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by: Althea Stoltenberg


Althea Stoltenberg
GPA 3.9

J. Sandrock

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J. Sandrock
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This 26 page Class Notes was uploaded by Althea Stoltenberg on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ARTH 4410 at Louisiana State University taught by J. Sandrock in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see /class/222657/arth-4410-louisiana-state-university in Art History at Louisiana State University.

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Date Created: 10/13/15
Terminology Cyclades Greek islands Peloponnesus weird utter looking thing Attica place around Athens Symposium drinking party Kottabos strange Greek term for a drinking game where they sling wine across room Caduceus staff with sometimes a snake on it staff that Hermes carries Black Figure referring to a type of pottery earlier than red figure Fied Figure type of pottery Pyxis term for different shapes of Greek vases covered jar this was probably used in story of Pandora Kylix term for different shapes of Greek vases drinking cup Crater term for different shapes of Greek vases bowl for mixing wine Hydria term for different shapes of Greek vases jug for transporting water Amphora term for different shapes of Greek vases storage jar Dark Ages 1200900 BCE Area that is now called Greece Peloponnese Crete Cyclades was civilizations that rose and fell didn39t have much staying power and weren t really Greek Connected by common language religion culture political system that binds all the people together Only exception is Mycenae is very important for the mythological background 9 written records in linear B earlyform of Greek Judgment of Paris Eris wasn39t invited to the wedding of Peleus and Thetis To stir things up she threw a golden apple among the guests and it was labeled for the fairest Someone had to choose which goddess Hera Athena Aphrodite was the most beautiful Zeus chose Paris a mortal to choose the fairest All the goddesses thought they deserved to be the fairest so they were bribing him Hera said she would make him king among men Athena will make him a hero at war and Aphrodite would give him the most beautiful woman in the world Helen He chose Aphrodite Eris 9 goddess of strife or discord Hera 9 wife of Zeus queen of gods veryjealous does nasty things to those who try to seduce her husband Athena 9 patron of Athens goddess of war and wisdom usually wears helmet Greek Ergane 9 goddess of workers Polias 9 goddess of city Parthenos 9 maiden virgin goddess Aphrodite 9 goddess of love Paris son of Priam 9 usually clean shaven young he is Trojan Helen 9 wife of Menelaus Greek from Sparta but ends up in Troy Wedding of Peleus and Thetis pyxis 470460 BCE Wedding Painter 0 Very typically given as a wedding present to woman Would keep makeup or sewing kit 0 Was broken and has been repaired The figures take up most of the area and the border is done in a meander pattern Scene from the Judgment of Paris detail of a kylix 490480 BCE Athens Macron Things they are wearing are how we identify people in Greek art 0 Athena 9 helmet shield cape eagis scaly looking cape with snakes her protection 0 Hermes 9 messenger god has wings around his sandals sometimes hat carries staff most of the time bearded 0 Artemis 9 virgin goddess has a bow and usually always wearing a short dress 0 Paris 9 usually clean shaven youthful has a harp O Aphrodite 9 goddess of love cupids Eros are flying around her veiled O Hera 9 has the staff like a queen doesn t have many attributes that make her stand out besides staff Scene from the Judgment of Paris Athenian 440 BCE Berlin Painter Red Figure 0 Similar things 0 Wardrobe 9 Athena is wearing snakything helmet in her hand Hermes has wings on his hat and has staff Hera is wearing crown queen of gods and holding a lion offering it to Paris Aphrodite has the veil and cupid Eros Paris is depicted a little different Important to know about redblack figure Red figure shows more detail Iconography 9 how you depict different peoplecharacters in art Kylix ca 500 BCE Red Figure Symposium guest playing kottabos Macron Painter 5th c BCE would put the kylix around their finger and sling the pulp from wine across the room The Troian War Agamemnon wife Clytemnestra From Mycenae Daughter lphigenia Artemis 9 goddess of the hunt and virgin goddess always wearing short dress Achilles Briseis Patroclus people connected with Achilles best Greek warrior Hector Andromache best Trojan warrior Since Helen was the most popular woman in the world all men wanted to protect her When she was abducted or goes willingly by Paris all the cities in Greece banned together and launched a kind of recovery expedition Agamemnon had a reason to go after this because it was his brothers wife and his wife s sister Agamemnon shot a dear that was sacred to Artemis and she wanted a sacrifice lphigenia Human sacrifice was not something the Greeks did It s said that Artemis did this to test Agamemnon and once he was going to sacrifice his daughter Artemis saved her and replace her with a deer Fought war for 10 years Achilles binds the wounds of Patroclus detail of a kylix signed by the potter Sosias ca 500 BCE Fied figure and little bit of polychrome use of other colors Achilles dragging Hector detail of a hydria 520510 BCE Attic 0 black figure but polychrome a little bit of red and white Isn t as detailed as red figure ris is going to Priam to ask for Hector s name is written on vase body back Body is miraculously untouched even though he s been dragged around the city of Troy 0 women are depicted with white skin because they stayed inside house and men have tan skin because they worked outside 0 Spirit of Hector is flying around Relief amphora Mykonos ca 670 BCE Tall does not have foot to stand on because they are storage vessels lovely figures of Greeks and has the scene with the Trojan horse on it Neoptolemus Astyanax Hector Andromache relief amphora Mykonos ca 670 BCE Not red or black figure its considered a relief 0 Even though the events took place before the pottery was made they are fully detailed and depict the past Helen and Menelaus on a crater 450440 BCE Menelaus Painter Cupid is between Helen and Greek soldier husband Menelaus She is about to be hit by Menelaus because he is mad at her but the cupid means that he is going to take her back Heinrich died 1890 and Sophie Schliemann set out to prove that the stories in the Iliad are true Excavated Troy and Mycenae Found evidence of a heroic past