COMNONCOM DISEASES KIN 3608
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Zelda McCullough on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to KIN 3608 at Louisiana State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see /class/222619/kin-3608-louisiana-state-university in Kinesiology at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Introduction Caused by a virus belonging to the pesky poxvirus family molluscum contagiosum affects only the epithelial layer of the skin and appears as a small whitish pink nodule Molluscum is a very common skin disease that thrives off of a weakened immune system The disease is transferred by any means of contact with the infected area whether by direct contact with the nodule or with an item that the person has recently come in contact with Molluscum can even be transmitted through sexual contact Although there is no pain resulting from being infected with molluscum the nodules tend to be extremely itchy If one gives in to scratching these bumps it allows the virus to spread across the surface of the skin The surface area of the virus will continue to increase as a result and the bumps will become in amed A common case of molluscum tends to contain roughly 1020 nodules spread out among the neck face arms and hands Powderly 2011 Due to the roughness and thickness of the skin the disease cannot penetrate and infect the palms and soles of the hands and feet These nodules can range in sizes from as small as 25 mm and grow to be as large as 15 cm for the severely weakened usually someone with HIV or going through cancer treatment CDC 2011 Molluscum is neither gender nor race specific but tends to thrive in tropical humid environments as this allows the nodule or sore to stay moist The disease naturally occurs worldwide but epidemiologists have noticed that it has been on the rise in America since 1966 CDC 2011 The disease is easily transmissible in young children from the sharing of toys and the enclosed play spaces that they share Lowincome families that have to share close living or sleeping areas are susceptible to the disease as well Although the body has the ability to rid itself of the virus it takes a very strong immune system and an even greater amount of time to naturally overcome molluscum contagiosum Without treatment one can hope to be molluscum free in as few as 6 months but that is only if the bumps are kept clean and are not bothered One must keep in mind that being treated for molluscum does not make one immune to the disease once it is ridded from the body One may become just as quickly infected again if the same or a new personitem infected comes in direct contact again Powderly 2011 Molluscum is usually left untreated because patients either hope for their body to rid themselves of it or they mistake the bumps for a bite or a wart and do not seek treatment However the nodules tend to grow in lines from being scratched or picked at thus being spread across the skin s surface Refusal to seek treatment even further supports the spread of molluscum and the severity of each case Physicians differ in their ways or recommendations for treatment of molluscum since there are quite a few successful options Powderly 2011 These will further be discussed later on in our case study Case Presentation The case regards a twentysiXyear old female who currently teaches Kindergarten at a local public school The patient complains of small itchy bumps on her neck and arms that she noticed one week ago The bumps have a pearllike look to them and although they cause her no pain at all the lesions tend to itch when she spends time outside in the heat or when she has on sleeves A majority of the nodules are isolated but there is a cluster on the patient s right arm that look in amed and irritated When questioned about the cluster of bumps the patient admits to attempting to extract the contents of the bumps out of curiosity The patient then describes the waxy white ball that she squeezed out of one bump Initially I gured it was a pimple but the consistency and texture of what came out of the bump was not similar to that of a pimple she says When asked about her occupation the patient explains that she teaches kindergarten in a very lowincome area of New Orleans Kindergarteners are messy and dirty in the first place so Itry to do a good job of implementing the importance of washing their hands after free time or when we have a bathroom break I ve had rashes or small areups plenty in my lifetime but I ve never had bumps appear and stay on my body like this I recently noticed that one of the students had similar bumps on his neck and face I got in touch with his mother making her aware of it but I m not certain if she has taken him to the doctor In the meantime I ve made it a habit to monitor the kids a little more and really stress hand washing she further explains Upon reviewing her medical history the patient has received the smallpox vaccination and claims to have had chickenpox at age 4 In addition the patient describes herself as both a physically active and healthy individual and has no recent history of having a cold or the u Seeing as though the number of bumps is few the lesions do not appear irritated and the patient s immune system seems fairly stable and strong she is diagnosed with a mild case of molluscum contagiosum Management and Outcome As a kindergarten teacher she comes in close contact with the young children and with the many items they play or learn with Because of her occupation treatment is recommended to keep the disease from spreading to more of the children The different methods of treatment for molluscum are explained to the patient Cryotherapy is the most common treatment for adults which involves freezing the nodule with liquid nitrogen as you would similarly do to treat a wart Lasers can also be used to remove the wart but this