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by: Althea Stoltenberg


Althea Stoltenberg
GPA 3.9

M. Savage

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M. Savage
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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Althea Stoltenberg on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ARTH 1440 at Louisiana State University taught by M. Savage in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see /class/222661/arth-1440-louisiana-state-university in Art History at Louisiana State University.

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Date Created: 10/13/15
Fri Sep 16 2011 Mycenaean art and architecture Named after a town Capital isjust outside of Mycenaean More Powerful military than Minoa More landless to control too Heinrich Schliemann was a popular excavator 188221890 Read the classics of sculpture in ancient Greek literature like the Odyssey Also read and studied stories of the Spartans which were seeming myths Heinrich believed in these stories too to be logical So he excavated Lars scale civilization and Discovered archaeological identities of Greek sculpture He thought he could locate Mycenaean tombs He found a citadel which was already found but he found it using different methods of excavation Notice the Knossos difference in comparison to the citadel The Minoan palace structure reflected on the beauties of life The citadel contained a better defense system Mycenaeans were great builders with use of stone for structure thought to have quotcyclopian masonryquot meaning that only a giant of such could create such enormously interesting and big sculptures Some Mycenaeans resemble mesopotamian sculpture specifically their column structure Also Assyrian sculpture Fantastic architecture with rough cut stone by mycaenaens were later used in roman art They had a good sense of space when building The problem is the amount of space used does it support what is being held Solution building a relieving triangle above the entrances or right beneath what is being held Building like this opened new possibilities of architectural design for the future The Treasure of Atreus named after a warrior in the Trojan war The tomb references a mound tomb hollowed out of earth earth is built on top almost seemingly camouflaged within earth This tomb Also contains a relieving triangular arch Genius system of masonry This tombdome was the biggest without internal support masonry for a long time in the Mycenaean life until the Romans built Pantheon Gold was found in Mycaenean graves with objects related to death like in Egypt Kings were layer flat dressed with their armor and sword dressed in pure gold See repouss technique for funerary mask The mask was of course placed over the deceased kings face The masks doesn39t have detailed or particular features but rather generalizes the face Sent from my iPod Art History Study Guide Exam 1 Paleolithic Means llold stone When humans are depicted in this age it is mostly of females not many males Mostly looks the same no narrative no writing from this period We see the profile of the animal makes it possible to recognize the animal Many times people would add art to walls so there are many different art works Human face Makapansgat South Africa ca 3000000 BP This is a pebble ofa stone called jasperite Found at Makapansgat South Africa not on a human sight sight was used by a species called Australopithecus It was found miles away from the source of this stone somethingsomeone carried it there because it looks like a human face It is not art because no one made it and there was no intent or purpose so old that this sculpture cannot be distinguished between BC or AD Animal Apollo 11 cave Namibia 23000 BCE Made by human hands with easily available materials no detail very simple all about the subject matter the animal there is no scale no human depicted has no narrative Bison Altamira 1500010000 BCE They are all in different perspectives Does not tell a story Cave in Northern cave discovered in 1875 by an archaeologist and his daughter as they looked at the ceiling Color from hematite red and the black is from charcoal Grind it up and apply it Ocher gives the brown How the artist exploited the faces in the image Wounded Bison 15000 10000 BCE Very first cave ever discovered art in it in 1879 They depicted that it looked like a bison from the shape and the head Worked with the surface of the rock making it curled up in a ball Normally bison were not shaped like thatbut the artist worked with the rock Why is the subject chosen hunting Records of kills Celebrations It s possible Paleontologists don t find bison bones in these caves but ones of red deerso maybe not the huntingwho knows Lascaux Caves 15000 13000 BCE Found in southwestern France in 1940 found chambers decorated over a long period of time Many cavesgalleries in these places Used stone animal fat to make a lamp back then as an effective tool to go back into the caves