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by: Earnest Greenholt


Earnest Greenholt
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Arend Van Gemmert

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Arend Van Gemmert
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This 98 page Class Notes was uploaded by Earnest Greenholt on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to KIN 3513 at Louisiana State University taught by Arend Van Gemmert in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see /class/222615/kin-3513-louisiana-state-university in Kinesiology at Louisiana State University.




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Date Created: 10/13/15
KIN 3513 Test Three Lecture Notes March 31 Exam 3 All material covered in class Book Ch 11 to 15 pp 246366 Basic knowledge of the material covered for Exam 1 and 2 so you can understand the concepts covered in class and Chapter 11 to 15 Defining and Assessing Learning Learning defined 0 Change in behavior due to experience Something is lost or gained 0 Stop smoking 0 Learn to play tennis 0 Behavior Anything an organism does that can be measured Not all changes in behavior are due to experience and not all experiences are learning experiences 0 Child start to crawl rather maturation than learning 0 Calming someone by giving a tranquilizer Performance Characteristics of Skill Learning 0 Five characteristics mprovementThere needs to be improvement over time to say there is learning occurring The person needs to continue to perform at a higher level of skill than the first performance ConsistencyAs learning progresses performance needs to become more consistent From one performance attempt to another a person s performance characteristics need to become more similar 0 Early learning performance is more variable than later in learning performance StabilityAs learning progresses performance stabilityincreases Stability refers to the influence on skill performance of perturbations that can disrupt performance Any sudden interruption will not affect you 0 Internal perturbations Stress 0 External Perturbations environmental conditions obstacles wind weather PersistenceThe improved performance capability is marked by an increasing amount of persistence As the performance capability is improved it lasts over increasing amounts oftime Forgetting plays a role in decreased capability AdaptabilityAdaptability is different from stability since you are adapting to a new situation You use the skills you have learned to perform is different conditions with slight changes Improved performance is adaptable to a variety of performance context characteristics 0 Start walking on ice and you change how you walk to adapt Performance Versus Learning KIN 3513 Test Three Lecture Notes 0 Performance I Execution of a skill at a specific time and in a specific location I Observable behavior We can measure it objectively directly I Temporary I May not be due to practice or experience I Can be influence by performance variables 0 Learning I Learning is not directly observable 0 Must be inferred from observable behavior and the characteristics ofa person s performance We make inferences about people s internal states by observing their behavior I Relatively permanent I Due to practice or experience 0 You can t learn without this I Learning Definition 0 A change in the capability of a person to perform a skill that must be inferred from a relatively permanent improvement in performance as a result of practice or experience The person increases hisher capability or potential to perform the skill Whether or not the person performs to this capability or not relies on performance variables 0 Why not ability Ability is inherited to the person and will not change it is stable Capability is something that we can improve Assessment of learning 0 Proceed with caution 0 Easy to make incorrect inferences I Therapy someone relearns how to walk I Sport 0 You are accountable 0 Things may not be as they appear Assessing Learning by Observing Practice Performance 0 Performance curves one way to asses learning is to record levels of a performance measure during the period of time a person practices a skill I Line graph describing performance by plottingperformance measures across practice trials orperiods oftime I Levels of performance measure are always on the Y axis and the time is always on the X axis I Provide evidence of o mprovementmprovement is indicated by the general direction ofthe curve 0 We can see an improvement at the black arrow It is going up despite the inconsistency in the beginning KIN 3513 Test Three Lecture Notes ConsistencyPerformance becomes more consistent towardsthe end This is a typical performance curve if you have performance going up ex speed then the performance curve is going up as well Four General Trends Seen in Performance Curves o 1 Linear Proportional increases over trials ortime o 2 Negatively accelerated Early improvement but slows during latterpractice One ofthe most common performance curves large improvementsthen smaller ones KIN 3513 Test Three Lecture Notes o 3rusilively 39 39 Slight 39 r early but during later practice This you sometimes see if learningthe skill is difficult or a very complex thing to learn o 4Ogive or Sshaped Combination of curves 1 2 and 3 This is verydifficult then improvements were made then you hit the level where you can39t improve very much more Performance Curves for Kinematic Measures 0 Kinematic measures are difficult topresent in performance curves performance A kinematic measure typically does not lend itself to being represented by one number value for each trial but does involve performance over a period of time within atrial I Assessed over time within a trialThis is very difficult to put in just one graph KIN 3513 Test Three Lecture Notes 0 To assess improvement andTrialTimeconsistency To determining improvement in performance compare the early to the later practice trials by examining howthe shape of the person39s reduced pattern corresponds to the shape of the criterion pattern One graph presented pertrial orblocks sets of trialsGraph one is a movement task where we move as fast as possible to a target It takes considerable time and on the way you are making feedback loopsGraph two is trial twenty and after twenty trials you get a feel for the target and accuracy plus time is smallerGraph three is after 60 trials and you have the perfect movement and the time has improvedThere are no feedback loops anymoreYou have learned distance and accuracy Assessing Learning 0 Retention tests Most often used to asses performance Another means of inferring learningfrom performance examines the persistence characteristic of improved performance due to practicing a skill KIN 3513 Test Three Lecture Notes Tests of a practiced skill that a learnerperforms following an interval of time afterpractice has ceased Come back after a week or so and the same skill is practiced and in the same conditions tested The teacher makes an inference about your level of performance 0 Length of no practice interval is arbitrary Some people say after an hour and some other people you have to do it after a week The other limit for no practice that would not work would be a few seconds because of short term memory We cannot assess what is in the working memory I Purpose 0 Assess how permanent the performance levelis achieved during practice fthe five trials are all high and consistent we have perfect learning even if they are lower we are still improving We must base it on the very beginning to see if they learned 0 Transfer tests If we use the same situation and the same condition then adapt to a new situation and condition I Assess the adaptability of what was learnedduring practice Transfer Tests examine the adaptability aspect of performance changes related to learning I Test can involve 0 Performing the practiced skill in a performancecontext or situation different from practice 0 Availability of extra information augmentedfeedback Augmented feedback is sometimes in the form of verbal information of what we are doing correct or incorrect Physical environment This is especially effective for a learning situation in which the goal is to enable a person to perform in locations other than those in which he or she has practiced 0 Personal characteristicsThis is where the person needs to adapt to their personal characteristics that were not in the practice trials ex during stress some people do very badly 0 Performing a skill that is different from the skillpracticed This helps to establish the amount of stability achieved Throwing with a tennis ball when you practice with a baseball 0 Coordination dynamicsLearning involves the transition from the initial movement coordination pattern represented by a preferred coordination pattern the person exhibits when first attempting the new skill to the establishment of the new coordination pattern I Observing the stability and uausitiuu of quot 39 39 of coordination relatedto the performing skill Stability and consistency of the coordination pattern are important criteria for determining which coordination state characterizes the person 0 Look for evidence of consistency and stability 0 KIN 3513 Test Three Lecture Notes This example is also in the book this person tried to make ovals at first it was bad and then later on becomes a circle 0 Practice performance may misrepresentlearning I Two reasons Practice may involve a performancevariable that artificially inflates or depressesperformance Say that you are practicing walking with a client down the hall and you helpthis person by saying stepstepstepstep and the performance might improve very well after five or six trials then if the person starts to do the walking outside and the stepstepstep is gone then the person actually did not learn to walk but how to react to you saying step stepstep Practice may involve performance plateaus which are a period of time during which there appears to be no further performance improvement is known KIN 3513 Test Three Lecture Notes The Stages of Learning Phases in Learning 0 People who are skilled in an activityoften have trouble teaching a beginner It is hard to teach someone what you are doing if you are very proficient in it 0 They do not understand how thebeginner approaches the task 0 Coachtherapist must consider the pointof view of the athletepatient 39 Instruction for learning will depend on thestage phase of learning a person is in 0 People progress through stages phasesas they learn a motor skill I People progress from being a novicebeginner to being an expert highly skilled I You may be highly skilled but not be an expert 0 Two models proposed to identify anddescribe the stages I Fitts and Posner three stage modelFitts Law I Gentile two stage model The Three Stage Model ofSkiII Acguisition o Fitts and Posner 1967 proposed thatmotor skill acquisition learning involvedthree stages 1 Cognitive Stage verbal cognitive stage The beginner focuses on cognitive oriented problems NOVICE STAGE I