HISTPHIL OF KINESIO
HISTPHIL OF KINESIO KIN 2501
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This 205 page Class Notes was uploaded by Earnest Greenholt on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to KIN 2501 at Louisiana State University taught by K. Hill in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see /class/222601/kin-2501-louisiana-state-university in Kinesiology at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
V Lquot r quot 77 1 w Iquot in m V J quot 7119quot if 3392quot Ii fquot a 5 L d 651439 quot1 quot f h V gr 7 139 z quot xW Av B f r quot1 v H v quot gay V 5 n 7 quotZ 7 r A n Y u 39 39 A 39 s39 quot 39 39 k quot 39 Do We Agree Sport and Physical Activity should be organized and administered to make positive contributions to society N Problems 0 Violence 0 Drug Use 0 Gambling 0 Expensive 0 Commercialization 0 Labor Issues 0 Elimination of physical education in K 12 settings ree Concepts t 39 World 0 Communication instant better faster the dark side ape our 0 Diversity Cultural racial ideological differences 0 Cooperation does sport foster goodwill The Present Situation 0 The Good Life revisited The 21st centurywomen in politics sports religion social activism 0 General Intercultural Observations Fewer teachers and coaches appreciation of the value of physical education activity and sport Where better for people to develop concepts of the healthful and enjoyable benefits than schools education and sport 0 The In uence of Values and Norms 0 The In uence of Politics 0 The In uence of Nationalism 0 The In uence of Economics 0 The In uence of Religion 0 The In uence of Ecology 0 The In uence of Science and Technology 0 The In uence of a concern for peace T he Impetus for Early Sport A cult honoring the den Cult honoring fertility Training for military purposes Inherent urge for competition Words amp Terms Associated with the Games I f Arete Flutist 39 Ekeeheiria Trumpets Paidotribe Gymnasium Ponos Theodosis Scratch Hellanodikae Zeus Halteres Hera Thermae Pindar Renaissance Terms can t Zanes Husplex Kampter Olympiad Nike T he Ancient Olympic Games 776 B C393 AD How did organized games start and what were they like There were four kinds of games l Informal contests between soldiers as they trained or waited for battle to pass time 2Funeral games well organized contests held by warriors after the funeral of a man killed in battle Earliest one 1250 BC in Best known funeral game was deSe fer39 Homer in book XXIII of The Iliad 3The Wreath games m Olympia Pythian Nemean Isthmian m Olympia Delphi Nemea lsthimia a M Olive Bay laurel Parsley PineParsley f V 4Secular games initially held in Cities Primarily for entertainment T he facilities Stadium Prytaneion Palestra Gymnasium Hippodrome Temple of Zeus Council Building Outside the stadium T he Events office Ancient es Running events Javelin Stade Wrestling Diaulos Boxing Dolichos Pankration Race in Armor HorseChariot Racing The Jump The Discus Pentathlon Contributions of Ancient Greeks to Sports First to organize and make rules for games i Developed the gymnasium Developed the rst training methods Wrote the rst code of sportsmanship and standards for fair play Because of them we have the Olympic games today FYI Tales of games King Oenomaus Competing in the nude Pentathlon Winners Women in the Olympics Decline of the Games The Trainers and their tales Thought for the Day Pherenice of Rhodes about 400 B became the rst woman to see the Olympics and live to tell about it Although women were not allowed to see the games upon pain of death disguised as a man became the coach of her boxer son Later she was found guilty but because she was the mother of a champion was allowed to live HEALTH AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHER CERTIFICATION PROGRAM Emily Beasley MS CHES A Louisiana State University 2011 WHAT DO HEALTH AND PE TEACHERS DO Wellness Physical Activity Physical Fitness Skill Development WELLNESS Physical Emotional Mental Spiritual InterpersonalSocial Environmental Physical Education is part of educating the WHOLE CHILD PHYSICAL ACTIVITY OBESITY EPIDEMIC Young children are predicted to not outlive their parents Katz 2004 Childhood obesity has tripled in the last two decades Satcher 2003 Health care costs related to obesity are ranging between 90120 billionyear Satcher 2003 One in three children will develop type 2 diabetes McConnaughey As cited in Grahm Hale amp Parker 2010 MISSISSIPPI IS THE FATTEST STATE FOR 5TH STRAIGHT YEAR COLORADO STILL LEANEST httpcalorielabcomnews20100628fatteststates2010 PHYSICAL INACTIVITY PA decreases with age Associated with increases in sedentary behaviors Girls are less active than boys Minority children are less active STRONG link with selfconcept GUIDELINES FOR PHYSICAL ACTIVITY Whatarethe guidelines Children and adolescents should acquire 60 minutes or more of physical activity each day FITNESS FOR CHILDREN Product of quality PE program NASPE sees tness as a product of physically active lifestyle Focus is on healthrelated fitness no longer skillrelated tness QUALITY PHYSICAL EDUCATION Opportunity to Learn Instructional periods totaling 150 minutes per week Qualified physical education specialist providing a developmentally appropriate program Adequate equipment and facilities QUALITY PHYSICAL EDUCATION Meaningful content Instruction in a variety of motor skills Fitness education and assessment Development of cognitive concepts about motor skills and fitness Opportunities to improve social and cooperative skills Promotion of regular amounts of appropriate physical activity QUALITY PHYSICAL EDUCATION Appropriatelnstruction Full inclusion of all students Maximum practice opportunities Well designed lessons that facilitate learning Out of school assignments to support learning No physical activity as punishment Use of regular assessment EDUCATING THE WHOLE CHILD Importance of Movement in educating the mind and body Benefits can affect academic learning and physical activity patterns Healthy and physically active students are more academically motivated alert and successful WHAT IS THIS PROGRAM Instruction in Pedagogy The art science and profession of teaching Preparation for teaching Physical Education Preparation for teaching HealthHealth Education Preparation for a Coaching career Preparation for teaching in FitnessRecreational Settings WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS OF THIS DEGREE Job security Teachers will always have a job You can teach anywhere Competitive Salary Show me the money Flexibility Did I mention the hours and vacation schedule JOB SECURITY Unemployment rates by state seasonally adjusted July 2010 US rate 95 percent 1D 0 and over 7Ul098 EDD IDS 9 5 UID 53 3U03 9 2 EPAan 5 15 or below I 1 I I I 4nm49 IE El Cl SOURCE anew ui hbw WWW Loam thanme 511mm SHOW ME THE MONEY Salary in EBR h TOP TEACHER SALARIES Highest Salaries by State 1 California 70394 2 Massachusetts 65897 3 New York 64583 4 Virginia 59585 5 Illinois 58756 6 Texas 58325 7 Pennsylvania 56629 8 Georgia 56277 9 Florida 53789 10 Ohio 53309 FLEXIBILITY Typically work from 730300 Teach only 180 days out of the year Summer Vacation No overtime or working on Holidays WHAT CAN I DO WITH THIS DEGREE Teach Physical Education Coach Work in RecreationalFitness settings Make a difference WHAT KIND OF CLASSES WILL I TAKE KIN 1802 Individual and Lifetime Activities KIN 3518 Classroom Culture in Physical Education Kin 3510 Secondary Methods in Physical Education Kin 3511 Elementary Methods in Physical Education Practical Experience Throughout Including Student Teaching WANT TO MAKE A DIFFERENCE Children are the place to start Combat Obesity and rising health costs Perfect place to promote physical activity Schools are prime targets for interventions LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY Certified Athletic Trainers Unique Healthcare Providers Ray Castle ATC LAT Shelly Mullenix ATC LAT What is a Certified Athletic Trainerquot Allied healthoare professionals Hold a medical license to practice Educated and experienced in Injury reventionassessmenttreatment Injury rehabilitation What is a Certified Athletic Trainer Allied healthcare professional educated and skilled in meeting the healthcare needs ofthe physically active individual Athletes adolescent high school college professional Weekend warriors Industrial workers Military Astronauts Ballet companies Musicians National Aeronautics and Space Administration What does it take to become a Certified Athletic Trainer ATC This Program is Azcradimzt by the Graduate from a CAATEaccredited degree program Approximately 350 nationwide LSU accredited since 2004 Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Tminlrg Education Pass a national medical board examination by the BOC wwwBOCATCorg miner r C Maintain educationskills by completing specific continuing education unit CEU activities A x NOVIUV What posse knowledgeskills does an ATC ss Human anatomy and physiologym Biomechanics Exercise physiology Orthopedic medicine Internal medicine Neurology Physical rehabilitation Nutrition Psychosocial intervention techniques Emergency Medicine Pharmacology Healthcare administration Where are my skills utilized in the real world Traditionally Athletic teams high school college professional But also these settings 7 Physician of ces Sports medicine clinics Military organizations USteams Corporate wellness Industrial General Motors Chevron Tell me about the job market 80 of all ATC s have a Master s degree Almost 50 female Average Salary depends on position EXP Positive results with ATC providers Patient satisfaction rating are above 96 when treatment is provided by an ATC Methodology is effective in treating musculoskeletal injuries in all body regions ATC intervention reduces re injury rates Reduces timeloss injury rates Costeffective