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by: Jabari Dach


Jabari Dach
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Mark Zucker

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Mark Zucker
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This 56 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jabari Dach on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ARTH 4413 at Louisiana State University taught by Mark Zucker in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see /class/222659/arth-4413-louisiana-state-university in Art History at Louisiana State University.

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Date Created: 10/13/15
ART 4413 NOTEBOOK 9162006 75500 PM A Introduction o Anonymous artist Annunciation from the Amesburv Psalter c1250 0 Manuscript a handwritten and often handpainted book usually on parchment sheep skin or vellum calf skin rather than paper when manuscripts have painted decoration either fullscale illustrations or any sort of simpler ornament they are said to be illuminated o Psalter a book manuscript or otherwise containing he Psalms a group of 150 hymns collected together in the Old Testament 0 Gold backgrounds are an indication of otherworldly things o Jean Pucele Annunciation from the Hours of Jeanne d Evreux 132528 0 Grisaille technique a monochrome grayish painting technique 0 Book of Hours a luxury illustrated prayer book made for secular use containing eight different series of prayers meant to be recited at times corresponding to the following eight hours of the day two in predawn hours known as Matins and Lauds 600 AM Prime 900 AM Terce noon Sext 300 PM None sunset Vespers evening Compline 0 Change from 2D architecture to 3D background inaccurate o Jan van Eyck Annunciation c 143537 0 Archangel Gabriel wears red Mary wears blue 0 Gabriel looks feminine 0 Very intricate attention to detail o Domenico Veneziano Annunciation c 144045 0 Much more bleached out muted colors Lots of distance bw Mary and Gabriel he s kneeling amp has curly hair 3D halos Artist is from Florence Italian art is more general scientific classical Lilies are a symbol of purity and are often seen in Annunciation scenes to denote Mary o Andrea Mantegna St Sebastian 14505 O O O 0 St Sebastian is tied to a column shot through with arrows and looks like a painted classical statue nude o Jan van Eyck Adam from the Ghent Altarpiece 1432 0 Not a nude just ordinary nakedness because of visible faults o Rucellai Palace Florence begun 1446 o Pilasters looks classical but flat imitates the Colosseum archshaped windows o Louvain Leuven City Hall begun 1448 0 Extreme example of Gothic architecture has nothing in common with the Renaissance to the south B FrancoFlemish Manuscript Painting of International Gothic Style 9Flemish artists are mostly from Belgium and France amp truly semiGothic because of its transition from Gothic to the style of van Eyck et al elnternational Gothic Style references smooth sweeping curves o The Boucicaut Master active in Paris in the early 15th century o Characteristics Decorative pattern combination of Italian techniques and French illumination compex interiors vibrant full color balance of natural5m and decoration aerial perspective architectural framing high horizons graceful lines 0 Hours of the Mare39chal de Boucicaut Boucicaut Hours c 140910 Ce que vous voudrez Motto meaning Whatever you desire Visitation Compare version by Pucelle from hours of Jeanne d Evreux 132528 a n a Normal size book postcard size pictures 498 pgs St Elizabeth visits with a pregnant Virgin Mary Looks more like a painting than Pucelle s works more colorful Event in Gospel of Luke Mary blue visits cousin Elizabeth who is pregnant w John the Baptist Window frame clear as early as 1410 flamboyant like 15th c arches flamelike curvaturecourtlyorganiccurvilinear forms are recognizably Boucicaut In images of the Visitation in the 14005 neither Mary nor Elizabeth look pregnant In later images the characters are more accurate Mary young Elizabeth old Mary visibly pregnant contemporary curvy profile Flight into Egypt a Only the Gospel of Matthew talks about the flight into Egypt Apocryphal writing integrated into the Bible St Jerome in His Study 1440 n n The Doctors of the Church Augustine Ambrose Gregory and Jerome are scholars of the church St Jerome scholar amp hermit legend Jerome pulls thorn out of lion s paw and befriends the lion Jerome s virginity is noted by the presence of lilies and he is incorrectly denoted as a cardinal Boucicaut colors greenwhite checkerboard to denote certain donors and station Transition period of naturalism and decoration at this time trying to balance with one another Tessalated pattern used to imply a wall o Interior by implication an interior setting in a painting that is only suggested by depicting a floor or some furniture o Diaperedtessellated pattern an allover pattern usually checkered seen in various paintings Mare chal de Boucicaut before St Catherine Boucicaut puts himself as patron praying in a sacred scene to his patron saint St Catherine of Alexandria her personal symbol is a wagon wheel because she was racked A sword or weapon is used as a symbol of martyrdom as well as the figure holding a palm branch o The Limbourg Brothers Pol VIP Herman and Jean active in Bourges late 14th to the early 15th century likely from NetherlandsBelgium Droleries on borders of manuscripts elaborate pattern sensory overload selective realism atmospheric perspective and aerial perspective architectural framing high horizon delicate coors fantasy quality earliest attempts of cast shadows Gothic iluminations and lavish compositions Brothers referred to as Maelweel name meaning paint well 0 Les Tr s Riches Heures du Duc de Berry The Very Rich Hours of the Duke of Berry c 141316 9Most famous illuminated manuscript in world history made for Duke of Berry son of King brother of exking uncle of future king very powerful man greatest patron of the Arts in Late Middle Ages Gold fleur de Lis on a blue background is the royal emblem bears and swans are the heraldic animals of the Duke of Berry Bears Swans and the Jean the Duke of Berry a ours French for bear one of the emblems of DOB b cygne French for swan another DOB emblem c Oursine or UrsineF a woman s name in French d Oursin or UrsinM St Ursin was DOB patron saint 9206 leaves 412 pgs worked on manuscript for years completion by a different artist at a later date esome pages are miniature illustrations others are full page with a diaphragm arch semicircle at the top of otherwise rectangular frame Visitation Meeting of the Magi at the Crossroads amp Adoration of the Magi n Facing pages kings wise men or magi Oriental lavish and fantastic Typified the late Gothic style a Magi represent all of humanity youth maturity old age exotic fancies are indulged in these imagined scenes of wilderness and in the distant background are famous cities Paris amp Bourges n Montjoie French a towerlike structure that often marks a crossroads they appear on several pages of the Les Tr s Riches Heures du Duc de Berry Fall of Man and Expulsion from Paradise n Shows four scenes in one page o Tempting of Eve by serpentinemermaid o Eve tempts Adam with the apple o God confronts Adam amp Eve about their sin c Adam amp Eve are expelled from Eden by a Seraph red angel out of a Gothic portal n Association of sin and sexuality Classical quotation of Adam s pose as he looks up at Eve to receive the apple from her a Feminine ideal of beauty high small breasts swooping pregnant looking curvy body Months of the Year from the Calendar January February March April June October a See Zodiac and Labors calendar Relief Sculpture a See Rubrics Book of Hours a January o Indoor banquet features Duke of Berry in front of fire everyone is trying to stay warm by the fire tapestry covering the wall for insulation featuring the Trojan War battle o Duke is larger and has an emblem canopy over him Surplus of visibility elaborately costumed sensory overload a February o Peasant outdoor scene more naturalistic representation barrels fence sheep stable beehives rice silo o Accurate representation of snow amp atmospheric perspective buildings frame scene smoke steamy breath amp footprints realistically done a March o Architectural background and high horizon line agriculture seen i a June Naturalistic treatment of the foreground shadows Crossroads and tower at crossing montjoie Features aristocrats elaborately costumed amp ideally proportioned in front of another of the Duke s castles they are in an exchange of rings swanlike beauty elongated proportion Not lifelike proportions in scenes Aristocrats don t cast shadows Fishermen in the boats on the lake high horizon line small trees towers framing tilting space is out of scale image of peasants harvesting hay large castle in the background more miniscule trees for framing devices as per usual the figures are unnaturally largeyet not aristocrats the procession of haystacks gives depth the architecture in the background is the city island in Paris a cathedral in this picture is also featured in the Meeting of the Magi Saint Chapele the patterning on the rose window of the Saint Chapele was changed in the late 15th century the Limbourg bros painting shows how it originally looked SainteChapelle famous small Gothic church in Paris seen in he background of the month ofJune n October peasants working the landone on a horse another big building in the background this one s the Louvrewhich was originally the principle palace of the kings of France the Louvre was completely rebuilt numerous times this shows one of its earlier iterations o depth is conveyed by the furrows in the soil lots of realistic effects and additionscast shadows reflections footprints horse poo scarecrow etc strong central axistower scarecrow o The Rohan Master Master of the Rohan Hours active in the first quarter of the 15th century 9 The Rohan Master takes his name from the most famous manuscript Heures de Rohan Rohan was an important French family who owned the manuscript much later no relationship to the original owner originally commissioned by a woman Yolande of Anjou one of the most powerful women in Francec 1420 o Characteristics departs from conventional style and iconography mysterious morbid crude ridiculous figural scale ininterested in space and dimension high horizon flat 2D forms 0 Les Grandes Heures de Rohan Rohan Hours c 1420 Dead Man Giving up His Soul to God The Judgment of the Dead n A corpse at left speaks to an