INTR MOTOR LEARNING
INTR MOTOR LEARNING KIN 3513
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Zelda McCullough on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to KIN 3513 at Louisiana State University taught by Gemmert Van in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see /class/222608/kin-3513-louisiana-state-university in Kinesiology at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Exam 2 39239 Sensory Information gt Essential for all theories of motor control and learning lnfo before during and after movement After for errors gt Three Types Touch 0 v Touch Proprioception Vision gt Skin receptor give information Greatest concentration in our fingertips Tactile Receptors Pain Receptors Temperature Receptors Pressure Receptors gt Mechanoreceptors Mechanical pressure and distortion Important for many motor skills picking up stuff throwing a ball gt Role of Tactile Information Movement accuracy typist Movement consistency measured by variable error Movement force adjustments Using proper force to pick up an empty or full coke can adjusting force on a slipping glass Movement distance estimation 39239 Proprioception gt The sensory system s detection and reception of movement and spatial position of limbs trunk and head gt CNS receives information from proprioceptors gt Proprioceptors Muscles Tendons Ligaments and Joints Types Muscle Spindles O Within muscle fibers of most skeletal muscles O Mechanoreceptors O Detects changes in muscle fiber length stretch and velocity velocity of stretch O Involved with reflexes and voluntary movements Golgitendon organs O In skeletal muscle near insertion of tendon O Detects changes in muscle tension force gt Not very good at detecting muscle length changes Joint Receptors O Not one type but several O In joint capsule and ligaments gt Make sure you are not over stretching O Changes in force and rotation O Changes in joint movement angle gt Role of Proprioception in motor control To find this answer researchers investigate What are coordinated movements like when skills are performed without proprioception Deafferentation techniques 9 Surgical deafferentation gt Afferent neutral pathways associated with movements of interest have been surgically removed or altered O Deafferentation due to sensory neuropathy gt quotPeripheralneuropathyquot gt Large myelinated fibers of the limb are lost leading to a loss of sensory information Q Temporarydeafferentation gt llnerve block technique inflate bloodpressure cuff to create temporary disuse of sensory nerves 0 Tendon Vibration Technique O Alters proprioception O High speed vibration of the tendon of the agonist muscle O Proprioceptive feedback is distorted gt Proprioceptive Feedback I Movement accuracy 0 Target accuracy 0 Spatial and temporal accuracy for movement in progress I Timing of onset of motor commands o Deafferented patients used a central command as the basis for the timing of the onset of the heel and finger movement I Coordination o Postural control 0 Spatialtemporal coupling between limbs and limb segments 0 Adapting to new situations requiring nonpreferred movement coordination patterns 39239 Vision gt Vision is preferred source of sensory information I Evidence from everyday experiences 0 Beginning typists look at their fingers 0 Beginning dancers look at their feet I Evidence from research 0 The classic llmoving room experiment O Lee and Aronson 1974 gt Method I Participants stood in a room where walls moved toward or away from them I Situation caused a conflict for proprioception gt Results I When walls moved people adjusted their posture to no fall even though they weren t moving off balance I So people trusted their visual information more than their proprioceptive information gt Neurophysiology of the Eye I Cornea clear surface that covers the front of the eye serves as important part of eye s optical system I Pupil opening of eye that lets in light diameter decreases and increases according to amount of light I lris color portion that dilates the pupil I Lens refracts light sits behind iris allow eye to focus at various distances I Sclera white of the eyer I Aqueous humor clear fluid fills chamber between cornea and lens I Vitreous humor viscous substance fills chamber between the lens and back wall of the eye I Neural Componenets of the Eye and Vision 0 Retina lines back wall an extension of the brain that contains the neuroreceptors that transmit visual information to the brain O Fovea centralis objects in central vision are focused responsible for visual acuity O Optic disk blind spot where axons converge to transmit information to optic nerve gt Visi O Rods photoreceptor in the retina detects low levels of light O Cones photoreceptor in the retina detects bright light Optic Nerve cranial nerve II from the retina to the brain s visual cortex serves as means of information transmission from the eye to the brain on and Motor Control Techniques Eye movement recording O Tracks foveal visions quotpoint of gaze gt Measures where you are focusing gt Cant pick up peripheral vision Temporal occlusion techniques O Investigation of amount of time a person requires to visually detect the environmental context information he or she uses to perform a skill O Stop video or film at various times O Spectacles with liquid crystal lenses where lenses change from transparent to occluded gt Advantage participants perform skills in their typical environmental context Event occlusion technique O Mask view on video or film of specific events or characteristics O To identify the specific visual information a person uses to make the required response Monocular vs Binocular Binocular O Important for depth perception when 3D features involved in performance situation gt Reaching grasping objects walking on a cluttered