Case Study Emory University Orthopedics Pro le 10 orthopedic surgeons 3 Fellowship trained Steadman Hawkins Orthopedic Clini 3 Fellowship trained Andrews Institute Birmingham 10 Certi ed Athletic Trainers 5 ATC s on 1year Fellowship Duties ofthe ATC The orthopedic has no PA s no RN s no MA s 15 assist in Surgery casting orthopedic evaluation physical rehabilitation Starting salaries alter fellowship to PA s How do become an ATC at LSU STEP 1 Meet with program faculty EP 2 Attend an Orientation Meeting Sept Jan Obtain application packet Start 1 0 hours of observation EXP STEP 3 Complete all application materials by 2quotd Friday in April STEP 4 Noti ed by June 1 to start with a Fall Cohort usually 1012 students Interested in Athletic Training 4 year degree concentration Year1 Preprofessional Phase Must attend Orientation Meeting Sept Jan Receive application materials Years 24 Professional Phase Accept 810 students per year start in Fall 700800 clinical hrs Speci c courses in each semester Clinical experiences inclu e r phyle ian rounds Surgeries sport coverage etc IMIEGRAIE comm Clinical campezmaes e um mummy How successful are students who finish Athletic Training at LSU 100 pass rate on 800 exam 35 first time all students on DC exam LSU 50 first time rate 100 job placement Graduate Assistants at various Lu schools Clinics high employee satisfaction ratings Where are LSU Athletic Training graduates today National Football League NFL College Athletics i Sports Medicine Clinics Performing Arts High Schools Medical Sales Recent LSU Graduates FL Miami Dolphins Patrick Whitley ATC Carolina Panthers Cory Couture ATC Performing Arts Houston Ballet CompanyLauren GontkofATC Sports Medicine Clinics Manhattan NY Physical Therapy Sasa Jezdic ATC Colleges University of Louisville Aaron Bachert ATC LSU Ana Gross ATC Graduate Assistantships University ofHouston Lashelle Brown ATC University of Oklahoma Ashley Bon ck ATC University of Nebraska Derek Birkley ATC ngersity of Southern Mississippi Pamela Workman For more info Contacts LSU Dept of Kinesiology 5782036 Ray Castle ATC or Melissa Thompson ATC LSU Department of Kinesiology WWWIsuedukinesioogy Board of Certification WWWbocatcorg National Athletic Trainers Association WWW nata org wusm sunmxvmsln Obesity Trends Among 8 Adults between 1985 and 2005 De nitions Obesity havlng a very high amount of body fat in relation to lean body mass or Body Mass Index BMI of 30 or higher Body Mass Index BMI a measure of an adult s weight in relation to his or her height speci cally the adult s weight in kilograms divitded by the square of his or her height in me ers mining the 20 years there has been a dramatic increase in in the United States In 1985 only a few states were Enid ting in Behaviora Risk Factor Survei nce BRFSS and providing obesitydata In 19904 teshad tee of 1519 percent and no sta a ve 20 percent an 1995 obesity valence in wasless n20pe rrecentln200028stateshad prevalence rates less than 20 percent an 2005 only 4 states had obesity prevalence rates less than 20 percent while 17 states had prevalence rates equal to orgreaterthan 25 percent with 3 of those having prevalences equal to or greater than 30 percent Louisiana Mississippi and West Virginia In I Obesity Trends Among quot5 Adults between 1985 and 2005 source of the data 0 The data shown in these maps were collected through CDC39s Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System BRFSS Each year state health departments use standard procedures to collect data throu h a series of monthly telephone interviews with 5 adults 0 Prevalence estimates generated for the maps ma va sli htly from those generated for the states y BR 5 ttpapsnocdcdcgovbrfss as slightly differen ana ytlc methods are used WW Obesity Trends Among US Adults BRFSS 1990 1995 2005 BMI 230 or about 30 lbs overweight for 5394quot person 1990 1995 DNO Data 40 10 r14 o Imam D zowzm I zswzm Izaonn Source Behawora Rwsk Factor Survemance System CDC Obesity Trends Among US Adults BRFSS 1985 BMI 230 or w 30 lbs overweight for 539 4quot person DNO Data g lt1010 r14 Source Behawora Rwsk Factor Survemance System CDC Obesity Trends Among US Adults BRFSS 1986 BMI 230 or w 30 lbs overweight for 539 4quot person DNO Data lt1010 r14 Source Behawora Rwsk Factor Survemance System CDC Obesity Trends Among US Adults BRFSS 1987 BMI 230 or w 30 lbs overweight for 539 4quot person u I DNO Data E lt10 I10 r14 Source Behawora Rwsk Factor Survemance System CDC Obesity Trends Among US Adults BRFSS 1988 BMI 230 or w 30 lbs overweight for 539 4quot person u I DNO Data lt10 I10 r14 Source Behawora Rwsk Factor Survemance System CDC Obesity Trends Among US Adults BRFSS 1989 BMI 230 or w 30 lbs overweight for 539 4quot person u I DNO Data E lt10 I10 r14 Source Behawora Rwsk Factor Survemance System CDC Obesity Trends Among US Adults BRFSS 1990 BMI 230 or w 30 lbs overweight for 539 4quot person DNO Data E lt10 I10 r14 Source Behawora Rwsk Factor Survemance System CDC Obesity Trends Among US Adults BRFSS 1991 BMI 230 or w 30 lbs overweight for 539 4quot person DNO Data E lt10 I10quotr14 15 VHQ Source Behawora Rwsk Factor Survemance System CDC Obesity Trends Among US Adults BRFSS 1992 BMI 230 or w 30 lbs overweight for 539 4quot person DNO Data E lt10 I10quotr14 15 VHQ Source Behawora Rwsk Factor Survemance System CDC Obesity Trends Among US Adults BRFSS 1993 BMI 230 or w 30 lbs overweight for 539 4quot person DNO Data E lt10 3910quotw14 15 VHQ Source Behawora Rwsk Factor Survemance System CDC Obesity Trends Among US Adults BRFSS 1994 BMI 230 or w 30 lbs overweight for 539 4quot person DNO Data E lt10 39109w14 15 VHQ Source Behawora Rwsk Factor Survemance System CDC Obesity Trends Among US Adults BRFSS 1995 BMI 230 or w 30 lbs overweight for 539 4quot person D No Data 39 10quotr14 15 VHQ Source Behawora Rxsk Factor Survemance System CDC Obesity Trends Among US Adults BRFSS 1996 BMI 230 or w 30 lbs overweight for 539 4quot person D No Data 0quotr14 15 VHQ Source Behawora Rxsk Factor Survemance System CDC Obesity Trends Among US Adults BRFSS 1997 BMI 230 or w 30 lbs overweight for 539 4quot person D No Data E lt10 0quotr14 15 VHQ 220 Source Behawora Rxsk Factor Survemance System CDC Obesity Trends Among US Adults BRFSS 1998 BMI 230 or w 30 lbs overweight for 539 4quot person 10quotr14 15 HQ I 220 D No Data D lt10 Source Behawora Rxsk Factor Survemance System CDC Obesity Trends Among US Adults BRFSS 1999 BMI 230 or w 30 lbs overweight for 539 4quot person 10quotr14 15 HQ I 220 D No Data D lt10 Source Behawora Rxsk Factor Survemance System CDC Obesity Trends Among US Adults BRFSS 2000 BMI 230 or w 30 lbs overweight for 539 4quot person Source Behawora Rxsk Factor Survemance System CDC Obesity Trends Among US Adults BRFSS 2001 BMI 230 or w 30 lbs overweight for 539 4quot person Ewe Data Dam 4 10quotH4 15w19 200M405 I 225 Source Behawora Rwsk Factor Survemance System CDC Obesity Trends Among US Adults BRFSS 2002 BMI 230 or w 30 lbs overweight for 539 4quot person DNO Data Dlt10 10quotr14 15 VHQ 207w24 I 225 Source Behawora Rwsk Factor Survemance System CDC Obesity Trends Among US Adults BRFSS 2003 BMI 230 or w 30 lbs overweight for 539 4quot person DNO Data Dlt10 C 10quotr14 15 VHQ 207w24 I 225 Source Behawora Rwsk Factor Survemance System CDC Obesity Trends Among US Adults BRFSS 2004 BMI 230 or w 30 lbs overweight for 539 4quot person Ewe Data Dam 4 10quotH4 luvHm 200M405 I 225 Source Behawora Rwsk Factor Survemance System CDC Obesity Trends Among US Adults BRFSS 2005 BMI 230 or w 30 lbs overweight for 539 4quot person D No Data D lt10 10mm 15w19 zowzm I mam Izaonn Source Behawora Rwsk Factor Survemance System CDC Dr Wanda Hargroder whargrosuedu Advisor PACS Advisor APPTS Coordinator for Human Movement Science Internship Program CadaverLab Why Is This Important Myths Why you shouldn t listen to them Number of patient contact hours Number of sites Grade point average GRE score FAQ Grade 2 semesters Intern vs volunteering advantages CadaverLab Tell Me Again Why This is Important 7 Advantages for having done both What are these schools really looking for GRE GPA What makes you different that all the competition Do you have any proof Feedback from Students quotI just wanted you to know I was thinking today about how much my didactic experience at LSU has helped me in the first year of PA school here at UAB Straight A s so far From the beginning of PA school in gross anatomy until my current Clinical Medicine lectures I have really been at an advantage over others because of my cadaver and internship experiences Agnes McKowen 0 quotThis is Lisa Guy I just wanted to write you and tell you how luck I am to have come from LSU First of we are one of the only programs to offer a cadaver lab in undergrad so my first summer was a step ahead Lisa Guy 0 quotI have recently finished my first week of medical school at UAB I would like to thank you for all that you have done not only for me but the Dept of Kinesiology Having experience with a cadaver in undergraduate studies has put me at a major advantage in my gross anatomy course in medical school Amy Boone Recent Statistics 0 Average GPA for KIN majors who applied was 359 Average for entire applicant pool was 354 quotYour students are right in line with all the other LSU applicants L5U PremedicalPredental Review Committee Chair Oh the Places We Go LSU NO and Shreveport UAB South Alabama Yale Stanford Medical School University of North Carolina Regis Want More You Got Questions Have Answers Modern Olympic Games 1896 1quot L i L 397 fr J H 7 W 0 JJ w v mime l g Wigs WWW 391 lmlJImJbE mijpg 39 5 Mllm14f csg l mm w w UYH G zzcd wg m DMLBJ Em jc g mwrr ca 11 Ji i s ner EEJU CEE UEo lm lb v LEBBUU Magma mmfi me 03 gzea m v Egzcgcgm wgs L3 am 1151 Jmcglmlbcg g m UJ EEJUEE Sim v EC jill m wjgafmg W iK C U C J v a1qm1 g wm g D fbbm Symbols