This site can no longer be visited was though in the 1950sdiscovered that the visitors were damaging the paintings because of how many people were in the caves at once Instead they built a replica of the cave right next to itusing the exact techniques The effects were made by putting charcoal in ones mouth and blowing on the walltota of 32 hourslong and uniquely painted Naturalistic paintings easily recognizable Hall of Bulls Lascaux Caves 1500013000 BCE That s how we know it s a bull A composite perspective mostly profile but in order to understand the painting we add twists and things to legibly recognize what is painted Lively painting One deer on the far rightvariety of animals Venus ofWillendorf Austria 2500020000 BCE Earliest human figure When we get human figures we usually get female What is Venus Roman goddess of beauty love sex Was deity portrayed nude because of her associations with sex Must be religious we don t know what it s forbeyond that it is clear that she has big breasts wide hips etc close cropped hair cut or even a hat She is making a gesture towards her breasts Fertility figurines What s with the size of her belly and thighs People then had a scarce amount of foodmaybe her obesity is a reference to plenty Maybe she is a more general goddess of good things having plenty of food able to produce4 V2 inches high Horse Vogelherd Germany ca 28000 BCE Carved from ivorymammoth tusks antlers bone Curved model of the body hyper extended neck a lively creature Bison with turned head La Madeleine France 1500010000 BCE Using the shape of the ivory to cope with the creation Part of a spear thrower to provide more torque But this has a design Very detailed People who knew these animals and were interested about them Hybrid figure HohlensteinStadel Germany 3000028000 BCE Most peculiar Made from a mammoth tusk 1 foot tallone piece of ivory carved and standingbut with a feline head Not fully human nor fully animalis it a human wearing a maskmaybe for a religious ceremonymaybe related to the idea of shamanismwhich is a priest back then that communicates with the supernaturalthey went into trances or even got into costumes to relate to the spirits of animalsor it is a depiction of an animal spirit with human characteristics Two Bison Ariege France ca 13000 BCE Modeled in clay Largely 3d lying on their sides Incorporated in the cave into the rock Built up a mound of clay and removed parts of the surface and wet it into the bisonnot ever firedso they did not dry hard so they crackedhighly realistic to the actual animal Neolithic Around 11000 and 9000 BC the Mesolithic period into the Neolithic period new stone age this period had several components Beginning of agriculture has two parts domestication of plants later domestication ofanimals ie sheep goatscities began to be built architecture Until now humans were living out in naturenow we have architecture Later pottery and a wheel were invented Time of radical innovation Copper tools learned how to mix copper with arsenic to make bronzeat the very end of this period The Tigris and Euphrates rivers had a place in the middle of it called Mesopotamiawhere the first real cities emerged Before then though the area had very little rain fallnot a good place for agriculture The fertile crescent was where agriculture was first developed The cities thrived because of the agriculture Jericho ca 7000 BCE Holds the title for the place where the humans have settled than anywhere ever Began in 9000 BC developed domestication of plantstown thrived gets a 13 ft high wall around the city for protection over the agriculture 2 thousand people lived here Houses are round with a line of stone and mud brick they are sun dried and used for buildingstill use this method The bricks will last for more than a century if they stayed dried So you build stones to keep it off the moist ground socle Then make a roof with ease In the later times they did build with stonemaking a tower 33 ft in diameter at its base and like a 3 story building with a staircase Part of the defense of the city Plastered skull Jericho ca 7000 In the houses the inhabitants when died were buried under the floors In one building the skulls had plaster over the faces and gave them facial features Life like appearance maybe ancestor worship shells embedded for eyes Human figures Ain Ghazal Jordan ca 67506250 BCE Found in the houses that covered 30 acres build on mud brick plastered and painted red and they made these figuresfrom under a foot up to 3 feet high Bindles of reeds tied together Covered in plaster eyes are cawre shells bitumen was what they used to lay the eyes in and on the fingers Human figures Ain Ghazal Jordan ca 67506250 BCE Two heads from the same body 2 ft high They described their gods as four ears and four eyesthey all perceiving Sign of their position as gods Hassuna pottery Iraq ca 60005000 Pottery Earliest pottery emphasis on decoration with geometric designs Related to weaving table cross Like baskets Emphasis on patterns