The task is completely new you might skip this stage if the action isn t new I Focus on solving cognitively oriented problems I Many questions 0 What to do discover goal 0 When to do it discover timing WHAT TIGGERS WHAT 0 When to hit a fast ball 0 How to do it discover strategy 0 What is the best strategy I Many errors rough estimation The errors tend to be large ones I Verbal and cognitive strategies dominate o What did you do wrong or correct I Improve rapidly however beginners generally do not know what they need to do to improve I When teaching 0 Relate to something that they know This gets them out ofthis stage faster 2 Associative Stage motor stage I Associate cues from the environment withrequired movements required to achieve goal I Organize more efficient movement patterns KIN 3513 Test Three Lecture Notes I Strengthen motor program I Consistency gradually increases I Develop anticipation I Monitor own feedback I Last longer weeks gt months 3 Autonomous StageEXPE RT STAGE I Final stage I Performance of the skill becomesquotautomaticquot in terms of attention demands People in this stage do not think about the movements 0 It doesn t take any effort I Programming longer movement sequences I Allow to perform cognitive activities duringperformance ofthe skill They can do another task at the same time I Detection of errors much better Two Stage Model for Instruction and Rehabilitation Environments o Gentile 1972 proposed that to instructor teach a motor skill the instructorshould be aware of two stages 1 Initial Stage getting the idea of the movement I Learner works to achieve two goals 0 1 Movement coordination pattern to enable somedegree of success achieving action goal 0 Learn to organize movement to accomplish the goal 0 Give opportunities to discriminate between necessarybehavior and unnecessary behavior characteristics 0 2 Learn to discriminate between regulatory andnonregulatory conditions in environmentalcontext o Learner must indentify and selectively attend torelevant conditions 2 Later Stages FixationDiversification LOOK AT INFO ON SLIDE I Learner works to acquires threecharacteristics o 1 Adapting movement pattern acquired inlnitial Stage to demands of any performancesituation o 2 Increase consistency of action goalachievement 0 Trial to trial consistency o 3 Perform with an economy of effort I Unique features ofthe later stages 0 Learner matches the acquired movementpattern to the environment 0 Stable environment gtFixation Movement pattern I Refine Initial Stage movement pattern to consistentlyrepeat optimal movement patter to achieveaction goal KIN 3513 Test Three Lecture Notes 0 Varied environment gtDiversification Movementpattern I Refine Initial Stage movement pattern to enableadaptation to changing environmental conditions The Two Theories Compared o Similarities I Both use stages I First Stage gt Idea cognitive I Has practical applications to helpcoachteacherrehabilitation specialist 0 Differences I Two versus Three Stages I Fitts Posner cognitive versus Gentile environment 0 Gentile is much more used by rehabilitation specialists Changes Across the Stages of Learning 0 Stages of learning models describedistinct characteristics at each learningstage that change across the stages I Observable changes are noted for both theperson and the skill performance I Benefits of considering characteristics 0 Provides a closer look at the skill learningprocess o Establishes why we need to develop differentinstruction strategies for people in differentlearning stages I Characteristics that change 0 Rate of improvement 0 Power law of practice early practice is characterized by large amounts of improvement 0 Movement coordination 0 Degrees of Freedom problem it concerns the need to constrain the many degrees of freedom 0 Altering an old or preferred coordinationpattern o The only way to get a new movement coordination we alter a old one until becomes stable 0 Muscles used to perform the skill Related to the degrees of freedom problem In the beginning we use more muscles that we need to as we become more experience we only activate the muscles that are necessary 0 Energy cost becomes more economical I Characteristics that change 0 Achieving the kinematic goals ofthe skill kinematic features define the spatial nd temporal features of the movements 0 Order of achievements of the action skill o 1 Displacement first thing we achieve 00 KIN 3513 Test Three Lecture Notes 0 2 Velocity then we start to do things faster 0 3 Acceleration9 makes movement more smooth 0 Visual selective attention beginners direct their visual attention to inappropriate cues o In tennis we look for the spin of the ball but at the beginning we don t look at that o Conscious attention with performing a skill 0 Error detection and correction capability 0 Brain activity Demand of Conscious attention 0 Decrease due to chunking I Example 0 Sequence for shifting from 2nd to 3rd gear 0 Lift foot off accelerator o Depress clutch 0 Move gear shift 0 Lift foot off clutch o Depress accelerator 0 During entire sequence maintain control of car Characteristics that do not change 0 Practice specificity hypothesis I Learning is specific to the sources of sensoryinformation available during practice I Visual feedback from novice to expert I Proteau 1998 hypothesized and p 39 39 39 39 39 that a 39 I 39 on the sensoryfeedback develops because it becomes apart of the memory representation of the skill Expertise 0 An expert is a person who is located atthe extreme right end ofthe learning stagescontinuum o Experts in all skill performance areas have incommon some distinct characteristics I Type of practice that resulted in expertise I Amount of practice that resulted in expertise I Knowledge structure I Use of vision Predicting Future Achievement 0 Two different approaches of severalhave been used by researchers topredict performance in later stages I Correlating initial and later performance 0 Performance in the initial stages will tellsomething about performance in the laterstages I Intertrialcorrelation KIN 3513 Test Three Lecture Notes Superdiagonal form a term describing the way the trail to trial correlations appear in a correlation matrix where all trials are correlated with each other trials that are closer to each other have scores more highly correlated the correlation decreases as trials become farther apart KIN 3513 Test Three Lecture Notes Transfer of Learning Transfer of Learning 0 In general transfer of learning occurs frompractice to target context It is the gain or loss of a person s proficiencyon one task as a result of previousexperience It defines what a person learns during practice vs what he or she can do in the target context 0 Influence of previous experience on I Learning a new skill I Performing a skill in a new context I The influence can result in 0 Positive transfer 0 Negative transfer 0 Zero transfer Neutral 0 Transfer principle has practical andtheoretical significance for I Sequencing skills to be learned Some more simple skills should be taught before more difficult one are I Developing instructional methods ex teaching surfing using dry land drillsquot and positive transfer will help them while executing the skill in the water Also practicing a part of a skill before executing the entire skill We might also practice the skill first with danger removed I Assessing the effectiveness of practiceConditions transfer tests performance will provide the best assessment We can only know the effectiveness ofthe practice routine by determining their impact on performance The transfer test is usually the competition the athlete has been preparing for Application of Positive Transfer 0 Occurs when previous experience facilitates performance ofa skill in a new context or learning of a new skill 0 There are two commonly accepted reasons I Both based on the relationship between the previous and new experience or context The movements are the same or environment is the same 0 1 Similarity of skill and context components The more similar the component parts oftwo skills are the greater the amount of positive transfer I Thorndike39s quotidentical elementsquot theory elements are general characteristics ofa skill or performance context such as the purposes of the skill or the attitude of the person performing the skill or specific characteristics ofthe skill such as components ofthe skill being performed 0 2 Similarity of processing requirements positive transfer results from the similar cognitive processes required by the two skills KIN 3513 Test Three Lecture Notes I Transferappropriate processing view is the similarity between the learning or performance cognitive processes required by the two performance situations 0 Although much remains unknown about thecause oftransfer of learning evidence points tothe value of both hypotheses in accounting fortransfer effect Negative Transfer 0 Negative transfer occurs when previous experience hinders or interferes with performance of a skill in a new context or the learning ofa new skill These are considered to be rare and temporary in motorskill learning 0 Occurs when new skill or context involves similar environmental context features butrequires a different movement response This occurs when an old stimulus requires a new but similar response 0 Negative effects can be overcome withpractice 0 Important for the practitioner to beaware that it could causediscouragement early in practice 0 Two main reasons I 1 Motor control system required to perform innon preferred manner for theenvironmental context As a result of much practice performing a skill in one specific way a specific perception action coupling has developed between the perceptual characteristics ofthe task and the motor system I 2 Cognitive confusion The problem is created by confusion created by the unfamiliar locations NearllntrataskTransfer o This is generalized to different performanceconditions The new task is relatively similar to thetrained task The conditions in which the skill is to be performed are altered the skill is still the same 0 Nearlntratasktransfer is the type oflearning that transfers from one task toanother under very similar tasks or situations Farllntertask Transfer 0 This is when you perform a variation ofa movement skilllearned The new task is quite different from thetrained task 0 Farlntertask transfer occurs from onetask to another under very differenttasks or settings Bilateral Transfer 0 Transfer of learning that involves thepositive influence of previous experienceperforming a skill with one limb onlearning or performing the same skill witha different limb I Also known as o Between limb transfer 0 Cross transfer o Cross education KIN 3513 Test Three Lecture Notes Bilateral Transfer Half of participants Pretesf Practice trials Postlest Dreferreo limb X E X Noro39eterrea I39mb X X Other half of parlicipanls Pietest Practice trials PosI Iesl DTEIEFI GO limb X X Nonpreferrea Imb X X 39X Research design to investigate Bilateral transfer 0 Overall we would practice the preferred limb if we wanted the best