 62 rules necessary for the game to function 18 ppts I Restorative Skill Rule skills used to restore the status quo after a rules infraction has been committed foul shooting or penalty kicks 62 I Auxilia1y skill Rule rules not necessary to or impacting the game in any way extra rules NBA dress code educated guessWhat he gave us 0 Competition I Competition the attempt to secure victory within the framework set by the CR 0 Utilitarianism I Utilitarianism holds that an action or practice is morally justified only if it has better consequences for all affected than the alternatives it s basically doing cost benefit anal sis 20 u ts I The ma1n valueattltude of athlet1c competition Is not within winning but in OVERCOMING AN OPPONENT 0 Zero sum activity vs MQFE I Zero Sum participation in a sport s contest with the intent or major goal of defeating an opponent 18 One man s Victory is another man s defeat I Mutual Quest For Excellence underlying the good sports contest is an implicit social contract under which both competitors accept the obligation to provide a challenge for opponents according to the rules of the sport Competition in sports is ethically defensible in this View when it s engaged in VOLUNTARILY as part of mutual quest 0 Dworkins Distinction I Right to equal treatment The right to an equal distribution of some opportunity of resource or burden ppts 33 I Right to treatment as an egual The right to be treated with the same RESPECT and concern as others ppts 33 0 What s a significant Victory I Significant Victory outplaying of a worthy opponent while remaining within the constitutive rules of the contest amp without an intent to injure the opposition ppts 0 What s a good competitor I Good Competitor a competitor who does not see the opponent merely as an obstacle to be overcome but as a person whose activity calls for an appropriate response ppts 3 5 o What is winning a reliable indicator of I It may not be everything but it s the most reliable indicator ofit 36 winning is an indicator of excellence and who the best team is most of the time Sportsmanship and Strategic Fouling 0 Understand Keating s take of sportsmanship I Keating on Sportsmanship sp ortsmanship39s purpose is to protect and cultivate the festive mood proper to an activity whose primary purpose is pleasant diversion amusement and joy Therefore it s only necessary when looking at sport ppts42 o Suits definitions I Games they re governed by constitutive rules that define what counts as winning and losing and distinguish moves that are permissible within a game from those that are impermissible game is a VOLUNTARY attempt to overcome UNNECESSARY obstacles ppts 44 Sports sports are games ofphysical skill that must include GROSS PHYSICAL SKILL OR MOVEMENT ppts44 PreLusory Goal accomplishing the task at hand eX Getting ball in hole in golf 18 timesin baseball getting 27 outs ppts44 Lusory Goal obtaining a legitimate score like a good golf score few strokes 44 Lusom attitude in a game we accept the constitutive rules simply in order to try meet the challenge of the game 44 the acceptance of the LESS EFFICIENT MEANS in order to make the game possible ppts o Ants vs Grasshoppers This is the basis for a work ethiclecture Grasshopper represented all play and no work Ants represented all work and no play 0 Penalties as prices vs penalties as sanctions Penalties as Prices a price to be paid for exercising a strategic option 61 Penalties as Sanctions sanctions or punishments for impermissible acts 61 EX the unplayable lie rule in golf move ball for stroke hit it where is lies 0 What was significant about the Cornell and Colorado NCAA football contests Both had a fifth down play that drastically changed their games Cornell vs Dartmouth Cornell forfeited the win in 1940 Colorado took the win because they said Missouri watered down the field and Colorado went on to win the AP national championship 6468 Theoretical Foundations 0 Understand 3 foundations Formalism the name given to a family of positions that characterizes games such central elements of games as winning and losing and allowable moves with the activity primarily in their formal structures and particularly in their constitutive rules Formalism re ects Suit s emphasis on the constitutive rules of sports as the formal structure of sports supports the Incompatibility Thesis 46 DOWNFALLSLacks normative resources to address moral problems that arise in sport and are outside of the rules sportsmanship gamesmanship deception 47 48ppts Formalism suggests an implausible account of the ethics of strategic rule violations and can39t account for potential rule changes 48 ppts Conventionalism ethos of the game Conventionalists claim that by emphasizing the formal constitutive rules you ignore the implicit conventions that apply to the sports in question Ethical justification comes through the practice and social conventions DOWNFALLSThe issues is the ethical status of the conventions themselves We can t immunize conventions from criticism Just because people practice it doesn t make it RIGHT 49ppts Broad Internalism also known as Interpretivism the view that in addition to the constitutive rules of sport there are other resources connected closely perhaps conceptually to sport that are neither social conventions nor moral principles merely mirroring the dominant morality in society These resources can be used to adjudicate moral issues in sports and athletics Sport has an independent quotgratuitous logic ofits own that makes it more than a mirror re ecting the values of society Appeals to sporting norms to understand ethical situations Fair play and the MUTUAL QUEST FOR EXCELLENCE THROUGH CHALLENGE are upheld 5 2 pptsDOWNFALLSno one really thinks this way gives too much credit to opponents Main tenets of each What are the potential downfalls of each o What is Morgan s Incompatibility Thesis I Cheaters violate the rules by failing to make moves within the sport and therefore fail to play it One can win the game only by playing it and since cheaters don t play cheaters can t win 47 I To Shorten All That I If you cheat you re not playing I If you re not playing you can t win I Therefore if you cheat you can t win I This mentality is more closely associated with F ormalism Enhancing Performance 0 What events brought attention to PED s I Originally brought to public s attention