that are formed when weaving Maybe used as gourds or animal skins The shapes are a bit artificial Rely on preexisting ideas Catal Hiiyiik ca 60005700 We see how people were living together in this period No streets The houses themselves formed the walls Ladders connected buildings and allowed to get in and out May have been a courtyard between them platforms hearths inside for cooking multi functionaldead were buried in them Shrines Paintings depict hunts Working together to hunt the animals Plastered skulls sometimes even the human skulls were plastered Gathered around attacking the animal Leopard reliefs Catal Hiiyiik ca 60005700 Two cats flanking each other impressed by their power quotGoddessquot relief Catal Hiiyiik ca 60005700 Human Maybe clothed circle may indicate a womb Volcano and town Catal Hiiyiik ca 6000 BCE Maybe a mountain with square blocks could be cata huyuk itselfearliest image of a town makes it a landscape in a geographic context Maybe a history painting of the volcano erupting Mesolithic The llbig changequot the development of farming herding the wheel and writing Mesopotamia land between two waters Fertile Crescent the foundation of modern civilization today Pictograph symbols that represent words Cuneiform a style of writing using a stylus which was hammered into the stone to form writing The first evidence is of documents of transactions or laws or etc Cuneiform table c 2100 BC Designation of property used cylinder stones that had symbols or pictures on them that would be rolled out onto clay to produce a picture Usually an event 2500 BCE The images helped to encourage ideas between areas Sumer Ur and Uruk are the main places for Sumerian Uruk is where most of the tablets came from There was no centralized government Ziggurat temple on top access would only be granted to the priests huge structure Warka Vase shoeing presentation of offerings to nanna Sumerian goddess of love and war quotStandard of Urquot start to make art that displays wealth of a person for them to keep Blue stone is very valuable 2600 BC Ruling class representing his defeat in battle Images are arranged in regular lines of symmetry and not over lapping Standard something that is put on a pole and carried in a precession to show the warriors and their victory Akkad Akkadians Had a Centralized government way different type of art Head of an Akkadian ruler from Nineveh 2200 BCE It is a casted head made of bronze Very realistic recognizable as a human form very detailed and stylized an iconic image the ruler decided how he wanted to be depicted he wanted to be identified by his image eyes filled with a stone beard shows his royalty cause of the details and length tried to disfigure the sculpture Stele of NaramSin Starts to show overlap for the first time Found in Susa ran 22542218 BCE Victoria39s troupes are killing the enemy Central ruler on the top Bigger than the rest spear in hand Three quarters profile Wearing a head dress with horns the face is in profile but the head dress is not to show the horns Stele a plaque meant to be set up in a public place to be seen NaramSin is a ruler Stele with law code of Hammurabi First evidence of organization of humanization mix between a profile and frontal view found at Susa 1780 BCE shows him giving the law code to a servant the actual code itself is written on the stone is made out of basalt very heavy 7 feet tall Assyria Assur main place where they ruled from came to power around the 8th to 7th c BC Developed a dramatic way of depiction Citadel of Sargon Called Dur Sharrukin a huge palace had temples of 6 different gods things that have remained intact are huge structures Lamassu had survived and found in the entrance to the palace body ofan animal and head ofa human has 5 legs Egypt They were mummified All their organs were taken out except for the heart Their bodies were purrified and wrapped in wet clothes Palette of King Narmor Egypt ca 3000 BCE The fish and chisel on the top are symbols of the pharaoh The front the one on the right Narmor is wearing the lower Egypt39s hat On the bottom a bull is attacking a city it is a symbol of power The bull is king Narmor defeating Lower Egypt Mastaba Typical Egyption Mastaba tombs 1Chapel 2False door 3Shaft into burial chamber 4Serdab chamber for statue of the deceased 5Burial chamber Entrance from the top so thieves could not reach it easily The quotchapel doorquot is fake it is a symbolic door Stepped pyramid for King Djoser Imhotep builder Saqqara Egypt Third Dynasty ca 2630 BCE It was built for the burial of King Djoser at Saqqara Egypt Third Dynasty ca 2630 BCE Imhotep was also part of his court and was very high in King Djoser Necropolis in the middle was the stepped pyramid The other buildings made the area represent a palace setting Wanted to insure in the after life that they lived in a palace complex Detail of columns in the necropolis of Djoser Engaged columns they are attached to the wall not freestanding Freestanding walk around them The