older man with a sword presumably God the new naturalism is applied to a dead person people of this time paid a lot of attention to the physical aspects of death quite morbid n Unlike the Boucicaut master and the Limbourg bros this master was uninterested in judgments of space and dimension angels and devils fight for the soul of the dead man lots of text everywhere the dead man is quoting a psalm Lamentation n Jesus dead on the ground Virgin Mary leaning over him while John the Evangelist pulls her away God seems to be saluting him at right n a Background is again just a flat pattern the cross in the center divides the picture John s face looks resentful God might be a bit remorseful the characters extend outside the picture plane Flight into Egypt a Giant donkey with giant Virgin Mary on it high horizon line lots of glorious lightgold the scale is ridiculous crudeness of style but more emphatic in some ways Christ s halo always has a cross on it crossnimbus Joseph is often represented as a bit of an idiot the young man on the left is a rare addition apocryphal legend says Joseph had an earlier wife who bore him childrenthe boy is Joseph s adult child The story of the wheat growing in a single night appears again the peasants are represented as dumb too the clothing has pseudoHebrew on it the soldiers look like foreigners C FrancoFlemish Panel painting of the International Gothic Style o Anonymous artist 0 Wilton Diptych c1395 King Richard II of England Presented by Sts Edmund Edward and John the Baptist to the Virgin and Child with Angels Overloaded with symbols of Richard and the kingdoms of England and France white stag is Richard s own symbol white heart badge broomcod of France necklace is worn by many angels and Richard as Richard s personal medallion We look to the heraldry symbols for approximate dating 2 wings on the left is King Richard kneeling and backed by three saints earth on the right is the Virgin and child and 11 angels heaven Stylistically similar to manuscript painting Similar to a manuscript subject of the Duke of Berry In left wing King Richard II is in prayer toward the Virgin and child in the right wing King Sts Edmund and Edward are represented here too calling to mind the magi St John the Baptist is represented in his animal skin cloak Entrenchment into British history and kings In right wing swaying idealized form of the Virgin who is cloaked in blue All heavenly figures are concerned with Richard One angel carries a banner white banner with red cross the banner of St George patron saint of England also associated with the resurrection of Christ Infant Christ s cruciform halo actually has the crown of thorns forming its outer edge and nails of the crucifixion forming its cross Christ child seems to be leaning toward Richard in a blessing Mary and the angels stand on a garden Plantagenet English royal dynasty of French origin that ruled England from 1154 Henry II to 1399 Richard II The name derives from the Latin planta genista broom plant a plant related to the pea Melchior Broederam active in Ypres once a major FrenchFlemish city rivaling Bruges and Ghent in the late 14th century Characteristics Combo of painting and sculpture no aerial perspective gold background architectural framing mini tress curvilinear gures heavy drapery figures out of scale with landscape more realistic display of emotion not idealized 9Altarpiece a painted or carved image that stands on an altar in a church facing the congregation 9Dijon altarpiece is a combination of painting and sculpture Conventions of panel painting are honored odd shaped frame completely filled with no aerial perspective visible gold background prevents this 9Jacques de Baerze Netherlandish sculptor who cared the wooden portions of the Dijon Altarpiece with panel paintings on the back of the wings by Melchoir Broederlam Sculpture done first and then panel paintings added o Diion Altarpiece Retable de Champmol altarpiece from the Chartreuse de Champmol Charterhouse or Carthusian Monastery of Champmol on the outskirts of Dijon 139499 Annunciation and Visitation n Annunciation o Characteristic uptilting of space oblique construction gives the feeling of buildings teetering on a corner Even so it remains a marvelous achievement of space o Gabriel left has his salutation of a scroll in front of him Ave Maria gracia plena dominus tecum Hail Mary full of grace the Lord is with you c Mary right interrupted while reading looks upon Gabriel her lily plant is front and center showing her condition as pure virgin The light and dove come down to show that Mary is being impregnated by Holy Spirit n Visitation o Curvy figures heavy drapery elaborately brocaded fabric familiar colors for Mary on left blue cloak Elizabeth on right wearing a wimple over her head is amazed at Mary s miraculous pregnancy with her mouth open elaborate tooling of goldsmith halo Strong vertical lines separate scenes o Presentation in the Temple and Flight into Egypt 0 Presentation in the Tem le In Synagogue Temple of King Solomon in Jerusalem circular domed structure structure possibly inspired by that of Presentation by the Italian Embrozio Lorenzetti in 1342 50 yrs Before Symbols are candle and two sacrificial doves Candlemas holiday falling on February 2 when church candles were traditionally lit it corresponds to when the Christ child was presented in the Temple in Jerusalem 0 Flight into Egypt New triumph of realism donkey Joseph is not idealized fat and taking a gulp from a cantine shadows Mary is oversized when compared to the donkey See Giovannino de Grassi Italian painter of the International Gothic Style See Master Bertram Early 15th century German painter Miracle of the falling idols in the background Twotone curvilinear fabric drapery Halo problem with naturalized posture Francois Villon Georges Chastellain Eustache Deschamps French Poets of the 15th century who describe Joseph as a poor schlump who suffered poverty and misery in his service of his Virgin wife and child D Early Netherlandish Panel Painting Origins of the New Stylequot 9Battle of Agincourt1415 French defeated by English under King Henry V so France is taken out of the picture of available patronage but simultaneously a great boost in Flemish Flanders commissions of art 9Death of the Duke of Berry 1416 9Murder of the Duke of Burgundy in 1419 eson of John the Bold moved his capital of Burgundy to the northern 1420 9New in the 1420s is oil paint rather than eggbased tempera paint possible alternatives to the title of Renaissance ars nova Latin new art nouvelle pratique French new practice o Robert Campn Master of Fl malle from Villonciene in France active in and became citizen Tournai now part of Belgium from 140561444 o Characteristics turned to 3D figural representation awkward drapery replace Gothic style intimate light and detail aerial perspective landscape realism high horizon figures fixed in place selective realism symbolism cast shadows ln 1420s became head of Artists Guild found guilty of withholding evidence and committing adultery his student was Roger van der Weyden o M rode Altarpiece c 142530 Triptych wings are out of synch with center a Annunciation central panel Blue sky seen in window was added over a gold background later Door that the donors look through is missing Taking place in a Flemish upper middle class home with the odd presence of liturgical objects the basin amp towel making it seem like a sanctuary for a religious event Takes place in Flemish domestic interior Most advanced space in interior we ve seen to date figure style is changed too draperies don t flow they seem heavier Astonishing new realism wood brass towel double shadows paper scrolls Der eckige Stil German the angular style replaces the curvilinear International Gothic Style of northern European art beginning around 14205 especially noticeable in draperies There is no fire in the hearth because the annunciation occurs in Spring Bench faces away from fireplace lions are on the corners symbol seen on throne of Solomon seat of wisdom Mary is supposed to embody these symbols Table in the center has still life including an just blown out candlestick a book a vase with Hebrewlooking script to denote a Jewish household the vase holds with 3 lilies 2 in book 1 yet to open up perhaps meant to show the third part of the trinity has yet to be in the shape of a cross o Exquisite attention to color making it appear as though airbrushed between color differentiation o Intimate understanding of light color and detail Lack of a halo gold background and trappings of divinity with the exception of angels wings Little mini Christchild floating in on gold threads of light coming in through the window 7 beams of light importance of number symbolically perhaps denotes the 7 gifts of the holy spirit o Angel wears the outfit of a deacon officiating at the mass o Problems with scale if Mary stood she would go through the ceiling Mary s at home so she took off her blue mantel so we see her wearing red which is very uncommon for her iconography Mary sits on the footrest near the ground rather than on the bench a show of her humility Mary is supposed to be reading a prophecy in the Book of Elijah which says behold a virgin will conceive a Donors left wing o Donor s wife was added later she holds prayer beads with a St Christopher medal ChristopherChrist bearer possibly means that she was hoping to conceive herself Panel itself was likely painted later than central panel Messenger in the background is added at the same time as the wife o Astonishing fidelity to nature o Symbolism presence of an enclosed garden is a symbol of the annunciation Suggestion of springtime o Spatial problems are absent from this side paneL a St Joseph in His Carpentry Shop right wing o St Joseph is supposed to be in adjoining room in Mary s house The command of space is inaccurate the view out of the window is a cityscape which doesn t fit with the view out of the window in Mary s room o Joseph is a old burgher Joseph is the Lord and Master of the Mother of the Lord and Master of the whole world Joseph is a middle class saint of some importance in new Flemish consideration o Good attention to detail in the objects on the table Joseph has made a mousetrap which St Augustine says represents the cross which was the devil s mousetrap Joseph s importance in the divine plot for Jesus to be human is that Mary would ve likely been killed had she not gotten married o Muscipula diabola Latin The Devil s Mousetrap According to S Augustine St Joseph was the