controversial figure thought to have fabricated what he found to keep getting money for his excavating and so people would remember him 0 He did find Mycenae Lion Gate ca 1250 0 Lions symbols of rulers All blocks have been carved so they sit right Idea that it is one whole stone and its sculpted to relieve some of the weight Terminology Megaron Ehpermeral something that can break down and we don39t have today Cremation burn a body lnhumation burying body whole Centaur half man half horse Herakles Hercules Chiron Centaur Mask of Agamemnon Grave 5 Grave Circle A LHI 15501500 Trojan war for which there is agricultural proof when we saythis is the mask of Agamemnon it means Heinrich Schliemann was so convinced that he found it Gold funerary mask grave 5 grave circle A LHI 15501500 wasn39t from the same time as mask of Agamemnon The Lion Gate and Mycenae ca 1250 BCE Have gold in tombs that weren t robbed Lots of engineering 0 Lions become a symbol of rulers in Greek art certainly when they are marking the entrance to something Areial view of the Mycenaean Place 13 h c BCE Linear B tablet from Plyos Mycenae s were probably the first Greeks Everything that came before wasn39t bound by language religion and culture They had culture language religion 0 Linear B was their writing Early form of Greek Mycenae s were wiped away by sea people around 1200 BCE it halted civilization The gold and architecture were no longer being produced anf they lost the technology they had for a few hundred years 0 gold and architecture was thrown back years People lost the ability to produce art write build large buildings Theyforgot or simply didn39t have time because they were too busy trying to survive Known as the Dark Ages Lefkandi 9 seems to be transitional Toumba building aka Heroon from Lefkandi Ca 1000 BCE related to hero worship structure that one could call monumental around 100 feet long not a temple yet but is pointing in the direction of that Not built in permanent materials but ephemeral materials wood thatched roof ephemeral material use could have been to do with the fact that they forgot how to do things attempting to build very big buildings interesting architecture but also what was found inside Combines elements of a Mycenaean megaron and usually the features of a megaron had a porch Porch has these walls that stick out and two column that they call in antis which is between these two walls then you go into this main chamber cella in a temple and in a Mycenaean megaron it will have a chamber in the center and hearth Doesn39t have a hearth does have a central row of columns made of wood that help hold up the roof Outside is a colonnade of columns that help distribute the weight much stronger and more elongated than typical megaron first time for an external colonnade has been seen Is a distinctive feature of later Greek temples Important for architecture because it points to what the inside and outside of a temple will look like building was covered by a mound Later became a cemetery Suggestion was that the man buried here was a famous hero and he was buried in the building out of respect to him Kind of like a mausoleum Burials from Lefkandi o cremated man with weapons 0 later inhumed woman 1210h c BCE cremation was entered into Greek culture in the Dark Ages Was used side by side with inhumed Detail of the bronze amphora form Lefkandi Cypriot work 1100 BCE held bones in cremation burial Horse burial from Lefkandi Heroon warriors could have been buried with their horses weapons war bride Became a place to worship this hero Hero worship and the beginnings of Greek mythology was suggested in the Heroon Terra cotta centaur from Lefkandi ca 900 BCE terra cotta figure of a man with four legs Isn t decorated with figural representations birds figures of humans but simply geometric form protogeometric style Very geometric figure was broken in two parts One half was in one burial and the other half was in another May have very well been a specific Centaur First representation of Centaur on Greek soil very popular motif in Greek art Centaur is important when we get to the Parthenon Pouring vessel has a hole in it for oils knick in his knee looks intentional they painted over it makes scholars believe it was a famous centaur Theythink it was Chiron Hercules accidentally hit Chiron in the knee with a poison arrow Temple Terminology Orders Column Doric Ionic Corinthian ColonnadePeristyle in antis columns are directly between two walls instead of in front of them Peripteral one row of columns go around all the sides Dipteral two rows of columns going all the way around Greek architecture develops in an area far beyond the Greek shores on the island on Samos Develops there because the Greeks sent out groups of people called the Ionian migration in the 11 h century BCE possibly because they needed more land or resources Moved across the Aegean Sea Development of the Greek temple can be most clearly seen at Samos Sanctuary of Hera at Samos 5 h century Hekatompedos original sactuary Geometric period 900700 BCE 9 very similar to Heroon at Lefkandi in size and construction Long and you39ve got it built in ephemeral materials columns down the middle built in ephemeral materials most things would have disintegrated like the wood posts First temple was not satisfactory because of the base for the cult statue all would have had a statue of the god or goddess Would be the focal point of the interior The problem is if you have a row of columns holding up the roof you can t see that figure Statue was also ephemeral material would sometimes build figure of wood then hammer bronze over it where if wood disintegrated the bronze would still last Sometimes made of stone Ephemeral materials cannot support very heavy roof One way to support it is putting the colonnade on the outside Like Heroon at Lefkandi the columns were put outside the temple Could hold more permanent roof It still adds a colonnade around the building on all sides Peripteral it suggests something is going on inside this building It says look at me I m something different Temple of Hephaistos Athens 449 BCE very well preserved because was converted into a Catholic Church Ancient buildings that were converted into churches are preserved better colonnade outside makes it a more holy religious experience Second Temple of Hera at Samos mid 7quotI c BCE Solved two problems 0 Took out middle columns could see the statue o to get rid of columns in the middle they had to move them to the outside could support a better roof roof tiles are heavy still has long walls but added a porch looks more like a