performance and could only practice one limb o The direction of bilateral transfer I Asymmetric transfer Bilateral transfer in which there is a greater amount oftransfer from one limb than from the other I Symmetric transfer Bilateral transfer in which the amount of transfer is similar from one limb to the other regardless of which was used first I Research shows support for asymmetric transfer Greater amount of transfer occurs from preferred to non preferred limb o Explanations for the occurrence of Bilateral Transfer I Cognitive explanation 0 Important cognitive information acquired from practice with one limb and available when other limb begins to perform I Motor Control explanation o The generalized motor program GMP Explanation o The motor program is not muscle specific 0 The dynamic pattern theory explanation o Skill learning is quoteffector independent which means that when a motor skill is learned coordination dynamics are learned without reference to the limb or limbs involved in practicing the skill I Evidence from EMG activity in non performingcontra Iateral limb 0 Implications for I Rehab settings 0 Developing therapy interventions for patients with impaired limbs on one side strokeTBI I Teaching Coaching settings KIN 3513 Test Three Lecture Notes 0 Developing practice conditions to facilitate learning to use either limb to perform a skill dribbling a basketball passing a soccer ball Transfer and Instructional Design 0 Simplification I Skill progressions are based on the assumption that experiences with simplified tasks will positively transfer to the actual movement 0 Crouching before diving T ball 0 Safety or monetary issues I Walking harnesses training wheels astronauts train under water hand rails landing mats I Virtual reality sports fire fighters flight simulators Fostering Positive Transfer 0 Considerable efforts should be made to design instructional methodology that capitalize on the notion of positive transfer 0 8 guidelines for practitioners I Analyze the skill I Determine the cost benefit trade off I Get to know the learner I Point out similarities and differences I make sure skillsconcepts you refer to are well learned I Use analogies I Maximize similarities between practice and performance I Consider the skill level of the learner Guidelines 0 Analyze the skill I Since positive transfer is based on skill similarities skill analysis is crucial A Fundamental movement pattern 0 Understand the components of movements B Strategicconceptual aspects of the task 0 Similarities of movements for previously practiced task C Perceptual elements 0 Similar regulatory or visual cues D Temporal and spatial elements 0 Understand time and space requirements for skill production 0 Determine the cost benefit trade off I Before a practice session make sure the practiced skills will positively transfer to the test in a positive manner KIN 3513 Test Three Lecture Notes I The goal should have a high degree of similarity between the practiced experience and criteria 0 Get to know the learner I All learners have past experiences that they can relate to and that can help you positively transfer learning I Also allows you to stopdiminish negative transfer of learning may have to unlearn or relearn skills I Determine the real world demands placed upon the learner 0 Point out similarities and differences I Learners are often times not aware of similarities and differences I In the Early stages of learning they are focused on the task at hand you must draw their attention to similarities and differences 0 Make sure the skillsconcepts you refer to are well learned 0 Use analogies I Learners often create a mental picture of how a task should be performed based on the instructions of the instructors explanation o Maximize similarities between practice and performancecompetition I In practice provide opportunities that have a high degree of similarity to the actual performance context 0 Consider the skill level of the learner I Transfer is typically more beneficial for beginners I Keep instructions to a minimum limited attention and memory and simple I If more advanced you can get more technical Motivation to Learn 0 Not all learners are motivated to learn the skills presented to them I Motivation 0 An internal condition that incites and directs action or behavior 0 Influences how receptive learners are to instruction 0 Learners who are motivated will explore practice and seek to master a task 0 Think back to when you have not been motivated How to Motivate Learners 0 Introduce skills in such a way that it captivates a learners interest relate it to them 0 Show learners that it is important that they learn the introduced skills I Relate to future skills I Regain functions o Motivate learners with role models success stories actual performances videos KIN 3513 Test Three Lecture Notes 0 Create an environment that is I Positive supportive challenging realistic 0 Provide opportunities for success Practicetest context effect 0 Encoding Specificity Principle I What is the relationship between memory encoding and retrieval process I The more the test context resembles the practice context the better the retention performance Implications for teaching motor skills 0 Try to imitate the test condition during practice Assessing Learning 0 Transfer tests I Assess the adaptability of what was learned during practice I Test can involve 0 Performing the practiced skill in a performance context or situation different from practice 0 Availability of extra information augmented feedback 0 Physical environment 0 Personalcharacteristics 0 Performing a skill that is different from the skill practiced KIN 3513 Test Three Lecture Notes Demonstration and Verbal Instruction Instruction 0 Effective methods of providinginstructions I Effective methods to help a person to learnmotor skills depends on o The skill level 0 The instructional goals Depends on 0 Task goal what is the overall goal 0 Environment is it the same environment or is it changing Demonstration o Demonstration Modeling the use of demonstration as means to conveying information about how to perform a skillObservational learning learning a skill by observing a person perform the skill also known as modeling is more effective under certain circumstances than others What we quotseequot is what we perceive from what we quotlook atquot I Instructional strategy that encouragesobservational learning 0 quotA picture is worth a thousand wordsquot 0 The learner acquires the capability for actionby observing others 0 Demonstrated live by others 0 Demonstrated through visual aids 0 When should we use demonstration asan instructional strategy instead of someother means of providing informationabout how to perform a skill I What does the observer perceive from ademonstration The observer perceives and uses invariant features of the coordinated movement pattern to develop his or her own movement pattern to perform the skill o The invariant features of the coordinatedmovement pattern Supported by two types of research 0 1 Visual perception of motion People notice patterns in movements and make relationships between movements point light technique 0 2 Research into the influence of demonstration on acomplex skill those who observe do better I When is demonstration most effective 0 It has been shown that demonstration leads tobetter skill learning than other instruction formswhen o The skill being learned requires the acquisition of anew pattern of coordination o Demonstrator should perform the skillquotcorrectlyquot o The observer perceives invariant movement patternsofa demonstrated skill KIN 3513 Test Three Lecture Notes I these patterns will be observed only with a correctlyperformed skill o The observer perceives information about the strategyused by the model to solve movement problems I Focus on criticalrelevant features 0 Beginners can derive learning benefitsfrom observing other beginners practicea skill This discourages the imitation ofa skilledmodel s performance This encourages the observer to engage inmore active problem solving I If you observe beginners it is very useful if the instructor points out what is going right and what is going wrong 0 When should demonstration be given I Demonstration should precede practice 0 How frequently should demonstration begiven I Instructor should continue to demonstrateduring practice as frequently as necessary 0 How does observing demonstrationsinfluence learning I Cognitive Mediation Theory a theory for explaining the benefit of a demonstration proposing that when a person observes a skilled model the person translates the observed movement information into a cognitive code that the person stores in memory and uses when the observer performs the skill o Bandura s 1986 theory of modeling andsocial learning 0 Observed movement information of the model istranslated into a symbolic memory code The memory code allows rehearsal and organizationof the information The memory code serves as a guide for performance For performance the code needs to be translatedback to codes useful to the motor system 0 Four subprocesses 0 Attention process I Observation and extraction of important information o Retention process I Transformation and restructuring of observations intosymbolic memory codes which gets stored inmemory 0 Behavior reproduction process I Memory codes ofthe model action are translated intophysical action 0 Motivation process I Incentive or motivation to perform the modeled action KIN 3513 Test Three Lecture Notes 0 How does observing demonstrationsinfluence learning I Dynamic View of Modeling a theoretical view explaining the benefit of observing a skilled model demonstrate a skill it proposes that the visual system is capable of automatically processing the observed movement in a way that constrains the motor control system to act accordingly so that the person does not need to engage in cognitive meditation 0 Gibson 1966 1979 quotdirect perception o Rejection of cognitivism o The visual system is capable of picking up relevantinformation from the model that can be used toconstrain the motor system to act in a proper wayfor the required action I You see what the action goal is and you know how your body is working you can directly solve the problem you are constraining yourself 0 Does not believe in processing 0 There is no conclusive evidence that oneof the two views is correct Verbal Instruction 0 Verbal instruction and demonstration arethe most commonly used means toinstructteach how to perform motor skills 0 Verbal instruction and attention I Quantity a beginner will have trouble paying attention to more than a few instructions I Movement outcomes 0 Discovery learning the instructions focus the learner s attention on the goal or the skill Then as the learner practices the skill heshe discovers how to move to achieve the skill o Metaphoric imagery directs attention to the movement outcome I Invariant environmental context 0 Regulatory conditions This goal is to learn the regulatory conditions that direct the movements required to