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by: Earnest Greenholt


Earnest Greenholt
GPA 3.94

E. Engemann

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E. Engemann
Class Notes
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This 35 page Class Notes was uploaded by Earnest Greenholt on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to KIN 3801 at Louisiana State University taught by E. Engemann in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see /class/222616/kin-3801-louisiana-state-university in Kinesiology at Louisiana State University.




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Date Created: 10/13/15
TEST ONE REVIEW CHAPTER 1 O All activities designed to meet the needs and wants of sport consumers through exchange processes through two major thrusts O 0 Marketing of sport products and services directly to consumers of sport Marketing of other consumer and industrial products or services through the use of sport promotions O 0 Marketing Myopia lack of focus on satisfying needs and wants Lack of Market Research better understanding of sport consumers needs and wants Poor Sales Training and Technigues poor execution geared toward closing not relationships O O O O O O Alack of focus on satisfying needs and wants Alack of foresight in marketing ventures A focus on producing and selling goods and services rather than identifying and satisfying the needs and wants of consumers and their markets The belief that winning absolves all other sins Confusion between promotions and marketing promotion including advertising and special events is only one part of the marketing strategy Ignorance of competition inside and outside of sport A shortsighted focus on quickreturn price hikes or investments like sponsorships rather than longterm investments in research and in relationship marketing O O The Sport Product I Playful competition typically in some game form I A separation from quotnormalquot space and time Regulation by special rules Physical prowess and physical training Special facilities and special equipment Unigueness I An intangible ephemeral experimental and subjective nature O O O 0 Sports are expressions of our humanity o What each consumer sees is subjective and every instance experienced is different from person to person Strong personal and emotional identi cation 0 Having a strong passion for a team u n 0 Seeing your team as quotus we u n u our Simultaneous production and consumption Dependence on social facilitation o Enjoyment of sport is almost always an interaction with other fans a social event Inconsistency and unpredictability o The same game can be played over and over but will still have a different outcome every time Coreproduct control beyond marketer s hands 0 Sport marketers have little control over the game itself CoreBenefits Health participation Entertainment Sociability Achievement Sport organizations simultaneously compete and cooperate Product salience and strong personal iden ti cation lead many sport consumers to consider themselves experts Dem and tends to uctuate widely Sport has an almost universal appeal and pervades all elements oflife Eating and drinking SeX Religion Politics 0 It s di icult to price the individual sport product unit by traditionaljob costing I Pricing the sport product is often based on the marketer s sense of consumer demand which is unpredictable O The price ofthe sport product itselfis invariably quite small in comparison to the total cost paid by consumers 0 Indirect revenues are frequen tIy greater than direct operating revenues I Media sponsor revenue I TV and marketing rights fees 0 Pros and Cons ofwidespread media exposure I Benefits quotFreequot exposure in place ofpaid impressions I Drawbacks Leads to expectations and disconnect with fans 0 Media and sponsors tend to emphasize celebrity I Difficulty in managing organization identity when player egos are very problematic CHAPTER TWO o Visualize and position the organization in relation to the market 0 Clarify your goals and objectives 0 Develop a marketing plan 0 Integrate the marketing plan into broader strategic allocation resources that ensure success 0 Control and evaluate the plan s implementation O Visualize and position the organization in relation to the market 0 Core vision and ideology any strategic plan must operate within the organization s core values 0 Conducting a SWOT Analysis I Used to completely understand the business and industry I A snapshot ofwhere the organization stands today where you want to go and how to get there Must be honest and open about all components O O S amp W Observations Internal assessments of the organization I Some strengths and weaknesses are more important to success I Not all strengths are equally as strong and not all weaknesses are equally as weak 0 amp T Observations External assessments of the organization I Some opportunities might be more attractive than others and some threats might be more severe than others I An organization s current strategy might not be equally effective in responding to opportunities and threats Clarify your goals and objectives The