LIFSPAN MOTR DEVELOP
LIFSPAN MOTR DEVELOP KIN 4512
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This 45 page Class Notes was uploaded by Zelda McCullough on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to KIN 4512 at Louisiana State University taught by R. Carson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see /class/222602/kin-4512-louisiana-state-university in Kinesiology at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Prenatal Developmental Concerns Chapter 4 Negative factors in uencing prenatal life are believed to be a result of genetic and0r environmental misfortune Teratogens 8Myth maternal environment is a protective shelter for the developing embryo 38Def an environment agent that causes harm to the embryo or fetus 38damage depends on the amount and time of exposure 38Most dangerous between 38 weeks of gestation 3 Birth Defects 10 environmental 25 genetic 65 unknown Thalidor nide 3 Teratogen example 194050s a tranquilizing antinausea drug Responsible for over 5000 malformed births Ex malformed arms lack of outer ear missing bones in hands some with no effects Why Affected tissueorgan was growing fastest at the time Why Prenatal Concerns 3 With more knowledge of the prenatal period we can 1 Reduce risks 2 Prescribe appropriate activities For babies and mothers to reduce environmental factors Epigenetic Periods Definition gene environment interactions in development Susceptibility Teratogens lead to damage in areas of growth 112 I Period cfdividing zygote inplantatiun and bilaminar embryo 335 0 E53 3 E E m Amnion lm Elastocyst 39 Embryonic disc Nor susceptible to I teratogensis 41 Death ofernbryo and spontaneous abortion common 6 7 8 9 16 32 38 u 395 0 Common sies of action ofreratogens l Less sensitive period Highly sensitive period TA 7 Truncus 7 VSD Ventricular defect Major congenital anomalies Functional defects and minor anomalies Critical Periods in Human Development Drugs and Medications Caffeine 8 Recreational drugs Alcohol Cocaine Tobacco Marijuana cannabis Caffeine 3 retarded fetal growth 8 ow birth weight S hyperactivity Recreation Drug Alcohol 3Prevalence 1 in 7 pregnant women use alcohol 3 7 or more drinks each week 2 5 or more drinks on occasion 3 No safe dosage 3 Birth Defects Fetal Alcohol Syndrome FAS on Alcohol Related Neurodevelopmental Disorders ARND Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome NAS Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Low birth weight Small upturned nose Deformed facial features Abnormal joints and limbs Poor coordination Learning disabilities Short memory Facile of fetal alcohol syndrome victim Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Alcohol Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder 8Weight and 3 50 exhibit poor motor 8 Epicanthic length below 10th coordination I folds around tie corrected for xweak Sumng m ex eyes gestational age 3 Q less than 70 I ggMbroce hal 3 ncreased reaction time 8 Obstruction 39 p y 3 Myopia of upper airway gglncregtsfd 5k 0f 3 Sensioneural hearing loss passages congenl a 3g 39t b39l39t I ma quoty 8 Ceft palate S Decreased S lncreased risk for seizures adipose tissue 3 Delayed language development 3 Fine motor impairment 3Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Recreational Drugs Cocaine 382500 chance of preterm birth 3 Side Effects Fetal brain damage learning disabilities Heart rate fluctuations Reduces blood supply to placenta Increases risk of SIDS Crack Babies s m ntal retardation 3 extreme irritability 88aggressive behavior 3 finegross motor problems a crack baby myth Recreational Drugs Tobacco 88stimulate adrenals 3 carbon monoxide amp nicotine byproducts Carbon monoxide decreases blood flow to baby 381222 of pregnant mi 7 women smoke complications 3 Maternal TOBA CCVO L a Tobacco Prenatal complications 8 Premature rupture of membranes 88Higher rate of still birth 8 Sower rate of inuterine growth Tobacco Postnatal complications 38 Nicotine poisoning in breast milk 88 Develop exposure to second hand smoke 38 Smaller head circumference 88 More perceptible to pneumonia L L IIII mumnnla I H l k 3939 x I I 39l ll39lLquot l3 39 39 r A Jquot 39I u If 39 quot a a I 1quotquot391 l3l1lIf39 quot39 Flt Tobacco Behavioral effects