achieve the action goal ofthe skill Verbal instruction and Strategies I Goal achievement 0 Bias Verbal cuesshort concise phrases that direct a performer s attention to important environmental regulatory characteristics or that prompt the person to perform key movement pattern components of skills Some factors to take into account whendeveloping effective verbal instruction I Amount of verbal instruction I Focus on movement outcomes I Focus on invariant environmental contextregulatory conditions I Goal achievement strategies 0 O O KIN 3513 Test Three Lecture Notes I Verbal cues Designing Effective Demonstrations 0 Five issues to address when using demonstrations I What should be demonstrated 0 Entire vs partial movement 0 Initially it is usually best to demonstrate the entire motion 0 If skill is complex then it may be important to break it down 0 Real time vs slow motion 0 Initially use real time then after concept is grasped use slow motion 0 Limit the use of slow motion demonstration I Who should demonstrate 0 Movement imitation vs exploration 0 Expert models encourage movement imitation helpful because movements are correct 0 Learning model encourages problem solving provides extra feedback while listing 0 Model observer similarity o Learners typically learn better when they think they have things in common with the model self efficacy success stories 0 Alternative demonstrations 0 Live video diagrams still images sounds I How should the demonstration be organized o Formations and viewing considerations 0 Make sure all learners can clearly see and hear the demonstration 0 Offer various viewing options I Front side quarter back 0 Avoid final outcomes from demonstration 0 Many times learners are very curious about movement outcomes hit ball into net 0 Explain the demonstration before hand 0 Draw learners attention to key elements before demo 0 Remember limited attention capacity 0 Do not talk during the demonstration I When should demonstration occur 0 Provide demonstrations before and during practice 0 As learners become more skilled provide demo s only if asked for 0 Encourage learners to explore movement patterns I How often should the demonstration occur 0 General rule KIN 3513 Test Three Lecture Notes 0 The more complex the skill the more demonstration may be needed 0 For complex skills you may need to spend time demonstrating specific parts 0 As learner becomes more skilled encourage them to practice without a demo KIN 3513 Test Three Lecture Notes Augmented Feedback Feedbackinformation people receive about their performance of a motor skill during or after the performance 0 All information individuals receive about performing a task during or after the performance I Any kind of sensory information about the movement I Information fed back to the performer Importance I Critical for movement planning anticipation decision making parameter selection etc Types of Feedback 0 1 TaskIntrinsic feedback I Sensory perceptual information that is anatural part of performing a skill o 2 Augmented feedbackExtrinsic feedback I Performance related information added toor enhancing task intrinsic feedback Task Intrinsic Feedback the sensory feedback that is naturally available while performing a skill o Sensory information that normally occurs with movement I Can come from o Exteroception o Proprioception Augmented Feedback a generic term used to describe information about performing a skill that is added to sensory feedback and comes from a source external to the person performing the skill o Sensory information provided by anoutside source Extrinsic Feedback I CoachInstructor controls this information I Information from the measured performanceoutcome conveyed by artificial means I There are two types of Augmentedfeedback o 1 Knowledge of Results KRexternally presented information about the outcome of performing a skill or about achieving the goal of the performance 0 2 Knowledge of Performance KP information about the movement characteristics that led to the performance outcome Knowledge of Results IKR o Externally presented information aboutthe outcome of performance I Quantitative I Post response o Often verbalizable I Information about success in meeting themovement goal KIN 3513 Test Three Lecture Notes 0 Redundant 0 Not redundant Knowledge of Performance 0 Externally presented information aboutmovement characteristics that led to theperformance outcome I Qualitative I During Post response o Verbal Visual I Does not convey information about successin meeting the movement goal Properties of Augmented Feedback 1 Motivational properties I Produces motivation or energizes thelearner I Effective during fatigue boredom I Effective if public 2Reinforcing properties I Supplies reinforcement for correct andincorrect actions I Improves the chance that the desiredaction will be repeated I Types of reinforcement 0 Positive 0 Negative 0 Punishment 3 Informational properties I Provides information about how to correcterrors I Provides direction for modifying futureperformance 4 Dependency producing properties I Creates a dependency leading toproblems at feedback withdrawal I When feedback is given frequently thelearner uses it rather than some internallygenerated information I Similar to guidance Methods to Reduce Dependency o lntermitted Feedback I Relative frequency of feedback 0 Bandwidth Feedback I Feedback only delivered if errors occuroutside a range of correctness I Faded feedback is a by product I Eliminates trial to trial correctness Augmentation Feedback Information 0 Traditional view Augmented feedback forevery trial 100 frequency is best forlearning I Torndike s perspective 0 Strengthening stimulus response associations KIN 3513 Test Three Lecture Notes 0 Increased feedback gt Increased strengthening 0 Feedback needs to be 0 immediate o precise o frequent o informationally rich 0 Current view Less than 100 frequencyis best for learning 0 How much information is given andwhen feedback is given I Summary augmented feedback 0 Information is presented only after a set of triaIshad been completed Feedback is withheld for a set oftrials Feedback for every trial is given but is delayed I Average augmented feedback 0 Based on average of several trials rather thanon any one of them Filter out variability and detect learner s typicalpattern Information about what to change and howmuch to change it o Explanation I Prevents dependency because several trialswithout augmented feedback I Encourages learners to analyze their ownresponse produced feedback and detecttheir own errors 0 Match feedback to what is controlled I Feedback about motor program variables I Feedback about parameters 0 Verbal KP I Descriptive o Describes the errors made during performance A verbal knowledge of performance KP statement that describes only the error a person has made during the performance of a skill I Prescriptive o Describes the errors and suggest how tocorrect it A verbal knowledge of performance KP statement that describes errors made during the performance of a skill and states what needs to be done to correct them 0 Give one source of feedback whichshould be the most fundamental I Learner is limited by information processingand memory capabilities Precision of feedback 0 0 Absolute Frequency I The actual offeedback presentations in aseries of trials 0 Relative Frequency I The proportion percentage oftrials duringpractice on which feedback is given I On the blank trials information processingactivities are assumed to occur KIN 3513 O 0 Test Three Lecture Notes An archer practices target shooting He has 50 arrows which he uses all during practice He gets only augmented feedback of every 5th trial I What is the absolute frequency 10 I What is the relative frequency 20 Concurrent augmented feedback Augmented feedback is provided while aperson is performing I This type offeedback is knowledge of performance Terminal augmented feedbackAugmented feedback is provided after aperson has completed the performance both knowledge of results and knowledge of performance 0 Inter trial Interval time between trials 0 Time when we give information 1 Instantaneous Feedback person can t process their own intrinsic feedback 2 Delayed feedback KIN 3513 Test Two Lecture Notes Proprioception Touch and Vision Proprioception Touch and Vision 0 Sensory information is essential for alltheories ofmotor control and learningIfwe cannot see or feel what we are doing then we will not be able to make movements I Information before the movementEven if there is openloop control we still need sensory information before we begin movement I Information during the movementWe update constantly what we are doing during the movement due to feedback I Information after the movementDid you do the movement that you were planning on doing or accomplish the goal that you were looking for 0 Focus in this bookis on three types I 1 Touch I 2 Proprioception I 3 Vision I Taste hearing Touch and Motor Control 0 Neural basis of touchmanipulating an object we feel what we are doing I Skin receptors give information Informati on about the surface of the object temperature of the object 0 Greatest concentration in fingertipsalso great receptors on your cheek o Tactile receptorsUf you feel that the skin is distorted stretched or moved the feeling that you get as a glass of wine is slipping There is no robot with these 0 Pain receptorsThey tell you if something is hurting ex if your skin has been punctured will feel burn however separate from temperature receptors 0 Temperature receptors Are separate from pain although they interact with each other it will tell you how to deal with the temperature of the object 0 Pressure receptorsThis is important in feeling how much force you apply on something that you don t crush it I Mechanoreceptors 0 They pick up mechanical pressure and distortion EX If someone tugs at an eraser I am holding my mechanoreceptors will distort my skin to hold on to it 0 Role of tactile information KIN 3513 Test Two Lecture Notes Movement accuracyWithout info accuracy will degrade aiming movement Movement consistencyWithout info movements would become less consistent variable error goes up Movement force adjustmentsEraserwine glass example immediately your re exes will hold on to the object tighter Movement distance estimationHelps to estimate the movement in which you want to perform Proprioception and Motor Control 0 O O O Proprioception The sensory system sdetection and reception of movement and spatial position of limbs trunk andhead CNS receives information fromproprioceptorsThey are using afferent passageways Proprioceptors I Muscles I Tendons I Ligaments I Joints Types ofproprioceptors I 1 Muscle spindles I 2 Golgitendon organs I 3 Joint receptors Exn39llnul 1 Muscle spindles 12 39 a Within fibers of most skeletalmuscles Mechanoreceptor u s L Detects changes in musclefiber length stretch andvelocity velocity of thestretch Involved with re exes Involved in voluntary movements P P Tcndnn ml F ST quot W ka BlocKwe publishing 2008 KIN 3513 2 GolgiTendon Organs GTO a In