development and reassessment of goals and objectives should be ongoing through constant analysis quantifiable numbers Environment Organizational Mission and Core Competencies what you do best Clarifying goals and objectives is what sets the quotmanagerquot apart from the quotcaretakerquot Develop a marketing plan Market segmentation and determining key targets I Demographic info I Geographic info I Psychographic info I Product usage rate I Product benefits I quotNichequot markets andor groups Market using the quot Concebt Product and nncitinnina Strategic Opportunism The Five P s in the sport marketing mix The escalator is a graphic representation of consumer movement to higher levels of involvement in a sport Gradually moving consumers up the ladder of consumption 0 Concept suggests investing more in nurturing existing consumers than they should in trying to create new ones 0 Effectiveness means it works Effectiveness means it was cheap 0 Key to moving people up the escalator is with great customer service 0 Product 0 m 0 Promotion 0 m 0 Public Relations o Integrate the marketing plan into a broader strategic allocation of resources that ensure success 0 It has to fit in with the rest of the organization 0 Must secure that senior executives support the plan 0 Analysis evaluation and control should be everyday events 0 f 39 f 39 Product Benefits Costs CHAPTER 3 0 Who are my past present and future customers in terms of demo amppsycho graphics 0 Where do my customers live 0 How have my customers been exposed to my product and advertising 0 How and why did they become involved with my product 0 Why have they been committed to my product o Irregular Narrow Studies I Often commissioned by a team league or sponsor and focus on 0 Consumer demographics 0 Media or product consumption 0 Consumer attitudes I Often proprietary and unpublished 0 Distributed either to inform constituents o Attract andor retain sponsors I Economic Impact Studies 0 Another type ofirregular study 0 Usually linked to the promotion of a facility or an event in part to justify public support 0 Irregular Broad Studies I Corporations with sport interests have occasionally funded such research I Typically national populations I They require significant investments of time and money 0 Regular Narrow Studies I Structured to identify emerging trends in the everchanging environment 0 An effective marketing information system must include regular consistent studies with questions that allow for trend analysis I Largescale trends can be found in the surveys and reports of organizations which publish annual statistics on participation NCAAI IEGI Ad TrackI Sponsors Report 0 Regular Broad Studies I Use a national probability sample that measures participation and purchasing habits of sport consumers and assists in trend analysis I Longterm lifestyle trends with large national samples 0 Proprietary reports are often disseminated only to clients and can be costly offer comparisons ofdemographics and lifestyles 0 From one marketsubsample to another 0 From any market to the national sample CHAPTER 4 o The process by which individuals assimilate and develop the skills knowledge attitudes and other quotequipmentquot necessary to perform various social roles o Involves twoway interaction between the individual and the environment 0 Three types ofinvolvement O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O Behavioral the handson doing playing being a fan at a game rooting watching a game Cognitive acquisition ofinformation and knowledge about a sport Affective attitudes feelings and emotions that a consumer has about an activity The frequency duration and intensity ofinvolvement in a sport or the willingness to expend money time and energy in a pattern of sport involvement Committed player fan or member thinks more feels more and does more Significant others Social and cultural norms Social class structure m Gender and sexuality Climate and geographic conditions Technology Market behavior of firms in the sport industry Sport opportunity structure Selfconcept Stage in the life or family cycle Physical characteristics Learning Perception Motivations Attitudes Complex process of consumer decision making The process by which a person scansI gathersI assessesI and interprets information in the environment I Depends on the characteristics of the person situation or thing perceived stimulus factors and the characteristics of the perceiver individual factors Achievement and selfesteem 0 Craft 0 Health and fitness 0 Fun and festival 0 o Eros o Affiliation or community 0 Emotional rush risk 0 Entertainment and escape u o A person s enduring favorable or unfavorable cognitive evaluationsI emotional feelingsI and action tendencies toward some object or idea a 0 Fans attitudes toward teams 39 their nermntinnc of 39 in pro football games m Jr 1 Need recognition 2 Awareness or information search 3 Evaluation of choices product family classI lineI type and brand 4 Purchase decision 5 Experience 6 Evaluation 7 Postevaluation behavior Satisfaction Repetition Dissatisfaction Drop 0ut CHAPTER 5 L 0 Complete integration of all customer data