method tends to be more painful for the patient regardless of how effective it is Lastly a curette similar to a small scalpel can be used to prick the surface of the nodule to remove the uid from the inside a method called curettage This is a method mostly used for treatment of children since it involves the least amount of pain However the lesions must be carefully cleaned once pricked and children go into an immediate panic if the lock eyes on the curette In severe cases curettage can lead to scarring of the skin AAD 2012 Cryotherapy is the treatment of choice due to its effectiveness and ability to treat in such a timely manner Each nodule is treated and the patient is told to bandage them individually when at school to prevent transmission She is directed to call each student s guardian to alert them of the outbreak and given a pamphlet that she can make copies of and send home to the parents to better inform them The physician also gives the patient the number of the clinic to additionally give to the parents for their questions or concerns To better support the teacher the physician calls the school nurse to discuss the outbreak in hopes to better monitor and eradicate the disease at the school The patient returns for a followup visit two weeks later and is completely free from any new outbreaks There are three noticeable marks that are on the outskirts of the healing process and the patient is told to come back in if they reappear or worsen When asked about her students she says that I was able to get in touch with the initial student s mother and she was luckily able to get him treated We had one more outbreak in our classroom and two outbreaks in the neighboring classroom of kindergarteners We ve de nitely upped our means of keeping the rooms clean to deter the spread and we ve had nothing but a positive outcome from it Unless necessary she is told that she is free to go and to return as needed Discussion Molluscum remains common due to the nature of the disease and how quickly it can spread Diagnosis and treatment has always been fairly easy but actually having the patient decide when or if to see a doctor is the sole reason molluscum contagiosum is on the uprise Patients think they can distinguish molluscum from a common pimple or wart but it should be left to a physician to make that call and carry out treatment The probability of the con ned living spaces due to the lowincome population of children who attend the school serves as a breeding ground for the disease A child s want to play with and share toys especially at a school further allows for an epithelial disease like molluscum to spread By incorporating the importance of hygiene into the lesson plan the teachers will be able to prevent the spread of molluscum and other possible transmissible diseases in their school References 1 Powderly C J May 13 2011 Molluscum Contagiosum Retrieved from httpwwwncbinlmnihgovpubmedhealthPMHOOO1829 2 CDC January 13 2011 Molluscum Contagiosum FrequentlyAsked Questions Retrieved from httpwwwcdcg 39 J J J quot fag chi youehtmwhatis 3 American Academy of Dermatology 2012 M olluscum Contagiosum Retrieved from httpwwwaadorgskinconditionsdeim g at Molluscum in Disguise A Case Study 0139 Case of Identi Theft Author Samantha Farber Kinesiology student at Louisiana State University 123 LSU Lane Baton Rouge La 70820 5045255225 Key words molluscum contagiosum nodule wart bump Put Down the Chapstick Assessing the need for prevention of Herpes Simplex Virus Type I Author Samantha Farber Kinesiology Student at Louisiana State University Key words herpes cold sore outbreak females fever blister Farber 2 Goal The goal of my needs assessment is to educate about and make aware of the dangers of the Herpes simplex virus Type I HSVl to female students at Louisiana State University Purpose The purpose of educating these young adults with average ages ranging from 18 22 is to reduce the transmission of the herpes virus This virus which is the cause of an unsightly outbreak commonly known as a cold sore is present in nearly 60 of people over the age of 12 Herpes Simplex Virus 2011 The ease at which this virus is spread along with the lack of symptoms for long periods of time allow this virus to target and infect many people in a relatively quick manner Scope Most females do not realize that by simply sharing lipstick or sharing a drink just once can lead to transmission of the virus Since the comfort of sharing a drink or makeup seems to go handin hand with a friendship between women these days it is important to target this oblivious population Whether it may be from the tight bonds of a sorority or the reliance of a friendship as a female makes the move away from home to college this normal behavior needs to be reanalyzed This needs assessment will open the eyes of the female students at LSU to help them deter the spread of HSV1 and keep those without the virus from being infected quotPut Down the Chap stick Farber 3 Data Herpes simplex Type 1 is most commonly transmitted through but not limited to skintoskin contact Upon transmission the virus begins to infect the epidermal cells causing an outbreak best known as a cold sore or fever blister Prior to the fever blister the infected area has an uncomfortable itchy sensation and can swell slightly Once the infection completely surfaces a blister forms on the face usually around the lips or the nose The unsightly and very noticeable blister is filled with a uid that will no doubt serve as a means of transmitting this virus to another person It is very important to take every precaution to not only prevent the blister from coming in contact with another person but not to spread the uid to other parts of your own body Herpes Simplex 2012 If one touches hisher blister often with their hands they are increasing the chances that the virus will spread to hisher ngertips HSVl is