key figure in a sort of divine plot to fool or snare the devil like a mouse caught in a trap This ingenious notion may or may not help to explain the iconography of the St Joseph panel of the Merode Altarpiece 0 Virgin and child before a Firescreen Madonna of the Firescreen or Saltinq Madonna c 1430 Same kind of firescreen seen in the month of January in the Tres Riches Heures du Duc de Berry Called the Salting Madonna for the English family that once owned the painting Moon faced figure clothed with heavy angular drapery chemise on the book view from the window seems to be from second floor or higher Awkward floor recession Bench with lions on corners Some of the same problems scale Mary seems very heavy yet we can t tell where or on what she sits she seems to be hovering Virgin wears white that is tinged with blue was originally bluer than it is now because of paint fading Mary is a mother visibly nursing the Christchild this emphasizes middle class and maternal values When the painting was cleaned in the 1990s the genitals of the Christchild were uncovered to demonstrate the manhood of Jesus Both the book and the child are held in a white cloth showing that both are sacred 19th c addition to painting on top and side because it was burnedscorchedor cropped Firescreen substitutes as halo for the Virgin o Nativity Dijon Nativity c 1425 Nicknamed the Dijon Nativity for its location in Dijon We know really nothing at all about its origins The Virgin Mary has a similar look to the Salting Madonna with her Der eckige Stil angular clothing spilling out all over the ground with delicate folds This Nativity scene is an exterior outdoor scene High degree of scrutiny and capability of seeing what is really there shown in the attention to detail Old fashioned very high horizon line implies a bird s eye view this is a characteristic feature of Netherlandish painting until the late 15th c The background painting is such an achievement in terms of use of aerial perspective the naturalistic early morning lighting except for the literal gold sun wintry feel to the landscape excellent receding space St Joseph is an elderly man his role here is as a well dressed dignified Figures configure an xshape with Joseph at the center St Bridget s account of her eyewitness of the nativity which she had a vision of Mary s hair is spilling down her shoulder sans veil The light of the Christ child eclipsed Joseph s candle in its divine splendor Mary kneels on the ground praying Jesus naked and newborn is laying right out on the ground both are exemplifying humility St Bridget of Sweden was a late 14th c saint whose vision of the Nativity established a new iconography for the subject as seen in Campin s Dijon Nativity Salome and Zelomi the legendary midwives at the birth of Christ in apocryphal accounts Salome doubted the virginity of Mary after the birth of the child so her hand withered until she touched the child While Zelomi believed in the virginity of Mary even after the birth of the child Ox and ass in the stable behind Mary Ox is privileged over the ass as you can t see the ass head Compare to painting of the nativity by Jacques Daray 0 Portrait of a Man amp Portrait of a Woman c 142030 Pair of portraits that is a landmark of portraiture Right away we see hat they relate to a past tradition of bust portraits silhouetted against a black background high degree of individuality in the face of the man Intensely realistic Turbanlike headgear called a chaperon a piece of cloth wound around the man s head with a scarflike tail called a coronet The woman on the other hand is more idealized in the way her face is constructed her eye is line up with the center horizontal her chin line up with the center vertically her veil wimple has too perfectly fallen in pattern the upturn of the wimple matches the upturn of the corner of her eyes Chaperon French A type of men s headgear popular in the second quarter of the 15th c and seen in various portraits by Campin Van Eyck and other painters often confused with a turban it consists of a hood with a scarflike tail or cornette Intensely sharply lit but no unity of lighting for both figures in their respective pictures His scarf matches her veil s edge The woman is made to seem more vivacious by the lightcatch in her eye Intended to go together portraits of a husband and wife 16 of height identical in size scientifically proven that panels cut from the same tree Earliest known portraits in the new style No longer in profile but newly in 3 view This view suggests mobility rather than fixed frozen profile or frontal view o Jan van Eyck active in Bruges from 14251441 c Characteristics exploited qualities of oil paint luminous sheen symbolism intimacy extreme natural5m cast shadows analogical pairing mystical settings more adept space amp perspective inner feeling of sitters 9Netherlandish famous painter of the 15th c 9 signeddated paintings First northern European to have a biography written of him only 15 years after his death 9 In 1425 he was appointed to the service of the Duke of Burgundy 9 In 14289 he sent Jan van Eyck to Portugal to go send him to paint a portrait of the Princess he was supposed to marry so that the Duke would know what she looked like 9 1433 The Duke makes a personal visit to van Eyck s home 9 1434 Jan van Eyck is married and his wife bears him a child 91441 Jan van Eyck died 0 Annunciation c 143537 3 ft high medium sized painting We don t know where it originated on It s not on its original canvas it was ironed onto a regular newer canvas or in it s original frame it s speculated to be originally part of a triptych Improved in terms of scale since Campin s Annunciation space and perspective is also more adept and skillfully applied and made more glorious in it s ecclesiastical church setting It s unclear whether the angel Gabriel or the Madonna are standing kneeling or genuflecting Emphasis on splendor regality richness holiness All the familiar Marian objects are present lilies the book 7 gold beams of light pass through the window without breaking it similar to Mary s virginity being intact despite her pregnancy the dove of the holy spirit comes down on one thread Painting is all encompassing it can represent all that is in the real world architecture fresco metalwork stained glass sculpture marble of the floor has several old testament scenes and zodiac signs If this floor were reconstructed Gabriel would be standing on the sign for Aries the period in which the annunciation occurs and Mary would be standing on Virgo the sign of the Virgin Gabriel s words are script emanating from his mouth Mary has this too except that hers are written upside down as if to be read by God Gabriel s wings are more glorious like peacock wings than Campin s angel and he is decked out like royalty complete with an elaborate cloak a crown and a scepter 0 Madonna in the Church c 143840 The Virgin is deliberately distorted in scale so that she is giant in the church Perhaps this is to say that she is the church Original frame is gone Can t decide whether it is high gothic medieval or some Netherlandish style of architecture We can t determine if it is a real structure of an existing building Light is associated with the Virgin Mary passage appears on the hemline of the Virgin s cloak from the book of Wisdom For she is more beautiful than the sun she is above all the order of the stars Being compared with the light she is found before it For she is the brightness of eternal light and the unspotted mirror of God s majesty 9Van Eyck s favorite verse 0 Dresden Tri t ch Only surviving Van Eyck Triptych Madonna and Child Enthroned central panel a n n n n Miniature triptych signed and dated 1437 This one is conceived together scale setting is consistent and unified Same architectural setting and scale of figures It looks as though the setting is a Romanesque church rounded arches but it is really modeled after what Jerusalem is supposed to look like because this city has the architecture of heaven Heavenly palace donor is presented to the Virgin Lettering of Van Eyck s favorite text is engraved around the frame Stars found on the rug which is at Mary s feet Nakedness of the child is referencing the humanity and manhood of Christ Glittering jeweled ideal world Pelican in her piety statuette showing the sacrifice of the pelican for her young referencing the sacrifice of Christ for all mankind Phoenix rising statuette on the other arm of the throne referencing Christ s resurrection Archangel Michael and the Donor left wing n Donor and his patron saint to the righthand side of the Virgin St Catherine right wing n Shows her wheel sword crown on her head book wisdom n She looks pregnant but she is certainly a virgin martyred saint n Analogical pairings is a Van Eyck trademark shape size and form of architecture remains similar to whatever the nearest figural clothing or ornamentation detail Annunciation in grisaille reverse of wings 1437 n Frame is painted to look like onyx marble n Statues of the annunciation which are consistent with the painted virgin inside are set inside a niche Light comes from the left to shine on the Virgin 0 Van der Paele Madonna Madonna and Child with St Donation St George and Canon Georqe van der Paele 1436 Zucker s favorite painting St Donation is important in the city of city of Bruges as its patron saint Bruges has a St Donation Cathedral seat of the bishop St Donation wears a gemencrusted bishop s miter and staff crozier which has a cross rather than a shepherd s crook at the top St Donation s identifying attribute is held by him and it is the wagon wheel with candles attached to it St Donation saved someone from drowning in a canal using a wagon wheel as a lifesaer Van der Paele is a priest of this cathedral Joris is anglicized to George the priest is very realistically microscopically analyzed shows every wrinkle he is 66 years old Portrait is so realistic that it can be determined some diseases that Van der Paele may have had St George tips his helmet to the Virgin Helmet is incredibly detailed even showing the virgin reflected in the surface convexities Man reflected on the armor of the shield is unknown but conjectured to be Van Eyck Armed knight behind the Canon is the warrior St George holding his banner and standing behind the Donor Donor is in the same space as the Virgin so he has to be on the lefthand subordinate side of the Virgin How would the rules have changed if he had a wife in the picture Very formal figure configuration Single largest surviving Van