detailing every interaction and communication 0 Allows facilitation of contact with current past and potential customers 0 Makes initiation of targeted communication possible based on an understanding of the consumer s history with the organization 39 mgw O svstem that cantnres eccential demogranhic anhic and Acomu Droduct usage information on s for the purpose of 39 39 direct marketing strategies Characteristics of an effective DBM system I Centralized I Retrievable I Integrated 39 to mnlfihle users demogranhic CRM on the basic nullll and product usage data captured in a DBM system CRM cantures ALL interactions inauiries and interactions and the organization DBM and CRM systems have to be fully integrated into the entire marking program of the sport organization O O O 0 Identifying and using data sources Coding the data Collecting contact information Using customer or fan loyalty programs Updating and quotcleaningquot the data Creating online and of ine direct marketing campaigns O O O O O O O O O O O 0 Buy or use a ticket Watch game telecasts Listen to games on the radio Buy apparel video games and publications Visit league or team websites Complete and allstar ballot Coach or play the sport at a youth or adult league level Buy from a league or team partner Play in fantasy leagues Participate in fan loyalty program Participate in a league or team promotion Enter to win an online sweepstakes 0 Enter to win a contest at a community event Individuals 0 0 Corporate account holders Shareholders O 0 Groups 0 Members of fan loyalty programs o What does the organization want to know What is the best way to find out How can they use it 0 O 0 Data Types I General Market Data the extent of the market area I Customer Data names addresses phone numbers of all consumers I Competitor Data price lists product lines promotional strategies services 0 Data Sources I Internal Source data found in daytoday ops needed for principal decisions Sales records Inquiries Letters or phone calls or praise or complaint 0 Website registrations I External Primary Source info the organization originated internal external I External Secondary Source info the organization got from external sources 0 Census reports 0 State or local agencies 0 Chambers of Commerce 0 Research services I How You Collect Primary Data Personal observation Focus groups Surveys and questionnaires Video and personal interviews 0 Panel of experts 0 Open letter 0 Integration O m of the market population businesses residential 0 Demographics of individuals residing or working in critical trading radius age race gender income distribution 0 Purchase behaviors and consumption patterns of those residing working within market 0 Level of spectatorshipparticipation in a sport broken down by demographic categories 0 Data on future trends as predicted by all the above o NamesI addressesI emailsI and phone number s of consumers 0 Frequency ofpurchaseattendance use of product type quantity of purchases dates of purchases or attendance patterns of consumption 0 Method of payment location where product was purchased and lead time I cash vs check vs credit vs financing 0 Media used or source of awareness direction of future promotionaladvertising efforts 0 But competitors are seeking the same information about YOU CHAPTER SIX 0 Process of dividing a large heterogeneous marking into more homogeneous groups of people who have similar wants needs or demographic profiles to whom a product may be targeted 0 Purpose of Segmenting I Specialize I Focus on the most likely to buy I Meet wants and needs without exhausting resources I Provide product price promotion place and public relations in the right way 0 Four Bases of Segmentation I State ofBeing Demographics Where a person lives Income Age gender sexual orientation race ethnicity Family status Number of children Profession I State ofMind Psychographics Values and Lifestyle Typology VALSI it assumes that attitudesI desires needs and other 39 quot govern dailv o Innovators o Thinkers o Achievers 0 Exp eriencers o Believers o Strivers o Makers 0 Survivors I Product Benefits What does the customer want from the experience or pro duct 0 Socialization 0 High performance 0 Affordability o Excitement 0 Entertainment 0 Affiliation 0 Recognition I Product Usage 80 20 Rule 80 of business comes from 20 of the customers Repeat business is the key to success Escalator concept applies to usage 0 Increase in sales volume likely to be generated by existing users Kin 3801 Test 2 Chapter 710 Chapter 7 Product extensions Game forms Star power Equipment Venue Personnel Sport product strategies Product life cycle Speculations Chapter 8 Brand Brand Equity Benefits of brand equity Developing brand equity Sources of brand associations Brand association for sponsors Chapter 9 Licensing vs branding Licensed products CLC LSU Collegiate Licensing Corporation Rebranding Cross licensing Chapter 10 Price Value Fan cost index group of things to add together to compare franchises Linking price with value 6 standard approaches to pricing Break even analysis Break even units FCSP VC Break even selling price TCFCVC Pricing strategies