and Terms Opening Ceremonies myJ Wm g v 5i EIJE ELQ v w Elk c l f h 39 J v W l Jm mjm anaycgcc v L E a mC Tm E wmam Closing Ceremonies 1 1 hjm Ln L V V r MEETWE M EM v U EWEDEDULCE g U WLCc v 1 L m U v m lfcg m m v ltW m csglfi aaifmmcgm z r L Other questions f 7 4 K 21 03911 TEA J Rl J r 4 U 13K 9 Inf 29 1quot K quot faxquot 7 7 f m lgg Lam Mfg ijngw11mgj in U7 39 T li 1199 ZAE quot39L f 239 J L 7 m m U gaU 1553 1 39L 1 LR J UK K Maw i WHTL LVLi L j CflU SWEh J 1 wquot U m L Modern Olympic Games 1896 1quot L i L 397 fr J H 7 W 0 JJ w v mime l g Wigs WWW 391 lmlJImJbE mijpg 39 5 Mllm14f csg l mm w w UYH G zzcd wg m DMLBJ Em jc g mwrr ca 11 Ji i s ner EEJU CEE UEo lm lb v LEBBUU Magma mmfi me 03 gzea m v Egzcgcgm wgs L3 am 1151 Jmcglmlbcg g m UJ EEJUEE Sim v EC jill m wjgafmg W iK C U C J v a1qm1 g wm g D fbbm Symbols and Terms Opening Ceremonies myJ Wm g v 5i EIJE ELQ v w Elk c l f h 39 J v W l Jm mjm anaycgcc v L E a mC Tm E wmam Closing Ceremonies 1 1 hjm Ln L V V r MEETWE M EM v U EWEDEDULCE g U WLCc v 1 L m U v m lfcg m m v ltW m csglfi aaifmmcgm z r L Other questions f 7 4 K 21 03911 TEA J Rl J r 4 U 13K 9 Inf 29 1quot K quot faxquot 7 7 f m lgg Lam Mfg ijngw11mgj in U7 39 T li 1199 ZAE quot39L f 239 J L 7 m m U gaU 1553 1 39L 1 LR J UK K Maw i WHTL LVLi L j CflU SWEh J 1 wquot U m L Sport Administration Department of Kinesiology LSU LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY Networking CRUCIAL Start Now l Bachelor of Science in Sport Administration General Education courses Sport Administration Core Concentration Sport Commerce sport as a business enterprise Sport Leadership leadership roles within athletics Free Electives What this Bachelor of Science degree in Sport Administration is not This degree is NOT a coaching degree It is a degree that enables you to work in the sport industry in almost any capacity but NOT COACHING Bachelor of Science in Sport Administration Admission into College of Education Students wishing to enter the COE and pursue a major in Sport Administration must satisfy the following minimum requirements 24 hours ofcredit m 22 LSUcu GPA In addition students must earn advanced placement in credit for or a grade of C or bet er In 7 ENG a 6 hours or Analytical Reasohrhg 3 hours muSt be MATH a 3 hours or General Natural screhces Sport Administration Core History amp Philosophy KIN 2501 Introduction to Sport Admin KIN 2510 Sport Sociology KIN 2530 Finance KIN 3804 Law Ethics KIN 3800 Strategies amp Planning KIN 3801 Management Administration Administration of Programs KIN 4517 Events KIN 3802 Facilities KIN 4513 Sport Administration Core Practical Experience Practicum KIN 2502 Internship KIN 4835 student arranges the 300 hour semester long internship can be in state or outofstate begin searching at least 9 months prior to internship semester Internships Recognized as one of the most significant components of an entrylevel professional Objectives Opportunity for students to observe and participate in the planning organizing leading and evaluation of management duties in sport organizat39ons Provide the studentwith handsonquot experience under the direction of professionals in the administration of sport and recreation Internships Louisiana SemorOl m 6 es a m he m meres wmeming for averyone III NUT IUSI SPORILHS GEIIR 9 9 More Internships am Career Opportunities Olympic Movement IOC USOC Professional Leagues NFL MLB NBA WNBA MLS Professional Minor Leagues AAA AA A baseball leagues NBDL Colleges amp Universities League or conference offices NCAA etc Individual institutions Career Opportunities National Sports Organizations National Association of State Games Women s Sports Foundation Sports Marketing Agencies International Management Group IMG ProServ Sport Organizations YMCA amp YWCA Special Olympics Senior Olympics Boys amp Girls Clubs of America Career Opportunities Sports Management Groups managing municipal golf courses for cities running special events for companies Individual Sports Associations PGA LPGA Senior PGA Nike Tour USTA Motor Sports NASCAR IRL NHRA Websites Sports Jobs TeamWork Online LLC Portal to sports 39obs employment careers and internships and online recruitinq software for the sports and WA Sports Jobs at JobslnSportscom Sports Jobs Sports Internships Jobs In Sports SOSM Student Organization for Sport Management Meets each month in HP Long Fieldhouse 108 Dates Wednesdays Jan 26 Feb 9 March 23 April 27 Socials r HornetsClippers game on Feb 23 7 Be i d h Scenes basketball on March 2 Philanthropic activities Bulletin Board Outside of classroom 131 in HP Long Fieldhouse Advising Appointments Schedule appointments in 236 Peabody Hall with Andrea Jones a39one59lsuedu or Bridget Robicheaux brobiclsuedu Networking Remember it is CRUCIAL Start Now l 2 Questions I wars75c Opportunities and Programs for Women The Early Years Victorian Era sexual morality women should be staying home and women can t be should athlete woman s place in the home pale weak Most activities recreational 1870 s croquet archery bowling cycling tennis golf more for socializing not for physical benefit More widespread participation in Europe In US tennis most developed Cycling became popular strenuous activity made women stronger for housework and childbearing Women s colleges Vassar Smith Mt Holyoke Wellesley more progressive than coed schools Field hockey was very famous in Europe basket ball became very famous in women but were only allowed to play in the gym with no men in and doors closed and no spectators In the beginning the court of basket ball was divided in 3 section and 2 on one side 1 in middle and 2 on the other side It was so because they thought women couldn t play basket ball Latter there were only 4 people in each game But latter when women proved themselves these rules were Field Hockey popular in Europe Basketball popular with women 19001940 homemaking prime value The Olympic movement encouraged women to participate in sports most popular being tennis swimming figure ska ng By 1940 more women competing but huge battles in track and field 19401970 post war saw US programs for women increase gt Soviet Union 1966 mandatory femininity test instituted to make sure they were indeed feminine Althea Gibsongt tennis color barrier great player was in top of negro tennis group Allice wimble She wrote a letter to the united states tennis association and said she wont play if they don39t allow integration of sport in major tournaments She spent most of her money for kids who didn39t have place to play Collegiate sports 1941 Ohio State had the first national golf tourney for women The National Olympic Institute conducted coaching clinics for both man and women to promote women s sport and give them tips 1970 s women s sport comes from age with Title IX its usually took years in congress to pass bills Title IX No person in the United States shall on the basis of sex be excluded from participation in be denied the benefits of or be subjected to discrimination under any educational program or activity receiving federal financial assistance If a school is getting any kind of funds from the government in the form of school but or something else they can t discriminate among students If its a private school they can do what ever thev want Title IX requirements Financial assistance Effective accommodation of students interests and abilities there should be enough people interested in sport for the government to make the team or supply Paying for the uniform and other things wasn t were covered by the school Benefits opportunities and treatment AIAV A It ll Benefits opportunities and treatment Equipment and supplies Scheduling of practice and competition Travel and per diem Opportunities for coaching and academic tutors Assignment and compensation of coaches and academic tutors Locker room practice and competitive facilities Medical and training facilities and services Housing and dining facilities and services Publicity now there was publicity for women sport and there were programs that high lightened their successes Effective accommodation of students interests and abilities Opportunities for males and females substantially proportionate to their respective enrollments Where one sex has been underrepresented a history and continuing practice of program expansion responsive to the developing interests and abilities of that sex Where one sex is underrepresented and cannot show a continuing practice of program expansion whether it can be demonstrated that the interests and abilities of that sex have been fully and effectively accommodated by that present program 4000000 3500000 3000000 2500000 2000000 1 500000 1 000000 500000 0 High School Athletic Participation 3960517 I Girls I 1971 2001 02 2002 National Federation of State High School Associations In 1971 s there was a very low number of females participated in sports In 2000 s women participation increased a lot NCAA Championship Sports Participation 250000 214186 208481 209890 206385 199391 200030 207685 200000 184732 wow Iooow 175539 182836 183675 1556 1458393 14667 15361 133445 so 1292 9 198990 199091 199192 199293 199394 199495 199596 199697 199798 199899 199900 200001 200102 Provisional members included from 199596 to present In NCAA it fluctuated between men and women NCAA data 630 610 590 570 550 530 510 490 470 NCAA Football Team Growth 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 if the numbers of football team has grown then numbers of males has also increased Many school added football to sport their other sport programs NCAA data Trends in Men39s Sports Football A Wresting EI Gymnastics I 640 600 560 520 480 44o I JLIILJLIILILJILJL I I O J 7 7 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 NCAA data 1 so 1 6O 1 4o 1 20 1 oo 80 60 4o 20 o 1981 NCAA Men39s and Women39s Gymnastics Team Decline l I Men39s