pathway O Important to help us intercept moving objects Central and Peripheral Vision Central O Aka Foveal vision O Middle 25 degree of visual field O Provides specific information to allow us to achieve action goals size and shape of object O For reaching and grasping objects with specific info required to grasp it 0 Peripheral Detects info beyond the central vision limits Upper limit typically 200 degrees horizontally and 160 degrees vertically Provides info about the environment context and moving limbs manual aiming and prehension 9999 Detects info by assessing optical flow patterns rays of light that strike the retina Two visual systems O Vision for perception central gt Anatomically referred to as the ventral stream from visual cortex to temporal lobe gt For fine analysis of a scene eg form and features recognize and describes what a person sees gt Available to conscious O Vision for action peripheral vision gt Anatomically referred to as the dorsal stream from visual cortex to posterior parietal lobe gt For detecting spatial characteristics of a scene and guiding movement gt Typically not available to consciousness PerceptionAction Coupling O Spatial and temporal coordination of vision and the hands or feet that enables people to perform eyehand and eyefoot coordination skills O The coordination of the visual perception of the object and the limb movement required to achieve the action goal O Coupling of a perceptual event and an action O Research has shown that spatial and temporal characteristics of limb movements occurred together with specific spatial and temporal characteristics of eye movements o What is the Amount of Time Needed for Movement Corrections O Concerns vision s feedback role during movement O Researchers have tried to answer this question since original work by Woodworth in 1899 O Typical procedure Compare accuracy of rapid manual aiming movements of various MTs with target visible and then when not visible just after the movement onset O Expect accuracy of movement to be the same with lights off when no visual feedback needed during movement Currently best estimate is a range of 100 160 msec The typical range for simple RT to a visual signal 0 TimetoContact The Optical Variable tau 9 O Concerns situations in which gt Object moving to person must be intercept gt Person moving toward object needs to contact or avoid contact with object gt Vision provides info about timetocontact object which motor control system uses to initiate movement O Automatic nonconscious specification based on changing size of object on retina O At critical size movement needs to be initiated O David Lee 1974 showed the timetocontact info could be specified by an optical variable tau which could be mathematically quantified gt Motor control benefit Automatic movement initiation 39239 Performance and Motor Control gt Specific characteristics of the performance of various motor skills provide the basis for much of our understanding of motor control I Speedaccuracy skills 0 When both speed and accuracy are essential to perform the skill 0 Characteristic of motor skill performance in which the speed at which a skill is performed is influenced by movement accuracy demands 0 Fitts Law O Human performance law specifying the movement time for an aiming movement when the distance to move and the target size are known O Paul Fitts showed we could mathematically predict movement time for speedaccuracy skills o MT a b logz 2DW o logz 2DW The index of difficulty O Fitts Law predicts MT motor skills 0 Two motor control processes O Open loop initial movement instructions sufficient to move limb to the vicinity of the target O Closed loop feedback from vision and proprioception needed at end of movement to ensure hitting target accurately I Prehension 0 Actions involving reaching for and grasping objects 0 Three components O Transport movement of the hand to object O Grasp hand taking hold of object O Object Manipulation hand carrying out intended use of the object 0 Important motor control question concerns the spatialtemporal relationship btw transport and grasp O lnitial views proposed independence of components O Recent evidence shows strong temporal relationship and the components interact synergistically gt Goodale I Showed the objects size influenced the timing of maximum grip aperture and velocity profile of hand transport movement I Regardless of objects size or distance the maximum grip aperture occurs at about 23 MT O The relationship of movement kinematics for prehension components exemplify characteristics of a coordinative structure 0 The Role of Vision O Preparation and initiation of movement assesses regulatory conditions O Transport of hand to object central vision directs hand to object provides time to contact info to initiate grasp peripheral vision provides hand movement feedback O Grasp Object supplements tactile and proprioceptive feedback to ensure intended use achieved o It demonstrates speedaccuracy trade off characteristics predicted by Fitts law object width target width 0 Index of difficulty for grasping containers of different sizes and quantities of liquid which predicted movement times from initial mug movement to the drinker s mouth O Developed by Latash and Jaric O Critical component is of fullness ratio of mug size and liquid level I Handwriting 0 People demonstrate much individual variation in terms of limb segment involvement 0 Each individual s motor control of handwriting demonstrates llmotor equivalence o Handwriting motor control demonstrates characteristics of a coordinative structure 0 Smyth and Silvers O Vision provides important information for the motor control of handwriting gt Overall arrangement of wordscharacters on a horizontal line gt Production of accurate patterns to facilitate