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by: Zelda McCullough


Zelda McCullough
GPA 3.63


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Class Notes
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Zelda McCullough on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to KIN 4512 at Louisiana State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see /class/222620/kin-4512-louisiana-state-university in Kinesiology at Louisiana State University.




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Date Created: 10/13/15
9242012 81300 PM CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO MOTOR DEVELOPMENT KEY TERMS THINGS IN RED ARE ON STUDY GUIDE Human motor development c is a process through which we pass during the course of life and an academic field of study Development o generally considered to refer to changes we experience as we pass through life growth and maturation Developmentally appropriate o age appropriateness and individual appropriateness o Age appropriate 0 Refers to the predictable sequences of growth and development through which most children pass o Individual appropriate 0 Refers to the uniqueness of each child Six elements of developmental change o Qualitative 0 Developmental change is not just more of something o Sequential 0 Certain motor patterns precede others o Cumulative o Behaviors are additive o Directional 0 Development has an ultimate goal o Multifactorial o No single factor directs change o Individual 0 Rate of change varies for all people Developmental perspective o Not just todays behavior but what preceded the behavior and what will evolve from it Maturation o The qualitative functional changes that occur with age organizational changes in the function of the organs and the tissues Growth o The quantitative structural changes physical Cephalocaudal o Growth and movement from the head to the tail Proximodistal o Growth and movement from the center to the periphery evidence with human prenatal growth Differentiation Progression from gross immature movement to precise well controlled intentional movement Integration Similar change that occurs as an individuals movement abilities gradually progress functioning of systems together Gross Movements o Large muscles or muscle groups precedes fine movements fine gross continuum Fine Movements o Small muscles or muscle groups finegross continuum Product approach AKA taskoriented approach o Measures movement on the end result Processoriented approach o Measures the movement itself technique amp the process Organogenesis o The formation of the viral organs has occurred although considerable growth and maturation have yet to take place Puberty o A time of radical hormonal releases that are directly and indirectly accompanying adolescence Stage age stages o A particular time in the life of a human that is characterized by unique behaviors Precursor Period 17871928 c Descriptive observation was established as a method for studying human development The most significant influence was Darwin s Biographical Sketch of an Infant Early researchers were most interested in the function of the mind though their research benefited the motor developmentalist who followed Reflexive period Prenatalfew weeks after birth Involuntary response to stimuli reflex Survival Brain stem Preadapted Movement produced from higher brain centers Conscious voluntary Fundamental Patterns Build on movement skills Includes fundamental locomotors skills object control fine motor control Critical to future motor performance ContextSpecific o o Skillful o 0 Begin to experience one or more peaks in movement skills Life experiences personal likes and dislikes of movements Experience and practice Not achieved by all Requires motivation opportunity instruction and practice over the years In general cannot be competent in every skill Compensation Associated with injury with practice and time may return to previous skill level Aging inevitable decline compensate with new skill Maturational Period 19281946 Motor development as a primary interest began to emerge and the maturational philosophy predominated This philosophy held that biological processes were the main influence in shaping human development Work by Gesel and MeGraw yielded valuable product and process oriented information concerning human movement Bayley s scales of motor development still used today were a product of this period These normreferenced scales charted motor development NormativeDescriptive Period 19461970 c In the mid 40s motor development became dormant o In the 19605 a revival began was led by physical educators who were interested I children s movements and developed norm referenced standardized tests for measuring motor performance o Kephart s The Slow Learner in the Classroom movement increases performance o Not supported by research but will influences professional practice today o Perceptual Motor Theory 0 Biomechanical analysis of movement 0 Considered Rebirth of motor development ProcessOriented Period 1970present o Return to studying the processes underlying motor development rather than simply describing change products o Information processing theory 0 Thinking of the brain as function much like a computer o 1980 Kugler Kelso and Turvey prompted interest in dynamical systems theory 0 examine movement control and coordination as well as seeking explanations to the process of development 0 a movement pattern can arise from component parts interacting among themselves and the environment even though the pattern was never coded in the CNS CrossSectional design subjects from the various treatment or age groups are examined on the same measure once and at the same time Longitudinal design o One group of subjects is observed repeatedly at different ages and different times of measurement Cohort o The set of experience a group of subjects brings into the study because of the generation in which they were reared TimeLag a Different cohorts are compared at different times SequentialCohort AKA cohort design o Integrates the cross sectional longitudinal and timelag designs into one study a bunch of groups following them for a long time KEY NOTES KEY CONCEPTS Development is about the changes that all humans face across their life span increasing age ones experiences in life and genetic potential When aging cephalocaudal and proximodistal are reversed regression is tail to head and outside to inside o Design components 