Eyck painting panel Overwhelming attention to detail and luxury ornate everywhere Original simple wood frame with inscription in Latin painted as if carved into it of Van Eyck s favorite verse 8 pointed star on the rug imagined as though it were real Van Eyck s characteristic dimly lit scene with sparkling colors emerging from depth Architecture of heaven seen again here set in a churchlike environment apse configuration Infant Christ bearing all seated on a white cloth perhaps liturgical significance where Mary substitutes as the altar Christ child holds a green parrot parrots supposedly makes a sound like Ave so it s supposed to be the bird of Mary Maybe a parrot is Van Eyck s image of a bird of paradise Detail of an ecclesiastical cloak Realistic crushed velvet with gold embroidery Statues on the armrests of the throne are two nude figures representing Adam and Eve This shows Christ and Mary as the new Adam and Eve Also Sampson killing the lion reminds us of Christ s triumph over Satan 0 Rolin Madonna or Virgin of Autun Modonna with Chancellor Nicholas Rolin c 1435 8 pt stars appear on pavement as there is no rug Allover pattern varies but stays mostly the same the most varied one has a cruciform under the Virgin Autun is halfhour from Dijon The cathedral of Autun is mindblowing and it is the setting here Nicholas Rolin was the chancellor of the Duchy of Burgundy He is subordinate because he kneels in prayer Compositionally they are equal in weight he is on the traditionally higher in power side Mary and child are on the right Rolin is on the left to our view The pride involved in the composition in this painting make Rolin seem like he feels that is equal to or better than the Virgin and child The Virgin and Child seem to be blessing him though gesture Square about 2x2 ft panel More analogical pairings Rolin s hairtreetopped hill Mary s crown column capitol Rolin s praying hands fivefingered hill Garden outside building seen through window has lilies and roses in it View in the distance as if seen through a telescope Far landscape with arched bridge seven arches View up close as if seen through a microscope Intense optical interest Two little men seen through the window are at the center of the painting One looks like the same little man with red stockings and chaperon as seen in the shield armor of St George Common style of crowned hair shaved sides is about to change but is still present on Rolin o Arnolfini Portrait 1434 Giovanni Arnolifini and Giovanna Jeanne Cenami Possibly the couple in Van Eyck s Arnolfini Portrait though serious doubt has recently been cast on these traditional identifications They were not married until 1447 so this is not identified correctly it may be another Arnolfini but not the ones that it has traditionally been said to be Inscription on the Arnolfini Portrait Johannes de eyck fuit hic 1434 Latin Jan van Eyck has been here 1434 Viewers seen in the mirror on the wall Not a wedding portrait A presentation of the wife to viewing others in their home Hi guys this is my wife She looks down in modesty neither looking at her husband or her guest He looks toward guests we can see reflected in the convex mirror on the wall the dog isn t reflected in the mirror The mirror has ten little scenes from the life of Christ in convex medallions surrounding the mirror The mirror shows us an extension of our space and shows two figures entering the room a man in blue preceeded by a man in red 25x2 ft Almost certainly a portrait of a friend or acquaintance of Van Eyck and his wife Domestic interior that is not a bedroom but a reception room Full length portrait of ordinary people is very rare in terms of survival especially in the examples we have of Van Eyck and his contemporaries Comparable to Merode Altarpiece in that it is set in a domestic interior but Van Eyck is more adept in the depiction of space Der Eckige Stil drapery in the clothing Hat on Mr Arnolfini is inspiration for the hat of Alice in Wonderland s Mad Hatter character Mr Arnolfini has a horselike face which is almost certainly an accurate portrait based on another bust of the same man His wife may have been painted more ideally than realistically She wears her finest lovely heavy green dress lined with white fur blue velvet undershirt leather belt with brass buckle and white linen drape on her head Notion of female fertility shown by her characteristic nonpregnant protruding belly Statue of St Margaret emerging from the dragon after 3 dayse Patron saint of pregnant women and reference to Christ s resurrection Oranges on the windowsill show delicate attention to 3D spherical treatment of light Oranges are said to be a gift of love and affection Dog is a real breed of terrier the Brussels Griffon terrier With great attention to detail and foreground prominence perhaps giving him greater psychological meaning Dogs were often named Fido Latin Fides Faithful maybe alluding to the faith of the couple Mr Arnolfini s shoes soles seen in the foreground are removed but he still wears thinly leather boots her shoes are removed as well and there are central but they are not in the foreground Placed in the summer as we see a cherry tree in bloom peeking out the window 0 Crucifixion amp Last Judgment diptych or wings of triptych c 1430 NOT RESPONSIBLE FOR THIS ON THE MIDTERM Calvary from the Latin calvaria a bare skull or Golgotha a transliteration in Greek from the Aramaic or Hebrew words for skull The name of the hill outside of Jerusalem where Christ was crucified as noted in slightly variant statements occurring in all four Gospels Maybe even seen in the foreground beneath the cloak of Mary We see the iconography of the crucifixion the vinegar soaked sponge the spear that wounded the side of Christ and the Roman Centurion who says Surely this must be the Son of God 0 Portrait of a Man inscribed LEAL SOWENIR Loyal Remembrance in French and TUMOTHEOS Then God in Greek completed October 10 1432 13 high Man seated behind distressed stone slab Portrait of an unknown man only French inscription on any of Van Eyck s paintings Maybe he is telling us that it is a true likeness Compared this painting and the following one to the Portrait of a Man in a scarlet Chaperon by Robert Campin 0 Portrait of a Man with a Red Turban SelfPortrait 1433 Possibly a selfportrait of Jan van Eyck Hard to say because we don t know how old he would ve been at the time We can see the stubble of the beard the catchlight veins and wrinkles of the eyes Sitter looks out at the viewer and makes eye contact interesting implications this would have to be the case for a self portrait This also makes us more a part of the painting No name of the sitter but instead has a motto As I can but not as I would Pun As I can As Eyck can Crackaleure Crackle pattern of this painting has a distinctive 15th century Flemish pattern of cracking Red chaperon is all wound up maybe if it is a self portrait he was trying to get the end of the cloth out of the way Lettering on the frame inscribed Jan van Eyck made me Oct 21 1433 Under life sized same size as the Leal Sovvenir portrait without its stone tablet bottom 0 Portrait of Margaretha van Eyck 1439 Earliest known artist s portrait of his wife She makes eye contact with us as well This is his wife when she was 33 years old as told us by the inscription on the frame Head is somewhat enlarged when compared to the body Shadow on the broad side of the face dimly lit rich color 0 Ghent Altarpiece or Altarpiece of the Lamb in the Cathedral of St Bavo Ghent begun by Hubert van Eyck presumably and completed in 1432 by Jan 11x15 ft painted multipanel on both front and back of altarpiece Parts don t really fit together that well the bottom fits together well top has two pairs of vignettes that seem to belong among themselves in the pair but not with the other pair or with the central panel of the altarpiece Perspective is different Top is like three different projects Back makes perfect sense as belonging together 0 Quatrain fourline verse inscribed on the frame of he back of the Ghent Altarpiece a Original Latin Pictor Hubertus maior quo nemo repertus Incepti pondus que Johannes arte secundus Frater perletus Jodoci Vijd prece fretus yersv sexta mai vos go ogat agta tveri Chronogram 1432 b English translation The painter Hubert greater than whom no one was found began this work and Jan his brother second in art having carried through the task at the expense of Jodocus Vijd invites you by this verse on the 6th of May to look at what has been done n n n n o Jodocus Joos Vijd Burgomaster equivalent to mayor of Ghent in the 14305 donor of the Ghent Altarpiece according to the quatrain where he appears with his wife Isabella Borluut Chronogram An inscription sentence or phrase in which all letters that are also Roman numerals when added up give the date of the work on which they appear For example the sentence WILLIAM IS GOOD would yield a date of 1613 as follows 10 W2 V s 1I50L50L1I1000M1I500D1613 Sometimes the appropriate letters may be highlighted in red as they are on the Ghent Altarpiece where they add up to 1 432 Petrus Christus active in Bruges from 1444 to 147576 96 signed and dated paintings he is the only other artist at this time besides Van Eyck to sign and date his paintings Use of Italian 1 point perspectives expands space room angular drapery succession through space not focused on realism illusionistic framing 1St painter of the North who arrived at the law of linear perspective and applied it background set mood of quiet harmony o A Goldsmith in His Shop St Eliqius or a Vocational Portrait of Willem van Vlueten 1449 Triumph of Van Eyckian realism glittering glowing objects convex mirror showing us what s going on outside the view of the painting Strong portraitlike quality could perhaps be a painting of actual people Perhaps a vocational portrait of Willem van Vlueten celebrating the jewel sale between Willem and the niece of Burgundy and her betrothed the son of the King of Scotland Shows pentiminti corrections the artist made to the painting as he was working Well dressed customers show evolution of costume design as they are dressed in the height of fashion for the time Discourse between goldsmith and patron buying a ring Perhaps St Eligius the patron saint of goldsmiths but a fake halo was added in the 19th c Painting is at the root of genre painting scenes of everyday life and foreshadows pure still life painting 0 Virgin and Child in a Chamber c 146070 Madonna of humility compare with Campin s Madonna and child Shares