Gymnastics A Women39s Gymnastics I 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 NCAA data NCAA and High School Female Participation Levels 3000000 2856358 2500000 2000000 1500000 1000000 500000 153601 0 High School 2002 03 NCAA 2001 02 2003 National Federation of State HS Associations for 200203 NCAA Participation Report for 200102 One sport catching very fast is LACROSSE specially in high schools Other Issues Doping specially in East Germany Chinese Women became very popular in Olympic games East German coaches went to China to coach because china wanted to have same success that Germans had so they hired who lost theirjobs as result of Berlin was 1981 first women voted on IOC Women s Professional Sports 1943 Baseball during the war Base ball was very popular specially after the civil war when all men were out in early 1940 s for war women played it to satisfy the spectator need As men came back they it faded a little But still Golf and fannic Inrl Han Alau and Micro Inru 39Famnllc PL 94142 law for students with dissabilities Any school that gets federal funding Provided free public education to all children regardless of disability Only subject guaranteed to be taught was physical education Special Olympics has developed into a worldwide event for those with mental retardation Law areas individuals with disabilities Before this law children who has some kind of disability were not allowed to get in to public schools This is how private schools actually get started Now it s a complete reversal and public schools admit all the students while private schools only admit smart kids Special olympics developed by unisheriver and was for children with mental disabilities was games who were allowed to use the word Olympic in their title JFK was very concerned about image of Americans had a big family and one of the children was mentally retarded she was home schooled He was very concerned about our image in abroad He thought Americans were rude when they traveled abroad they were always in hurry So he Came up with the idea of peace Corps he took help from Sargent Shriver his Brother in law His Sister Eunice Shriver came with the idea of Special Olympics that if normal children can have athletes why no children with disabilities and now this is an international program One of the Kennedy people did special arts program for children who like to play music visual arts ect Maria shiriver married to Arnold shwartziver who was chair man of present counsel of physical fitness eventually became governor of California In 1983 international games where help here Chapter 1 The Impetus for Early Sport A cult honoring the dead 0 Reinforced by Homer s account of the games held in honor of the slain Patroclus Cult honoring fertility o Demeter the mythical goddess of fertility and agriculture played an important role in the ancient Olympic Games 0 The priestess of Demeter was the only woman legally allowed to attend the Olympic Games Training for military purposes 0 Plato advocated this theory he was a strong supporter of Greek gymnastics and felt that they helped develop a strong military 0 Supporters of this theory also point to the success of the militaristic city state of Sparta in the early days of the ancient Olympic Games Inherent urge for competition 0 Historical roots in Homer s Odyssey 0 Enjoyed competitive contests of all kinds Words amp Terms Associated with the Games Arete ancient Greece cultural ideal of excellence the drive to excel be victorious be first and best and to perform deeds of heroism total excellence Ekecheiria a sacred treaty among the Greek citystates guaranteed the sanctity of the temple area of Olympia and free passage to and from Olympia for everyone participating in or attending the Olympic Games Paidotribe similar to a modernday allaround physical educator represented a coach before specialized coaching made its appearance in ancient Greece Ponos quotno pain no game Scratch Ze 5 Greek supreme god who the games were held in honor for s H D ra queen of all gods races for women were held in her honor Zeus wife Pindar celebrates the work of gymnastes in his fortyfour odes to the victors of the 5th century BC crown festivals praises wrestling coach Melesias most famous poet of ancient games got people interested in the games Flutist provided musical accompaniment recorded during the long jump Trumpets used to identify a person who had false started or cheated way of notifying everyone to start the race again Gymnasium training facility where individuals practiced the various events Theodosis Christian Roman emperor as the Romans overtook more land they brought their habits with them by the end of the games they were very violent he decided that they were too pagan of celebrations so officially closed the games in 393 Hellanodikae local officials from Elis who organized and refereed games judges Halteres handheld weights stones used in the long jump to project themselves forward weighed up to 8 pounds Thermae baths for athletes Renaissance along with the works of Pindar created interest ofwhat life was like in these times unearthing of artifacts of Olympic games Zanes statues built to memorialize the shame and dishonor of some participating Olympians built as a punishment for breaking the rules only 13 Husplex a starting gate that was introduced to prevent false starts Kampter turning post some athletes tried to cheat by spinning around the post to gain speed so the turning post s base was raised symbolized the turning point of mlife turn the point and are heading home to the end of the race Olympiad the interval between the games way to count the years in ancient Greece Nike goddess of eet foot fast The Ancient Olympic Games 776 BC393 AD How did organized games start and what were they like There were four kinds of games 1 Informal contests between soldiers as they trained or waited for battle to pass time 2 lFuneral games well organized contests held by warriors after the funeral ofa man killed in battle Earliest one 1250 BC in Greece Best known funeral game was described by Homer in book XXIII of The Iliad 3 The Wreath games Games m Prize Olympia Olympia Garland from a holy Olive tree and red ribbons 0 Games were prolonged to 5 days Pythian Delphi temple Baylaurel apple at first of Apollo 0 Crown Game 0 Dedicated to Apollo 0 Women were allowed to participate o Divided into quotOlympic Youth and Pythian Youth 0 Originally a music festival Nemean Nemea Parsley temple of 0 Crown Game Zeus Garland ofwild celery 0 3 age groups 0 women were allowed to participate Isthmian Isthimia Garland of PineParsley 0 Crown Game 0 Held in honor of the god ofthe sea Poseidon o 3 age groups 0 women participated 4 lSecular games initially held in ov entertainment The facilities er 300 cities primarily for Stadium The stadium in Olympia was among the largest in Greece with the stade measuring about 210 yards Palestra A training facility where individuals practiced the various events First was a school for wrestling that was considered a part of the gymnasion Devoted primarily to the physical training ofyounger children private Hippodrome The hippidrome was the facility where the horse and chariot races were held Council Building Prytaneion Gymnasium Along with the palestra was a training facility where individuals practiced the various events Temple of Zeus in Olympia Originally where the games took place The control of the temple caused continuous fighting Outside the stadium The Events of the Ancient Games Running events 0 Stade the first and only event of the Olympic Games for over fifty years a 600 foot footrace performed on the straight length ofa at surface Diaulos equaled 2 stade Dolichos the most popular longdistance race in ancient Greece varied from 8 to 24 stades mostly 2024 stades which equaled about 3 miles longest race in Greek agonsitics 0 Race in Armor he ump the long jump was performed in ancient Greece with the participants carrying weight halteres The Discus mechanics of the throw are unknown to us weighed from 3 to 14 pounds diameter of 65 to 135 inches Pentathlon a competition consisting of5 events longjump discus javelin stade race and wrestling avelin a pointed shaft 56 12 feet long made from elderwood competitor would loop the thong over the first finger or first 2 fingers of his throwing hand thrown for accuracy as opposed to distance Wrestling resembled the modern freestyle organized into a single weight class and the loser ofa bout was eliminated from further competition very popular fight to the death or collapse quit by raising one finger Boxing there were no weight classes and no intermissions between rounds did not fight barefisted but wrapped leather thongs around their knuckles Pankration miXture of boxing and wrestling the fight lasted until one of the participants surrendered the only thing not allowed was gouging eyes violent orseZChariot Racing sports of the aristocracy in ancient Greece Contributions of Ancient Greeks to Sports I FYI First to organize and make rules for games Developed the gymnasium Developed the first training methods Wrote the first code of sportsmanship and standards for fair play Because of them we have the Olympic games today Tales of games King Oenomaus Competing in the nude 0 Greek gymnastics quotactions performed in the nude Greeks were proud of the beauty of their bodies and the games provided an opportunity for public display of excellence of physique At one point coaches were even required to appear nude at the stadium to ensure that the coaches were male and not female 0 Romans never competed nude and weren t proud of their bodies Pentathlon winners 0 most agree that it was won in the first 3 events Ifyou won the first 3 you went to the 4th If you won the 4th you competed for the crown Women in the Olympics 0 not allowed to watch games so made