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by: Earnest Greenholt


Earnest Greenholt
GPA 3.94

R. Carson

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R. Carson
Class Notes
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This 27 page Class Notes was uploaded by Earnest Greenholt on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to KIN 4512 at Louisiana State University taught by R. Carson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see /class/222602/kin-4512-louisiana-state-university in Kinesiology at Louisiana State University.




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Date Created: 10/13/15
Effects of Early Stimulation and Deprivation Chapter 5 The general philosophical trend has been that stimulation is always good and deprivation is always had Questions Can overstimulation occur Is deprivation ever in the child s best interest When are the best times for stimulation or the worst times for deprivation s stimulation worthwhile for the acquisition of all human behaviors Are there some behaviors that cannot be facilitated by early exposure to stimulating experiences What do you think Its never too early to Pressure to learn at an early age isGood or Bad Belief that K is too late Benjamin Spock s view Emphasis on achievement can hamper emotional physical or creative aspects of development Effects of Early Stimulation In 1983 70 of 4 year olds from families with incomes higher that 25000 per year attended preschool Parents believe Early stimulation is valuable Some experts believe Too much early stimulation toward a skill may cause difficulties later in life with that same skill Programs to Enhance Early Motor Development Noprogramming Do not emphasize specific motor skills Do not force child into something they can t do on their own If they can t walk don t help them Infants should be left on their back until they can control themselves Toys can be placed around them but it is up to them to pick it up Nonrestricted clothing Programming Parents take active role Stimulation of child is encouraged Specialized equipments is used to assist in movement Place child in walker Employ manipulation of limbs Programs to Enhance Early Motor Development 0 Little research available 0 American Academy of Pediatrics recommends That structured programs not be quotpromoted as being therapeutically beneficial for the development of healthy infants quotParents are encouraged to provide a safe nurturing and minimally structured play environment for their infant Some Supporting Beliefs for AAP Stimulation may be harmful if not individualized No long term benefits have been found Beneficial outcomes may be later detrimental if normal central nervous system maturation is destructed Gains are typically seen from normal exposure to stimulating home environments Programs that make indiscriminate claims should be avoided Motor Development Programs Gymboree Swim Programs for Infants and Preschoolers Suzuki Method of Playing the Violin Head Start Infant Walkers Gym boree 0 Philosophy preschoolers need to be provided with certain types of play that you can t get at home Preschool years are the most important part of education Program duration 9 13 weeks 45 min session once per week Costs pricey Gymboree Programszf GymBabies birth 6 months play with parents so they can gain info GymCrawlers 6 12 months Infant can sit confidently on their own Work on balance strenght coordination activities GymWalkers 10 18 months Walk with or without support Work on climbing stairs ramps slides peer interaction GymRunners 1428 months Walk run and climb with confidence Language skills through peer interaction GymEprorers 2 year olds Songs story telling GymKids 3 4 year olds Fundamental sports skills and cooperation in fun environment The American Academy of Swim Programs Pediatrics and American Red Cross state 1 Avoid quotd rownproofing Infant and toddler aquatic programs DO NOT decrease the risk of drowning Children are not ready for swimming lessons until their 4th birthday quot quotwaterproofingquot quotwatersafe terms Use quotwater adjustment Programs do not lead to better swimming ability later in life may make kids fearful of water Swim Program Considerations Hyponatremia Too much water in the body Giardia Cis in the intestines Diarrhea Easily transmitted to others in the pool Swim Program Guidelines Children are not ready for formal swim lessons until their 4th birthday Avoid total submersion Provide measure for avoiding fecal contamination in the pool Children should never be dropped or pushed into water Babies chill easily limit exposure Suzuki Method of Violin Playing The child begins lessons at 2 to 2 V2 years The child s attitude is important A properly sized violin is used Parents take lessons too To be a good role model Head Start Programs Started in 1965 for disadvantaged children The major goal of Head Start is to quotenhance the social competence of children from lower income families Purpose to disrupt cycle of disadvantaged children falling further behind get them quotschool ready Head Start Program Research Tracking 2100 Head Start children More likely to graduate from high school DC Study Positively affected children s short and long term performance Increased parent involvement Head Start Family and Child Experience Survey FACES Longitudinal study used free time in more acceptable ways obeyed directions couldn t identify or write the letters of the alphabet Infant Walkers Designed to support babies who cannot yet walk independently Many questions about safety and efficacy of the device to promote early walking Infant Walkers The sale and No significant effect on manufacture of infant the onset of walking walkers should be bannEd m the Us Deprivation of normal process Parents need to be infants can t crawl informed Falling pinching head injuries burns etc Can t see feet Conduded Recommendation of the American Academy of Pediatrics 1995 Johnny ampJimmy Johnny given toys and considerable stimulation practice and experience in a variety of movement activities Jimmy few toys and minimal motor stimulation Both were exposed to selected mvt activities Johnny amp Jimmy Attitude Johnny successful in roller skating when 11 months old He became reckless soon after causing his performance to decline Jimmy had less skating problems He maintained a much more cautious approach to movement Johnny was more self centered Jimmy thankful for what he had Johnny amp Jimmy Practice Johnny descended slopes much better than his brother and developed clever strategies in the process Jimmy was much less capable and very timid in his performance Johnny amp Jimmy Readiness q Johnny was introduced to tricycling when he was 11 months old He was incapable of much success at the skill until 8 months later Jimmy was given a tricycle when he was 22 months and tricycled immediately despite his lack of early stimulation It doesn t matter how early a child get a toy he has to be ready emotionally physically and mentally Johnny ampJimmy Growth Johnny roller skated well when he was 11 months old but declined in his ability thereafter By age 3 both twins skating ability declined rapidly This regression was attributed to increasing height which impeded balance Johnny amp Jimmy Level of Fixity Both twins maintained their tricycling ability well despite a period of nonparticipation McGraw attributed this to their high levels of performance at the time the skill was discontinued Johnny amp Jimmy Conclusion Readiness practice attitude and physical growth are all particularly important factors influencing human movement at an early age Effects of Early Deprivation HopiCradleboards Babies placed in boards until 1 Didn t experience typical movements helheywerev normally aftertaken down Due to the fact that they could see their hands a i Deprivation Dwarfism Created by deprivation ofhospital care not nurtured v vi environ men Slowing ofgrowlh sieep disturbances speech disabilities Anna Extreme isolation Kept in attic until age 6 39 39 39 39 malnourished 39 39 babbling speech walk and run clumsily but good fine motor sk at age 11 The Young Savage of Aveyron Found in the woods of ance at age 11 Couldn t talktrotted chewed like rodent intellectuallydelaved inattentive scratched and bit vegetarian little memow died at 40 Terminology Critical Periods Time of particular or max sensitivity Ex Place child in crawling position tongive them the opportunity during the critical perioeglgnma Estimated growth curve Readiness 56 Time limit 348 Create durable imprint level of fixi1y 040 l There is a critical period for all aspects orfghl Readiness J i Adequate level of growth 1 2 3 44023 8 9 1 1 12 catCh39Up Example of a child s catchup Vgtrfowth following a period of Physical social intellectual gro anorex1a Level of Fixity How well established a skill is when it is discontinued


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