more in common with Arnolfini portrait Used 1pt perspective but vanishing point coincides with nothing specific St Joseph enters into a door in the back room showed by a view through a succession of spaces 0 Portrait of a Carthusian Monk 1446 Somewhere along the line the painting was changed from an unknown Carthusian Monk to a Cathusian Saint with the addition of a painted halo More likely a Carthusian theologian Very Van Eyckian or Campinian even so far as to have a illusionist frame with an inscription carved inthe date may be faked added later but is likely added Lit on the broad side of the face 3 view of the face inscribed at bottom eyes looking out from the painting and engaging the viewer neutral background is elaborated into a space There is a lifesized fly painted on the frame of the painting illusionist fly is meant to play a trick on the viewer Compare portrait paintings Campin s portrait 0 Portrait of Edward Grimston Grymestone 1446 Identified by coats of arms in the background Sir Edward Grymestone is an Englishman the ambassador of King Henry VI He holds in his hand a silver chain of Sshaped links with is a Lancaster emblem perhaps a chain of office Wears a chaperon Stiff rigid costume Well defined domestic setting places the viewer in a new intimate relationship to the sitter Shadows in the background were similar to Christus Virgin in the Chamber Window is source of light Wellplanned internal space Compare to Van Eyck 0 Portrait of a Young LadvAnne or Margaret Talbotc1468 70 Very likely a girl uncertain age Head seems to be enlarged for the body Shows new clothing style coming into style in the 15th c at this time Development of conical hat called a hennin a new type of women s headdress that comes into vogue in the 1460 s Background elaborated into a wall sitter looks outward to the viewer Perhaps one of the artist s own daughters but more likely the daughter of English Earl Talbot who came to Bruges to attend the wedding of the son of the Duke of Burgundy and the daughter of the King of England Sort of like the Mona Lisa of the north mysterious and exotic looking Midterm material ends here Finals material begins here o Roger van der Weyden b 1399 active in Tournai the Brussels from the 1430s to 1464 a Pupil of Campin aware of Van Eyck 0 St Luke Portraying the Virgin c 143540 Der Eckige Stil drapery looks like the Merode Altarpiece reversed and Van Eyck s Rolin Madonna and Van der Paele Madonna more Campinian than Eyckian but still much borrowed from Eyckian characteristics St Luke may be a selfportrait of Van der Weyden Background still has more details as in the Van der Paele Madonna with Nicholas Rolin we see people through a window looking out onto a scene but it is more generalized here than in Van Eyck s telescopic detail is lost slightly more generalized o Deposition or Descent from the Cross c 143538 Single most influential painting of the 15th c Originally an altarpiece in the chapel near Brussels in Louvain Leuven which is a major town at the time renowned for its university Almost a critique of a Van Eyck painting which is a progression of manuscript painting He doesn t get carried away with detail like Van Eyck does Possibly the central panel of a triptych for which the wings were lost The scene has been staged no sense of environment or real life setting of time and space shallow space with clarity of spatial layering has a quality of progressing from a large scale sculptural shrine Light is bright sharp and clearthere is a formal concern for surface pattern similar bodily patterns show shared suffering among Christ and Mary or frame the image in the case of St John and Mary Magdalene Mary Magdalene name spelled out on her own belt and others shown weeping possibly the first time we see human emotions specifically grief truly depicted not only in expression tears and posture Mary swoons and St John the Evangelist takes care of her as Christ asked of him Parallel forms are used to accentuate similarities Mary amp Christ have the same body shape The two figures at the paintings edge are the framing parentheses or apostrophe of the scene The pain and suffering of Christ is thrust to the forefront of our attention We see the visceral visual similarity in seeing Mary s hand right near Christ s wounded hand which shows the reality of which way the blood flowed out of him The cross that Christ was crucified on is too small to have supported him on The scene is reduced to just a few figures and lacks the accompanying crucified thieves Mary Magdalene gazes transfixed looking at Christ s wounded feet the same feet that she anointed with oils earlier 0 Crucifixion Vienna Triptych c 1440 It is fixed the wings are not hinged and cannot fold making this a pseudotriptych This is ahistorical because though the city in the background is Jerusalem the figures in the front are obviously not as the scene would have been visible if you were there Compare to the supercomplex Van Eyck Crucifixion scene with it s cast of thousands Mary Magdalen is on the left wing of the triptych She is identified by the jar she holds which is supposed to be the jar of anointing oil that she used to anoint Christ s feet with The right wing has Veronica holding up the towel that she used to wipe the face of Christ which is imprinted with the face of Christ the Vera Icon the true appearance from which we derive Veronica s name Marvelous violation of decorum as showing the Virgin Mary as just openly grieving and losing control Motion of drapery is unexplainable except for artistic freedom Lithe graceful elongated form for Christ Sexuality of Christ flourish of drapery holds Christ s modesty intact celebrates the thing covered in the magnificence of the covering 0 Last Judgment Altarpiece altarpiece of the hospital Hotel Dieu in Beaune c 144548 In the Hospital of God in Beaune Burgundy Hospitals in these times were referred to Houses of the dying Donor is represented on the back of the altarpiece and is Nicholas Rolin Not entirely painted by Rogier van der Weyden but by members of his workshop too because of the enormous scale Christ in the center archangel Michael acting as the soul weight measurer below him the saved on the righthand of Christ the damned on the left Composed horizontally vs the vertical composure of Van Eyck s cast of thousands version with heaven above hell below Central panel lilies sword inscriptions distortion of scale in accordance with last judgment iconography Angels play horns only in Last Judgment scenes to wake the dead The frames of the triptych do not interrupt the background which remains continuous Heaven is imagined as a golden Gothic cathedral architecture Many unidentifiable saints plus the two individual looking figures alongside the saints that may be portraits of actual people St Sebastian and St Anthony with donors on outermost panels of painting on backside with annunciation on top o CrucifixionPhiladelphia Diptych c 1455 Done late in Roger s career a fixed diptych like the Vienna triptych it is without hinges Retrun to the Rogerian patented motifs slender angular elegant figure of Christ on the cross St John s cloak billowing out behind him Reactive emotionality to stimulus of Christ s death having an affect on Mary and St John Pulled out of time ahistorically because of the flat stone walls of the background Unoriginal gold background because of an incorrect restoration covers an original dark blue background The paint is muted colors on Mary and St John 0 Portrait of a Lady Berlin 14305 Unknown sitter done near the beginning of his career Clearly influenced by his teacher Campin but modified by contact with Van Eyck It is easy to see it following in the wake of Campin s portraiture Treatment of the hands as if they are folded and resting on the frame itself Strongest Campinian note is a little softer and more tonal making it look less sculptural Van Eyckian characteristic shadow falls on the broad side of the face and subject looking out from the work The only Van der Weyden portrait that allows the sitter to look out at her viewer 0 Portrait of a Lady Washington c 1455 Unknown sitter conjectural date slightly under life size Ignores the Petrus Christus innovation of an elaborated background space Later work gives the figure a little more space than the earlier work but still has her hands crossed and resting on the frame Analogous pairings of the V of the dress and the V of each side of the veil she wears Could be the left wing of the diptych pair of portraits o Devotional diptych Virgin and Child with Philippe de Croy c 145560 Perhaps a fixed diptych 20 high Portrait of the donor or patron on one side and the Virgin and Child on the other side Philippe de Croy is a luminary of Burgundian court governor in a state Virgin and Child in superior position and the donor in the inferior position She is slightly higher up in her panel than he is in his side of the diptych The Madonna and Child could be independent but the patron half of the diptych is dependent on the side to which he looks Philippe s panel has a family coat of arms on the back of his panel Philippe s panel represents earth the Virgin and Child s panel is given a heavenly demeanor and a conservative use of gold beam halos Christ child s obvious display of his genitals is to show his incarnation as man 0 Devotional diptych Virgin and child with Laurent Froimont c 145560 A fixed diptych Sitter is Jean de Froimont a close friend of Philippe de Croy Thought to be less expensive because of the missing gold background in the Virgin and Child scene Backgrounds are hanging cloth treated in the same way Inscriptions look as thought they are stitched into the fabric backdrop Ave Maria gratia plena dominus tecum on her frame Raison Irnstructi Reason instructs him is on his panel The Christ Child looks to be a very happy male baby who was just feeding at his mother s breast and is exposing his own genitals He even wiggles his own toes and is smiling The Halo he wears are beams in three clusters to make a cruciform halo There is a Circular order of blessing Mary prays to her son Christ blesses the patron and the patron prays to Mary and Christ MIDTERM EXAM Thursday Oct 26 Essay on slides slide compare Bring a large bluebook Identify slide artist s name manuscript subject matter or title features of a style iconography of a saint comparecontrast ex compare Campin and Van Eyck s Annunciation Flight into Egypt by artists of International style portraits Discuss the development of portrait painting cite specific examplesEssay