Market demand Smoothingvariable pricing The escalator KIN 3801 Final Exam Notes Chapter 12 o Roles of sponsors fans media in relation to sports organization 0 Media I Provides coverage according to the interest ofthe fans I Influenced by the credibility afforded the sport or organization by its sponsors 0 Sponsors I Provide financial support for the sport organization based on fan support I More Fans More Impressions and interaction 0 Fans I Used to attract sponsors I Level of interest and support influences media contracts and coverage 0 Definitions of sales 0 The revenue producing element ofthe marketing process The process of moving goods and services from production to those who will benefit from their consumption Involves the application of persuasive skills May be supported by media messages designed to promote the product or brand In some cases consumers may sample or experience the service or product 0 Customer sales factors 0 Quality 0 Quantity 0 Time 0 Cost 0 Characteristics of good salespeople o Belief in the product 0 Belief in yourself 0 Seeing a lot of people sales call volume 0 Timing 0 Listening to the customer interpreting o Asense of humor 0 Knocking on old doors 0 Asking everyone to buy 0 Exercises good follow up after the sale 0 Common sense o Recognize types of inventory 0 0000000 Naming Rights Electronic Media Signage Stadium Media Print Media Tickets amp Hospitality Promotions Premiums Community Programs Misc 0 3 most used types of selling 0 O O Telemarketing Direct mail Personal selling 0 Direct marketing process and changes with advent of social media and Google 0 O O 0 Multiple advertising media Collection of consumer information Database segmentation Lead generation 0 Why Telemarketing O O O O 0 Cost savings More efficient than direct sales force I Outside salespeople spend less than 50 time selling Two dimensional I Inbound and Outbound sales Sales support Database construction 0 Characteristics of direct mail 0 O O O 0 Direct mail is targeted It is personal It is measurable It is testable It is flexible 0 Development of direct mail pieces 0 O Differentiating the product to be offered from other products offered Offering options or variations ofthe product to fit the price considerations and abilities of the marketplace Providing an attractive range of benefits or exclusivity Reasons for personal selling 0 O 0 Chapter 13 Define sponsorshipconceptactivity why do sponsors choose sponsorship 0 00000 O OO 0 Integration of data based marketing Relationship marketing Benefit selling Sponsorship The acquisition of rights to affiliate or directly associate with a product or event for the purpose of deriving benefits related to that affiliation or association The rights derived from this relationship may include retail opportunities purchase of media time entitlement hospitality ConceptA cash or inkind fee paid by a client to a property in return for access to the commercial potential associated with the property A win win situation where the client and the property both benefit It is a partnership where both should see economic benefits Activity Sponsorship is geared towards engaging the customer in some type of activity again preferably economic Sponsorship is a form of promotion but it also heavily dependent on promotion in and of itself Without this the sponsorship and related calls to action have no impact on the consumer and thus the economic activities will suffer Sponsorship also offers RIGHTS to certain marketing capabilities not available through traditional advertising alone Reasons for growth in sponsorship O O O O O Decreased effectiveness of advertising in print and on TV Increased interest in sport and leisure time Opportunity for two way communication Changing social priorities Statement of priorities by sponsor and consumer High consumer acceptance quotlife styled marketing What is lifestyle marketing What is the concept of sponsor exclusivity 0 Lifestyle marketing vs Sponsorship Approaching consumers in a place time in a non threatening manner where the consumer is relaxed and more receptive to listening to a particular message o Exclusivity in sponsorship is the right to competition free advertising and promotion It allows for a focused message without the considerations of filtering paragraph 0 Sponsor objectives 0 To increase public awareness of the company the product or both To alter or reinforce public perception of the company To identify the company with the particular market segments To involve the company in the community To build goodwill among decision makers To generate media benefits To achieve sales objectives To showcase unique product features technologies or advantages To create an 39 a over quot through or exclusivity To gain unique opportunities in terms of hospitality and entertainment To secure entitlement or naming rights 0000000000 0 Define affinity and ambush marketing 0 Affinity Affinity marketing works because when a company can directly associate with a team or organization consumers are more likely to be interested because ofthe additional benefits of association that they receive The sponsorship then