legibility I Appropriate strokes and letters required for the written material I Bimanual coordination 0 Motor skills that require simultaneous use of two hands 0 May require two hands to move with the same symmetric eating a sandwich with both hands or different asymmetricdriving and on phone spatial and or temporal characteristics 0 The two arms prefer to perform symmetrically O with practice a person can learn to disassociate the two limbs to perform an asymmetric bimanual skill I Locomotion 0 Central pattern generators CPG in the spinal cord involved in the control of locomotion O Provide basis for stereotypic rhythmicity of walking and running gait patterns O However proprioceptive feedback from muscle spindles and GTOs also influence gait o Rhythmic structure of locomotion O Components of a step cycle O Rhythmic relationship between arms and legs which relates to walking speed O Pelvis and thorax relationship during walking gt Lower speeds in phase with each other high speeds out of phase 0 Practical benefit of analyzing rhythmic structure of gait patterns O Assessment of coordination problems trunks and legs 0 Another important motor control characteristic of locomotion O Head stability to navigate through environment maintain posture stability so we don t fall and optimize vision O Spontaneous gait transitions why do they occur gt Minimize metabolic energy use gt Some agreement that there is not just one factor responsible and factors may be specific to the individual O Vision is important for contacting objects avoiding objects provides body scaled info getting through a door I Catching a moving object 0 Three phases O lnitial positioning ofarm and hand O Shaping hand and fingers O Grasping the object 0 Two critical time periods O lnitial flight portion production of stereotypic patterns O Just prior to hand contact modification of pattern to eliminate error 0 Between the two critical periods is a brief intermittent visual snapshots sufficient I Striking a moving object 0 Vision provides information to initiate the striking action spatial and termporal enable and adjust movement 0 Batters track a certain distance then jump to predicted location for contact with minimal head movement 0 Batters swing durations typically consistent regardless of ball speed they adjust the swing time 0 Ball speed effect O Skilled strikers demonstrate similar bat movement time for all ball speeds O They change amount of time before initiating bat movement 0 Skilled strikers do not maintain visual contact with ball throughout ball flight 39239 Action Preparation Phases I lntention I Preparation I lnitiation I Termination gt Donders 1868 I The motor control system requires time to prepare to produce an intended action I Reaction time RT index of preparation time required to produce an action that changes by performance situations and performer characteristics gt Task and Situation Characteristics I Number of response choices 0 Increase in choices increases in RT 0 Hick s Law RT b logz N1 N number of choices 0 Linear relationship between number of choices and reaction time I Predictability of the correct response choice 0 RT decreases if the correct response choice becomes more predictable o Precuing paradigm O Precue advance information about an upcoming event that needs a response 0 Attention I Probability of the Precue correctness 0 RT is Faster if the precue correctness probability is higher than the probabilities equally possible choices O Ex 2 choice move to right 80 move to the left 20 0 CostBenefit tradeoff for bias to the anticipated required response O Cost if information is incorrect O Benefit if information is correct I Stimulus Response compatibility 0 Reaction time increases when the spatial relationship between a stimulus and the response decreases 0 Selection versus preparation 0 Design considerations I Stroop Effect 0 Say the name of the color in which the word is printed 0 RT is slower because processing time increases due to stimulusresponse relationship I Foreperiod length regularity o Foreperiod the interval between warning and gostimulus o More regularity of the length result is shorter reaction time I Movement Complexity 0 Reaction time increase when the complexity of the action increases 0 Henry and Rogers O Respond as quickly as possible to a light O Reaction time increased with added complexity of task I Movement Accuracy 0 Reaction time increases when accuracy demands increase O Only workds for short discrete movement but not for continuous movement 0 Accuracy increase not only reaction time o More constraint movement requires more preparation 0 Reaction time and movement time are not highly correlated I Repetition of movement 0 Time between different responses to different signals Psychological Refactory Period 0 Delay of response to 2quotd stimulus 0 Sports gt Performer Characteristics I Alertness of the performer 0 Warning signal that alerts the system there is a stimulus coming up 0 Foreperiod length effect with an optimal time length for different tasks O Optimal range fora signal 0 Vigilance effect O Must maintain alertness for a long period of time for a stimulus that is infrequent and irregular gt Military sports lifeguard outfielder I Attention focus 0 Should we focus on the signal or our own movements O Sensory set focus on the signal O Motor set focus on the performance itself 0 Movement time and sensorymotor set O Movement time does not change Q When we have a sensory set reaction time is much faster therefore sensory set works much better if you need to do something quickly 0 Environmental Factors O Sleep stress and anxiety Q If you do not get enough sleep your attention focus is worse 0 External aids to bring attention up O Food water caffeine gt Preparation and Motor Control I Fractioning