skeletal muscle near insertion of tendon b Detects changes in muscle tension force i Not very good in detecting muscle length changes 3 Joint receptors a Not one type but severalIn joint capsule andligaments Wide variety b Detect changes in force androtationUt will pick up change in speedchange in force c Changes in jointmovement angleLets you know how much further you should not go Test Two Lecture Notes Gulgl lendon organ Muscle Spinal Cord Sp ndls Gray matter r I Extralusal 39 muscle bers interneuron Vanna root Alpha molar neuron Muscle Carlson N R 1999 Foundations of Physiological Psychology Mrd edition Hip Joint Anwmar Canlage Li men and J3 Capsule a Synouial Membrane x Femoral Head Ligament and Jolnl Capsule Proprioception and Deafferentation o Deafferentation techniques Surgical deafferentationNot Very popular or used on humans we make sure there is no information whatsoever coming to the brain KIN 3513 Test Two Lecture Notes 0 Afferent neutral pathways associated with movementsof interest have been surgically removed or alteredDepends on what animals you are talking about and what you want to accomplish Monkeys can climb and wash themselves with the pathways removed however fine motor skills like eating is a problem I Deafferentation due to sensory neuropathy 0 People are Sometimes called quotperipheral neuropathy patients 0 Their large myelinated fibers of the limb are lost leading to aloss of sensory information This is one of the reasons that pain and temperature are intact They are better at using their vision to come up with strategies to help them do tasks better We are very interested in this field in the US because it is associated with diabetes which is one of the fastest growing disease in the nation I Temporary deafferentation o quotNerve block technique Most used In ate bloodpressure cuff tocreate temporary disuse of sensory nervesIt becomes much more difficult to complete tasks W o Tendon vibration technique I 2 2007 Vibroge I High speed vibration of the tendon of theagonist muscle I Proprioceptive feedback is distorted but it still exists You get a feel that you I arm is somewhere that it l is not Proprioception feedback and movement control 0 Proprioceptive feedback I Movement accuracy It looks at the velocity of the limb and the force 0 Target 7 7 accuracyGoes down ifyou have no proprioceptive feedback Spatial and temporal accuracy for movement inprogresswhen you are doing something at the moment you are doing it KIN 3513 Test Two Lecture Notes 0 Timing of onset ofmotor commands 0 Coordination I Postural control I Spatialtemporal coupling between limbs and limbsegments I Adapting to new situations requiring nonpreferredmovement coordination patterns Vision and motor control 0 In many tasks vision is the preferredsource of sensory information I Evidence from everyday experiences 0 Beginning typists look at their fingers 0 Beginning dancers look at their feetThe best way to learn dancing has nothing to do with looking at your feet I Evidence from research 0 The classic quotmoving room experiment The Moving Room 0 Lee ampAronson 1974 I Participants stood in a room in which thewalls moved toward or away from them but oor did not move I Situation created a con ict between visionand proprioception 0 Results I When the walls moved people adjustedtheir posture to not fall even though theyweren t moving offbalanceChildren were tested first and fell all over 0 So people trusted their visual informationmore than their proprioceptiveinformationRoom like this at NASA even thought he knew what was going on he still adapted Neurophysiology ofthe Eye CorneaAble to take the cornea off and replace it reasonable safe procedure IrisThe colored part of your eye LensThrough which light passes ScleraThe whole outside of your eyeball everything is attached to it Aqueous humor uid Vitreous humorIn the eyeball itselfbehind the lens KIN 3513 Test Two Lecture Notes KIN 3513 Test Two Lecture Notes W11 113 is why we see KIN 3513 Test Two Lecture Notes o Optic nerve cranial nerve II I From the retina to the brain s Visual cortex Information crosses over sides KIN 3513 Test Two Lecture Notes Vision and Motor Control 0 Techniques 39 tends o be in the r center ofyour Vi Tracks foveal Vision s quotpoint of gaze 0 ie quotwhatquot the person is looking at Not meryfch i iook39ng due to peripnerai Vision I Temporal occlusion techniques KIN 3513 Test Two Lecture Notes 0 Stop video or film at various timesDetermine whether the ball is on or off the field through film 0 Spectacles with liquid crystal lensesWe do not use because it is rarely difficult to view through spectacles at exact time I Event occlusion technique It stops at various times intermittently you won39t see certain times and will only see certain times 0 Mask view on video or film of specific events or characteristics 0 Monocular vs Binocular Vision I Binocular vision important for depth perception when 3 dimensional features involved in performance situationWhen we see a ball coming we need to know how fast it is coming which takes a 3D perspective 0 Reaching grasping objects 0 Walking on a cluttered pathway 0 Intercepting a moving object 0 Central and Peripheral Vision I Central vision 0 Sometimes called foveal vision 0 Middle 25 deg ofvisual fieldsmall portion 0 Provides specific information to allow us toachieve action goalsWhere you see sharp objects and things happen 0 For reaching and grasping an object specificcharacteristic info required to prepare moveand grasp object 0 size shape texture movement 0 For walking on a pathway specific pathwayinfo needed to stay on the pathway I Peripheral vision 0 Detects info beyond the central vision limits 0 Upper limit typically 200 deg 160 degrees 0 Provides info about the environmental contextand the moving limbs When we move through an environmentperipheral vision detects info by assessingoptical ow patterns Optical ow rays oflight that strike the retinaalso used in IMAX theaters makes you feel like youa re moving I Two visual systems 0 Vision for perception central vision 0 Anatomically referred to as the ventral stream fromvisual cortex to temporal lobe 0 Used for fine analysis ofa scene eg form features 0 Typically available to consciousness 0 Vision for action peripheral vision 0 Anatomically referred to as the dorsal stream fromvisual cortex to posterior parietal lobe KIN 3513 Test Two Lecture Notes 0 Used for detecting spatial characteristics ofa scene andguiding movement 0 Typically not available to consciousness o Perception Action Coupling I Coupling ofa perceptual event and anaction I Research has shown that spatial andtemporal characteristics oflimb movementsoccurred together with specific spatial andtemporal characteristics of eye movements 0 What is the Amount of Time Needed forMovement Corrections I Concerns vision s feedback role during movementResearchers have tried to answer this question sinceoriginal work by Woodworth in 1899 Typical procedure Compare accuracy of rapid manualaiming movements ofvarious MTs with target visible andthen when not visible just after the movement onset Expect accuracy ofmovement to be the same with lightsoffwhen no visual feedback needed during movement If the accuracy is better with eyes open it means that we are using visual feedback Currently best estimate is a range of 100 160 msec Thetypical range for simple RT to a visual signal Simple RT One stimulusone response 0 TimetoContact The Optical Variable tau I Concerns situations in which 0 Object moving to person must be intercepted 0 Person moving toward object needs to contact oravoid contact with object Vision provides info about timetocontact object whichmotor control system uses to initiate movement Automatic nonconscious specification based onchanging size of object on retina At critical size movement needs to be initiated David Lee 1974 showed the timetocontact info couldbe specified by an optical variable tau which couldbe mathematically quantified I Motor control benefit Automatic movementinitiation KIN 3513 Test Two Lecture Notes Performance and Motor Control Characteristics of Functional Skills Motor Control and Performance 0 Specific characteristics ofthe performanceofvarious motor skills provide the basisfor much of our understanding of motorcontrol Speedaccu racy skills I Prehe nsio n Handwritin Bimanual Coordination Catching a moving object Striking a moving object Speed Accuracy Skills 0 Speedaccu racy tradeoff I When both speed and accuracy areessential to perform the skill I When speed is emphasized accuracy isreduced and viceversa o Fitts39 Law I Paul Fitts 1954 showed we couldmathematicallypredict movement time fo rspeed accuracy skills Movement distance Target size MT ablog2 ZDW log2 ZDW The index ofdifficulty KIN 3513 Test Two Lecture Notes KIN 3513 Test Two Lecture Notes o Fitts Law predicts MT motor skills I Dart throwing I Pegboard manipulation task 0 Used in physical rehab assessment and training I Reaching and grasping containers ofdifferent sizes I Moving a cursor on a computer screen 0 Two motor control processes 1 Openloop control 0 Initial movement instructions sufficient to movelimb to the vicinity ofthe targetLC 39 J ection 2 Closedloop control 0 Feedback from vision and proprioceptionneeded at end of movement to ensure hittingtarget accurately quot i the target feedback fast as we c Prehension 0 General term for actions involvingreaching for and grasping of objects I Three components 0 1 Transport Movement of the hand to the object o 2 GraspThe hand taking hold of the object KIN 3513 Test Two Lecture Notes 0 3 Object manipulation The hand carrying out the intended use for theObject 0 Important motor control questionconcerns the spatial temporalrelationship between the transport andgrasp components I Initial views proposed the independence ofthe components I Recent evidence shows 0 strong temporal relationship 0 the components interact synergistically 0 Research demonstrating temporalrelationship of reach and grasp I Goodale and colleagues 1991 2005 showed 0 Object s size in uenced 0 Timing of maximum grip aperture 0 Velocity profile of hand transport movement 0 Regardless of object s size or distance 0 Maximum grip aperture occurs at about 23 MT I The relationship of movement kinematics for prehension components exemplifies characteristics of a quotcoordinative structure 0 The role of Vision I Preparation and initiation ofmovement o Assesses regulatory conditions I Transport ofhand to object 0 Central vision directs hand to object providestimetocontact info to initiate grasp 0 Peripheral vision provides hand movementfeedbackkeep track of limb update I Grasp of object o Supplements tactile and proprioceptivefeedback to ensure intended use achieved 0 Prehension demonstrates speedaccuracytradeoff characteristicspredicted by Fitts law I Object width Target width Index of difficulty for grasping containersof different sizes and quantities of liquid I Developed by Latashamparic 2002 I Critical component is of fullness I Ratio of mug size and liquid level Handwriting 0 Different control