becomes a way for consumers to identify themselves with the organization directly for PERSONAL benefit through potential economic activity 0 AmbushingSponsorship provides DIRECT benefits to partner companies However it cannot guarantee exclusivity through traditional advertising and marketing channels This opens the door for competitors to coattail on a sponsor s message by using related imagery wording etc designed to dilute the sponsor s intended message as well as gain benefits indirectly without incurring the cost Marketers HATE this but Consumers typically cannot tell the difference and usually have difficulty with recall when the messages are similar or unclear o 0 Steps in PARTNERSHIP SELL 0 Ensure you are meeting with the decision maker 0 The 80 Rule Listen 80 of the time and gather valuable information 0 Arrange a followup meeting 0 Deliver your proposal as a partner not a salesperson 0 Allow for modifications to the proposal to address any changes 0 Shoot to close ONLY when there are no more objections or obstacles 0 Co op sponsors examples Advantages o The joining together of two or more entities to capitalize on a sponsorship promotional opportunity OOOOO Chapter 14 Shared costs Multiple or complementary product lines Existing business relationships Leverage large amp small partners quotPass through Rights St Jude Children s Hospital amp NASCAR Bank of America amp Visa both as Olympic sponsors 0 Define place and recognize elements of distribution 0 PLACE involves the marketplace where consumers access evaluate and obtain goods and services The live event itself Tickets to the live event Concessions The image of the live event via media Players and coaches via personal appearances Merchandise and memorabilia 0 Growth strategies examples Schedule competitions in new markets Reach out and touch somebody Support the growth of grassroots activity Recognize and respect national regional and local culture 0 O O 0 Expanding distribution through channels that may not have the SAME access today that others do Pre season games in Europe Japan Mexico Baseball leagues in Florida and Arizona Traveling showcases that bring sports to new communities Xgames Street Hockey Player appearances are a bit ofa mixed blessing They say quotNever meet your heroes This can be good or bad depending on the particular athlete People are mobile But they carry their sport passions with them Hockey from Michigan to the south Football and tailgating are now nationally ubiquitous Fans bring awareness of their teams and do public things to support them adopt a road alumni clubs etc But people start leagues for non existent sports clubs for like minded fans and in essence quotCreate the Market when one doesn t otherwise exist Access issues may play a dominant role in new efforts ice skate parks skiing other specialized location needs Cultural Relativism what is popular in one culture may not be in another 0 Effective distribution 0 Providing the product the customer wants 0 Where they want it 0 When they want it o How they want it 0 Factors in new stadium or venue construction 0 External accessibility I Location Location Location I Psychological and actual time 0 Trade Area or quotDrawing radiusquot I Demographics I Duration and frequency of the event I Emotional commitment I Perception of quality 0 Parking I 1 spotfor 33 people 0 Surrounding area I Design I Politics I Sense of safety 0 0 Elements of Marketing Channels tv 0 Manufacturers M o Wholesalers W o Jobbers J o Retailers R gt How does a sport product marketing channel differ from traditional business I o Considerations for new product distribution 0 Expertise 0 Cost 0 Control 0 Adaptability Chapter 16 0 Public Relations methodsfunctions The ultimate goal for the public relations department is to cultivate a positive image of the company by proactively seeking and accommodating favorable opportunities in the press through these mean Planning campaigns Facilitating interviews Disseminating press releases Compiling statistical information and other helpful promotion information Holding press conferences Functions Provide information and general communication to consumers shareholders suppliers competitors government agencies and the general public Inform and communicate Shape and enhance image Promote employee relations Gain political or popular support Recruit and develop business Launch new products or innovations Generate and collect feedback Cope with crisis PR Formula 0 Public relations Media relations Community relations Difference between PRCommunity RelationsMedia Relations 0 refer to the relationship that a company or organization develops with general public 0 Community relations refer to the various methods companies use to establish and maintain a mutually beneficial relationship with the communities in which they operate 0 refer to the relationship that a company or organization develops with journalists Forms of Media Relations formulate and shape favorable image via mass media 0 Reactive Responds to inquiries o Proactive The point of initiation is the organization rather than some external entity 0 Interactive Develops