their own games dedicated to Hera wore white one shouldered dress roman women trained intensely to the point where they were worried if they would be able to have children Decline of the Games 0 closed by Theodosius because ofviolence and pagan practices The Trainers and their tales 0 had no scientific backup to what they were doing Chapter 2 Nationalist Europe Nationalism an individual is thought to owe a feeling of quotbelongingquot to his or her nation and is expected to be completely loyal to it organized sports have played a specific and effective role in the rise of nationalism GYMNASTICS 0 System ofphysical training Greeks o Essentially practiced the event they were going to compete in no exercise 0 Turnen Germans o The German Turnen movement was a combinations of the ideals of enlightenment with a romantic concept of nationality Turnen clubs that Germans belong to to perpetuate the culture Field like the Parade Grounds lead everyone in an exercise each morning before work very militaristic everyone did the same thing 0 Turngerides exercise area Gymnastics Swedes 0 Systems of exercise calisthenics 0 First to approach exercise for its medicinal purposes if you exercised you would be healthy Muscular Christianity British 0 preople were good strong athletes they would be a better Christian citizen and leader GERMAN SYSTEM 0 Turnen Turnvarian Turner Society 0 Turner Society clubs cooked German food drank beer told folklore stories Activities of the Turnen system involved primarily calisthenics and exercises on a variety of pieces of apparatus such as the horizontal bar the parallel bar the rings the horse and climbing facilities Purpose of societies was physical education caring for health and preparedness ofyouth for military service 0 Turnvarian the field where exercises took place Consisted ofhorizontal bar rings parallel bars horse ropes stall bars 0 NationalisticMilitaristic 0 System of exercise project an image of a strong group 0 Weak young Germans 0 Targeted weak young German boys to project image 0 Trained young men in bravery courage strength and militarily o Friedrich Ludwig Iahn 0 Leader of the German turnen movement impacted early physical education in this country especially in this country where cities were made of German citizens father of German gymnastics o Believed the German nation should become a political and cultural entity based on the concepts ofindependence and citizenship they should overcome social stratification they should idealize the concept of masculinity and they should hate the French 0 Preparation for war 0 Purpose for this system was to be prepared for war hated French 0 Turnens are closed 1819 0 Were thought to be subversive 0 Closed by the government to help subdue the movement s political and revolutionary tendencies 0 German Turnen Festivals 0 In order to keep it going they would have festivals to celebrate holidays there would be games to play and used it as a very subversive way to continue this system held in churches underground secret society 0 Evolution of sports events 0 As popularity grew the Turnen program began to add new games like track and field events 0 Eventually sports became popular and were played at these events 0 Sports supported political ideology and promoted nationalism 0 Used sport to keep their customs alive promoted nationalism o Hitler and Nazis o Turnen Association openly identified with the goals of the Nazis 0 Made Turners expel German Iews FRENCH GYMNASTICS o Gymnastic societies 0 Specialized in paramilitary training and emphasized the development of discipline courage and masculinity 0 Similar to Turnen 0 French men were passionate about their strong image against Germans o Mandatory activity for all French boys to join the military and participate in these calisthenics o Gymnastic Union 0 Confederation ofindividual societies 0 Supported exercise system and competition in sports 0 These were headed by French army officers SWEDISH SYSTEM 0 Used music to help with the exercise 0 Light rhythmic exercise not militaristic or intense o Stretching promoted elongating the muscles instead ofbuilding them up 0 Medicinal value of exercise 0 Tried to make links with cardiovascular and muscular systems and health o Michelangelo worked on human bodies 0 Sometimes used a piano to keep the rhythm 0 Relationship between nervous respiratory and circulatory system GREAT BRITAIN played sports before anyone else adapted sports from Native Americans soccer Lacrosse 0 19th century play was a function of class riding horses fox hunting people to handle horses etc 0 Industrial revolution created a gentry class 0 Factory workers worked as long as the factory manager said they would 0 As conditions in factories got better people got free time and money to get the equipment to play 9 gentry class 0 Now working class and rich were both playing sports 0 Unified system of sport 0 The activities of social classes were combined to one system of sports 0 Come up with rules leagues competition where people could join a team and participate in league play 0 Gentlemen sport 0 Upper and middle class 0 Tennis golf rowing Crochet cricket wealthier sports were not rough factory workers played rough games 0 Urban sports 0 Lower social classes Soccer rugby 0 Sport and education sport became part of the education process more about playing than getting fit 0 Character training took place in quotpublicquot schools private boarding school system for sons of the social elite IRELAND rivalry between Great Britian and Ireland 0 A model of what was sport 0 Rejected all sports that GB had eX curling 0 Creation ofa national sport organization that would govern sport to make sure that it would stay true to their political ideology Gaelic Athletic Association GAA Political goals Inventing a national sport tradition o Hurling Gaelic football soccer and handball GERMAN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC o Began after the end ofWW II 0 First people to really go into Research into sport science Selection of athletes recruit athletes for sports they would perform best at First to Employ personnel Material advantages coaches trainers etc Extreme practice and systematic doping 0 To create a more perfect race they practiced athletes to extremities 0 Exp erimented with different types of drugs to make them perform better Sports would help gain national respect 0 Thought that if they were superior in sport it would project an image of strength so others would fear them Private sport clubs elite athletesworkplace clubs catered to mass activities German NOC National Olympic Committee East Germany agreed to participate in an allGerman representation at the Olympic Games Eventually created Elite sports and athletes druginduced o Weightlifting steroids East and West Germany division eventually E Germany fell and became one country 9 a lot of coaches in E Germany lost their jobs China s gain Chapter 3 Six Themes from 1492Present 1 The Good Life a The uniquely American expectation of the good life and the ultimate pursuit of happiness people wanted a better life in the US for them and their children Contributions of Other Countries a Cultural diversity of American society ad historical contributions from the customs and practices of numerous countries and societies 3 Perceived value of sportphysical edu a The perceived ethical values and beliefs that have guided the daily lives ofAmericans Equot 4 Social Organization a Patterns of social organization in the US including gender role expectations and patterns of social stratification 5 Technologyindustrial revolution a The intermixing of technology industrialization immigration and urbanization and their effects on the development of sport and physical activity 6 Changing concept of sport amp physical education a We have looked at physical ed as play time b Children need a chance to burn off energy Other American Colonists New England O O O Puritan Work Ethic I Asceticism devotion to hard work religious discipline and the development ofmoral character associated with a virtuous and godly life Prohibited Sleigh rides fishing football dancing swimming bowls ninepins and shuf eboard Games for children had moral teachings 0 Pennsylvania Quakers settled for religious freedom 0 0 Peace loving Ice skate swim hunt amp fish enjoyed leisure activities Ben Franklin The Art of Rendered Easv first book about anything physical I he was very committed to physical activity and believed being active would make you healthier 0 New York N ew Amsterdam 0 O O 00 0000 Immigrated from Holland 1664 enjoyed Good food drinking amp gambling on sporting events Bowling started out as 9 pin bowling leg outlawed because it created an unsavory group ofpeople reintroduced with 10 pin bowling which was not against the law golf elite sport tennis not as competitive played on glass by the elite created scoring system to confuse servants so that it would only be played by elites fives cricket horseracing first paid sporting event was a horse race in NY 1736 first admission for an event Club the Cat Pull the Goose Southern Colonies o Settle there for economic opportunity rather than religious freedom 0 Tobacco main crop 0 Physical activity embraced as a function of class 0 1619 African slaves provided labor 0 Landowners became dependent on them because they were the force work earned their freedom and money through sport especially boxing 0 Some went back to Europe to box because boxing was very popular there 0 Taverns o The social center of town 0 Gave information had telegraphs where the mail came where people stayed 0 Games cockfights billiards darts dice cardplaying Animal baiting Early Education 0 Elementary 0 Set up in areas that had 50 families 0 Catechism reading writing arithmetic Secondary school 0 Set up when there were 100 families 0 One room one teacher