megaron Walls coming out and the columns in antis one of the earliest temples from Samos Dipteral Temple socalled Rhoikos temple c 540 BCE has two rows of columns This is about 150 ft long Big building Partially needs all those columns to support the roof 0 Shows one incarnation that s taken to further development 0 not really remaining because of ephemeral materials and would sometimes take permanent materials to build new temples Temple Terminology Stereobate foundation or substructure stylobate level on which columns sit columns 0 base drum shaft 0 capital Architrave superstructure frieze triglyph metope cornice lies above the frieze pediment gable triangular section found above the horizontal structure acroterion architectural ornament placed on a flat base Pronaos porch Cella the holy of holies sacred part of temple Where statue would be found Opisthodomos similar to porch but not connected to cella Like a treasury Separated and locked up Temple of Hera Olympia 600580 BCE Doric temple was being constructed starting with ephemeral material then replaced with permanent materials It looks like a Greek temple Temple of Apollo Thermon 630620 BCE has columns down the center when there is an uneven number of columns across the front it usually means there are columns inside 0 Has an opisthodomos but not a porch Painted metope from the temple of Apollo at Thermon ca 620 BCE 0 Very early didn39t have a description to go by Temple of Hera I Paestum Italy ca 550 BCE Three columns in antis columns down the center opisthodomos was open to the cella Nestor39s Cup 750 BCE Pithecoussai inscription 740720 BCE was found in a Greek colony off coast of Italy 0 first evidence of writing Wasn t really standardized until later it is written backwards Greek writing develops probably because they needed to write down more than just lists and inventories somewhere along the line they developed an alphabet Before they write down original thoughts they write down stories that were told orally for centuries Iliad and Odyssey by Homer Theogony and Works and Days by Hesiod things about gods 0 The inscription from the clay Nestor s cup I am the cup of Nestor a joy to drink from the desire of fair garlanded Aphrodite will straightaway overcome him whosoever drinks from this cup Terminology Outline silhouette Lack figure Fied figure Polychrome using other colors on vase paintings Kouros young man grave sculptures votive to gods Kore female figure young girl grave sculptures votive to gods canon of proportions comes to Greek art from Egyptian Chiton eastern dress heavy wool Peplos doric dress crinkly linen Writing effects the Art 0 can see pictures and see that is a certain person because it looks like a description in literature 0 use of writing on vase paintings that identifies characterspotterpainter Francois vase Painter Kleitias Potter Ergotimos 570560 BCE Volute crater Veii Not in good condition when discovered has been restored Found in tomb in 200 pieces 0 There are over 200 figures painted on vase All are labeled Athenian work but was exported to Greek colony one of the most important ceramic documents of its time The Dipylon vase from Athens belly handled amphora used as a grave marker 8quotI c BCE used as a grave marker 0 giant vase bigger than it is on screen geometric in form Adds figures all stick and silhouette aren t very expressive and a row of animals at the top Geometric krater used as a grave marker Athens 2nd half of the 8th c BCE It seems they can only depict funeral scenes 0 almost abstract all based on geometric forms When you look at torso you see the triangle They re not very expressive EPA amphora Loutrophoros purification rituals Analatos Painter Attica ca 700675 BCE transitional piece from geometric to archaicorientalizing pottery Influenced by certain techniques and pictures from the east Those techniques made their way form the east into mainland Greece First evidence springs up in Corinth then in Athens 0 In Athens is where we could identify the first painter s hand Uses Polychrome Different because 0 Neck handles the shapes are more organic introduction of rosettes idea of curvature Egyptian looking characters Egypt was considers east even though it was south figures are in full profile using different techniques using a mixture of silhouette and outline all figures shown in profile Most figures are shown with legs in profile torso straight on and head in profile Not the way humans look just shows this is a human figure an these are all their parts 0 Introduction of eastern characters sphinx MPC aryballos macmillan aryballos used for oilsperfumes Thebes ca 675 BCE very small 0 lion headed beginning of a little bit of black figure details etched inside polychrome in battle Moving overlapping some of the registers like coloring outside the lines dogs chasing rabbits at the bottom MCP Olpe Chigi olpe Veii ca 675650 BCE not very big very detailed same artist as the aryballos Has gorgons sign to ward off evil apotropaic Athena wears it on her breast plate 0 All the different symbols probably represent different city states different people Eleusis Amphora Polyphemus Painter ca 650 BCE contains the elements of silhouette and also the idea of outline from book 11 of the Odyssey Odysseus got the Cyclops very drunk and poked out his eye 0 Everything is in the scene so you can tell what the story is o On the belly are gorgons no literary description of them Painter knew the stories but completely made them up in the drawing Also in a scene that is recognized as cutting off Medusa s head Black figure hydria ca 530 BCE Athens Depiction on the hydria has women going to get water in their hydria s Polychrome Exekias painter ca 530 BCE his signature is on it Shows importance of writing 0 Black figure has it s limitations 9 can only pencil in details using a stylist can t get many details So they invented red figure they painted the main figure in reserve and everything else was painted Bilingual vase Andocides painter c 530 BCE transition form blackto red figure Archer leggings are done in spotted pattern there are hatch marks and diamonds Wouldn t have been as clear as something in black figure Warrior vase Mycenae 13quotI c BCE more primitive The Dreros triad Apollo Artemis and Leto ca 700 BCE Sphyrelaton first sculptures that came after Dark Ages weren t very big About 25 feet tall was considered monumental at that time Greeks had to relearn how to build monumental architecture takes them a while to get to building sculpture on a grand scale and have to relearn pottery making 0 made in Sphyrelaton Made of wood and covered in