column shafts resemble papyrus stalks They end in capitals at the top The capitals resemble papyrus blossoms Great Pyramids at Gizeh Egypt Fourth Dynasty 25502470 BCE Re the sun god The pyramids are the symbols of the sun dedicated to Re Function as giant staircases to heaven Part is underground such as the tomb The entrance is low towards the ground but was concealed because of thieves The middle one had two temples It was for the Pharaoh Khafre Great Sphinx at Gizeh Fourth Dynasty 25202494 BCE Combined the intelligence ofa human figure with the strength of an animal Khafre from Gizeh Fourth Dynasty 25202494 BCE Diorite The pharaoh Khafre enthroned It is a substitute for the passed away Pharaoh to reside the ra in made of Diorite Ti watching a hippo hunt Saqqara Egypt 5 h Dynasty ca 2400 BCE Painted relief in the mastaba of Ti Ti was an upper class figure in the court Carved on a flat surface in the mastaba Shows strength and power there are servants shown full of movement They are used to decorate tombs It shows his earthly success in life Fragmentary head of Senusret Middle Kingdom ca 1860 BCE The face of a pharaoh Sunusret He looks worried he looks old or weary Suggests that it is related to the struggling times the rulers are facing at the time Shows him more concerned and less impartial and more affected by the events around him Rock cut tombs at Beni Hasan Egypt Middle Kingdom ca 1900 BCE Not as many burials in mastaba s anymore Rockcut tombs tombs cut inside of rock rather than being constructed Inside of the tombs are columns They don t help with the support though Inside the tomb freestanding columns fluted columns with lines in them simple bases transition element between column shaft and ceiling beam abacus the transition from the column to the ceiling Hyksos portrayed as great warriors introduced the horse to Egyptians they concurred all of upper and lower Egypt but not for long The Egyptian pharaohs reclaimed the territories The new capital of the New Kingdom is Thebes Mortuary temple of Queen Hatshepsut 18 h Dynasty ca 14731458 BCE She was a major ruler in the New Kingdom She was one of the few females who ruled as queen She built lots of monuments and sculptures of herself One of the only standing temples left in Egypt Her successor wanted to destroy evidence of her He removed sculptures and placed them in a dump They could bring in many materials from around Egypt they could import food and spices The structure was meant to be a garden Some were shrines of specific gods were built during the lifetime of specific rulers for them to worship Temple of Ramses Abu Simbel Egypt 19 h Dynasty ca 12901224 BCE The temple has painted images onto the rock Monuments and sculptures were cut out of the rock in the temple Temple of AmenRe Karnak Egypt New Kingdom Built over a long period of time Built to honor the god AmenRe they used man made lacks to get water Inside the temple complex is laid out as a axel plan The interior could only be visited by the priest the pharaoh The center was a llsacred lake They envisioned their society to be born out of water They attached such importance to water because of the desert The hypostyle hall is the thing that is the most preserved Hall of columns Hypostyle hall temple ofAmenRe Karnak Egypt 19 h dynasty 12901224 BCE Built of massive columns Made to look like lotus and papyrus plants The architecture symbol the unification of upper and lower Egypt The stones were individually chiseled there was originally a roof The columns and most of the stones were decorated Building such an enclosed space there needs to be light to enter they needed to bring natural light into buildings It is done by raising the central columns then the flanking columns to make windows to bring natural light in Clerestory adding an extra story to allow light to enter a structure so the central part of the building may have lighting The columns and many of the carvings were painted it was very colorful Egyptian court official Senmut with Princess Nefrura Thebes Egypt 18 h Dynasty ca 14701460 BCE For the Princess Nefrura Queen Hatshepsut s daughter Fowling Scene 18 h Dynasty ca 14001350 Found near Thebes now in the British Museum London Nebamun with his wife and daughter on a skiff hunting birds from the tomb of Nebamun From the grave of a middle court official Found in Thebes Shows him with his wife and daughter on a boat they are hunting birds Shown one of the best pictures we have from the period Made by fresco secco it tends to chip off Musicians and dancers from the tomb of Nebamun 18 h dynasty 14001350 BCE Fresco on dry plaster Shows the commemorative banquet for the life of Nebamun Death was not seen as a sad thing and people would put on a festival after their death Musicians are on the left and ladies dancing in the middle The one on the top has over lapping and show movement It is more lose and tries to involve the viewer Akhenaton 18 h dynasty 13531335 BCE He changed his name from Amenhotep to Akhenaton because