variety of ages 0 Men educated formally through 6th or 7th grade 0 Women educated enough to get by with sewing cooking penmanship Harvard typically took boys in that were 15 years old girls did not leave home to go to school studied Latin Greek Hebrew logic rhetoric ancient history and mathematics Academies 0 Train young men in lifelong practical skills and academic subjects 0 Ben Franklin recommended Physical activity By 1840 o 133 towns had more than 2500 people 0 26 states belonged to the union 0 5 cities were the commercial and social centers Boston New York Philadelphia Baltimore Charlestown 0 balls and dances were a very important part of the culture 0 12 million immigrants Irish German African Impact of the Industrial Revolution 0 Roads better carriages were better 0 Erie Canal 1825 Allowed people to travel easier by boat 0 Fulton s steamboat 1807 0 Steam locomotive amp railroad travel 0 Eli Whitney Cotton gin 1793 Freed people up so they had time and money to participate in sport 0 Cyrus McCormick reaper 0 John Deer plow Still No 0 Anesthesia meager surgical sophistication 0 Poor cleanliness amp sanitation 0 Diseases commongtno inoculations 0 People had more time to play because of all of the inventions Early Development in Organized Sport Expansion ofAmerica as a rural society Growth and development of major cities Industrialization ofUnited States and the rise ofa new working class Decline of Puritan Orthodoxy English amateur sport movement Contributions of powerful individuals 0 Teddy Roosevelt loved outdoors est national parks loved football 1891 BasketballJames Naismith invented in YMCAs o 1895 VolleyballWilliam Morgan invented in YMCAs Serious Sport 0 Horseracing one of the most popular sports to develop 0 Boxing prizefighting o Rowing originated in England 0 Yacht racing participated by wealthy people 0 Baseball quotThe National Pastime 0 Track amp Field Athletics 0 Football combination of soccer and rugby Rules were made to prevent deaths Sport at the College Level 0 Intercollegiate contests o Intercollegiate sports began in the 1850s Harvard and Yale competed in a rowing match baseball was second 0 Variety of sports 0 Student initiated intramurals Groups of students initiated contests between and among each other 0 Students organized clubs scheduled contests managed finances and determined the rules 0 Violence became an issue 0 1895 Beginnings of the NCAA Set rules so that athletes have to comply with certain academic standards in order to be eligible 0 faculty from 7 schools in the Midwest formed Intercollegiate Conference of Faculty Representatives later became the Big Ten Conference Women in Sport 0 Victorian attitudes o The way they dressed and appropriate female behavior hampered their ability to play sport skirts o Belief that ifwomen played too much sport they would become male or unable to have children 0 Physical concerns 0 Popular sports o Nonvigorous archery crochet golf tennis and bicycling 0 Women were eventually able to wear bloomers which allowed them to ride bikes and horses Professional Sport 0 Professionalism a threat to integrity of amateur sporting values 0 Most professional teams emerged from factories factories would hire athletes 0 College student athletes didn t want to quit playing 0 People began to want to own teams 0 Baseball was the first with all salaried teams Cincinnati Red Stockings 0 First professional team owned by a person 0 Athletes didn t make much money 5001400 per season 0 Football tennis basketball golf ice hockey Physical activity programs in the schools 0 By 1900 public institutions for boys and girls were established 0 German immigrants in uence of gymnastics training for physical educationgtTurnvereingtIahn s 3 closest friends introduced it to America 0 Charles Follen Harvard first college gym in the country 0 Charles Beck Round Hill school was the first to require exercise and activity as a part ofits curriculum 0 Francis Lieber Boston Gymnasium amp first swimming pool 0 Catherine Beecher Hartford Female Seminary quotA Course of Calisthenics for Young Ladies promoted the needs for programs of daily exercise for women 0 Mary Lyon Mt Holyoke Female Seminary advocated daily exercise to promote health and welfare of women attending the institution Battle of the Systems Dioclesian Lewis new gymnastics German system Swedish system Pehr Ling Edward Hitchcock medical doctor at Amherst College 0 Anthrokimetrics measured the men who came to Amherst and prescribed exercises for them 0 Dudley Sargent medical doctor at Harvard Hemenway gymnasium o Developed an extensive healthrelated program that focused on gmnastics anthropometric measurements and physical training 0 Money was donated by a very wealthy money to Harvard to create this gym 0 Luther Gulick Muscular Christianity 0 Dedicated to the use of organized games and sports as education Catherine Beecher o Talked about calisthenics Mary Lyon 0 Created activities for her students Francois Delsarte o Developed the Delsarte System of Physical Culture based on the belief that certain physical exercises stress poise grace and beauty and are conducive to better acting and singing Primarily interested in working with actors Developed a system of exercise for actors and dancing to sustain the many hours ofpractice they had to go through Was it possible to agree that one system was best 0 No everyone still had their own ideas that their system was the best this question was not answered until early in the twentieth century 00 The American System Emerges as a result of Economic technological and sociological events 0 System changed from one of exercise to one of gains 0 Economy had shifted from an emphasis on the production of goods to a focus on mass consumption and leisure The quest for the good life 0 People began to associate play and physical activity with the good life 0 Changing nature ofwork increase in person income shorter work week increase in leisure time Civil rights gt human rights 0 Many athletes were afforded the opportunity to play sport and break the cycle of poverty 0 Nineteenth Amendment gave all women the right to vote 0 Brown vs Board of Education ofTopeka racial segregation illegal 0 Civil Rights Act 1964 banned discrimination in employment voter registration and public accomodations Required physical education done only to prepare men for war Community sports program 0 Peewee sports opportunities for young children President Theodore Roosevelt 0 football legislated safe opportunities for sport 0 formed the Intercollegiate Athletic Association ofU S replaced by NCAA Racial Barriers Early 1900 s black athletes only participated in boxing amp horseracing o Negro leagues 0 1946 Branch Richey Jackie Robinson was signed to the Brooklyn Dodgers 0 Paved the way and put a lot on the line Received death threats 0 Civil Rights movement 0 Opened many opportunities for blacks o 1968 Mexico olympics 0 Took track athletes to high elevations to train talked about boycotting Olympics some black gold medalists raised their fist in the air while being awarded their medals on the podium which was not allowed Youth Sport Programs 0 Educators amp religious leaders supported health and social values 0 Playground Association ofAmerica Gulick o YMCA s o The Amateur Athletic Union Catholic Youth Organization 0 Boys Club 0 Pee Wee leagues The American System 0 Pragmatism play was a part of the democratic process individual learns best by doing 0 quotNewquot physical education stressed the whole individual rather then just a healthy body from biological psychological and sociological perspectives Teacher training programs Research in the field ofphysical education A Changing Society 0 Factors affecting the American system 0 Con icting philosophies among educators as to the central purpose of physical education 0 Societal changes 0 Purpose ofphysical educationactivity 0 Train and develop the body organic fitness and physical skills 0 Develop the whole person physically mentally socially emotionally 0 Education for leisure activities and the productive use of leisure time 0 Great Depression forced schools to abandon athletics 0 During times of crisis physical education emphasized training for the military 0 During peace physical education contributed to the individual Gender Equity amp Disabilities 0 Title IX 1972 no person on the basis of gender could be excluded from any program receiving federal money 0 Coed PE classes equal opportunities for college athletes PL 94142 1975 PE made available to every child regardless of disability Amateur Sports Act 1978 USOC create programs for disabled 0 Americans with Disabilities Act end to discrimination against individuals of all ages based on disabilities The End of the Century Physical Education in schools is on the decline As taxes rise the Relevancy and value ofphysical education is questioned Relationship between Physical Education and athletics goals are very different Image of athletics professional amp amateur Is sport a re ection of society or is society a re ection of sport 0 Issues in athletics are a re ection of problems facing American society OOOOO Chapter 4 and 5 139 International Sports in the 20th Century Olympic Games 0 Game summary 0 The opening ceremony included religious rites the playing of an Olympic anthem and the wearing of an Olympic oath o Opened in Athens on April 6 1896 and lasted for 10 days Less than 300 participants and 80 weren t from Greece 13 countries 9 sports only 4 track and field swimming gymnastics and fencing have been included since 0 Creation ofInternational Sport Federations o gymnastics rowing cycling skating soccer shooting sailing hockey swimming fencing tennis track and field weightlifting wrestling 0 number ofworld championships increased 0 World championships in sports 0 first speed skating and figure skating o cycling rowing