mechanisms are involvedvvith what people write and how they writeCan do it so fast done without thinking I People demonstrate much individualvariation interms of limb segment involvementPeople who only write with two fingers I Each individual s motor control of handwritingdemonstrates quotmotor equivalence No matter which limb you are using you can identify that they wrote it 0 KIN 3513 Test Two Lecture Notes 0 Person can adapt to various context demands 0 Handwriting motor control demonstratescharacteristics ofa coordinative structure 0 Vision provides important info for themotor control of handwriting I 1 Overall arrangements ofwordscharacterson a horizontal line I 2 Production of accurate patterns tofacilitate legibility Bimanual Coordination Skills 0 Motor skills that require simultaneous useof two hands 0 Skill may require two hands to move withthe same or different spatial and ortemporal characteristics I Symmetric bimanual coordination I Asymmetric bimanual coordination 0 Motor control characteristic The twoarms prefer to perform symmetrically I Demonstrates why it is difficult to rub yourstomach and pat your head at the sametime or draw a circle with one hand whiledrawing a straight line with the other hand I Research demonstrations of temporal andspatial coupling of the two arms I With practice a person can learn todisassociate the two limbs to perform anasymmetric bimanual skill Locomotion 0 Central pattern generators CPG in thespinal cord involved in the control o ocomotion I Provide basis for stereotypic rhythmicity ofwalking and running gait patterns I However proprioceptive feedback frommuscle spindles and GTOs also in uence gait o Rhythmic structure oflocomotion I Components ofa step cycle I Rhythmic relationship between arms and legs I Pelvis and thorax relationship during walking 0 Practical benefit of analyzing rhythmicstructure of gait patterns I Assessment of coordination problems trunk and legs 0 Another important motor controlcharacteristic oflocomotion I Head stability 0 Spontaneous gait transitions I Why do spontaneous gait transitionsoccur I Various hypotheses 0 Most popular Minimize metabolic energy use 0 Some agreement that there is not just onefactor responsible 0 When we walk or run vision is important I Contacting objects I Avoiding contact with objects 0 Vision provides advance info to determinehow to avoid contact step over around etc KIN 3513 Test Two Lecture Notes 0 Vision provides bodyscaled info to determinehow to walk through a door or step on a step Catching a Moving Object 0 Three phases I 1 Initial positioning of arm and hand I 2 Shaping of hand and fingers I 3 Grasping the object I Movement analysis evidence of the threephases I Successful ball catchers initiated final handand finger shaping 80 msec earlier than noncatchers 0 Two critical time periods I 1 Initial ight portion I 2 Just prior to hand contact I Between the two critical periods 0 Brief intermittent visual snapshots sufficient I Is vision of the hands necessary to catch amoving object 0 Key factor in answer is amount of experience 0 IneXperienced Yes 0 Experienced No Striking a moving object 0 Ball speed effect I Skilled quotstrikersquot demonstrate similar quotbatquotmovement time for all ball speeds I They change amount of time beforeinitiating bat movement 0 Visual contact with moving ball I Skilled quotstrikersquot do not maintain visualcontact with ball throughout ball ight I They visually quotjumpquot from early ight topredicted location in area to strike ball Action Preparation Movement Preparation 0 What phases are involved and how do they relate I Intention I Preparation I Initiation I Termination Preparation Time 0 Donders 1868 o The motor control system requires time to prepare to produce an intended action 0 Reaction Time RT KIN 3513 Test Two Lecture Notes I Index ofpreparation time required to produce an action I Changed byperformance situations Ifyou have more choices your RT changes Ifyou have to listen for a cue before you start you RT changes harder than looking for a light I Changed byperformer characteristics Task Situation Characteristics Number of response choices I Increase in choices gt Increase in RT lIick39s law HickHymanlaw is same RT b log2 N1 N Number of choices 0 If ou 39ust have one choice ou don39t have to think about it o Predictability ofthe correct response choice I RT decreases ifthe correct response choice becomes more predictable If80 ofthe time something come 5 to your right you will start to prepare to go to the right which will decrease you RT Precuing paradigm Precue Advance information about an upcoming event that needs a response Attention Ifyou don39t attend to the precue you don39t get the information 0 Probability ofthe precue correctness R Faster ifthe precue correctness probability ishigherthanthe probabilities equallypossible choices 5050 0 Ex 2 choices Move to right 80 Move to the left 20 KIN 3513 Test Two Lecture Notes 0 CostBenefit tradeoff for bias to theanticipated required response 0 Cost ifinformation is incorrect o Benefit ifinformation is incorrect 0 False start information is not adequately use I Nott e same as cost Ifyou started before the signal 0 Stimulusresponsecompatibilit I 39 creases when the spatialrelationship between a stimulusand the response decreases Stroop effect Avery good example of stimulusresponse compatibility Selection versus Preparation Design considerations o Foreperiodlength regularity I Foreperiod the interval between warningand gostimulus Movement time time between onset of movement amp offset of movement Reponse time RT MT I More regularity ofthe length result in shorterRT I Length Ifforeperiod is long it won39t help you 0 Movement complexity RT increases when the complexity oftheaction increases I Remember Henry and Rogers 1960 KIN 3513 Test Two Lecture Notes 0 Respond as quickly as possible to a light 0 1Liftthefinger o 2 Lift finger reach and grasp a ball resp o 3 Lift finger hit several targets in different directions RT increased with added complexity oftask165 199 212 ms 0 Movement accuracy RT incr ases when accuracy demandsincrease Accuracy increases not only RT More constraint movement re uires morePre aration o Repetition ofa mov T39me between different responses to differentsignals o o Psychological Refractory Period PRP Delay of response to 2 nd stimulus 0 Sports Performer Characteristics 0 Alertness ofthe per ormer a rning signal effect ning events I Foreperiodlength effect ptimal time length I Vigilance effect 0 Military Sports 0 Attention focus I On signal versus movement Sensory set KIN 3513 Test Two Lecture Notes 0 Motor set MT and sensorymotor set Preparation and Motor Control 0 Fractionating RT Premotor component Premotor RT Motor component Motor RT o What motor control events occur duringthe preparation Postural preparation rganization of movements needed forpostural support 0 Anticipated balance change due to movement 0 Flexible synergistic organization characteristic ofpostural movement preparation Limb performance preparation Direction Trajectory Acc racy Object control preparation 0 e Endstate comfort Sequences of movements 0 Advance preparation ofan entire sequence Spatial coding SR compatibility KIN 3513 Test Two Lecture Notes 0 Rightrightleftleft o Rightupleftdown I Rhythmicity preparation 0 Preperformance rituals Attention as a Limited Capacity Resource Attention and Multiple Task Performance 0 Attention refers to characteristics associated with I Consciousness I Awareness I Cognitive effortIf something requires more cognitive effort it will require more attention 0 Performance of Skills and Limitations I Simultaneous performance of Multiple Skills I Detection of Relevant Information in the Environment I Ignoring Irrelevant Information in the Environment 0 Performing simultaneously more than one task I No measurable detrimental effects I Deteriorated task performance 0 Question why sometimes detrimental effects and other times no effects 0 Possible answer relates to attention as a performance limiting factor Attention Theories 0 Filter theories aka bottleneck theories I Stimuli resulting in responses are processed serially o A filter in one of the stages ofprocessing results in limitation on multiple task performanceIt tries to pick out one thing that we need in task 0 Two filtering theories 0 StimuliInformation from environment 9 Detection 9 Identification 9 Response Selection 9 Response Preparation 9 Response StimuliInformation from environment 9 99 Detection 9 99 Identification 9 99 Response Selection 9 Response Preparation 9 Response 0 Theories differ in the location of the filter 0 Resource Capacity Theories I There are limited resources which limit performance of multiple tasks 0 If resource capacity limits are not exceeded performance of multiple tasks can occur 0 KIN 3513 Test Two Lecture Notes 0 Ifresource capacity limits are exceeded performance deteriorates on one or more tasks 0 Central Resource Capacity Theories I One central attention resource ie CNS I Activity requires attention I Activities compete for the demanded resources to perform optimallyEx Driving a car while texting I Resource is exible so the resource can be used in different activities Kahneman39s Attention Theor Is an example ofa Central Resource Capacity Theory 0 There is one attention capacity resource 0 Attention capacity limits are exible 0 Attention resources are not constraint to one taskAll attention you can use for all different tasks I You can use the same resourced for walking and throwinglike your bank account 0 Equates attention to quotcognitive effort The more cognitive effort you need for a task that means you need more attention and the more attention you need you are using more ofyour resources Arousal levelResources are exible because it determines arousal levels I The factor that in uences the amount of attention capacity for a specific performance situation 0 The amount of attention resources available varies in relation to a person s arousal level 0 Maximum amount ofresources only available when arousal level is optimal for the situation 0 Inverted Urelation between performance and arousal the YerkesDodson law 1908 O KIN 3513 Test Two Lecture Notes o Arousal level I Simple tasks I Complex tasks simple boring repetitive needs arousal complex task less arousal simple solid line complex dashed line it could be the same task but one person is more skilled after training and before trainingQsimple solid line complex dashed line Most likely because the performance is lower on the complex task and needs less arousal 0 Evaluation of attention requirements of multiple tasks to be performed I Critical to determine whether sufficient attention resources are available I Arousal level determines the capacity limits 0 For an athlete they can feel if they are not hyped up enough if they think that they are too nervous they try to calm down 0 Three quotrulesquot individuals use to prioritize available attention resources when performing multiple tasks I Ensure completion of atleast one task I Enduring