he loved the sun god Aton He would only praise Aton This was only a brief period of monotheism He founded a new city called Akhetaton now called Amarna It is not idealistic he is curvy and has a belly He looks more feminine one idea was that the Egyptians were looking for a figure that is both male and female On his belly and wrist for the first time there are hieroglyphics In a rectangular form they are called cartush It shows the name of the king Bust of Nefertiti Thutmose 18 h dynasty 13531335 BCE By the sculpture Thutmose Bust of Nefertiti Akhenaton s wife This statue is in the process of being created It was found in the studio of Thutmose All of the sculptures were for the palace Very elegant and stylized Woman during this period were very powerful Miniature head of Queen Tiye 13531335 BCE Mother of Akhenaton Akhenaton s mother Tiye Because of trade we know a lot about Queen Tiye because documents were found around the world Her facial features show her at an older age Her head has been covered up to cover what god is represented It is very small only about four inches tall Akhenaton Nefertiti and three daughters from Amarna Egypt 18 h Dynasty ca 13531335 Made from limestone is a relief sculpture Looks like an everyday seen and not as iconic as others Symbol of Aton the sun god the sun in the middle Death mask ofTutankhamen Egypt 18 h dynasty ca 1323 BCE Found in the innermost coffin in his tomb at Thebes gold with inlay of semiprecious stones After they went back to more idealistic and realistic images One of the most iconic figures from Egyptian art So famous because is the only tomb that has not been touched and still intact He only ruled for 10 years from age 818 He received a Pharaoh burial though was not as good as those who lived longer When Egyptians buried their kings they knew they could be robed They moved away from pyramid burial and started to make graves hidden so they would not be tampered with They created a land called the valley of the kings that only the royal family knew about and the high king They were made of mounds surrounded by mountains that could not be seen as tombs by anyone Discovery if King Tut s tomb Howard Carter found the tomb of Tutankhamen The interior of Tutankhamen39s tomb He had a photographer person and film camera to document the discoveries The tombs were filled with objects Many were made of wood Some areas the furniture has fallen It is very small An elaborate coffin took up most of the room A serious of three coffins have been placed inside each other In situ means found in the original place not disturbed Painted chest from tomb of Tutankhamen Inlaid wood Shows the images of the pharaoh in battle he commands a team of horses There are many scenes of battles He was too young to lead battles the chest shows events that didn t happen but should have happened It is made of wood there is a veneer of inlaid wood that is placed like a puzzle on the chest The frame is not painted it is made of different colored woods The objects were found in situ Last Judgment of HuNefer Thebes Egypt 19 h Dynasty ca 1280 Papyrus scroll of HuNefer showing HuNefer s last judgment story from the Book of the Dead It is showing his last judgment which was set out by the book of the dead which was placed in everyone39s tombs so it could be passed to the afterlife The feather represents truth and justice Next to the scale there is a monster made out of different animals and if his heart is heavier then the feather that will be his fate After passing the test he is lead to the afterlife being accompanied by Horus the sun god with a falcon head Made out of papyrus paper It was buried with him when he died An example of a narrativetelling a story Anubis the god of embalming Horus protector of the pharaohs and Osiris supreme god of the underworld are in this painting He was a scribe not a pharaoh He is the men in white On the top he is bowing down to all the gods On the bottom he is being lead to the hall of maat by Anubis They are weighing his heart against a feather to see which one is lighter Aegean Cycladic Art 30002000 BCE Some of the earliest evidence of art outside of the eastern regions 3000 2000 BC Figurine of a woman from Syros Cyclades islands 25002300 BCE Group of statues found throughout the region Highly stylized not realistic Abstract interpretations of females The genital areas are emphasized arms over cross abdomen Found in graves and in houses Were prob Placed on the lying figure of the diseased Made of white marble The Cycladic islands were known for their high quality marble Most painted faces would be painted and jewelry They turned up in great numbers Influenced artists in modern period Meant for lying down Life sized figures Figurine ofa man playing a lyre from Keros Cyclades islands 27002500 BCE Male figures Male figures playing instruments had more ofa 3D way and able to be placed upright Figures that accompany the person into the afterlife Ancient marble quarry on island of Paros Cyclades