bronze then wood would rot away and bronze would be left Mantiklos Apollo Thebes 700675 BCE figure was dedicated to Apollo by Mantiklos We know this because there was an inscription on it 0 One of the earliest Orientalized sculptures Kind of a geometric figure Has wide thighs and skinny top NY kouros Attica 600 BCE become the symbol of Archaic Greece Go from looking very static no shift of weight to a figure that shifts its weight 0 still not realistic even though canon was used 0 hair looks like Egyptian wig Very stylized Greek figures start off looking very similar to Egyptian figures 0 was painted Eyes and necklace Not natural very stylized Egyptian Canon of proportions hands used to measure the figure Mentuhemet Early 6quotI c BCE Ten ft tall doesn39t look Kleobis and Biton Delphi 580 BCE look a little more natural from side and back Rampin Rider Athens seated on a horse Munich 169 ca 540530 0 have abs more natural hair style still doing linear things for musculature Anavysos kouros kroisos if you took off his head he would look a little natural Kritios Boy c 490480 BCE Athens 0 actually shifting his weight form one leg to the other Hips are not the same 0 instead of looking like statue has a little more naturalism in the way he is depicted Looking more human Female Ivory Athens 730 BCE still just standing there not moving Nikandre Delos 640 BCE over life sized made of marble name on her skirt idea that they are carving in stone is a real step forward from the dark ages It takes a certain amount of technology to quarry the stone and carve it They had to know what they were doing 0 very flat and plank like not like a woman at all Dame 1 Auxerre ca 640 BCe similar to the NY kouros wig like hair big staring eyes Maybe a little bit better proportioned She is clothed these were painted in McDonald s red yellow bright bright blue really garish to us Berlin Kore Keratea Attica 570560 BCE looks like a half back proportionally her dress is painted Hera of Samos 570 BCE drapery is flowing better than it has been on stylized ones Euthydikos Kore 490480 BCE Athens 0 Has a softness in the face like she has bone structure Eyes and lips have been painted Even though fragmentary she is the equivalent of the Kritios Boy Writing on vase paintings tells us who the people are writing on sculpture that tells us if they are votive or grave markers Boustrophedon writing the first writing pieces that are found are written in Boustrophedon Boustrophedon is where you write one line this way and the next went the other way even letters were backwards Writing on vases vs iconography set the standard of iconography of a lot of figures When you see them in later Greek art they have the same attributes or are doing the same thing as they were on the Francois Vase There is a standardization of iconography Apotropaic warding off evil the gorgons clown like grinning female with snaky hair Chapter 7 480 BCE Greece has conquered the Persians and emerge as the world s greatest super power Because of that there is a lot of money in athens a lot of pull in athens for artists and everything There is a transition from using ionic Chitons to Doric Peplos One of the things that is uniquely Greek are temples with building programs ldea that there is sculpture as part of the temple One of the first things we see is Temple A Prinias ca 625600 BCE Early greek temple from Crete 0 Not the same construction as a megaron Has a porch but not the same It doesn t have columns like a megaroon The idea of some sort of temple with a pediment The ideas are there and are being experimented with a 0 The first temple in permanenet material so we still have most of the sculptures Sometimes painted very garishly Pulled pieces of pigments from the depths of the sculptures And recreated what had long been gone 0 very stiff sculptures because archaic period they re still not thinking in realism but in linear ideas and patterns the idea that all of them look the same Sculptural elements from Temple A at Prinias ca 625 BCE very Egyptian like big ears hair hats stiff clothing eastern though 0 when Greeks adopted something they didn39t adopt it the way it came into their culture they adapted it to have the greek flavor to it Temple of Aphaia at Aegina ca 500 BCE temple off the coast of Athens Doric temple to Aphaia minor Greek deity Unhappily married woman from Crete Was taken to Aegina by a fisherman and was taken by the gods awayform her unhappy life Doric temple has two porches know for a test no base at bottom of columns no frieze has metopes and triglyph has triglyph directly above each capital columns are in hexes style not a traditional temple has 12 columns down the side most have 13 most are whatever is across the front x 2 1 May have been a 7h century temple here but this was built on same spot curved up the stylobate just a little because it was straight across it would look sagged looks like McDonald s colors 80 in your face Mineral colors Ochre s crushed stone interior columns had two stories Second story had post holes for beams and had sort of storage space Can only see it in the elevation not the floor plan the two different pediments show the shift in the sculpture one is archaic and other is classical styles not quite i because six across the front and 12 down the sides Most were 6 on front and 13 down side Pediments 0 all the figures in east pediment coming in Classical 0 west pediment all are falling out Archaic Athena is larger than life size In the center because it is her temple Gods and goddesses were larger than life where you could tell them apart from humans that they were more important both pediments show scenes from the Trojan war and scenes that involve people from this island Can see transition from archaic to classical style in the sculpture Goal of classical art is to show anatomical accuracy with the ideal in the human form Defined almost by the idealized everything anatomy facial expressions no flaws The classical sculptures are more fragmentary archaic is better preserved Archaic warrior Temple of Aphaia at Aegina West Pediment ca 500490 BCE Very stiff very unnatural has a little movement A warrior who has fallen and is dying but has a smile on his face 0 one of the things they have done is show the contours of the face by digging into the face so it makes the sculptures smile like that 0 Thing that typify archaic sculpture is that idea of impassivity that anything can be happening to you killed etc and you still have a smile on your face or no expression Another thing that39s very typical of archaic style of the hair they are trying to get