indeed capable of spreading to your genitals but most people get genital herpes from Herpes simplex virus Type 2 In addition to the cold sore it is likely that one will also experience a fever and ulike symptoms such as muscle aches and joint pain during an outbreak Over the course of a few days the blister will scab and the skin surrounding the blister will turn pink as the area heals After the initial outbreak has occurred the virus then moves to the surrounding nerve cells where it lays dormant until the next outbreak recurs Once a person becomes infected with the HSVl virus it remains in their system for their lifetime One is still capable of passing on the infection or being infected when there is no cold sore or any further symptoms present Asymptomatic viral shedding is when HSVl is spread without the presence of an outbreak to another person Herpes Simplex 2012 Other than direct skintoskin contact HSVl is capable ofbeing spread through saliva making even the simplest sharing of chapstick quite risky Kissing on the lips or cheeks drinking after someone and sharing eating utensils are ways of spreading the virus through saliva Keep in mind that one can definitely spread the virus to another person through sexual contact if they have genital herpes as well as past outbreaks on their ngertips Although the herpes simplex virus is not one of the more extreme sexually transmitted diseases or infections it must still be seen as a threat and measures must be taken to prevent its spread Outbreaks can occur without warning but there are specific triggers that can disturb the virus sleep Stress is the most common factor known to bring the dormant virus out of the nerve cells and into the surrounding skin cells Cold Sore Triggers 2012 In addition to stress during a woman s menstrual period is when she will find that she has most of her outbreaks Wildly UV radiation from sun exposure can cause the virus to surface and break the skin additionally Herpes Simplex 2012 There are plenty of antiviral medications that can be taken orally or intravenously but these medications can only shorten the time of the outbreak and attempt to lessen the number of outbreaks Unfortunately there is absolutely no cure for the simplex virus which will ensure that a person will have these outbreaks and capability of passing the virus on to others for the rest ofhisher lifetime Cold Sore Causes 2012 Most people have seen a cold sore whether the virus has affected them personally or someone they know The prevalence of this virus has made cold sores easily recognizable due to their familiarity and thus recognition has somewhat served as a warning sign to keep people from spreading it However people do not seem to know that HSVl can be spread without the presence of an outbreak and that it can be spread quotPut Down the Chap stick Farber 4 by ways other than direct contact These two factors allow the Type 1 virus to thrive and continue to win the battle over the human race Factors 1 Predisposing A predisposing factor is one that puts the population at that initial risk In general the ease at which HSVl can be transmitted puts every human being regardless of race ethnicity gender or age at risk As stated sharing makeup drinks and eating utensils as well as being spread through sexual contact or the simple act of a kiss on the cheek can spread HSVl However female students at Louisiana State University are targeted specifically due to their stress level The life of a college student is very stressful as one is trying to keep up with deadlines and keep grades up while juggling whatever other responsibilities they might have at the time Unfortunately women have a harder time adjusting to their new surroundings and the many changes they are forced to face More females than males are reported to being treated for anxiety and depression upon their first year at college SAD 2011 2 Enabling An enabling factor is one that further allows the population to be targeted and allows that threat to affect the population In attempts to branch out as well as the natural desire for and satisfaction felt through companionship college females are able to bond with one another on a higher level than they could in high school Previously supervised by parents guardians girls are able to get together whenever they would like in their new residencies and enjoy one another s company Also due to the lack of supervision sleepovers and gettogethers become more frequent allowing females to have closer ties and a deeper friendship Females tend to express their bond with other females through acts such as sharing chapstick during winter months They are not hesitant to indulge in the slightest if one has a plate of food sitting in front of them and another wants one bite or five bites The cause and effect relationship between the bonds of a sisterhood and the need felt to share is directly proportional the better the friends the more they share Sororities only get the ball rolling faster and allow females from diverse locations to better connect Additionally females now have the freedom to explore their sexual interests and take advantage of having a dorm or other type of housing without parental supervision This welcomes sexual partners whether familiar or not to spread or become infected with HSVl 3 Reinforcing Lastly a reinforcing factor to the transmission of HSV1 amongst college females is their total lack of awareness Many are not aware of the simplicity at which the disease spreads nor are they aware of the symptoms Those who have an outbreak of a cold sore are avoided as if they have got The Plague It is not until one has become aware of someone else s outbreak that they actually begin to take the proper precautions to prevent themselves from being infected Additionally those who have experienced an outbreak have absolutely no idea that they are infected with a