0 Chronological Age 0 Cohort 0 Time of measurement o The four domains of human development 0 Affective 0 Motor Cognitive Physical O 0 CHAPTER 2 COGNITIVE AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT KEY TERMS Psychomotor o The domain of human development that involves human movement o Movements initiated by an electrical impulse from the higher brain centers Relationship between the mind and human movement Psycho 0 Mind Motor a Any human movement o Initiated from lower brain o Includes reflexes Clinical Method Piaget A system of collecting data by question and answer sessions to understand more fully the process of thinking Adaptation piaget Adjusting to the demands of the environment and the intellectualization of that adjustment through two complementary acts assimilation and accommodation o Assimilation 0 Process by which children attempt to interpret new experiences based on their present interpretation of the world o Accommodation 0 Individual attempts to adjust existing thoughts structures ro account for new experiences Piaget39s Theory Four Major Stages of Cognitive Development o Sensorimotor Birth to 2 years 0 Intelligence develops as a result of movement actions and their consequences 0 Six Stages Exercise of Reflexes birth to 1 month a Earliest form of movement behavior a Infant reflexes and repetition Help adapt and modify our behaviors o Do not need higher brain centers Primary Circular Reactions 14 months a Increased voluntary movement a Consciously create movement a Circular Reactions o Repeated actions Secondary circular reactions 48 months a Continuation of primary circular reactions n Interaction with the environment gradually expands n Begins to integrated vision hearing grasping and movement behaviors a Can imitate behaviors a No object permanence Secondary schemata 812 months 0 Interaction with environment expands crawling o Repetition of experimentation and trialanderror exploration continue 0 Can predict some actions and situations onset of intellectual reasoning o Tertiary circular reactions 1218 months 0 Discovery of new ways to produce desired results through active experimentation New behaviors emerge Uses experimentation to learn First level of visualizing an object beyond its immediate use Can distinguish self from others Seeks immediate family members for help social and emotional development Invention of new means through mental combinations AKA Mental Combinations 1824 months 0 Childe recognizes objects and others as independent from themselves 0 Beginning to understand properties of objects 0 Interaction with the environment is almost completely manifested via movement activities 0 Invention of new means through mental combinations 0 Semimental functioning Thinking with the body is replaced with thinking with the mind o Preoperational 2 to 7 o Verbal communication begins to emerge o Emphasizes use of symbols and language development 0 Language development is the most important aspect of Preoperational Stage 0 Walking facilitates language development 0 O O O O O Children are unable to think logically Two substages Preconceptual 24 Ability to use symbols to represent someone or something in the child s life Pretend play common Egocentrism Flawed thinking sad flower Transductive reasoning missed breakfast Intuitive 47 Reduced egocentrism Improvement in the use of symbols Child is incapable of conservation n Ability to recognize that certain properties of a substance remain unchanged when the appearance is rearranged Concrete operational 7 to 11 o Follows conservation 0 Enhanced ability to decenter attention from one variable in a problem solving situation Learning can be enhanced thrOugh movement Seriation An ability to arrange a set of variables by a certain characteristic 0 Reversibility Able to mentally modify organize or even reverse thought processes 0 Limited to thinking about objects events or situations that are real Formal Operational 11 to 12 early to midadolescence 0 Ability to consider ideas that are not based on observable objects or experiences Abstract ideas are possible Highest stage of cognitive ability Interpropositional thought Applicable to complex movement O O O O O O O O Relate one or more parts of a proposition or a situation to another part to arrive at a solution to a problem 0 Enhanced level of cognitive ability 0 Hypotheticaldeductive reasoning A problemsolving style that allows child to choose between possible solutions and then pick the best one Aids in emotional development and emerging values Postformal Operation o Involves more than dealing with larger quantities of information Contextual Perspectives o The recognition of factors other than age and their effects on intellectual change across time Implicit Memory o Unintentional automatic or without awareness no decline in adulthood Explicit memory Deliberate and effortful and is tested by traditional tests of recall or recognition develops until adulthood Declarative knowledge o Factual information Procedural knowledge o How to do something Control o The child s ability to decide what to do Execution o Refers to weather the child preformed the skill in an appropriate manner KEY NOTSCONCEPTS Everything we do in the motor domain is affect by out emotions social interactions and cognitive development All behavior in the affective and cognitive domains is strongly influenced by motor o Cognitive development strongly depends on the movement capabilities the individual has acquired motor development depends on intellectual capabilities piaget o Intellectual Development 0 WAIS Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Found declines in intellect But this test is not designed to measure intellect it is designed to ascertain psychopathological behaviors clinically 0 Seattle Longitudinal Study Subjects increase performance until age 30 or early 405 By the age of 5060 years there is a plateau Less decline when process is a central part of one s life Even by age 88 not everyone declines in all aspects of intellect Intellectual Decline 0 Partial Intellectual decline Decline in some areas Chinese elders are revered Negative thoughts about memory can hamper confidence and affect memory as one grows older 0 Contextual Perspective Learning and memory depend in par on factors like culture Noncognitive situation factors can affect degree of decline 9242012 81300 PM 9242012 81300 PM


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