RT 0 Premotor component Premotor RT O Think about movement 0 Motor Component Q There is muscle activation just not enough to cause movement I What motor control events occur during the preparation 0 Postural preparation organization of movements needed for postural support O Anticipated balance change due to movement O Flexible synergistic organization characteristic of postural movement preparation 0 Limb performance preparation O Direction straight forward to right or left O Trajectory what will it move and how O Accuracy 0 Object Control Preparation O Force how much force is required to pick a specific object O Endstate comfort picking something in a certain way because you know what you are going to do with it 0 Sequence of movements O Advance preparation of an entire sequence 0 Spatial coding O StimulusResponse compatibility gt Rightrighteftleft gt Rightup leftdown o Rhytmicity preparation 39239 Attention as a Limited Capacity Attention and Multiple Task Performance I Attention refers to characterisitics associated with o Consciousness 0 Awareness 0 Cognitive effort I Performance of skills and limitations 0 Simultaneous performance of multiple skills O Talking and walking 0 Detection or relevant information in the environment 0 lgnoring irrelevant information in the environment I Performing simultaneously more than one task 0 No measurable detrimental effects 0 Deteriorate task performance Q Why detrimental effect in some cases gt Relates to attention as a performance limiting factor Attention Theories I Filter Theories Bottleneck Theory 0 Stimuli resulting in responses are processed serially O A filter in one of the stage of processing results in limitation on multiple task performance O Theories differ in the location of the filter I Resource Capacity Theories 0 There are limited resources which limit performance of multiple tasks ex credit card limit Q If resource capacity limits are not exceeded performance of multiple tasks can occur Q If resource capacity limits are exceeded performance deteriorates on one or more tasks I Central Resource Capacity Theories 0 One central attention resource e CNS 0 Activities require attention 0 Activities start to compete for the demanded resources to perform optimally 0 Resource is flexible Q So the resource can be used in different activities 0 Kannemans Attention theory O Central Resource capacity theory V There is one attention capacity resource Attention capacity liits are flexible Attention resource are not constraint to one task Arousal level gt The factor that influences the amount of attention capacity for a specific performance situation I The amount of attention resources available varies in relation to a person s arousal level I Maximum arousal level is only available when arousal level is optimal for the situation 0 lnverted U relation between performance and arousal O Medium arousal you have the highest performance 9 O O O O With low and high arousal you have low performance I Simple tasks you need a higher arousal scanning things at grocery I Complex tasks you need a much lower arousal to get to maximum performance level O Evaluation of attention requirements of multiple tasks to be performed gt Critical to determine whether sufficient attention resources are available gt Arousal level determines the capacity limits O Three rules individuals use to prioritize available attention resources when performing multiple tasks Ensure completion of at least one task gt Enduring disposition involuntary attention allocation I Novelty of the situation I Meaningfulness of the event gt Momentary intentions I Allocate attention according to instruction gt Multiple Resource Theories I Alternative to theories propsing one central resource 0 There are several sources fo attention O Each source has a limited capacity resource 0 Multiple resources based specific information processing components O Sensory input gt Visual propriocetptive auditory O Response output gt Verbal motor I Performance of simultaneous multiple tasks depends on competition for attention resources within and between the multiple sources 0 You have something manual and vocal going on then you have this whole resource that can be used that wont mess up the vocal gt Procedures for assessing attention demands I Dual task procedure 0 Determines the attention demands and characterisitics of simulatenous performance of two different tasks O Primary is the task of interest O Secondary is the task used to make inferences about attention demands of the primary task gt Focusing Attention I Attentional focus 0 Direct attention resources to specific characteristics in a performance environment or to action preparation activities O Width of the focus gt We start broad driving our attention is broad gt Narrow dog runs into the road while driving and attention focuses on not hitting dog O Direction of the focus gt External gt Internal in gymnastics and tai chi more concerned about the movement and what we are doing with it I Attention Switching 0 Changing attention focus characteristics O To deal with changing factors gt Positive gt Negative I Focus on Movements vs Movement effects 0 Question Q Does internal or external focus of attention matter I Action effect hypothesis 0 Proposed benefit of external focus during performance O Focus on intended outcome rather than the movements itself 39239 Automaticity gt Performance of a skill or part of a skill without requiring attention resources I In kahneman s theory related to evaluation of task demands gt Related to the amount of practice 39239 Visual Selective Attention gt The study of attention as it relates to the use fo vision in the selection of environmental information in the preparation and or performance of an action gt Visual search is the process of directing