herpes virus and try to shun the fact that their cold sore is due to having the HSVl For female college students specifically they live the college lifestyle of pregaming and going out The term pregaming refers to when a group of females get ready and drink together prior to venturing out to a quotPut Down the Chap stick Farber 5 party or a bar Pregaming consists of a group of girls sharing makeup and throwing back alcoholic drinks in attempts to get ready for the night It is common that each girl might bring a speci c alcohol or beverage to the pregame in which they take turns trying one another s own drinks and backwash Once ready the group heads out to the location of choice and continues to share drinks and socialize In some cases for these partygoers intoxication leads to promiscuous behavior and further reinforces the spread of HSV1 through sexual contact Program Focus The program to be implemented is called Put Down the Chapstick and will be introduced to the female students at Louisiana State University The program will focus on primary prevention as the girls are educated about HSVl in hopes to prevent the further spread of the virus A questionnaire containing questions on your sharing habits with a girlfriend and sexual activity to be tallied up at the end will be passed out around campus The questionnaire is to give the women the option to confidentially see how much they put themselves at risk for catching HSVl as each specific question and answer denotes its own risk level For example one question would ask How often do you borrow someone s lipstick or share your own with someone else The answer choices would be as follows a never 0 b once a month 2 c once a week or more 5 The numbers at the end of the answer choices depending on what each female circles will be totaled up and depending on her number will be grouped into a category of how likely she is to spread or already have the herpes simplex virus Type 1 In addition to the questionnaire a pamphlet containing important facts on HSVl and its symptoms will be made available to be picked up as well Both the pamphlet and the questionnaire will be passed out during the campus health fairs posted throughout the women s restrooms and passed out to each sorority house during their weekly meeting The pamphlet will contain information on how to go about getting tested for HSVl as well as encourage being tested This will be a slight focus in secondary prevention however the main focus of Put Down the Chapstick is primary prevention Unfortunately not every female is going to be so willing to grab or pay much attention to the pamphlet with the word herpes written on the front of it however discrete the letters may be In hopes to further educate and prevent the spread of the virus a representative will make an appointment to visit each sorority house during their weekly meeting to speak to the girls and give them the full rundown on how HSVl is spread is exactly what the disease is As stated before they will be much more inclined to pay attention knowing that a fever blister is a result of the herpes simplex virus Once the information has been gone over thoroughly a brief period will be held if any of the sorority members have questions they would like to ask The representative will give out an email address if the girls have any further questions as well that they would rather ask privately For the rest of the female population at LSU yers will be passed out along with chapstick advertising an upcoming seminar to be held in Cox Auditorium where the same representative will talk on behalf of Put Down the Chapstick and fully educate those who attend on the dangers of HSV1 The same email address will be provided as it is our goal to educate and answer any questions these women may have quotPut Down the Chap stick Farber 6 Validating the Need Although HSV1 is not the rst disease to come to mind due to the more severe communicable diseases that are spread through the same means of transmission it must still be a disease we ght back against Perhaps the disease is not the rst to come to mind because people are not educated on the dangers like they should be Regardless the symptoms are more than reason enough to remain cautious and keep from the mindless behaviors that encourage the spread of the virus Over 60 of those over age 12 are infected with the herpes simplex virus and nearly 75 of our targeted age of 1822 have HSV1 Herpes Simplex Virus 2011 This number will continue to increase due to the fact that females do not understand the dangers they face when it comes to being so giving with their personal things Sharing should be encouraged but not when it comes to items that allow the transfer of saliva Being more cautious not to spread HSV1 can also deter the spread of other communicable diseases whether sexually transmitted or not In conclusion education is the main key for Put Down the Chapstick in our ght against herpes simplex virus Type 1 By educating the females of Louisiana State University we are hopeful that the rate of transmission in the community will fall quotPut Down the Chap stick Farber 7 Sources Herpes Simplex Virus 2011 University of Maryland Medical Center Retrieved on October 20 2012 from httpwwwumm edualtmedarticlesherpessimplex 000079htm Cold Sore Causes May 2012 Mayo Clinic Retrieved on October 20 2012 from httpwwwmayocliniccomhealthcoldsoreDS00358DSECTIONcauses Herpes Simplex 2012 American Academy of Dermatology Retrieved on October 20 2012 from httpwww aadorgskinconditionsdermatologyatozherpessimplex Cold Sore Triggers 2012 Abreva Retrieved on October 20 2012 from httpwwwabrevacomcoldsoretriggersastgoogleb7amprotation30 01ampbanner21904ampkw303362 SAD 2011 For College Women Retrieved on November 4 2012 from httpwww4collegewomenorgfactsheetssadhtml quotPut Down the Chap stick
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