Reduced mentalvisual on alertness the mak w w w o f f t h e on P551 MERE Nor REALLY EZVEQ OUR GROWTH WAS emrdT ED 5 SECOAD HMD PIPE SMOKE by Mark Parisi a r m c o m arijuana cannabis Little conclusive research Research results are mixed No known delivery complicatior Does not appear to alter fetal growth Frunm mm making so i Himmcmvliiil Iiilulnmion storage mun mi 0 an it 0 ch um Abllilyl suppress cell clung um may Eitplain sharkem elm on memory an ullirmnmmun Rm memo CE i i s Dnix s aim here ewlam Mitch oil coaulinaliml am lizm h V will lnnciions Cannabiss a uicueuhm by en izh doses nuililc munmm Prescription Drugs 3 Greater incidence cf birthrdefects 38C0ntroversy Drug or mother s ill health 3 May have epigenetic effect 3 May adversely affect the fetus in a way which it is intended to help the mother Prescriptive Medications Medication Designed to treat Teratogenic Effect Anticoagulants Blood clots CNS defects Warfarin Miscarriage Eye defects Antidepressants Bipolar Disorder Congenital healt defects Lithium Antibiotics Infections Underdevelopment of tooth Tetracycline enamel and tooth yellowing Antibiotics Tuberculosis Hearing loss Streptomycin Anticonvulsa nts Dila ntin Seizure disorders Mental retardation Neural tube defects Hand and face defects Antithyroid Propylthiouracil Iodide Methimazole Overactive thyroid Thyroid gland defects Nonprescription OTC Drugs 8 Aspirin 881buprofen 8 Naproxen Sodium OTC Medications Considered Safe Potentially Dangerous Acetaminophen Aspirin postterm pregnancy and Tylenol prolonged labor bleeding in skull of baby maternal bleeding during delivery Ibuprofen Advil Cold medications containing alcohol FAS Motrin and ARND Naproxen Sodium OTC drugs designed to treat a variety of Aleve problems Obstetrical lilledications 3 Controversy over the use of obstetrical medications 3 These agents are known to enter fetal circulation within minutes after administration to the mother Preexisting Maternal Diseases 3 Vira diseases Rubella amp CRS HIV 3 Parasitic diseases Toxoplasmosis a Hematologic diseases Rh incompatibility 38Endocrine diseases Diabetes mellitus Rubella amp Congenital Rubella Syndrome CR3 8 Associated defects Growth retardation Mental retardation Congenital glaucoma Cataracts Bony lesions Pneumonia Hepatitis Cardiac anomalies Deafness 80 Rubella Cases 70000 60000 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 lllll Rubella CRS l I O 1966 1970 l 39I VI 1 l 1974 1978 1982 1986 1990 1994 1998 CRS Cases ical Deterioration in HIVInfected Cnilre 8 Loss of previously acquired milestones 8 Faiure to attain developmental milestones at the expected age 8 mpaired brain growth 8 Spasticity or rigidity 8 Muscle weakness 8 Ataxia impaired ability to control movement 8 Seizures tremor athetosis Toxoplasmosis Def toxin often acquired coming in contact with cat litter Effect on newborns 3 Convulsions 85 born with toxoplasmosis will have convulsions a Motor problems 75 will have motor problems Rh Incompatibility agBornw 39 r s 39 Hemolytic disease of the newborn HDN Rh offspring exposed to maternal antibodies Rh blood cells may escape fetal circulation and if released into mother the body will recognize them as a foreign substance and sent out antibodies which may also attack the fetus 83Characteristics Anemia Immature red blood cells Edema swelling Jaundice yellowing of the skin Diabetes Mellitus Abnormalities of Infants Born to Diabetic Mothers 8 Spina bifida 3 Musculoskeleta deformities 8 Hydrocephalus 8 Asphyxia 8 Heart defects 8 Facia nerve injury 8 Skeeta and CNS 8 Brachial plexus injury defects 8 Cesarean section cephalopelvic 8 Macrosomia disproportion Genetic Factors 8 Downs S chromosome ase diso e Greatest risk for women over age 35 8 PKU Disturbance in amino acid metabolism bc of gene suppressing activity in liver 3 FibFOSiS Cystic Fibrosis Thick sticky mucous secreted in lun s leads to suppressrve respiratory pro lems Mucus clogs me 39 39 y lungs and leads to chronic resplmtory excess scar tissue In lungs 38 Sickle Cell Trait Inherit a normal gene of hemoglobin and an abnormal gene of hemoglo in Can be asymptomatic and lead a normal life but pass it on to child 38 Sickle Cell Disease Inherit 2 abnormal genes of hemoglobin fm m Cells get clogged i kf il l