weight lifting tennis ice hockey 0 Far Eastern games Davis cup Tour de France 0 First Far Eastern games were held in 1913 o Stemmed from the initiative of the International YMCA 0 David cup tennis 1900 US won first two competitions 0 Tour de France cycling 1903 00 International Sports between the World Wars 0 PostWW I 1918 o Competitions in 24 sports in the InterAllied games USAFrench military initiative 0 Winter Olympics for one week 0 1924 Games in Paris 0 Workers Games Germany 0 first held in Frankfurt Germany in 1925 created by the International Organization of Socialist Sports who favored team efforts 0 Soccer World Cup 1930 s Other regional games 1926Central American Games Mexico 1934WesternAsian Games India 1930British Empire Games Hamilton Ontario Canada held quadrennially up to WWII and then renewed as the British Commonwealth Games 1932ewish Olympics religious basis Tel Aviv then in Palestine International Sports and the Cold War Politics in uenced who was allowed to enter the games Presidents of the IOC had political agendas Avery Brundage expelled two black athletes Juan Carlos and Tommy Smith from Mexico because ofparticipation in the Black Power movement Battle to protect quotamateurismquot continued to grow despite growing hypocrisy Soviet Union had quotstate amateurs supported by their governments and were considered government employees Brundage advocated no amateurs Commercialism and the Games 1984 Los Angeles Games 0 counterboycott of the Soviet Union and East Germany did not really affect the games US had boycotted the Soviet Union because of Afghanistan invasion Very Successful Monetarily I Permanent sponsorships Television revenues300 million I Team sponsorship 1990 s stagger summerwinter so both events wouldn t be held the same year 0 Adding new sports 0 Baseball 1992 softball 1996 tae kwan do and triathlon 2000 Increase the size of the games 0 Addition of sports forced IOC to raise number ofparticipants allowed NBC purchased the rights to eight years of games for 35 billion from years 2000 to 2008 3 summer games and 2 winter games Being sure women were represented 0 International federations began to sponsor world championships for women wrestling weightlifting pentathlon bowing soccer Scandals involving the awarding of the Salt Lake City games 0 Charges of corruption and bribery were made against the Organizing Committee of the Salt Lake City Winter Games of 2002 Drugs and the Games 1968 Mexico first disqualification ofpentathlete caught with too much alcohol Asthma medication Rick DuMont American gold medalist in swimming used a medication containing ephedrine for his asthma and was disqualified 1988Ben Iohnson Canadian sprinter was drug tested and caught with steroids Blood doping tour de France blood doping was common in the Tour de France quotTour de EPO several cyclists died during performance because of steroids Two issues 0 Unevenunfiar playing field extremely light punishment for steroid use and there is a high number ofpardons granted to doped athletes o irregularnoneXistent testing of athletes 1900 O 1904 o 1906 O 1908 1912 O 1916 1920 1924 00 1928 00 O 1932 O O 00 1936 0 Paris games considered a failure because they had trouble controlling the length of competition with golf used the original scoring for tennis so matches lasted a very long time St Louis disaster because the games were the same time as the World s Fair Athens deCouberton tried to revitalize people s ideas that the games were a good idea interim games Rome couldn t get ready soon enough so they moved it to London Stockholm women swam swimming pools were dirty problem with women appearing on international tv in bathing suits equestrian 1st pentathlon not celebrated because ofWorld War I Antwerp very modest because facilities had been destroyed and it was hard to get counties to dedicate funds Paris 3000 athletes in attendance very successful winter sports were separated Amsterdam women s health issues were raised more events that included women and women began training doctor s were concerned that training so hard would prevent them from having children some were worried that women would begin to take on male features Los Angeles Babe Didrikson won every event in track in field that she ever competed in When she got too old to participate she played golf and won every event in golf too Married an Olympic wrestler by the name of Zaharius Led doctors to believe that women practicing would develop men features when she took up golf she lost weight and wore dresses Berlin Hitler was in full reign I Built the finest athletic activities that the world had ever seen I Filled the stands with young boys in military outfits I The darling of the game was Iessie owens everything Hitler hated o 1940 o o 1944 0 1948 0 o o 1952 o o 1956 o O o 1960 O o 1964 O o o 1968 O O I Hitler had awarded all of the metals to athletes but refused to award Iessie he left the stadium the IOC did not allow Hitler to put medals on any other athlete because he wouldn t but it on Iessie Tokyo cancelled because of WWII cancelled because ofWWII London over 4000 athletes from 58 countries games were growing Helsinki fist time the USSR was allowed to compete Melbourne 67 countries American runner Wilma Rudolph games of the black gezelle named after her I She won every event she competed in I Mayor of her city wanted to hold a parade and banquet in her honor but she refused because she was the only black person I She would only go if it was integrated so one of the first integrated banquets in the state of Tennessee took place Rome Games of the Black Gezelle named after Wilma again Wilma Rudolph wins 3 gold medals in Rome Tokyo first time games were sent home as they were occurring live telecast technology begins to impact the games Mexico City US athletes taken to Utah to train so that they could run in high altitude many of the athletes were very concerned about the Civil Rights Movement so tried to figure out something they could do to make a statement I Couldn t agree on any one thing so they decided to do something on their own At the end of one of the track races two of the athletes Juan Carlos and Johnny Smith raised their black gloved fists in the air during the National Anthem which was against the rule They were going to take their medals away and expel them they were sent home but were allowed to keep their medals Fosbury Flop developed the way to do the high jump won and it changed the technique O O 1972 O O 1984 O O 1988 O O 1992 O O O 1996 Introduced the first synthetic track surface compressed rubber employed technology Women s issue was still going on so had women athletes take a seX chromatography test to make sure they were in fact women not men Munich Mark Spitz won 7 gold medals predicted that he would win every event but didn t I When he came back the neXt time he did win every event and his record stayed until this past Olympic in Beijing Olga Korbut I All of Communist gymnasts were much younger than USA s Started testing for drugs communist countries were giving the female gymnasts testosterone I 1976 Nadia Comaneci taken off of testosterone 1980 Moscow Jimmy Carter boycotted the Olympics taking up for Afghanistan Los Angeles Moscow boycotted us 8000 athletes from 140 countries women and men gymnastics team US won Mary Luetten made the Wheaties box first female to have the happen Sports AdministrationManagement kicked in I The person in charge of the games raised millions of dollars to support the games got corporate sponsors sold television time to the big companies I Generated lots of money for the first time the city hosting the games did not go into a huge debt as a result ofhosting the games Seoul steroids are tested for all sports Ben Johnson Carl Lewis emerged as an incredible runner devoted his whole life to track and field Matt Biondi won 7 medals in swimming Barcelona decided to light the torch in a different way so had an audition for archers to fire the arrow into the caldron that would light the torch USSR fell and South Africa was allowed to compete in the first time IOC would not allow them to compete prior to that because of racial segregation policies 10000 athletes 172 countries Atlanta wasn t sentimental favorite because it was the 100th year ofthe games o 2000 Sydney 10651 athletes triatholon and taekwondo introduced as events 0 2004 Athens 10625 athletes 301 events 0 has trouble handling the games o 2008 Beijing some athletes considered not going because they were scared of the air pollution so Beijing shut down all of their factories over 15000 factories for weeks before the games to minimize the amount of smog and improve air quality 2012 London 2016 Brazil first time in South America 00 O 0 Chapter 6 july 1 1972 Title IX No person in the United States shall on the basis of seX be excluded from participation in be denied the benefits of or be subjected to discrimination under any educational program or activity receiving federal financial assistance Title IX requirements 0 women must be given equal opportunity to participate in all sports opportunities for women in collegiate and professional sports 0 increased specialized sports camps were held physical education classes became coeducational and the amount of talented women athletes began to increase 0 Financial assistance scholarships for women should be increased with no increase in scholarships for men 0 Effective accommodation of students interests and abilities 0 Male and female athletes should receive equal benefits opportunities and treatment Benefits opportunities and treatment Equipment and supplies Scheduling ofpractice and competition Travel and per diem Opportunities for coaching and academic tutors Assignment and compensation of coaches and academic tutors Locker room practice and competitive facilities Medical and training