because of East German women s swimming in the 60 s 70 s and 80 s and then in Seoul in 1988 with Canadian Ben Iohnson I lose Canseco and his book named Mark McGwire Iason Giambi and Ken Camaniti I Bay Area Laboratory Cooperative BALCO scandal 2003 50 MLB suspensions o What are anabolic steroids I A family of drugs that are synthetic derivatives of the hormone testosterone that stimulates muscle growth and repairs injured tissue 0 Understand the five arguments against PED s I Use of steroids to enhance performance is harmful to athletes who have a need to be protected I Use of steroids to enhance performance by some athletes coerces others into using them I Use of steroids to enhance performance in unfair or a form of cheating I Use of steroids to enhance performance violates justifiable norms or ideals that ought to govern athletic competitions I Use of steroids to enhance performance demeans or cheapens achievement in sport 0 What is Mill s Harm Principle I The only purpose for which power can be rightfully exercised over any member ofa civilized community against his will is to PREVENT HARM TO OTHERS His own good either physical or moral is not a sufficient warrant I Paternalism alone DOES NOT provide a strong enough justification for the prohibition of PEDs but it does justify prohibition to those under the age of consent 0 Cookie Bars bars that mom made before the game 0 Bigger faster stronger documentary details Blood Doping Genetic Enhancement 0 Differentiate between three types of blood doping I Homologous blood drawn from a compatible donor and injected backinto the body prior to competition I Autologous blood drawn from the athlete stored and injected back into the body prior to competition I EPO Injections EPO is injected into the body to stimulate the production of red blood cells past the normal level in an athlete s body ppts I All increase red blood cell count V02 Max 0 What are the four arguments against genetic enhancement I Religion I Unnatural I Autonomy and Freedom of Choice I Equality ppts ALL OF THE PED AND BLOOD DOPING STUFF CAME FROM POWER POINTS o What is liberal eugenics I Liberal Eugenics have a view that the benefits of genetic enhancement justify the practice assuming the safety of the subject is protected ppts I The idea of genetic enhancement takes us well beyond the realm of sport Title IX and Gender 0 Title IX was part ofwhat I Part of the Education Amendments of 1972 prohibiting sex discrimination in federally assisted education programs ppts o Assimilation vs Pluralistic approaches I Assimilation first interpretation involved the complete combined equality in sport programs This was a quotsexblind approach and had combined men swomen s teams ppts People who identify with this approach think society has achieved sex equality when no more significance is attached to the sex of a person than is attached to the color ofa person s eye color Ignores sexrelated differences in average physiological athletic ability Plays no role in distribution of civil rights or economic benefits Separate men s and women39s teams violates this idealsex role impose limits I Pluralistic second interpretation allowed institutions to field separate teams for men and women It didn39t stipulate that separate teams in every sport were required just an appropriate number of mixed and single sex squads and opportunities must be the same ppts This approach notes the gap between elite men39s and elite women39s athletes is shrinking yet disadvantages are still in place Difficult to deny that men have physiological advantage Sexblind approach is only appropriate in sports where men have no physiological advantage Women shouldn t be prohibited from participating in men s sports if they have the ability to do so 0 Simon s take and suggestions on women s athletics I More emphasis should be placed on fully accommodating the interests of the underrepresented sex usually women as required by the threeprong test and less emphasis on proportionality I Expansion of opportunities for women doesn t always mean adding varsity sports I Compliance with proportionality requirement should be regarded as a last resort when it is achieved by cutting men s programs I Athletics helps participants meet challenges and encourages dedication commitment selfesteem and working together for a goal with various people They should be regarded as extremely important within a university and should take precedence over nonfundamental academic pursuits ppts 132 0 Important cases I Grove City vs Bell 1984 Supreme Court ruled that Title IX applied ONLY to program s directly receiving federal funding ppts 1 26good examplephysics ex I Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1988 This made Title IX apply to an institution that received either direct or indirect federal aid I Franklin vs Gwinnett County Public Schools 0 Supreme Court ruled that plaintiffs filing Title IX lawsuits were entitled to punitive damages if it had been found that the institution being sued intentionally took steps to avoid compliance 0 This decision put real teeth into the legislation with the fact the threat of now having to pay damages for certain sorts of failures to comply ppts126 o What are the three areas of compliance according to the OCR manual I Athletic scholarships only applies to D1 D2 universities in the NCAA I Accommodations of athletic interests and abilities equal scholarships I Other athletic benefits and awards treat males amp females equal ppts126127 o What are the three prongs of the Three Prong Test I By providing opportunities for participation in the intercollegiate athletics program for students of each sex that are substantially proportionate to their respective enrollments in the student body as a whole Ifnot the institution can comply by showing a history and continuing practice of expansion of the intercollegiate athletics program responsive to developing interests and abilities ofmembers of the underrepresented sex Ifnot the institution can still comply by showing that the interests and abilities of the underrepresented sex are fully and effectively accommodated by the existing program What prong is the quotsafe harbor o The first one It presumes that both genders will be treated equally but acknowledges the possibility of ALLOWABLE DIFFERENCES


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