on the Ghent Altarpiece Roger Van Der Weyden and Jan Van Eyck are the two greatest painters of the Netherlandish Renaissance period Central panel of the triptych will have a narrative E Early Netherlandish Panel Painting of the Mid15th to the Early 16th Century o Dirk Dieric Bouts Born in Haarlem Holland but active in Louvain from the 14405 to 1475 o Martyrdom of St Erasmus c 1460 Spare vertical figures continuity of landscape in all three panels Wings are hinged unlike the Vienna Triptych St Jerome and St Bernard iconic images of saints relegated to the wings St Erasmus of Antioch during reign of Diocletian he was martyred because he was the Bishop of Antioch denoted by the bishop s miter sitting on the ground in the forefront of the image He is being drawn the intestines are being pulled from the stomach through a small incision The executioners are doing there job and onlookers all in tightlipped uncaring immobile looks The figures all look frozen into perpendicular immobility or congenital stiffness 0 Last Supper Altarpiece 146468 In the Church of St Peter in Leuven Louvain 6 high Commissioned by a local organization devoted to the Eucharist Solemn about the institution of the eucharist and not about the betrayal Commissioned on the 200th anniversary of the miracle of Corpus Domini o Wrongful Execution of the Count amp Justice of Emperor Otto m 147075 The wrongful execution shows the Count s head being handed to a Lady The same woman hands the Count s head to the Emperor Otto III These paintings are called Justice paintings and they are located in the Town Hall the story takes place in Otto s court in the early Holy Roman Empire The Empress falls in love with the count who won t sleep with her To get her revenge on him she accuses him of raping her and he is thereby executed wrongly The Count s wife undergoes a trial by fire to prove his innocence she lives so the empress is proved guilty and must die Continuous narrative is used in both panels Like a late Rogier van der Weyden painting but with no emotion all the characters are rigid It is impossible to tell if the faces are portraits or not Beanie hats are prominent by this time and men s haircuts are getting longer Dirk s paintings have little or no emotion but he is a technical virtuoso with paint 0 Portrait of a Man Jan van Winckele 1462 Blond haired man in a red outfit and beanie hat looking left The date appears carved in the wall in the background Rogierian in that the eyes don t look at the viewer and the hands appear to rest on the frame The face is lit on the narrow side of the face and there is a background to this portrait o Hugo van der Goes active in Ghent and in the Red Cloister near Brussels 146051482 Notes on Hugo He is in the pantheon of Van Eyck Campin and Van der Weyden He was born in Ghent Eyck country combines Eyckian and Weydenian styles He was a highly regarded painter who worked sometimes for the Duke of Burgundy In 1478 he entered a cloister not as a monk but as a lay brother He began to suffer from a suicidal depression and he died in 1482 believing he was damned There is a modern belief that is the artist is crazy then his work will be too Hugo was the first artist to live up to this idea 0 Fall of Man and Lamentation Diptych c 1470 Fall of Man looks Eyckian Lamentation looks Rogierian hard to believe such different paintings could be a diptych The Lamentation is a strange combo of history and iconography only one cross of Mt Calvary dark sky cold light brittle forms high emotion think Rogier has the Rogier style John the Evangelist and Mary compositionally unstable Fall of Man has Eyckian landscape Adam and Eve warm lighting the serpent is a giant salamander with a lady s head which is painted quite realistically salamanders were believed to be evil 0 Portinari Altarpiece name comes from the Florentine Tomasi Portinari a merchant and representative of the Medici family Nativity or Adoration of the Shepherds central panel a Baby Jesus is right in the center lying on the ground naked with light flying out of him there are many angels 15 all the people seem to be of larger scale than the angels n The Shepherds are superreal and are impassioned Lifesized flowers with symbolism wheat is to Christ Christ is bread of life Three carnations known at this time as nail blooms and columbines associated with sorrows supposedly 7 but actual there are 8 the vase has stylized grape leaves on it which ties to the wire a The devil appears in the image the only time you see Satan in a Nativity scene i Saints and Donors wings Donors and Patron Saints Portinari and his sons at left Mrs Portinari and daughter at right vast disparity of scale saints are huge faces are extremely realistic and there are remnants of haloes In the background is a picture of Joseph and Mary and the donkey walking down a hill a rare subject St Thomas carries his instrument of martyrdom a spear St Margaret is standing behind the mother and Mary Magdalene is behind the daughter which is odd because the mother s name came from Mary Magdalene and the daughter s name came from St Margaret in the background are the Magi the youngest Magi is often black A dragon s head is the symbol of St Margaret and it s at her feet Annunciation in grisaille reverse of wings c 147580 a a Mary is on the left is there a reason why otherwise standard iconography more animated characters taller more Rogierian The dove is huge and looks like it s going to snatch Mary s scalp 0 Nativity or Adoration of the Shepherds c1480 8 ft wide Shepherds run in from the left again lots of angels in the corners are old testament prophets pulling aside curtains symbolic too there s a physical curtain rod attached to the top of the painting 0 Death Dormition of the Virgin c 1480 Mary in the middle looking up looking at Jesus in glory when Mary was about to die all the disciples teleported to her deathbed Cold light no disguised symbolism there is a conspicuous display of reactive emotionality none of the disciples look in the same direction none of them seem to look at anything Geertgen tot Sint Jans active in Haarlem from c 1480 to ca 1495 From the same place as Dirk he was the servant and painter of a wealthy monastery devoted to St John the Baptist we know nothing about himl Durer liked him 0 Holy Kinship c 148085 A lot of people hanging around in a Romanesque cathedral Jesus and his extended family plus John the Baptist 3 grandpas 4 fathers 5 women 7 kids Mary and St Anne are sitting next to each other with their husbands behind Elizabeth is at the right the kids in the middle act out their fats they hold their symbols The emphasis on the tiled floor is reminiscent of Dirk spatially it is distorted the capitals of the columns also speak iconography the faces are ovalshaped with small features The ladies headgear is not contemporary Dutch headgear it is supposed to be exotic 0 Night Nativity C 148085 Mary looks down at a glowing baby Jesus there is real attention aid to lighting effects Jesus is the only light in the room nonsolar light parts have been cropped away the painting has darkened so originally more was evident There is a sheaf of wheat under the manger the shepherds campfire s light is overshadowed by the supernatural light of the angel in the background and of Jesus the standard cast of characters is present 0 Madonna of the Rosary or Glorification of the Virgin c 1480 A tiny painting of Mary and Jesus in the middle of a ring of images the two figures emit a brilliant light Mary sits on a crescent moon Mary as the apocalyptic woman clothed in the sun with the moon at her feet the devil AKA serpentdragonthing is also under her feet two angels hold rosary beads the ring of angels with instruments of the passion the music making angels play every instrument known to the fifteenth century 0 St John the Baptist in the Wilderness c 1490 John in brown and blue sitting outside looking bored there s a lamb next to him his symbol representing Jesus the wilderness doesn t look terribly bad looks like a national park a great deal of naturalism particularly in John s pose maybe he s depressed his mood isn t specifically motivated by anything in the picture o Hans Memlinc active in Bruges from the 1460s to 1494 Active in Bruges from the 14605 to 1494 originally from Western ermany around Frankfurt nothing Germanic about his work worked in the shop of Rogier van der Weyden became a citizen of Bruges in 1465 became quite wealthy he worked for Rogier and lived in Eyckland his work synthesized the two harmoniously over 100 paintings left behind by Memling 0 St Christopher or Moreel Altarpiece triptych donorWillem Moreel 1484 4 ft tall x 9 ft wide St Chris in red and blue carrying Christ on his shoulders the donor was Moreel donors in wings the two other saints are St Maurus and St Giles the saints of the church in Bruges scale is approximately uniform donors are smaller St Christopher is one of the saints who can protect you from sudden death Moreel s patron saint was St William Moreel and his wife Barbara had 16 children all the girls look the same St Barbara s iconography involves a tower her father locked her in a tower because he didn t want her to marry a Christian her tower had three windows His art looks impressive but not distinctive o Donne Triptych Madonna and Child Enthroned with Saints and Donors donorJohn Donne c 1478 The patron was a British man John Donne Mary and Jesus in the middle with all sorts of people around them the two Sts John are on the wings the donors are in the central panel not quite symmetric John s coat of arms appears on the column each of the four capitals has a different type of leaf carved into it the donors necklaces have the iconography of the King of England the lady saint on the right is Barbara the one at the left is Catherine why are the lady saints there the wife s name is Elizabeth there is an extra figure behind John the Baptist but no one knows who he is in lots of Memling paintings baby Jesus is reaching for an apple 0 Altarpiece of the Virgin with Saints and Angels St John altarpiece triptych 1479 Memling was working on this while he was working on the Donne triptych Mary and Jesus in the center again hanging out with saints the right wing has images from the Revelation Catherine Barbara and the two Sts John are in the center Part of Catherine s legend is that in her visions she was wedded to the baby Jesus the capitals of the columns have carved scenes from the legends of the two Johns on the left wing is the beheading of John the Baptist John the