mutually beneficial relationships with the media and assists the media on a variety of issues FormsTypes of Community Relations 0 1 Those initiated by players 0 2 Those initiated by teams or institutions 0 3 Those initiated by leagues or governing bodies Chapter 17 0 Examples 1 The Tennessee Titans are hosting a free draft party at their practice facility 2 The Milwaukee Bucks are including free parking for all club seat season ticket holders for 2012 2013 3 LSU Athletics is hosting a press conference to announce hiring of new basketball coach PRICE PRICE PRODUCT PRODUCT PLACE PLACE PROMOTION 2 PROMOTION PUBLIC 3 1 PUBLIC RELATIONS RELA TIONS Test One Review Cha pter 1 What is Sports Marketing pg1l o All activities are designed to meet the wants and needs of sport consumers through an exchange process Two thrusts of Sports Marketing pg 11 o The marketing g sport products to the sport consumer o The marketing of sport and nonsport products THROUGH sport Marketing Myopia 0 Lack of focus on satisfying needs amp wants I A lack of foresight in marketing ventures I A focus on producing and selling goods and services 0 Selling is a critical component of marketing but is not the endall I The belief that winning absolves all other sins Confusion between promotions and marketing 0 Promotions are only part of the marketing strategies I Ignorance of competition inside and outside of sport I A shortsighted focus on quickreturn price hikes or investments such as sponsorships Poor Sales Techniques Promotions vs Marketing 0 Promotions are just one part of the marketing mix Ignorance of Competition 0 Marketers need to be aware of other things in their target area which can take business and consumers away from their product 0 Marketers can use outside outlets to promote and market their product Uniqueness of Sports 0 The Sport Product I Playful competition typically in some game form I A separation from quotnormalquot space and time I Regulation by special rules I Physical prowess and physical training I Special facilities and special equipment 0 An intangible ephemeral experiential and subjective nature I Every instance is experienced differently by everyone I Cannot recreate or see the same thing twice I Every gamematchcompetition is unique 0 Personal and Emotional Identification I Becoming personally involved with sports 0 Social Facilitation I Sports are a social venue for most 0 Few exceptions long distance running 0 People want to be seen and socialize Chapter 2 Marketing Management Plan 1 Visualize and Analyze selfand market Clarify goals and objectives Develop a marketing plan PP Integrate Marketing Plan into broader strategic allocation of resources to insure success 5 Control and Evaluate the plan s implementation SWOT analysis 0 What it means I Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities and Threats 0 Why we do them I To completely understand the business and industry I Helps to determine where you want your business to go and how to get there Escalator concept 0 Figuring out how to gradually move consumers up the ladder of consumption 0 Should invest more in nurturing existing consumers rather than trying to gain new consumers 5 P s 0 Product development and positioning 0 Place or product distribution 0 Price 0 Promotion personal selling advertising special events 0 Public Relation Customer Service Equation 0 Consumer Satisfaction Product Benefits Costs Pg 46 Chapter 3 Types and kinds of Studies 0 Irregular I Narrow Studies 0 Often commissioned by teams leagues or sponsors 0 Focus on consumer demographics media or product consumption and sometimes consumer attitudes 0 Mostly remain unpublished I Broad Studies 0 Require significant investments of time and money 0 Corporations with sports interest have occasionally funded such research 0 Regular I Narrow Studies 0 Structured to identify emerging trends in the everchanging environment 0 An effective marketing information system must include regular consistent studies with questions that allow for trend analysis 0 Largescale trends can be found in the surveys and reports of organizations which publish annual statistics on participation I Broad Studies 0 These studies use a national probability sample that measures participation and purchasing habits of sport consumers and assists in trend analysis 0 Longterm lifestyle trends with large national samples 0 Proprietary reports are often disseminated only to clients and can be very costly Participation Index 0 Offer comparisons from one market to another I From any market to the national sample 0 Compares the demographic or lifestyle of a subsample that that of a national sample Economic Impact Surveys 0 Discretionary Dollars being spent I The theory that people have a certain amount of disposable income and marketers are competing to have those dollars spend on their products over the next competitor Ex New Orleans Hornets if they were to leave the city the discretionary money would be spent elsewhere in the city rather than on the team The money is going to be spent but on what Chapter 4 Socialization in Sport 0 The process by which individuals assimilate and develop