imm Emma 9 2m Wanna mmn Down Syndrome Symptoms and Signs of Trisomy 21 Down Syndrome 8Walking delayed 1 or more years 8Slow speech development 8Slow development of fine motor control 8Toilet training delayed 8 Lower than normal birth weight 8 Hypotonia 8Short stature 8 Delayed puberty 8 Prone to respiratory infections 8 Heart disease 8 Prominent anatomical features O O BOTH PARENTS WTH SICKLE CELL TRAIT SCT 3939 i ii SCIquot Sicklcrcell Normal 5 50 diseaseSCD 25 25 Abnormal hemnglubln molecule c i change in surface tens res ion of red blood cells ulting in Sicklin of red blond cells 3 Destruction of clumping ufsicklceshapcd cells Concentration of many sickle cells interfering with circulation sickle shaped cells l in the spleen Anemia Impaired blood supply to various organs Enlargement A ofsplezn Pmlifurntinn of Enlargement 39 bone marrow r 3 Bart Lungs Muscles Brain Abdominal Kidney Weakness 539 Phys39m39 39 and JOINS organs 1 development 39i impaired mental H Rheumatism Alidam39ml Fibrosis function failure PMquot Kidney spleen Pneumonia Paralysis fallu DEATH SCT and SCD Who s at risk 38 People from 7 39 N Parts of Africa South America Cuba and Central America Saudi Arabia India Mediterranean countries ex Turkey Greece and Italy US Bill in 600 African Americans 21 in 1000 to 1400 Hispanic Americans Prenatal Diagnostic Procedures a Woman is at high risk for giving birth Women age 35 and older Already given birth to child with genetic disease Family history of genetic disorders Personal history Prenatal Diagnostic Procedu res 8 Ultra 0 7 r Look at head heart length 0 gestation due date sex etc 38 Amniocentesis Sample fluid from amniotic sac used to determine any abnormalities 99 accurate 8 CVS Detect abnormalities wk 1012 Sample villi very risky 8 AFP alpha fetal protein test Wks 1520 Measure amount of AFP to detect for Downs 88 Triple Marker Blood test to detect Downs 4050 accurate in amniocentesis a hollow needle is inserted through the mother s abdomen into the uterus and amniotic fluid is drawn for analysis Amniotic fluid Fetus Maternaql Nutrition 8 Sedentary women increase intake by 300 kcaIday 8 Active women should intake more due to energy expenditure 8 Appropriate weight gain 2530 lbs 8 Overweight women gain ess 88Underweight women gain more Maternal Nutrition 38Adequate protein consumption 38Developing fetal brain should achieve 25 of its mature weight prior to birth 38Perinata mortality common in underweight mothers seGrandmother effect 2nd generation suffers from bad maternal nutrition Birth Weight Birth weight Small For Appropriate for Large For gestational age gestational age gestational age SGA ACA LGA Caused by intrauterine impoverismen Infant s weight is Full term Preterm Infant s weight is greater than 90th 40 weeks 37 weeks appropriate For length percentile For length or less ofgestation ofgestation Exercise During Pregnancy 38Litte research 38AM women decrease activity as pregnancy progresses 3 No information is available to assess whether active women have better pregnancy outcomes 3 Active women Before pregnancy During labor Experience less pain during labor Exercise During Pregnancy Maternal responses 388lood volume increases by 35 to 45 388lood shunted to muscles during exercise a Body temperature rises Fetal responses a HR increases 1030 beatsminute when mother exercises s Heart can stay elevated during recovery s Little research Contraindications to Exercise During Pregnancy 38 pregnancyinduced hypertension 8 preterm rupture of membranes 8 preterm contractions 8 incompetent cervix as persistent second or thirdtrimester bleeding 8 Intrauterine growth retardation Contraindications to Exercise During Pregnancy a Vaginal bleeding a Multiple gestation 3 History of multiple pregnancy losses 3 History of small for gestational age babies a Medication controlled diabetes a Breech presentation in 3rd trimester a Kidney pulmonary thyroid or heart disease Exercise During Pregnancy Recommendations 88Avoid 39 Competition excessive heat fast jerky motions 88 Remember Warm up and cool down accurately Check heart rate Drink plenty of fluids Cease activity if unusual symptoms Rule of Thumb Maintain level of training during pregnancy
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