islands Ancient quarry39s found to create sculptures High quality white marble material Very valuable and able to trade Raw material Minoan Art 17001200 BCE Minoan Art originated from King Minos Crete is pretty much its homeland the Minoan art 17001200 BC Minoan art The center of the art was Knossos an inland city Named after King Minos Knossos Crete Excavation site of Minoan palace 17001400 BCE Minos built a palace at Knossos Largely excavated very open complex had separate buildings with covered walkways which were arcaded and columned Little need for any kind of defensive structures in this time Palaces served as agricultural production stores for agriculture governmental purposes Myth of a great labyrinth living under the palace A story of minitar a monster protecting the palace Labyrinth comes from a word that means double ax Masonry in the upper floors remain today Evidence on columns that they were painted Pillow capital looks like a pillow that has been crunched by the above stone Architecture was very colorful and very simple Hot and arid climate very long summers To combat this situation the builders made very broad passageways and walkways Walls were kept thick to make rooms cooler made of built masonry Invented a system of air exchange which allowed hot air to escape the room keeping the rooms cooler Masonry terms Fieldstones found unworked stones Ashlar carefully cut regularly shaped blocks of stone fit together without mortar Dressed masonry stone blocks shaped to the exact dimensions required with smooth faces for a perfect fit Ashlar is a component of dressed masonry Queen39s megaron throne room in the palace at Knossos Crete ca 1450 BCE Images of nature especially sea life was appreciated here Very bright colors painted associated with life life of a palace with pleasure A throne was found in this room this room was served as some sort of throne room in the palace Ornament was found around this room Fresco painting true frescoapplied to wet plaster Helped preserve them over time This attraction to the ocean was all around minoan art Minoan vases from Crete 18001500 BCE Minoans also liked vases wine like these vases used for wine Natural motifs for curved surfaces formed to the surfaces Items in trade were often painted and had wavy lines They loved art They had their own type of writingtwo forms Linear A and Linear B linear B was able to be deciphered after many years of studying it Linear A has not been able to be deciphered Bullleaping scene fresco from the palace at Knossos Crete ca 1450 BCE restored Frescos Games are shown here women figures and males involved in some type of sport Male overt a bull maybe a root of bull fighting that is in Spain today Not a fight not a sacrificebut a game Males were usually the ones working outside females were normally not Pale skin was highly prized for females and tan for males Elegant bodies and slender Would have been on view in the palace gardens Snake Goddess from palace at Knossos Crete ca 1600 BCE Material faience Sculpture A snake goddess Did play some kind of role in ritual life within the palace On top of her head is some type of feline ruling over the physical verses the natural world Exposed breast Maybe a goddess of fertility Not well known Contemporary dress Clues of types of clothing that was worn flowing skirts and tight bodes Normally bright in colors with geometric and flowing line patterns Suggests a complex type of civilization high degree of artistic development and appreciation of art Material clay like ceramic process called faience a fired clay Mycenaean Art 17001200 BCE Mycenaean civilization Mycenae principle city Funerary mask from Mycenaean grave ca 1600 regauss technique Funerary art was big in this art This is a grave mask made of gold similar to the ones in Egypt Made in a different process of goldcalled repousse Would have been laid flat on a surface then hammered out into a thin sheet then worked into the details such as this face Famed for their use and possession of gold Very powerful people able to extract gold from tradebasis for their wealth and power Inlaid dagger blade with lion hunt from Mycenaean grave ca 1600 BCE Other items found in graves related to war Such as this dagger Symbolic weapon Shows inlayed gold images of a lion hunt Most of the graves found were of honored warriors Mycenaean citadel at Tiryns Peleponnesos Greece Citadel of a society that has survived because of the walls The defense structure the exterior wall of immense thicknesscontinually under attack Mycenaean39s Corbeled arch passageway at Tiryns Greece Massive walls built of Istone 39 39 T h 39 quot the 39 39 39 were very advanced Experts at building archessome of the most effective types of construction techniques for passage ways Very simple and efficient technique here Stone was gradually brought inward called corbelling 3 methods of spanning a passageway a Post and lintel b Corbeled arch c Round arch Simplest technique post and lintel construction The lintel is the