the skills knowledge attitudes and other quotequipmentquot necessary to perform various social roles This involves twoway interaction between the individual and the environment Involvement in Sport 0 Behavioral I The quotdoingquot of a sport 0 Cognitive I Gaining knowledge or information about sports 0 Affective I Attitudes feelings and emotions that a consumer has about an activity Commitment 0 The frequency duration and intensity of involvement in a sport or the willingness to expend money time and energy in a pattern of sport involvement Environmental Factors of Being Involved in Sport 0 External elements I Family I Friends I Location 0 Individual Factors I Selfconcept I Selfesteem I Stage in life 0 Age 0 Family life I Learning and Developing skills I Perception I Motivations Decision Making Model 0 Recognition of a need 0 Awareness or information search 0 Evaluation of choices I Product family class line type and brand Purchase decision Experience Evaluation PostEvaluation behavior I Satisfaction Repetition I Dissatisfaction Drop out 0000 Chapter 5 DataBased Management Systems DBM o A comprehensive system that captures essential demographic psychographic and product usage information on customers potential customers for the purpose of enabling direct marketing strategies 0 Characteristics of an effective DBM system I Centralized I Retrievable I Integrated accessible to multiple users Customer Relations Management Systems CRM 0 CRM expands on the basic customer demographic psychographic and product usage data captured in a DBM system 0 Captures ALL transactions inquiries and interactions between the customer and the organization Centralizing the data company wide 0 Making the information gathered from DBMs and CRMs accessible to everyone in the company Market Research 0 General Market Data I Size of the market I Demographics of the market I Predicting Market Potential I Purchase behavior I Level of participation and spectatorship 2 types of Data Sources 0 Internal I Consumers that we already have 0 Know everything there is to know about the consumers 0 External I Current nonconsumers I Primary 0 Personal Observation 0 Focus Groups 0 Mystery Fans 0 Surveys and Questionnaires I Secondary 0 Census Reports 0 Chamber of Commerce Chapter 6 Market Segmentation o The process of dividing a large heterogeneous market into more homogeneous groups of people who have similar wants needs or demographic profiles to whom a product may be targeted Segment Identification 4 Bases 0 State of Being I Income I Age I Family Status I Gender I Race I Sexual Orientation 0 State of Mind 0 Product Benefits 0 Product Usage Values and Lifestyle VALS o Innovators Thinkers Achievers Experiencers Believers Strivers Makers 0 Survivors O O O O O O Benefits 0 What does the customer want from the experience or product I Socialization I High Performance I Affordability I Excitement I Entertainment I Affiliation I Entertainment I Recognition Product Usage 0 80 of business comes from 20 of the customers I Repeat business is the key to success Use of Database in Segmenting O 0000 1 State of Being 2 State of Mind 3 Usage 4 Benefits 5 Manipulated to specify approach to different segments 6 General Letter vs Invitation to Personal Sale Test Two Review Chapter 7 The Sport Product Any bundle or combination of qualities processes and capabilities that a buyer expects will satisfy wants and needs 0 It is inconsistent and the sport marketer has little control over it Four Core Elements 0 Game Form 0 Players 0 Equipment and Apparel 0 Venue Product Extensions The Sta r Equ Ideas and concepts used to enhance the experience 0 Coaches tickets luxury boxes programs video screens music memorabilia mascots Game Form Rules and Techniques Special features that may make a sport product especially attractive to certain consumers o Aggressive play of hockey and football Skill and precision of golfand tennis Individual moves 0 Dunks passes catches saves etc Uniquequotnever before seenquot 0 0 Power A presence that transcends the actual playing Star talent or its absence can make or break entire leagues ipment Needed to compete Tangible Enhances the experience Demonstrates affiliation Separates players from nonplayers ue The place for product distribution Teams and franchises are closely aligned with their venues Memories and communities are created Provide significant revenue streams during and outside of game days Personnel llAll sports are lcontact sportsquot Charles Martin Guestcentered philosophy o Emphasize common courtesy 0 Make c t u 39 with beyond what they normally expect 0 Be proactive 0 Increase complaints 0 Develop a theme and a constant lethos of service that cascade through the venue o Incorporate personnel procedures and training into company policy Tickets Print and Electronic Materials Tickets are used both as a promotional tool and as a source of revenue Personal Seat Licenses ProgramsMagazinesNewsletters Websites Video games Season or highlight DVDs Sport Product Strategy 1 Sport Differentiation 3 Ensuring the product is conceived packaged and positioned in a way that resonates in the minds of the consumers