disposition Involuntary attention allocation 0 Novelty of the situationA branch of companies using this often to draw our attention is advertisement companies 0 Meaningfulness of the event I Momentary intentions coaches teachers and trainers are using this 0 Allocate attention according to instruction 0 Tennis player coach instructs to play attention to wrist with the forehand When can a limited attention capacity be an advantage for performing a skill KIN 3513 Test Two Lecture Notes 0 Ifyou are surfingand see a shadow that looks like a shark your arousal level goes up All you are worried about is getting out ofwater o Forbasketball the fans trying to cause the opponent39s player to miss a free throw The player needs to make sure hisher attention is on the shot and not the fans Multiple Resource Theories Alternative to theories proposing one central resource re several sources of atten ion I Each source has a limited capacity resource 0 EX Savings account is for buying the car the checking account is for buying groceries 0 Multiple resources based specific information processing components I Sensory input eg visual proprioceptive auditory taste I Response output egverbal motor I T e of memory code eg spatial verbal 0 Performance of simultaneous multiple tasks depends on competition for sources attention resources within and between the mult1 le Procedures for Assessing Attentlon Demands o Dualtask procedure I Determines the attention demands andcharacteristics ofsimultaneous performanceof two different tasks rimary tas o Is the task of interest 0 Secondary tas o Is the taskused to make inferences about attentiondemands of the primary task KIN 3513 Test Two Lecture Notes Focusing Attention o Attentional focus I Direct attention resources to specific characteristics in a performance environment or to actionpreparation activities 0 Width of the focus 0 Broad 0 Narrow o Direction of the focus 0 External 0 Internal0pening in chess 0 Attention switching I Changing attention focus characteristics 0 To deal with changing factors 0 Positive 0 Negative 0 Focus on Movements vs Movement effects I Question 0 Does internal or external focus of attention matter 0 Action effect hypothesis Prinz 1997 I Proposed benefit of external focus during performance 0 Focus on intended outcome rather than the movements itself Attention and Automaticity o Automaticitysubconscious however not sleeping I Performance of a skill or part of a skill without requiring attention resources 0 In Kahneman s theory relates to evaluation of task demands I Related to the amount of practicethe more practice more automatic I How automated does the performance of complex skills become 0 Question still unanswered but very likely the total automaticity doesn t exist Visual Selective Attention o The study of attention as it relates to the use ofvision in the selection of environmental information in the preparation andor performance of an action Visual search is the process of directing visual attention to locate relevant information ie cues in the environment0bserving places that other people areare not walking 0 Eyemovement recording 0 o Assumption I Where the person is looking the person is directing its selective visual attention 0 Focal vision 0 Peripheral vision 0 By looking at eye movements we underestimate KIN 3513 Test Two Lecture Notes I It is not possible to make an eye movement without also making a shift in attention Visual Cues Selection 0 Visual search and intended actions I An active search for quotregulatoryquot conditions based on action goal 0 Eg difference in visual search between the intention to point to an object and to grasp it 0 Feature integration theory I Initially search according to specific features I Direct quotattentional sp otlight on environment 0 Wide 0 Narrow 0 Features ofinterest quotpop out Visual Search and action Preparation 0 Visual search picks up cues thatin uence three aspects ofactionpreparation I Action selection what action I need to do at this particular moment make a bunt or hit I Constraining of the selected action my bat need to be horizontal when it does over the plate and hip level I Timing ofaction initiation too late swinging or too early and will miss ball 0 Three preparation processes in uencedby visual search in I Open motor skill using closed loop control I Closed motor skill using open loop control Training Visual Search Strategies 0 To what degree is successful visualsearch determined by visual acuity I Research evidence suggests very littlerelationship 0 You need to something but it doesn t need to be 2020 vision 0 Visual search success is experiencebased I Often results from implicit learning of relevant visual cues 0 Baseball amp tennis players the spin of the ball is a relevant cue Research Studv on Cell Phone Use while Driving 0 Strayeramp Johnson 2001 Psychological Science I When participants engaged in cellphone conversations during a simulated driving task I Missed two times more traffic signals I RT for responding to a red light significantly slower than when not using cell phone I No statistical differences between handheld and handsfree cell phone use I Missed more traffic signals and had slower RT than when listening to the radio or to a book on audiotape I No difference between male and female KIN 3513 Test Two Lecture Notes Age is not a factor Weather does not play a factor 75 of accidence occur during clear weather 89 of crashes involve additional vehicles Majority of crashes happen within the first 10 min of the trip Cell phone use while driving is not legal in several countries eg Israel Taiwan Italy Brazil The Netherlands and in some parts of the US eg New York I While talking on a cell phone and driving your chance ofbeing in a accident increases 500 similar to being legally drunk I Why is this relevant to our discussion of attention and motor skill performance 0 Has to do with the one resource that we have which should be used to drive Then you ick up the pone and listen to someone else and this takes some oyour resource away which causes problems Memory Components Forgetting and Strategies Memory Structure 0 Definition of memory The capacity toremember information about pastevents or knowledge I Tulving 1985 Memory is the capacity thatpermits organisms to benefit from pasteXperiences 0 Two functional systems I Working memory short term memory I Longterm memory 0 Memory functions I Storage 0finf0rmationHow do we store information in our memory I Retrieval of information How do we retrieve information TwoComponent Memory Model 0 Working memory I Subsystems o Phonological loop Has to do with everything we are doing verbally listening to music 0 Visuospatial sketchpadEverything that is coming in visually 0 Central executive o LongTerm memory I Subsystems 0 Procedural memoryImportant for motor control how to bike or tie your shoes KIN 3513 Test Two Lecture Notes Semantic memoryEverything that you know general knowledge of the world Episodic memoryTied to what you have experienced information from our experiences Working Memory 0 Shortterm memory processes I Sensory processesWe are unaware like a re ex I Perceptual processesThis is where our visual search starts we are aware of our surroundings very short term I Attentional processesHere we select the parts that we need to accomplish our goals in the next one to twenty seconds 0 Is involved in all situations requiring temporarymanipulation and storage of information 0 Function I Enables people to respond immediately I Critical role in decision making problem solvingmovement planning and execution o Interacts with longterm memory do Ineed some info formteh past so I can accomplish my goal faster or more accurately How did I solve that problem in the past 0 Interactive workspace same as the computer RAM takes all the ofno available at the time and needed from the past and puts it in a space and says these are the things I need to accomplish that next goal 0 Duration I 2030 sec before losing parts ofinfo o Processed get it into a code so can go into longterm memory 0 Rehearsal like with a phone number you need to remember 0 Capacity I 7 2 I Can be increased 0 quotChunkingquot instead of remember 26 characters you remember it s the alphabet one element 0 Information processed to allow toachieve an action goal or to solve anaction problem I Remember how to perform an action as justinstructed 0 You could instruct parts of the action momentarily intentions I Solve a specific movement problem Long Term Memory 0 Serves as the more permanent storagerepository of information 0 Function I Information about specific past events events longer than 30 seconds General knowledge of the world See someone riding a weird thing with 2 wheels you know it s a bike even though have never seen that bike KIN 3513 Test Two Lecture Notes 0 Duration 0 Semantic I quotPermanentquot I Factual and general 0 Capacity knowledge about I quotUnlimitedquot theworld 0 Procedural o Episodic I How to do specific I Unique personal events activities and0r experiences Longterm Memory and Knowledge 0 Classification ofknowledge I Declarative knowledge 0 Knowledge that can be verbally described I Procedural knowledge 0 Knowledge that enables to perform a motorskill 0 Knowledge that is impossibledifficult to beverbally described Rememberin For ettin o Terminology used to describe rememberingforgetting I Encoding 0 Process of transforming information into a form that it can bestored in memory I Storage 0 Process ofplacing information in longterm memory I Rehearsal 0 Process that enables to transfer information from working tolongterm memory I Retrieval 0 Process of searching through longterm memory for needed information o How to asses memory I Explicit memory testsmostly used in academics 0 Recall test 0 Recognition test I Implicit memory tests 0 Information in memory that isdifficultimpossible to verbalize Causes of Forgetting 0 Trace decay I Working memory I Probably not in longterm memory 0 Proactive interference Forgetting because ofinformation prior to theto be remembered information I Working memory 0 Confusion Tasks need to be sufficiently similar I No evidence in longterm memory 0 Retroactive interference KIN 3513 Test Two Lecture Notes I Forgetting because ofinformation after the tobe remembered information I Working memory 0 More similar tasks leads to more forgetting I Longterm memory 0 There are skill differences 0 Continuous skills are more resistant than serial skills Movement Characteristics and Memorv Performance 0 Location and distance characteristics I Movement endpoint location remembered betterthan movement distance I Arm movement endlocation within the individual sown body space remembered better than outsidethe body space 0 Implication for teaching motor skills 0 Emphasize limb movement endpoints o Emphasize key positions during movement I Meaningfulness of the movement 0 Can you relate it to something you already know Memory Performance Enhancement Strategies 0 Increasing the movement s meaningfulness I Visual metaphoric imagery 0 Develop a picture in ones