stone on top Then a little more complicated Corbelled arch able to hold much greater weight rather than stone The round arch true arch Stones are cut to be tapered and placed on top of each other that distributes the weight of the arch to the placement of the arch The key stone is the most important stone Lion s gate Mycenae ca 1300 BCE A combination of different designs Has partially collapsed The designed sculpture is of two lions Entrance to Treasury of Atreus Mycenae Greece ca 1300 BCE Entrance to the treasury of Atreus Atreus was a king and the father of agamemnonits not actually a treasuryit s actually a burial tomb quotTreasury ofAtreusquot actually a thoas tomb Mycenae Greece ca 1300 BCE Tholos tombs With a circular plan First built then covered with earth Extremely massive On the interior is a vast corbelled dome Not a true dome because of the stones placed in angles Archaic The face always show a single type of expression Usually shown smiling even figures shown dying or at battle Expression shows there is a life force in the body Greece was dominated by many city states Every city had its own government and own different rule Greece created the Olympics and it was the only time all the cities came together The Greeks called themselves Helenians The Greeks call this time the heroic age The stories of the quotMad and the Odyssey were written down The rediscovery of writing greatly promoted innovation m from the Dipylon cemetery in Athens Greece ca 740 BCE Part of Geometric period has very sharp shapes twists and turns Meander the snake like shape designs Krater used as a storage vesicle used to hold wine or water It was found at a cemetary and is what Greeks would use to identify the graves Would use pictures on the vase to represent the person who died Art Historians have grouped the designs of these objects into periods Ceramic vases were very popular at this time Where a lot of ceramic vesles have been found are at a cemetery in Athens They were all funerary eobjects Shows geometric shapes and sizes Krater from the Dipylon cemetery in Athens Greece ca 740 BCE The images are displayed in Hierarchy lines All figures are very geometric many shapes A narrative in an art piece is a piece of art that tells a story Black gure amghora with animalfriezes made at Corinth ca 625 BCE Oriantalized period called because shows a type of depiction more middle eastern A very stylized vase Amphora vase always recognizable because it has a slender neck and 2 handles Black figure painting quotLady ofAuxerrequot probably from Crete ca 650 BCE Kore female idealized statue Greek funerary geometic She originally was made on the Island of Crete Named llLady of Auxerre because she was found in Auxerre France She is geometric because of her square hair and lines in her skirt Originally painted in bright colors Kouros male idealized statues always shown naked very stiff feet are usually apart to show a little bit of movement squarebraided hair All male figures have all been found at grave sized meant to show the role of the deceased show him idealized not old Kouros from the grave of Kroisos found at Anavysos near Athens ca 530 BCE Become more naturalistic same rigidness and little movement Showed as muscular more idealized Meant to show the dead in a moralized concept Greek society starts to show naturalism and is what they are known for Peplos Kore Athens ca 530 BCE She is an image ofan goddess would have been in a temple not a cemetery Her left hand would have been extended and held an attribute that would hold a symbol to show what goddess she was Because of her clothing can tell she is a goddess Cella with central row of columns Pronaos with three columns in antis Doric mainland Greeks more simple composed of stylobatebase where columns rest then column composed of a shaft and capital the capital is simple composed of a square simple block called the abacus and echinus below it Above the column is the etablature composed of first the epistyle which is flat and plain next is the triglyph and metope above that is the pediment the triangle area on the roof composed of the corniceacross the top and the raking cornice diagonal roof Both are found on the mainlands and islands Ionic came from the ionic islands Exekias Achilles and Ajax playing a dice game Athenian blackfigure amphora 540530 BCE Found in Italy By the artist Exekias Vase paintings are used beyond funerary purposes more used as decorations in homes One single image that stands in for an entire story of what is to come Achilles is the one with the helmet they are dressed in armor waiting for battle finding a diversion to lesson the tension a scene out of a soldiers life would have been familiar to many Draws attention to one picture especially to the empty space around the figures the figures are much fuller than the geometric vase more naturalistic and shows archaic profile Euthymides Three revelers Athenian redfigure amphora ca 510 BCE Found in Italy Redfigure painting Artist is Euthymides