musculature but were going towards it Only a few year before classical but very different Classical warrior Temple of Aphaia at Aegina East Pediment ca 500490 BCE his facial expression looks like he has fallen down his chest is turned down toward the ground all of the weight on him is on the arm Not leaning like the other one Is falling His legs break the border of the pediment he is falling off He is straining can see the veins popping out He s a little fuller in the middrift than a younger man and very muscular Older men were usually bearded Could be pulling a spear or something out of his side Maybe has a little bit of a smile his eyes have more of a lid to them Don t know why this is here not here in slide show Temple of Hera I Paestum Italy ca 550 BCE corner column is bigger around Statue from the east pediment 9 Lion head is always Hercules Figures into the Aeginatan version of the myth Can see all muscles pulling bow back Kritios Boy c 490480 BCE Acropolis Museum Athens 0 Has that one trait that makes the difference weight leg and free leg Eyes have lids Named for the sculptor Kritios llThe Tyrannicides Harmodius right and Aristogeiton left marble copies of bronze Greek originals from 477 BCE can see difference in age Older man Aristogeiton has beard younger Harmodius raising a weapon Bronze statues would have been able to stand without the support because they could weight it Originals were carted off by Persians Looks transition even though copies because short hair weight distribution even though can see stumps propping them up more dramatic more severe swelling eyes flatter faces bolder chin thick muscles more dynamic shown in motion more everything than we have seen before Individualized Haven t seen anything that is really portraiture before Portrait bust of Themistokles Roman copy in marble of a bronze Greek original dating to 450 BCE or so 0 Famous Greek general Finally get to see what historical figures looked like 0 Hair is not as strand like flat face little more blocky eye ridge not smiling looks serious Bronze was used for weapons so most statues were melted down Charioteer of Delphi 478 or 474 BCE An original bronze would have been a group with horses and chariots Dedicated by a tyrant from Sicily to a victory and chariot race It is a male It39s a very nice drapery shows folds texture wearing headband almost all figures were done a little bit with colors or inlay Is a portrait Weren t really greenish that39s just what happens to bronze over time Artemision Bronze Zeus Poseidon ca 460450 BCE recovered from a ship wreck maybe off coast of Artemision 6 10 is as tall as his arms are wide kind of in motion almost like he s stepping but not quite a shift of weight could have been holding something in back hand like he s aiming no iconography to tell us who it is 0 they don39t know who it is maybe a god Bronze statuette Zeus hurling a Thunderbolt Dodona Early 5quotI c BCE it could be Zeus Silver Stater Poseidonia 420410 BCE a coin where Poseidon is throwing his trident Know it s Poseidon because it comes from Poseidonia Riace Bronzes A left B right ca 450 BCE A is older B is younger Meant to be seen together B 0 weight leg and free leg strands of hair curls are amazingly done can see shift of eight from the back A 0 Rather lifelike with copper lips eyes inlaid with ivory or bone 0 Seems common to use all these different materials on one statue to up the aesthetic appeal and make more lifelike and upping the value Terminology Panathenaia Acropolis Hephaistos Greek god Pentelic Marble building marble from Athens CentaursLapiths Pallantides children of Pallatin Acropolis Kore 682 530 BCE Acropolis Kore 675 BCE Acropolis Kore 685 500 490 BCE Can almost see through the fabric around her legs elaborate drapery arms could have been added in something different typically had something in their hand like a pomegranate Obviously archaic face is verging onto sever bolder chin natural eyes Euthydikos Kore 480 BCE or later similar to Blonde Boy 480 BCE or later could be done by same artist 0 Also called the sulky maiden we don39t have all of her have her torso and head and then feet and vase Drapery is becoming a little bit simpler shifting from ionic Chiton to Peplos Right Acropolis Kore 593 aka the Pomegranate Kore anywhere between 560 and 470 BCE Most of these were used as grave markers Holding the pomegranate could mean she died before she was married Birth of Aphrodite from the socalled Ludovisi Throne Gardens of Sallust 480470 BCE kind of a wet tshirt contest look because she was born form the sea Pushing the envelope but have simplified the garments Typical peplos severe style Angelitos Athena ca 480 BCE Can tell its Athena even with no head because of the gorgon Marble statues needed supports when bronze statues could be weighted There were good copies and bad copies know about copies because they were written about long ago another thing that complicates our study of bronze originals copies were melted down for war destroyed Funerary stele of Aristion by Aristokles ca 510 BCE transitional sculpture used for votive and grave monuments full frontal eye Very unnatural Shows us all the parts of the body Changes over time Was how figures were represented for thousands of years nearly 8ft tall wears armorhelmet holds a spear his entire body is in profile Torso is not full frontal Kind of half way coming out of the relief Mourning Athena ca 470 BCE body is turned eye is set into face is wearing a simple peplos was found on the acropolis know its Athena bythe helmet and has a spear she is severe style turned a little bit uncertain what she39s looking at Suggests is could have been a roster of names of people who died in the war Greek world was originally divided into east and west East was based around Athens but stretched to Asia minor West consisted of colonies like Sicily Athens had been settled for quite some time there was even a Mycenaean colony on the acropolis Athens wasn39t the focal part all along just later on Greek culture was crystalizing Everything that makes up Greek culture is coming into form ex politics idea of citystates Citystates became rivals in wars and Olympic games In the archaic period Athens became more of a focal point bigger political leaders Made laws and reforms that were popular with some not so much with others One ruler is important because he founded the Panathenaia a festival like the Olympic games Politically one of the biggest problems was the aristocracy believed in separation of riff raff that was the general population Cleisthenes set up 10 new tribes around Attica so all