facilities and services Housing and dining facilities and services Publicity Men and women s teams have to be equal in terms of equipment You had to rotate practices girls and boys had to take turns coming later If you hire a men s coach you have to hire a women s coach The balance of teams had to reflect the gender ratio of school Don t always have to have men and women s teams like football Everything has to be equal and fair Athletes don t live in athletic dorms anymore They were previously isolated OOOOOOO Effective accommodation of students interests and abilities Opportunities for males and females substantially proportionate to their respective enrollments Where one sex has been underrepresented a history and continuing practice of program expansion responsive to the developing interests and abilities of that sex Where one sex is underrepresented and cannot show a continuing practice of program expansion whether it can be demonstrated that the interests and abilities of that sex have been fully and effectively accommodated by that present program 0 Ifyou add a men s team you have to add a women s team 0 In adding some women s sports had to lose some men s sports Chapter 7 Global Issues in Sport and Physical Activity Do We AgreeSport and Physical Activity should be organized and administered to make positive contributions to society Problems in competitive sports programs are violence drug abuse gambling high cost commercialization labor issues and elimination ofphysical ed in K12 settings Three Concepts that Shape our World 0 Communication instant better faster the dark side 0 Improved communication may discourage people who learn about tragic happenings that our current institutions can t deal with better communication can also permit faster and more efficient communication of the dark side of the human spirit Diversity Cultural racial ideological differences 0 Bigger issue than ever before Cooperation does sport foster goodwill 0 Better communication and greater awareness of diversity make cooperation an imperative If sport and physical education are to contribute to better international communication greater appreciation of diversity and cooperation in social living then they will need to improve to reform and clean up their act The Present Situation 0 O The Good Life revisited o The 21st centurywomen in politics sports religion the workplace and social activism a new world order is in store General Intercultural Observations 0 Fewer teachers and coaches 0 Where better for people to develop concepts of the healthful and enjoyable benefits than schools 0 Its our responsibility to help people appreciate the value and provide opportunities of sport and physical education the role ofphysical educators and coaches is to help everyone understand the healthful and enjoyable benefits of developmental physical education and sport Survey of the International Scene in Sport and Physical Education 1 9 5 53 1 9 A majority of the respondents believed that the physical education program in their country had improved in the past decade A substantial minority expressed the belief that the level of the physical fitness had declined in their country A substantial majority reported using the term physical education at the school level Physical education was required in a substantial majority of countries Competitive sport is part of the physical ed program in a majority of schools Physical education and organized sport both come under the jurisdiction ofa national ministry in a majority of the countries surveyed Physical education counts for academic credit in a majority of countries Standard curriculum and movement skills from country to country sports skills instruction and fitness activities are introduced gradually throughout learning lifetime sport and physical recreation instruction is often offered in high schools university programs are largely elective and typically include voluntary sport and physical recreation and fitnessoriented activities There s nothing highly unusual in countries physical education 10 The overall status ofphysical education was rated lower than other subjects Social Forces and Professional concerns affecting physical education and sport 0 Social Forces o The In uence of Values and Norms Politics Nationalism Economics Religion Ecology Science and Technology and a concern for peace 0 Professional Concerns 0 Curriculum methods of instruction professional preparation the concept of the healthy body the place of sport exercise and related expressive activity in the lives of women ethnic minorities and the disabled or other special populations the role of dance the use of leisure the matter of amateur semiprofessional and professional sport the role of management or administration and the idea of progress HISTORY amp PHILOSOPHY OF KINESIOLOGY o Philosophy 0 Man s love of wisdom and knowledge 0 Examination of beliefs 0 Self aetualization o The ability to select and identify the most important elements needed to eXist my and allow you to focus your personal energies and efforts towards whatever it is for your stage of maturity o The study of organized thought and conduct o Philosophy gives you the tools to evaluate yourself in the areas of 0 Life and Death 0 Good and Evil 0 Freedom and Restraint 0 Beauty and Ugliness T he PhilosophyIdeal ism The mind is the focus of a person s being In the total scheme of the universe people are more important than nature Values are permanent and do not need individuals to carry them forward The learning process is self initiated Strive for perfection Teacher is a role model 0 Curriculum centered around the following Fine Arts Science 0 Language Philosophy o Logic History 0 Math Geography o Things that don t change With the whims of society Idealism and Physical Activity 0 Select activities that encourage honesty courage creativity and sportsmanship wrestling running discus gymnastics tness 0 Develop strong moral character 0 Body developed along with the mind 0 Teacher is rm and paternalistic FYI 0 Organizations that espouse this philosophy 0 YMCA FCA Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints 0 Health amp physical activity are an integral part of the above organizations o Philosophers who were idealists Socrates 469399BC 70 years old Plato 427347BC 80 years old Realism o A result of scienti c methods 0 Material objects eXist in and of themselves Without being dependent upon being perceived Revolt against idealisrn o Thingsobjective ldeas subjective Realism 0 Education is objective objectives teaching evaluation testing 0 The physical world is the real world 0 Stresses sciences drills memorization o Standardized tests record keeping performance scores FYI o Realists are bean counters o They keep all kinds of scores results and records 0 They reward good performance stickers 0 Study anatomy kinesiology physiology 0 Drills and fundamentals emphasized Philosophers that were realists Aristotle 3 84322 BC 62 years old St Thomas Aquinas 12251274 AD 49 Naturalism o Concerned with land forest etc as well as astronomy chemistry physics 0 Perpetuate the culture 0 Competition is discouraged challenge yourself compete against yourself o Discipline is nonexistent childperson Who disobeys Will bring on own punishment FYI o From the beginning of man education was simple Children learned the necessary activities of life from their parents HOW to hunt sh and survive the envirnment o Philosopherspeople who are naturalists Jean Jacques Rousseau 17 12177 8 66 yrs Native Americans People today who make a living in nature settings canoeing whitewater rafting shing outdoor adventure work Pragmatism o lSOO searly 1900 s o Experience is the key to lifeway to nd truth 0 Truth is exible 0 Experience is the only way to nd the truth 0 Believes in Change 0 Today s truth is tomorrows falsehood Pragmatism in Kinesz39ology o Varied program lots of challenges amp problems dance boating camping outdoor activities sports Students learn self control and discipline Activities are socializing in nature o Program is determined by learner needs Use the problem solving method o Teacher is a motivator 0 Use student leaders 0 Not as interested in test scores and performancemore in behavior change and students developing the ability to make adjustments in changing situations 0 A way to deal With the social unrest because of the rapid change in American society o Famous Pragmatist philosophers o Charles Pierce 183 91914 coined the word Pragmatic 0 John Dewey 18591952 Life is a never ending experience of learning how to think Existentialism o The philosophy o Individuality Hurnan existence is the only reality 0 When people are forced to conform they forfeit their individuality o Individual determines their own system of valuesValues should not be dictated o Individuals are more important than society 0 Self respect is gained by choosing your own ideals amp values and accepting responsibility for them Became popular after WWII o A modern philosophy that didn t evolve from any of the ancient philosophies Existentialism in Kinesiology o Offer a Wide variety of individual activities 0 Play develops creativity 0 Students know themselves 0 Teacher is a counselor o Dif cult curriculum to develop and carry out because of the mandates in education 0 Self evaluationindifferent to measurement FYI 0 As soon as I enter the game I yield to the essence of the sport which in turn acts as a handicap to my own existence o Tend to reject religion because one must adhere to values morals and rules created by someone else 0 Deny the idea of privileged birth o Best Known Existential Philosopher Soren Kierkegaard 18131855 Danish Three stages of life aesthetic gt ethical gt religious Be all that you can be in the highest stage of life Jean Paul Sarte 19051980 French gt He was awarded the Nobel Prize but refused it