b Consider and I c Make the product distinct in the customer s mind d Only limited by the marketer s imagination e Achieve an advantage that satisfies a customer s needs and wants in a way that competitors cannot f Achievingdifferentiation i Quality ii Innovation iii Customer Service 2 Product Development a Comprehensive llbundle of benefits b Continuous process of deleting revising and adding c Two Steps i Generation of Ideas ii Screening and Implementation of ideas d Product Innovations Relative advantage of the new vs old Complexity or difficulty in adoptionuse iquot Compatibility with consumer values iv Divisibility into smaller trial portions v Communicability of benefits 3 Product Positioning a How customers locate brands in the market b Defines the market that will be targeted c It assists the sport marketer in understanding how customers see their market d Given this information the marketer can maintain position or reposition the product Product Life Cycle 1 Introduction 2 Growth 3 Maturity 4 Decline Game forms that enjoy any kind of maturity seem resistant to decline Teams and franchises have much more volatile and unpredictable cycles than those of their overall sports Equipment cycles blend stable trends in game forms with wide fluctuations in fashion Chapter 8 Brands The name logo and symbols associated with the sports organization Serves as a point of differentiation from the other sports products in the marketplace Developing brand identity is the starting point of the brand management process Brand Equity A set of assets and liabilities linked to a brand its name and symbol that add or subtract from the value provided by a product or service to a firm andor that firm s customers Benefit of Brand Equity High 0 Less drastic revenue declines when the team loses 0 Ability to charge price premiums 0 More corporate interest 0 Licensing and Merchandising opportunities Developing Brand Equity The creation of awareness about the brand 0 The ability of a consumer to name the brand s existence when its product category is mentioned The creation ofa brand image 0 The cumulative impact of all the associations with a particular brand 0 Goal is to develop unique strong and favorable brand associations Sources of Brand Association Logos marks nicknames mascots Owners Players Head coaches Rivalries Stadiumsarenas Brand Association for Sponsors One sponsorship motivation for companies is to enhance or reinforce the brand associations with their company Image of a sport entity can help create favorable associations for the sport brand Brand Associations for Athletes Professional athletes can make money from corporate endorsements Athletes can create positive or negative associations on and off the courtfield Chapter 9 Licensing Products of items of clothing bearing the name or logo of a collegiate or professional sports team or entity Branding Products bearing the name of the manufacturer most significantly apparel Licensed Products NFL is the world s 7 h largest brand in terms of licensing Licensed and branded apparel draws consumers closer to their beloved organizations and athletes We don t NEED We WANT Licensees Manufacturers of licensed products 0 Sport apparelfootwear companies 0 Video and computer game manufacturers Licensors Teams and leagues who collect fees for the right to manufacture products bearing sport entity representations 0 LSU NCAA NFL Current Issues and Trends Rebranding 0 Changing to communicate different message Cross Licensing 0 Relationship between two licensors that benefit both Chapter 10 Price The exchange value of a good or service and the value of an item in the marketplace Most manipulated part of the marketing mix 0 Easily changed to address changes Effective tool when carefully considered Highly visible to the public Consumer sensitivity OOO Value SatisfactionBenefitCost Fan Cost Index 0 All of the items across the board added together to find the true cost of attending an event I Not just the price of the ticket Consumer Perception Linking Price with Value 0 Quality I Including a sense of rivalry competitiveness star power 0 Convenience I Proximity to venue and parking 0 Aesthetics 0 Cleanliness Comfort Security 0 Availability I Tee times good seats 0 Durability I Apparel Standard Approaches to Pricing 1 Competitor Pricing Brand Strength Event Frequency Production Cost Organization Objectives Market Conditions P P PS JN Break Even Analysis Fixed Cost overhead 0 Stadium Rentals 0 Taxes 0 Office Equipment Variable Cost 0 Wages 0 Material Costs 0 Concession Stands BreakEven PointFCselling priceVC Pricing Strategies Cost Plus Pricing 0 Cost Desired Profit Price Capitation Pricing 0 Price per head Special Pricing Factors Market Demand 0 Elasticity of Demand Smoothing and Variable Pricing Communicating Price 0 Clear image of the venue 0 Ticket locations 0 Pricing by section 0 Directions The Escalator At some point ticket prices athlete salaries and the elements of the Fan Cost Index keep individuals and families from attending events


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All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.