people would be represented Persian wars Athens aided different groups in defeating Persians In 490 BCE the Athenians won a victory at Marathon In 480 BCE the Athenian general Themistocles turned the tables on the Persians The Persians did destroythe sculptures on the Acropolis 4BOBCE They were buried ritually because they were a religious votive probably for Athena Acropolis was a big sanctuary of Athena Persian war went on into the 470s Greeks defeated Persians with the aid of the Spartans Most Greeks were under control of either Athens or Sparta The citystates that still existed formed the Delian League housed on island of Delia banded together to fight the Persians not all citystates participated willingly Persians and Greeks fought until about 454 when Persians once again deafened the Greeks Athenians used this as excuse to say Delian League wasn t working and transferred treasury to Athens Athenians beat Carthaginians in 486 Result of Greek victories in east and west essentially made the Greeks the rulers of the known world ART ARCHITECTURE LITERATURE exploded Bust of Pericles Roman marble copy of a Greek bronze original ca 430 BCE in the Vatican Museum Athenian general led for a very long time gave lower classes more say Bust in the Altes Museum Berlin copy of a Greek work of the 15 c no rebuilding should take place on the acropolis because it should be a reminder of what the Persians could do they did tidy it up though Around 500 BCE the Agora was developed as a civic center were small temples temple of Apollo shrine of Zeus Alter of 12 gods and it had civic buildings committee chambers Stoa royal Stoa Street of the Panathenaia Festival that was celebrated once a year by Athenians and every four years by all of Greece to glorify Athena Painted Stoa or Stoa Poikile looks like the porch of a temple but its simply a long portico Nothing really remains We know it was one of the oldest buildings to combine the Doric and Ionic orders in the same structure in Athens made from limestone columns and marble capitals served as art gallery 9 know from literature that pictures of the battle at marathon were there war trophies were displayed was a meeting hall mAltes Museum is different from Stoa Poilkile because lonic columns are in the front Temple of Hephaistos Athens 449420 BCE Hephaistos 9 god of crafts outside of the borders of agora there are pottery shops etc 0 good palace to study classical architecture in Athens Best preserved Doric temple Converted into Christian Church which is why its stayed so preserved Representative of Athenian Doric temple Built of Pentelic marble and sculptures in Perian marble limestone base also wood in the superstructure and roof tiles made out of terra cotta Doric 9 columns capitals and triglyph and metopes No sculptures in the frieze on the back only 16 of 86 metopes have sculpture It might have to do with the way it was approached Either they weren t sculpted at all or were painted they aren t sure 0 Typically Athenian because it is hexes style 6x13 columns in antes and line up with 339d columns 0 There were two statues in the temple Hephaistos and Athena Argonne goddess of the workers no evidence of the cult statue Entrance to the Temple of Hephaistos Athens 449420 BCE Doric temple is kind of the workforce of Greek temples They ass friezes over the doors on Pronaos and opisthodomos add an ionic frieze overthe door to the Pronaos and the opisthodomos Western lonic Frieze Theseus battling the Nobles of Athens who didn39t accept Theseus as king 0 Hard to see what it is because everything is so fragmentary Eastern Ionic Frieze Lapiths and centaurs figures are throwing rocks and things like that Iapiths and centaurs are descendants of god from Peloponnese when centaurs get drunk at a wedding they start a fight with Iapiths Theseus fights on the side of the Iapiths there is so much Theseus on the sculptures that people thought it was his temple Acropolis Pericles hired the best architects and artist to make Athens beautiful People came to Athens because there was a lot of money Foundation of the Old temple of Athena Athena Polias with Erechtheion archaic foundation still exists between the Erechtheion and the Parthenon It was left for a reason 0 life size wooden statue xoanon of Athena was kept in this temple And once a year coincided with the Panathenaic procession a new peplos would be woven for the statue Will see a depiction of the ceremony in the sculpture in the Parthenon Was just one sanctuary on the acropolis Statue did not survive because of the wet climate compared to Egypt s dry climate and the wood wouldn39t last Destroyed and didn39t rebuild because they made an oath that they wouldn39t rebuild acropolis after Persians destroyed it They may have left for people to see where they would remember that the Persians did Terminology xoanon wooden statue Cecrops king of Athens Erichthonius 9 Erichthonius was a leader that was made from the union of Hephaistos trying to rape Athena and semen got on her thigh and she wiped it off and threw it on the ground and Erichthonius sprang up from the ground of that union Athena raises him as her own but he is reallythe son of Hephaistos and the earth Erechtheus 9 son of Erichthonius sometimes identified as Poseidon M nesicles architect Phidias sculptor caryatids columns in the shapes of females Atlantids male figures because atlantis holds up the world How could they see all the sculptures on the frieze Either they were set on an angle so you could see them from the ground also made it where the top part was carved in higher relief and they were painted behind so they stood out Sometimes labeled the statues on the temples Why is this a typical Doric temple for Athens o In the hepicean it would be typical because they lined up the columns in antes with the 339d column hexes style 6 across front 13 down sides The Erechtheion Acropolis Athens 421 and 406 BCE took so long to build because wars were going on with Sparta and had to send men to war so couldn t get built in timely fashion 0 two godsleaders of Athens Erichthonius amp Erechtheus that get mixed up both leaders of Athens Named after Erichthonius though He is a minor deity because his mother was a god and he was one of the first kings of Athens Called Erechtheion because one room was dedicated to Poseidon Erechtheus name also connected with an early king and a family that offered the first priest and offered family members to be priests and priestesses One way you could support state if you weren t going to war Architect may have been Mnesicles and sculptor was Phidias architects have tried