Evangelist had his revelation on the Island of Patmos in the Aegean Sea 0 Mystic Marriage of St Catherine 1480s Everybody wants pictures of Barbara and Catherine Mary never gets to leave her chair baby Jesus is giving Catherine a ring unidentified donor baby Jesus is exposing himself again and staring with a creepy glare 0 Madonna and Child with Angels c 1485 There are of a lot of these Jesus is going for the apple again angels hang out with apples and instruments no donors and no saints diaphragm arch with King David and Isaiah 0 Scenes from the Life of the Virgin and Christ The Joys of My donorPeter Bultinc c 1480 Nothing of note 0 Portrait of a Man with a Medal c 1480 Man holds an actual ancient Roman coin with Nero on his face The significance is unknown Small only about a foot tall There was at one time an attempt to identify the sitter as an Italian Later influential to Italian Renaissance portrait painting many Italians especially Florentines made visits to Bruges had their portrait made and brought these portraits back to Italy Emblematic quality The fingers of the hand are supported by or are resting on the frame All the foliage is rather discreetly insignificant except for a palm tree that sticks out like a sore thumb 0 Madonna and Child with Martin van Nieuwenhove devotional diptych 1487 Following in the tradition Rogier van der Weyden mastered in the devotional diptych Very similar to the Froimont devotional diptych Mary on the left higher more superior than the donorpatron the panel of the Virgin and Child is higher more frontal traditional and can be viewed independent of its patron panel The patron is at her left hand she is on the right hand more superior paostion Donor is kneeling in prayer to the Virgin and Child Martin was age 23 at the time and the date is drawn too but there is no signature There is continuity between the who paintings The cloak of Mary continues into Martin s frame with his Bible laying on the edge of her cloak The pillow that Christ is sitting on casts a shadow on the painted frame and the Virgin s cloak slightly lies on the frame as well Window frame forms the shape of a cross O Mary and Christ hold up an apple representing their status as the new Adam and Eve The two convex mirrors reflects back what is in front of them in the room One mirror shows the back of the Virgin and the one next to it shows Martin We see family crest in a stained glass panel in Mary s panel and St George slaying the dragon in stained glass window in the background of the Mary panel We see St Martin in the masonry behind Martin van Nieuwenhove 0 Gerard Gheraerdt David active in Bruges fro 1484 to 1523 Born at an unknown date came from the north Utrecht emigrated to Bruges Van Eyck ampChristus ampMemincampDavd are the chronology of artists in Bruges Later moved to Antwerp to open a workshop there Altarpiece of the Baptism of Christ triptych donorJan de Trompes 150207 n n n n n Netherlandish triptych 4 x6 Subject chosen in reference to the donor Jan is Netherlandish form of John hence the choosing of the subject of the Baptism of Christ in the River Jordan by John the Baptist John kneels on the bank of the River Jordan to baptize Christ who is standing in the River Jordan up to his knees All of the flora in the foreground and the texture of the water are superrealistic and painted with minute attention to detail The angel accompanying John wears a golden jewel encrusted cloak showing the mastery of the new oil paint medium Jan de Trompes and his son are backed by John the Evangelist dressed in blue and white who holds a chalice The Trompes girls are beautiful and show the change in dress Elizabeth d1502 is backed by St Elizabeth of Hungary n The back panel was repainted for Jan de Trompes second wife Madeleine her child from a previous marriage holding grapes symbol of Christ s blood and St Mary Magdalene holding a jar of ointment behind the two Landscape elements are becoming more prominent as background and detail Rest on the Flight into EgyptWashington version c 150010 a n Iconic image of the Virgin and Child in the foreground with attention to the background nature vignettes Joseph is seen in background trying to knock down food from a tree There is a linen basket in the foreground near Mary Rest on the Flight into EqvptNew York version c150010 n Iconic image of the Virgin and Child in the foreground with attention to the background nature vignettes o Joseph is seen in background trying to knock down food from a tree 0 There is a linen basket in the foreground near Mary Nativity triptych n Landscapes reverse wings of a Nativity triptych c 151520 o The first pure landscapes in the course of Netherlandish painting There is a house and some animals Beech oak and walnut trees o Probably intended to serve as a prologue to the nativity There is an ox and an ass in either wing of the landscape Judgment of Cambyses including Flaying of Sisamnes 1498 n n n n n n n a Lesson about the importance ofjust judgments Cambyses is a Persian emperor History of Heroditus Story of a Persian judge Sisamnes is found guilty of accepting bribes and flayed alive Architecture of background vignette is Bruges and serves to show the judge accepting a bribe Date of 1492 show two cameo medallions on the wall Myth of the satyr Marsias flayed alive by the god Apollo Garlands and Putti are classical decorative elements Seal of County of Faders Hapsburg coat of arms former kingdom of Castille Leone Aragon Portraits of Bruges city fathers in both paintings as well as an artist s selfportrait Slice of everyday life a dog scratching his ear 0 Quentin Massys Metsys Active in Antwerp from 1491 born in Leuven in the mid14605 was a pupil of Dirk Bouts son Became a local hero cultural celebrity and a rich man before his death 9Antwerp rises in importance for reasons of commerce and stock exchange by the mid16th c as Bruges goes into decline for political and geographical reasons it s river became un navigable Antwerp became very cosmopolitan with palaces and streets springing up seemingly overnight Altarpiece of the Holy Kinship or St Anne Altarpiece triptych 150709 a Painted for the Brotherhood of St Anne in Leuven The general layout is new to the first quarter of the 16th c the shape is distinctive with a curved top No donors shown in this altarpiece because it is a corporate commission Cast of characters St Anne the Virgin and Jesus isolated in the middle Two Marys from previous husbands of Anne plus their two husbands Joseph and Joachim n Differences between this one and the one by Dirk Bouts is verticality leaps in scale Gothic architecture Massys is influenced by Classical and Italian Renaissance art The der eckige stil drapery is softening out from the past style Shows blend of Netherland Flemish and Italian influences Arches are semicircular rather than pointed arches coffered vaults tie rod supports Figures anchored to architecture behind them rhythyms updownup spacevoidspace Lamentation Altarpiece triptych 150811 a Christ s friends and family mourning over his dead body stretched out in the forefront of the central painting a Commissioned by the Carpenter s guild of Antwerp no donors painted because of corporate patronage Cross between Weyden s Deposition and Perugino s Lamentation n Curving profile of the top border of the frame a The two Sts John in Grisaille on the back of the wing panels On the front of each panel we have a scene from the life of John the Evangelist and John the Baptist for each respective scene Money Changer or Goldsmith and His Wife 1514 n Reminds us of Petrus Christus Goldsmith He works entirely within a native northern European tradition when not painting in altarpiece triptychs Artist is returning to his roots He is in the tradition of Van Eyck n Old Testament maxim Let the scales be true and the weights equal 9Leviticus 19 recorded as being inscribed on the lost frame of the Money Changer Goldsmith and his Wife n Compare against Marinus van Reymerswaele Netherland painter from Seeland province who trained in Antwerp early in the 16th c specialist in satirical money changer or tax collector scenes Shows grotesque exaggerations like contemporary DaVinci s caricatures IllMatched Lovers c1515 n Sugar Daddy gets snookered by hottie Young beauty is stealing a money purse from a dirty old man and passing it to a fool behind her a Obviously comical and satirical in nature Subject thrived in German speaking countries Folly of the foolish old and rich codgers n Greatest scholar humanist and satirist of the 16th c Erasmus quote in his Treatise In Praise of Folly in Handout 5 Ugly Old Woman The Uqu Duchess 1513 n The Ugly Duchess is originally a character in Alice in Wonderland Thought at one time to the Margaret the Duchess of Corinthia n Hideous looking monkey faced woman who is all dolled up in an outlandishly archaic costume this outfit is outdated She holds a little rosebud which points right at her disgusting cleavage n There is evidence to suggest that this may have been originally paired with a portrait of an ugly old man u Jokes at the expense of the unfortunate were popular at this time n Hands rest on a ledge painted within the frame a Based on a drawing by Leonardo DaVinci Portrait of a Canon c1520 n Costume identifies his as a canon Reminds us of the Netherlandish portrait style tradition where the portrait sitter is places outdoors But unlike older examples of this tradition the sitter is life n sized there is more shown of the sitter s body down to below his waist rather than his chest such as in the style of Renaissance portraits triangular form of the body with the base of the triangle supported by arms Compare to portraits by Raphael Table in depth is in front of the sitter is a fiction because the sitter is outside We see the subject stopping his action the sitter stops reading his book holding his place with his fingers and lowers his reading glasses 0 Jan Gossart Gossaert caled Mabuse born in Maubeuge active in Antwerp and elsewhere 150332 Likely bilingual in French and Dutch He traveled widely and is not considered to be only of one place His patron was Philip of Burgundy a bastard of the Duke of Burgundy and Philip was his traveling companion Show a clash of the Flemish and Italian style Adoration of the Magi c150708 n n Seems very Netherlandish in context so it is dated before his trip to Rome because it is so nonItalian in style Extreme selfconscienceness it is signed twice 6ft tall Virtuoso technique trying to outdo everyone who ever came before him Italian elements Horizon