called three revelers No funerary concept used at party in a household Both are luxury items Less tension not so serious Temple of Aphaia Aegina Greece ca 500490 BCE Temple of Aphia is important because of the sculptures from them The penemant used to contain sculptures that were very illaborat and fell down Because of the study and details can figure out what it looked like Sculpture from the pediment shows the person dedicated the temple to Remains of pediment sculpture showing the goddess Athena and mortal warriors Story of the mythical like of Athena Story of the battle of the Greeks and trojans The goddess athena in the center all that is left from the temple now in museum She is bigger then the soldiers next to her To show her role as a super human Mortals around her are the same size as each other Made to fight the slanting of the pediment Images in the corner of the pediment are compressed and the artist deals with these issues The sculpture from one end of the pediment is different from the other in terms of style and quality of expedition There was damage on one end and renovations happened 1020 years later Shows the diferents between the two soldiers Dying warrior from the west pediment older dying and shows the archaic smile the archaic smile is shown in pain happy or sad sculptures help us identify archaic period Showed in a complete frontal pose from the west pediment Dying warrior from the east pediment from renovated east pediment The body is placed in frontal and turned away he has been wounded also Shows more tension of pain and life and death Very different from the west pediment which fail to achieve to show pain Still has archaic smile Shows the transition from archaic to classical Kritios Boy Athens ca 480 BCE Classical sculpture not used as grave markers set up in homes or public places Much greater naturalism seen in the lines of the body Always males are presented nude and females clothed The arms are broken off would have been placed on the side like the other attached to the body Figure stands with the weight of the figure placed on one leg Not natural for a human to place all weight on both legs Full weight on left leg and right leg used to balance Contrapposto the shifting of weight on one side of the body Bronze statue of a warrior found under the sea near Riace Italy ca 460 BCE Some sculptures are done in bronze which is very valuable some of the sculptures were destroyed by invading countries and melted down This sculpture survived because it was lost at sea contained in a ship wreak He is hollow on the inside It was made in sections and then melted together It was made using lost wax method they would make a clay model of what they wanted then take wax and melt it around the clay mold after they would put clay around the wax but leave an opining after they would cook it in a kiln The wax would melt and you would poor the bronze in were the wax was Myron Diskobolos Discus Thrower Roman marble copy of a bronze original of ca 450 BCE Myron Dikobolos discus thrower Copy of the Greek sculpture original in bronze Very popular in greece at the time And now copies are being made because of the famous artists roman copies Sculpture was very popular in public now set up in streets sports stadiums Shows physical perfection of the human body in result ofathletics 3 dimensional aspect Captures a moment in time Polykleitos Doryphoros Spear Thrower ca 450 BCE Roman marble copy from Pompeii after a Greek bronze original Polykleitos most famous Greek sculpture came up with a system of proportions for the sculptures of the human body Called the cannon Originally named it The Cannon Roman copy in marble originally in bronze Used it to demonstrate the proportional relationship System based on the relationship between individual parts Shows contrapposto with the tense right leg His figures reproduce the perfectionism of the human body and strength Shown in perfect proportion Sculpture was set up on the playing field in the city of Pompeii the volcano s ash preserved the sculpture Acropolis Athens Acropolis means high city Were all the great temples were placed in the city of athens Much was destroy but enough was saved to show a recontruction Named after the goddess Athena lktinos and Kallikrates Parthenon Temple of Athena Parthenos Acropolis Athens 447438 BCE Main temple Parthenon The Greek cities come together and defeat the Persians and created the Acropolis to show the unifying of the city stated in Greece Sculpture methods apply to architecture Algebraic formula used was x2y1 Human eye has a tendency to see things in different ways then constructed standing under a column looks like it will fall over you Made to be inclined so you wont feel that way Columns on the four corners are slightly thicker then the columns in between The stylobate is not a flat surface but are domed Highly complex building The building has suffered a lot and was a very popular sight


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