reconstructed it made of pentelic marble You can see where they have tried to reconstruct because the marble isn t the same color even though it is the same kind 0 Really strange floor plan Not like any other temple friezes are a different material dark limestone and frieze figures were attached in perian marble Kind of cameo effect Figures were white against a dark background 0 Contest between Poseidon and Athena whoever gave the best gift got the name of the city and got to be patron godgoddess Poseidon struck the earth with his trident and a spring came up important because gave water to survive but it was salt water Athena gave an olive tree very important for food oil and won the name to the city Always been an olive tree with the Erechtheion Have a mark where Poseidon s trident hit and both things are present in the Erechtheion which might be why it has a weird floor plan One chamber had Athena Polias and the other had Poseidon Erechtheus ionic columns atypical ionic caryatid columns sculpture would have been on the frieze in a different material Ionic column form the Erechtheion with egg amp dart molding anthemion collar 24 flutes with ribbon fillets Because of those compressed lines it makes it more slender more elegant profile Original coffered ceilings Egganddart looks like and egg and there are darts in between Caryatid Porch Erechtheion Athens 0 works of art in their own right classical accurate idealism more idealized figures All individually carved Sculpted by Phidias Not the originals outside they are in museums 1 in British Museum and the others in Acropolis Museum In museums because they don t want them to get ruined from pollution Coffered ceilings help reduce volumemass are other examples of caryatids in Delphi the Parthenon Terminology lktinos amp Kallikrates 9 architects Phidias 9 chief sculptor Named for Athena Parthenos Chryselephantine sculptural medium of gold and ivory Centauromachy battle between lapiths and centaurs Gigantomachy battle between gods and giants Amazonomachy battle against the amazons Entasis machy means battle The Parthenon largest and most recognizable building on the acropolis Dedicated to goddess Athena Parthenos No Pronaos columns are not in antes they are proster are in front of the wall not nearly as deep one reason for that is because the sculpture inside is so massive that they can39t have porches and stuff that take up space 8 across front and 17 on sides columns holding up opisthodomos internal columns columns with circle and little dot in middle means that they have a base and are ionic back colonnade columns holding up i are not in antes first time ionic and doric have been combined The pillow part of the doric temple is now straight sided Opisthodomos is usuallythe treasury Cella contained the statue of Athena Parthenos and a reflecting pool that would have lit up the interior a little bit Once used as ammunition depot Why its in bad condition today because it got blown up Trying to reconstruct using original materials Using original tools if they have to make new pieces Many refinements that counteract optical illusions 9 virtually unable to be seen with the naked eye Everything has its own place to fit Same thing is done with the sculptures Columns swell in center and make them look straight Greeks built it in 8 years and they have been trying to rebuild it for 30 years golden ratio 9 all based on a rectangle that is 161xwidth of rectangle Typical ratio that is used It is a proportion that is aesthetically pleasing And people have also said it might have to giving the building a life of its own some sort of movement to the building itself took 8 years to build Parthenon and another few years to finish sculptures Pericles stated that it kept a lot of people employed both craftsmen and skilled workers Completed in 432 BCE Lack of an alter They cannot find any evidence of it Very unusual Was used as a Christian church then a powder magazine and that s why its in such bad shape everything had sculpture Continuous ionic frieze all the way around West and East Pediment birth of Athena east and battle between Athena and Poseidon west have some drawings of the pediments by Jacque Carrey in 1674 not many because artist didn39t draw everything we can see what was where The entrance to the Parthenon is on the West side so back of the acropolis So manyfigures are crowded into the space Even though they were 50ft in the air they were all carved to be seen on the ground Background was painted Some figures break the plain People in Athens at the time would have recognized most of this imagery Doing things that are a little more bold Tells us they can think outside the box they don39t have to carve everything in its entirety Really pushing envelope with pedimentary sculptures Horses going in certain direction indicate the rising of sun and moon All gods are attending birth of Athena She springs out of Zeus head Everyone is in awe looking at what has happened Drapery shows bodies underneath Purpose of classical art is accurate anatomy and idealized expression of human form People are not necessarily old or young they are ideal Drapery is done idealized Looks natural There are known models that could have sat forthe carvings Drapery is very realistic the way gravity pulls it Metopes 3 ft tall battle between amazons most metopes don39t exist in good shape anymore The battle of centaurs and lapiths is in relatively good condition think that changing it into a church might have helped preserve them All others showed gods and Christians would have not liked that on their church All have one or two figures strategically placed to tell story Cared in high relief head breaks the plain they have mastered many positions for statues some would have been painted as well to stand out Friezes on all sides horses and people are going towards the entrance west Continuous frieze around the cella wall might not have been part of the original building Sculptures are depth of 6 centimeters Up to 7 figures are overlapped in some frieze panels Athena and Erichthonius 440430 BCE pelike Fied figure vase Athena took Erichthonius and gave him to the daughters of King Cecrops in a box and told them not to open it When they did a guy popped out that was all snaky They were so horrified they threw themselves off a cliff 42 ft tall statue of Athena Parthenos one in Nashville TN artist Alan Lequire was for world s fair as art gallerythen decided to build it full scale 0 made out of 1500lbs of gold and ivory 9 chryselephantine in Nashville weighs 800lbs because they hammered the gold leaf out not ivory but