is brought down to the middle of the painting and runs through the heads of all the characters isocephaly same head awareness of orthoganals From a church in East Flanders on an altar dedicated to the Virgin Mary Mary s head is dead center in the painting Treatment of the Adoration of the Magi as a pageant with the Magi being old middle young black kings ass eats while the ox adores a column has scenes of Isaac Astute attention to detail Dog gnawing on a bone and another dog copied from an engraving print of Albrecht Durer Cracks in the pavement showing the Malvaqna Triptych Madonna and Child Enthroned with Saints and Angels c1512 n n n n Zucker s painting he would want to own one of his favorites Begs Comparison with Van Eyck s Dresden triptych Belongs to Palermo museum Iconic image of the Virgin and child with two female saints in the wings of the triptch St Catherine sword wagon wheel wedding ring and St Barbara with her tower in the background Marble painted frame frame win a frame because original square frame is incised with undulating curved upper border of frame in the 16th c style Amazingly crumpled der eckige stil drapery Protrusions of their world into our space are a playful illusion Very intricate and detailed architecture labyrinthine complexity different in each panel but interrelated Very late gothic architecture Show Gossart s capability for architecture design Neptune and Amphitrite from Philip of Burgundy s castle at Souburg 1516 n n 6ft high painting life sized classical style figures in a classical setting that is all wrong somehow Netherlandish fused to Classical subdued colors make it look nearly monochromatic and making references to sculpture Compare to Van Eyck s Adam and Eve naked vs nude Eve might be considered a nude for her context of Netherlandish idealism but Adam is definitely not a classical nude he is naked Follows a contraposto pose He gets to carried away with surface undulations the figures are beefier and thickerwaisted He still pays more attention to detail than would a purely classical artist Copying or emulating Albrecht Durer s print The figures are set within incorrect Greek classical architecture He knows the vocabulary of classical art but not the syntax of the correct ways to use them Classical elements triglyphs which are classical but the way they are used is not Ox heads which are of Greek influence he mixes Greek and Roman sea shells covering Neptune s penis See Romanists on Handout 5 for definition Classical script inscription of his name in Latin Johannes Malbodius Has motto of his patron Phillip of Burgundy for whom this painting was made Low vanishing point of one point perspective likely hung on wall so that the vanishing point was at eye level Portrait of Baudouin of Burgundy c 1525 n n a Common name in French speaking Belgium We know it isn t him because he died in 1508 This painting is overlain with emblematic symbolic elements Keys that hangs from a chain on his wrist might be a key of office and a ring that hangs from a chain around his neck perhaps a ring of betrothal hatbadge with Venus and Cupid dagger hilt has a fragment of an inscription in French Autre cu vous je n aime meaning I love no one but you Intensely realistic face n n n n Set in front of a wall and includes a cast shadow and gradient shadow where the light from the window Mannerism Gosseart gets carried away in the drapery painterly detail of the flourishes of fabric This type of highly self conscious smooth detailed style is not exclusive to Gosseart Come a long way in the evolution of portraiture Unbroken chain of links from the Man in the Red Chaperon to this one o Hieronymus Bosch active in sHertogenbosch from 1474 to 1516 His career overlaps Massys His name is the equivalent of Jerome Bush He is from Aachen Note Dates of Bosch s paintings are omitted since they would all be largely conjectural His career overlaps Massys The Crowning with Thorns or Mocking of Christ London version and Escorial Spain version n n n n n Large scale approximately life sized figures dramatic closeup with neutral background Halfway between a narrative and an icon They are devotional images meant for the viewer to contemplate the suffering of Christ The Escorial version is set within a tondolike circle making it look even more like an icon with a gold background Outside of the circle frame is done in grisaille to look like a relief where angels battle demons The characters other than Christ seem to be charicatures surrounding him like a pack of dogs Jesus seems to look out at us with so much innocence he implicates the viewer in his torment Carrying of the Cross or Way to Calvary n a Thought to be at the end of Bosch s career A Bunch of lifesized heads shows Simon of Cyrene Veronica the two other thieves a monk wearing a tonsure haranging a thief Very much a charicature in the style of Leonardo daVinci t John the Evangelist on Patmosl a Small panels with medium sized fulllength isolated figures of Saints realized in landscapes John on the island with his book and his pen being inspired by an angel Compare to Memlinc s St John Altarpiece Strange because of weird perspective burning ships in the water outside the island in the background Demon in the foreground holds a rake and he will try to steal John s writing implements but and an eagle that looks like a crow stares him down t John the Baptist in the Wilderness 1 Compare to Geertgen tot Sint Jan s St John in the wilderness Compare to Goya s The Sleep of Reason produces monsters Odd dreamlike quality hideously beautiful concoction of a plant is like a piece of surrealism Weirdness is evident this is surrealistic before surrealism existed Adoration of the Magi triptvch n n n Curvilinear frame Compare to Gerard David s baptism of Christ Patrons appear in the left and right hand wings donated to a confraternity of the virgin Mary Wings with male donor on the left superior position with his patron saint behind him and female done on the right with her patron saint behind her High horizon line tremendous detail in the landscape for it s own sake Peter Bronghorst with St Peter behind him and donors coat of arms behind St Peter Der eckige stil drapery i No trace of Italianism Male donors panel Joseph is huddled beneath a dilapidated deteriorated shed roof drying cloth in front of the fire in the background Vaguer demonic looking figures In the background we see peasants dancing These people are unaware of this important moment in history Wife is thought to be Agnes because that is the Saint identified behind her carrying a lamb The lamb is the sacrificial lamb of Christ Agnes is very clase to the Latin word Agnus meaning lamb Atorture wheel can be seen in the background of the Agnes panel as well as a Dutch town Central panel Adoration of the Maji at the manger with the three kings Young king is shown as a black man Ox and the ass in the background but we only see the ox Marvelously ramshackled manger that is ragged and falling apart Miniature sculpture of Abraham about to sacrifice Isaac Conventional iconography treated in unconventional way The magi are accompanied by ugly creepy diabolical looking people Theory about this being the antiChrist Shepherds on the roof Background has a conical monument as a pole with a crescent moon at the top which we are meant to view as a Pagan idol Looks similar to the Tres Riches Heures Mystic architecture of the City of Jerusalem The Hay Wain triptych n Figures reduced in scale Frame is more traditional so this may be one of the older triptychs Wain means wagon There is a Hay wagon in the center of the painting a Even though this is a triptych it doesn t seem likely to have been a church altarpiece But the n n n n n n n triptych is structures like a Last Judgment The world as we know it in the center Paradise of heaven on the left and hell on the right Adam and Eve are rather small in their frame and we see their story played out Typical misogonysts view of women Eve who no sooner entered paradise that she was sinning Traditional netherlandish style with weird elements Warrior angels fight off the fallen angels that are malformed froggy looking creatures The Hay Wagon itself has a great deal of action surrounding it a pope emperor Allegory of greed and avarice Hay is like money golden in color Flemish proverb Elk every man the world is a mountain of hay and every wasn t his share even if it isn t worth anything Angel clasps hands and gazes upward to Christ so that he will not lose his way Mutant forms are demons but normal people don t seem to notice them Garden of Earthly Delights triptych D About 7 ft x 13 ft possibly the most famous painting of this semester Central panel the garden of earthly delights left paradise right hell Close the wings and we see a giant globe in grisaille showing a rainbow and a large sky Latin inscription that he spoke and it came forth A history with naked people perhaps in the days of Noah Interior represents the unc We don t know who it came from who paid for Left wing Reminiscent of the left wing of the Hay Wain not a continuous narrative Woman is created and she is beautiful and Adam can t take his eyes off of her Eyckian beauty with small n n n n n Final Exam Monday Dec highly placed breasts and swoon All kinds of creatures are there because they have just been created There are unicorns A rock that looks like a human face An owl at the center Great creatures running after one another and devouring each other We climb further up the surface There is a nightmare about this What is negative about this this is a positive espousal of what the world would be like if original sin had never happened Figures devouring giant fruit Bubbles are transience and vanity of existence Happiness and glass how soon they pass or break Small figures are eating huge fruit Naked men and women ride animals round and round in a circle of love round and round in a pool of the circle of nude beauties People gathered around a giant strawberry The Hell scene your punishment in Hell will fit your crimes on earth Gamblers get beat on the back of the head Fanciful and monstrous master of torments The devil sits on a giant potty and he eats you and shits you out Compelling and beautiful paintings of giant musical instruments being used as instruments of torture that derive their sound from the pain of the people being tortured on them The world on fire It is an epic imagination of paradise the world and hell 11 2006 9162006 75500 PM 9162006 75500 PM


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