visual attention to locate relevant information in the environment gt Eye movement recording I Assumption 0 Where the person is looking the person is directing its selective visual attention O Focal vision O Peripheral vision eye movement recording are not set up for peripheral vision o It is not possible to make an eye movement without also making a shift in attention gt Visual Cues selection I Visual search and intended actions 0 An active search for quotregulatoryquot conditions O Eg difference in visual search between the intention to point to an object and to grasp it 0 Feature integration theory O lnitially search according to specific features O Direct attention to what is necessary gt Visual search and action preparation I Visual search picks up cues that influence three aspects of action preparation 0 Action selection 0 A constraining of the selected action 0 Timing of action initiation I Three preparation processes influenced by visual search in open motor skill and closed motor skill gt Training visual search strategies I Research show little relationship between successful visual search and visual activity I Visual search success is experience based 0 Often from implicit learning 39239 Memory Structure gt Definition of memory the capacity to remember information about past events or knowledge I Tulving 1985 memory is the capacity that permits organisms to benefit from past experiences gt Memory functions I Storage and retrieval of information gt Two functional systems I Working memory 0 Subsystems O Phonological loop gt All verbal information is processed here short term information gt Trying to remember a phone number goes here first O Visuospatialsketchpad gt Short term memory for spatial information Q Central Executive gt Everything gets organized here I Long term memory 0 Everything we need to store for a longer time period 0 Subsystems o 00 O Procedural memory O Semantic memory 9 Working Memory gt V V V V Short term memory processes I Sensory process I Perceptual process start to be aware of what is going on select features out of it I Attentional process 0 Is involved in all situations requiring temporary manipulation and storage of information Function I Enables people to respond immediately I Decision making problem solving movement planning and execution o Interacts with longterm memory 0 Interactive workspace Duration I 2030 seconds before losing parts of the info 0 Processed and rehearsed Capacity I 7 2 I Can be increased I quotchunkingquot Information processed to allow achievement of an action goal or to solve an action problem I Remember how to perform an action just as instructed I Solve a specific movement problem try to shoot at a goal but there is a goal keeper Long Term Memory gt VVVV Serves as the more permanent storage reposity of info Function I Information about specific past events I General knowledge Duration I quotPermanentquot Capacity I quotunlimitedquot Procedural Memory how to do specific activities Semantic Memory factual and general knowledge about the world Episodic unique personal events and experiences Classification of Knowledge I Declarative knowledge knowledge that can be verbally described I Procedural Knowledge knowledge that enables you to perform motor skills difficult to verbally describe Remembering and Forgetting VVVVV Encoding process of transforming information into a form that is can be stored in memory Storage process of placing information in longterm memory Rehearsal process that enables to transfer information from working to longterm memory Retrieval process of searching through longterm memory for needed information How to assess memory I Explicit Memory test recall test who is that guy from blah blah recognition test seeing someone and remembering you owe them money I Implicit Memory test information in memory that is difficult to verbalize activities Causes of Forgetting I Trace decay the longer you wait the less likely you will remember not in longterm I Proactive Interference forgetting because information prior to the to be remembered information o Confusion tasks need to be sufficiently similar 0 Affects working memory not long term o o o o o o o o Retroactive Interference forgetting because information after the to be remembered information 0 Working more similar tasks lead to more forgetting 0 Long term there are skill differences continuous skills are more resistant than serial skillswhich are easier to verbalize Location and Distance Characteristics gt Movement end point location is remembered better than movement distance gt Arm movement end location within the individual body space better remembered than outside space Implications for teaching motor skill Emphasize limb movement end points and key positions during movement gt Meaningfulness of the movement can you relate it to something you already know Memory Performance Enhancement Strategies gt Visual metaphoric imagery develop a picture of what the movement is like gt Verbal label attach a specific label to the movement counting when dancing gt Intentional and incidental memory gt Subjective organization organizing sequences of movements 123 or quick quick slow Practicetest Context effect gt Encoding Specificity Principle The more the test context resembles the practice context the better the retention performance 0 Implications for teaching motor skills so try to imitate the test conditions during practice Strayer and Johnson gt When participants engaged in cell phone conversations during a simulated driving test Missed 2 times for traffic signs and RT for responding to red light is significantly slower chance of accident increase 500 Hands free Sex age weather do not play a factor 89 involve other cars Majority in 151 10 minutes
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