gypsum and fiberglass nothing left of this no drawings there are a few copies that they think are Athena Parthenos she is wearing helmet with sphinx and griffins tunic reaches her feet on her chest is head of medusa gorgon around her sandals is battle lapiths and centaurs on the bottom frieze has the myth of Pandora Holds statue of Victory in the other hand a spear at her feet lies a shield and near the spear is a serpent Erichthonius Outside of shield is done with Amazonomachy Strangford Sheild Marble copy 339d c CE Fioman gorgon used to ward off evil Apotropaic 9 turning away evil Myth of Pandora calyx krater 460450 BCE almost like a statue and they are putting all the decorations on her Pandora was created for punishment of man Panall doragifts Crafted by Hephaistos as punishment for man they could look at her but not have her She was given wonderful gifts from the gods to make her more attractive to men so they would want to get with her Very interesting character in Greek mythology Two separate Panathenaic prize amphorae depicting Athena 480470 BCE and a footrace red figure amphora The Propylaia Mnesicles architect Pinakotheke series of gates on the same axis as the Parthenon so when you look from far away you see both facades Isn39t symmetrical 6 Doric columns in the front 6 Doric in back ionic columns in the center steps that go up but then there is a ram p Central gate for animals two on either side for people Coffered ceilings Original here Pediments were blank used different color stones 0 Looks very monumental Temple of Athena Nike victory architect was Kallikrates has be reconstructed first truly ionic monument as apposed to Parthenon that had ionic elements on the frieze small only 4 columns across the front and back not columns all the way around Fully ionic temple 2 columns in antes are square like phylisters in antes balancing the very weightiness of the Propylaia Prostyle ionic columns front and back Cella is nearly square sculptural program one frieze battle of marathon Battle scene where Greeks won Greeks fighting Persians south Greeks fighting Greeks not only reference to Persian war battle at marathon but also Peloponnesian wars Greeks vs Greeks Balustrade added 20 years later most provocative one is Athena binding her sandal so many things to Athena on acropolis because she has different aspects TEST 0 Slide ID identify by name or description artist place found date material context and IMPORTANCE for Greek art history Includes description of a temple that you may or may not have seen before 0 be more specific on date than just 5h century SLIDE Comparison Identify each image by name artist place date context and COMPARISON and CONTRAST Choice of Short Essay 45 slide ID 28 slide comparisons 23 short essays One question will be on mythology Much of the sculpture we ve looked at have been for pediments Reacts to the laws of weight and gravity deeply carves drapery they all have the same idealized expressions Phidias mastermind of acropolis Had his hands in everything 0 Had students Agora Krectos cult statue for temple of Nemesis Alcmene s Polykleitos was doing all the things in the pediment probably the single most important sculptorforfree standing Doryphoros Polykleitos Roman copy of a marble from Pompeii of a Greek bronze original 450440 BCE Now in Naples Polykleitos developed a cannon of ideal proportions Set Greek sculpture apart from any other cannons including Egyptian Much more natural in terms of people really look like famous for idea of Symmetria 9 com mensurability of all the parts of the body with each other all proportions work together in relationship to each other 0 Does not exist in bronze anymore Wouldn39t have had strut holding arm if it was bronze Doryphoros shows all of the things his cannon displayed Naturally tilts his head putting his weight on one foot just barely coming off the ground working leg and relaxed leg working arm and relaxed arm curve of his spine all of this makes this figure different than what we ve looked at before 0 would have originally been holding a spear very own attempt at cannon of proportions hard to tell if walking or standing caught mid action tilt of hips curve of spine contraction of stomach muscles tilt of head in other direction 0 What sets this figure apart from the other ones Especially because it s nude you can39t cover anything it really has to be the realism of bone and flesh and ideal physique Almost like it has to be carved from within rather than from out Diadoumenos youth binding a fillet attributed to Polykleitos roman marble copy of a Greek bronze original dating to ca 430 BCE This one is in the Metropolitan Museum of Art NY 0 would have been tying a ribbon around his head made out of different material 0 more curvature of the spine and head both arms are being used 0 one at the MET has been well restored most of torso has been reconstructed Compare Diadoumenos left and Doryphoros Right Diadoumenos Stronger head tilt on Dia More movement in arms on Dia Hair looks more natural Doryphoros Temple of Apollo at Bassae 430390 BCE really important temple Very interesting 293294 textbook Oddball temple Points out some things that will happen in 4h century ionic frieze on inside of cella out in the middle of no where in Peloponnese Is a NorthSouth orientation not eastwest ODD May have done it because it is so exposed and if you re a visitor coming at it from east or west it would look really big because you would see the side Doric temple 0 Frank Cooper tried to put it back together his entire life Hexes style 6 in front 15 down the side not 13 engaged ionic columns open opisthodomos with columns in antes Pronaos with columns in antes single column down the center of cella makes like a screen to adyton there is a separate entrance to adyton a room added on maybe for the cult statue a Corinthian column stands alone first one ever 480890 BCE ionic frieze on inside in London now shows Amazonomachy gigantomachy awkward poses Frieze didn39t really exist on Doric temples it had more metopes and triglyph REVIEW Persian war goddess of war helped them win the victory Parthenon victory East pediment birth of Athena west pediment Athena vs Poseidon frieze Panathenaic procession statue of Athena Erechtheion 9 built to commemorate battle Athena Polias temple of Nike victory retelling of myths Pericles Panathenaic procession democracy correct dates architectssculptors Temple of Hephaistos 450415 Parthenon 447438 Propylaia 437432 temple of Athena Nike 420s Erechtheion 421 406 3612 906 AM 3612 906 AM


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