mind ofwhat themovement is like I Verbal label 0 Attach a specific label to the movement 0 The intention to remember I Intentional and incidental memory 0 Subjective organization I Organizing sequences of movements Practicetest Context Effect 0 Encoding Specificity Principle I What is the relationship between memoryencoding and retrieval process The more the test context resembles thepractice context the better the retentionperformance 0 Implications for teaching motor skills 0 Try to imitate the test condition during practice Introduction to Exercise and Sport Psychology Introduction to Exercise amp Sport Psychology 0 1 What is it Two objectives Why study it Whom is it for 2 What do ESPs do History Science Prof Practice 4 Orientations Present amp Future Exercise and Sport Psychology The scientific study of people and their behaviors in exercise and sport activities and the practical application of that knowledge Two Objectives of Exercise and 5ort Psychology 1 Understand the effects of psychological factors 1 Body image social support systems 2 Example Promote physical activity behavior 3 Maintenance maintaining exercise 4 Exercise and physical performance 2 Understand the effects of participation in physical activity on psychological development health and well being domain Biomechanics Exercise physiology Motor development Motor learning and control Sports medicine Sport pedagogy Sport sociology 2011 Human Kinetics Relationship of Sport Science Sport science knowledge and Psycho06y Knowledge Sport and Exercise Psychology Psychology knowledge domain Abnormal psychology Clinical psychology Counseling psychology Developmental psychology Experimental psychology Personality psychology Physiological psychology Fa m i ly Tree Psychology Kinesiology Rehabilitation Sport 8 Health Exercnse Psychology Psychology Psychology Exercise vs Sport Psychology Can you tell the difference 3 Exercise Sport 0 Non elite 0 Elite athletic 0 Non competitive performance motives for 0 Competitive participants performance 0 Focus is often on 0 Focus on participation performance out maintaining doing an opponent movement Why Study ExerciseSport Psychology 0 0 To understand the psychological antecedents of exercise behavior Psychological Behavior 0 To understand the psychological consequences of exercise Behavior Psychological Why Participation Rates and Interests According to recent research 0 Incidence of regular physical activity participation can vary Soccer clubs YMCA other clubs Adult Population ONLY 5 are active 0 Only one of 13 physical activity and fitness objectives proposed in the federal government 5 Healthy People 2000 document was actually met Your Perspective 3 Why do you exercise or play sport What prevents you from exercising or playing sport How can you take your own personal reasons for exercisingsport and help motivate someone else Exercise Specific 0 Improved physiological 0 Convenienceavailability healthphysical fitness Environmentalecological Enhanced physical factors appearance 0 Physical limitations Improved Lack of time EXCUSEll psychologicalemotional Boredomlack of health enjoyment Improved social relations Exercise and Sport Psychology Applies t8 Whom Seniors Persons who are physically and Children mentally challenged Coaches teachers and fitness Exercrsers leaders Elite athletes Therapists Average athletes Busmesses What Exercise amp Sport Psychology Speciagd39sts Do 1 lt o x w 5 gt m Ww w WW Research 7 Consulting 2011 Human Kinetics Three Roles 0 Research Teaching Consulting ExerciseSport Psychology Specialties Clinical exercisesport psychologists licensed trained to work with individuals with severe disorders diet disorders anxiety substance abusedependence ADD homesickness LSU has 1 Educational exercisesport psychology specialists trained to understand sport performance and try to help people through struggles with performance slumps due to mental reasonssuperstitions LSU has them as a needbe basis One of the fastest growing jobs in the professional league mental coaches Ex Golf amp tennis The History of Exercise amp Sport Psyclbology Is exercise and sport psychology a relatively new field or does it have a long history Dates back to 18005 First done by coaches halftime talk better 2ncl half teams What time periods existed in the history of sport and exercise psychology Who was Coleman Griffith Grandfather of this field Put data together to suggest things were happening with performance What are some of the characteristics of Science of Exercise and Sport6svchologv Science A process or method of learning about the world through the systematic controlled empirical and critical filtering of knowledge acquired through experience Scientific Study 3 Theory A set of interrelated facts presenting a systematic view of some phenomenon in order to describe explain and predict its future occurrences Example Social facilitation theory Studies Versus Experiments 3 Study The investigator observes or assesses without changing the environment in any way Experiment The investigator manipulates variables while observing them then examines how changes in one or more variables affect changes in others Note The advantage of an experiment is that researchers are better able to determine causal or causeandeffect relationships Design a Study or Experiment 3 Identify a topic for an investigation 0 What question do you want to answer 0 What are the major factorsvariables whose relationship you want to examine 0 Who will you study or who will the participants be 0 How will you collect the data Understanding Professional Pra ctice Knowledge Professional practice knowledge is what we learn through experience using many methods of knowing Scientific method Systematic observation Single case study Shared public experience lntrospection Intuition Scientific vs Professional Practice Knowledge Scientifi DeCrDived Knowlede W 177 NHL l 7 39 CDC L 2 A L L 71 39 lllquot rjaitill Li H illxilyl xi ll i Highly reliable Reductionistic or conservative often Systematic and slow to evolve controlled Lack of focus on external validity Objective and PracticalitY unbiased Professonal Practice Knowledge 17 L 5 f 2 7 my C I in LU AL E V 7 if rr gt new will i in l l i l J Law l l5 Holistic Less reliable Innovative Lack of explanations Immediate Greater suscetibilit to bias Class Activity Homework 0 Interview a sport and exercise science physical activity professional and ask the following questions How prominently are mental factors involved in your work with physical activity participants What psychological objectives do you have for those with whom you work eg increased selfesteem How do you motivate those with whom you work What are the major psychological problems you encounter in working with physical activity participants Exercise and Sport Psychology As an Art and a 6cience 0 The science of coaching teaching or leadership focuses on using general scientific principles 0 The art of coaching teaching or leadership is knowing when and how to individualize these general principles Contextual intelligence is critical Four Approaches to Exercise and Sport gsychology Psychophysiological orientation Socialpsychological orientation Biopsychosocial orientation Cognitivebehavioral orientation Examples 3 Example How a leader s style and strategies foster group cohesion Example Biofeedback to trained marksmen Example Studying differences in confidence anxiety among tennis players with or without burnout The Present and Future of Exercise and Sportgsvchologv 1 More people are interested in acquiring training in psychological skills and applied work 2 There is greater emphasis on counseling and clinical training for exercise and sport psychologists 3 Ethics and competence issues are receiving greater emphasis 4 Specialization and new subspecialties are developing continued The Present and Future of Sport and Exercise PsycBology continued 5 Tension continues to exist between practitioners of academic and applied exercisesport psychology 6 Qualitative research methods are receiving more attention 7 Applied sport psychologists have more work opportunities than ever but only limited chances for fulltime positions 8 ExerciseSport psychology is gaining increased acceptance and recognition of its usefulness 9 The positive psychology movement in general psychology helps sport and exercise psychology expand into new areas Chapter Review 0 What is sport and exercise psychology 0 Why study it 0 What do sport and exercise psychologists do Whom do exercise and sport psychologists work with 0 Can any exercise and sport psychologist treat someone with an eating disorder 0 What does the future of sport and exercise psychology have in store Personality and Exercise amp Sport Outline What Is Personality What Makes Up Personality 0 Approaches to Understanding Personality Measuring Personality 0 Dos and Don ts in Personality Testing 0 Other Personality Factors 0 Your Role in Understanding Personality 0 RecommendationsCognitive Strategies for Success Personality Defined Underlying relatively stable psychological structures and processes that organize human experience and shape a person s actions and reactions to the environment SOCIaI EnVIronment t a S 3 0 Rolerelated behaviors Typical responses e 3 IS s 5 lt5 Psychological core Adapted by permission from R Martens 1975 Social psychology and physical activity New York Harper 8 Row 146 Copyright 1975 by Rainer Martens Examples of 3 Levels of Personality Example Behavior as a student parent or friend Example A person s religious values Example Being happygolucky shy Class Exercise Take a look at yourself 0 0 How do you act in different social situations The kinds of roles you play 0 What ways do you typically respond in different situations Meetings games when learning a skillcontent 0 What are you most basic and deepest attitudes Things you believe value interests motives Approaches to Understanding of Pers onaity DispositionaItrait Biologicaltheories Psychodynamic theory Trait theories Learningsituational Interactional Phenomenological theories Biological Theories 0 Ancient Greek f pl theory of K J humors l l Eclomorph Endomorph Mesamurph l 0 Constitutiona l l Linearity Plumpness M Inverted triangle Tallness Famess l Athletic body t h e O el do n Leanness Roundness J 1 2 PERSONALer WPE Cerebrotonia l soeratonia Somalotonia IndIVIduals Characrenstms p O S S e S S C e a n Tense A ecllonate Adventurous lntrovened Sociable Risktaking S O m a t p e S Socially restrained Relaxed Dominant inhibited Jovial Aggressive Commanding Psychodynamic Theory o Behavior is determined by several unconscious constantly changing factors that often conflict with one another Current impact Weakness Contribution Trait Theories Thoughts feelings behgvior determined by relatively stable traits that are fundamental units of personality Current impact Weakness Contribution Three related theories 1 Eysenck s personality theory 2 Cattell s personality theory 3 Fivefactor model FFM39 Costal McCrael Johnl


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