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by: Miss Ofelia Bode


Miss Ofelia Bode
GPA 3.52

W. Kelso

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W. Kelso
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This 25 page Class Notes was uploaded by Miss Ofelia Bode on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to RNR 4040 at Louisiana State University taught by W. Kelso in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see /class/222665/rnr-4040-louisiana-state-university in Renewable Natural Resources at Louisiana State University.

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Date Created: 10/13/15
Fisheries Management Lotic Fisheries ltgtCod Water Coldwater streams support some of the most valuable recreational fisheries in the US Native and exotic trout and salmon that are the focus of these fisheries may be resident anadromous or delayed anadromous o Productive Salmonid Streams o Obervable year round flow 0 Average temp of 20C or less 0 Disolved oxygen concentrations above 8mgL I Water sources and annual hydrographs may be extremely variable if they are based on rainfall or steady if they are spring fed I Large trout however can be found in scour pools in small streams o Riparian Vegetation is extremely important for both temp as well as the input of allochthanous organic material 0 Corse particulate organic material and dissolved organic matter 0 Stream Morphology o Periphyton Substrate o Foraging attachment site 0 Cover 0 Salmonid reproduction is extremely sensitive to sediment inputs 0 Riparian land use must protect natural substrate site distributions 0 Salmonids are nest building species 0 Redds nests are excavated in a specifically sized substrate to provide adequate water flow for oxygenating the eggs and carrying away waste products 0 Salmonids exhibit obvious secondary sexual characteristics prior to spacing o Spawning may be initiated in the fall or the spring when the water temp approaches 10 or 15C 0 Eggs require approximately 300 degree days over 0C for hatching fall spawn eggs hatch before spring spawn eggs 0 Salmonid life histories are typical high 1st year mortality and growth 0 Predation is a high cause of death early on 90 Overwintering accounts for 50 0 Most fish overwinter in slow pools or in substrate depending on stream characteristics 0 Salmonids tend to be short lived few fish living pst age 5 or 6 for most stream pops of trout the fishery is based on individual age 2 to 4 o Consistent recruitment extremely important in management 0 Fluvial salmon and trout behaviors maximize energetic or reproductive gains 0 Salmonids become territorial earlyin life usually establish feeding territories behind strcutures with minimal focal point velocity and abundant drifting forage o Undercut banks and instream cover are important for lotic salmonids o Terratories are proportional to f7uish size with desired feeding locations changing with life stage 0 Most salmonid species are effected by other salmonid species 0 Problems occur with stocking of fluvial salmonids throughout North America and native exotic interaction 0 Depensatory Mortalitygtmortality whose rate increases as the population decreases o Fluvial salmonids exhibit average standing stocks of 54 kgHa in western streams with annual PB ratios of 0515 and average densities of about 25 fishlOOmquot2 o Abundance and production are related to local morphological physicochemical and biological characteristics 0 NonSpring fed systems typically support highly variable trout pops with four fold fluctuations in biomass and eight fold fluctuations in numbers 5 to 8 year periods 0 This pop variability is due to environmental fluctuations affecting the streams ecosystem resulting in alternating periods of density dependent and density independent pop control Variability in the abundance of salmonid pops must be a central part of coldwater man programs angling mortality must be evaluated and controlled for the yellow average conditions to minimize pop effects during periods of environmental stress remember fisheries depend of relatively few age classes Coldwater Fisheries Management Issues Coldwater fisheries management issues Anadromous Salmonids 1 Maximizing smolt numbers with hatceriesgtParr before that Controversial 1998 estimates theat sockeye salmon are best to produce in the wild shum mostly from hatchery Genetic Concerns Emphasis on Hatcheries ignores causes of declinesgt ecosystem malfunction may actually exacerbate problems Large Stocks of hatchery fish increase fishing pressure on wild stocks Spawning Stream Improvement Access Improvement fishways dam removal Strictly Controlles Harvests U1wa Environmental Control of Salmonid Abundance a Pacific Decadal Oscillation gtPDO 6 Recently Salmon mariculture has increased causing tension in the traditional capture fisheries because of disease water quality and genetic concerns Fluvial Salmonids 1 Hatchery Production a Shift in emphasis from naturalproduction and stream degradation b Genetic Concerns 2 Angling Pressureshift in management emphasis to experience not to harvest 3 Habitat Management indentify symptoms versus sources emphasis on maximizing water quality and habitat complexity including pools riffles and glides that provide variable depths velocites and small to large substrate woody debris for cover complex riparian vegetation for allochthonous organic inputs and overstory for shade in small streams 4 Whirling Disease Myxobolus cerabralis 90 reductions in some western fluvial salmonid stocks after introductions of infected carriers catilage and skeletal parasite affects juveniles Coolwater Fisheries Coolwater Fisheries occur when temperatures range from 2026 degrees anda re often characterized by the dominant sportfishes Found in lakes and large rivers with extensive stocking outside their native range lmportant fisheries species are typically pisciverous dominant predators nonnesting species with rapid growth Coolwater Fisheries Mana ement Issues 1 Uses of Hybrids in Management programs a Tiger Muskelunge sterile more easily cultured b Hybrid Striped Bass environmentally tolerant c Saugeyes success in turbid structuredeficient reservoirs Maintenance of Spawning habitat Harvest Limitations P94 Reintroductions in restored waters 5 Habitat Loss and degradation Coldwater systems probably more susceptible to pollution and altered hydrology than coldwater streams and fish assemblages in these systems have changed radically since the 1600s ie Maumee River system in N Ohio Warm water streams exceed 26C during some part of the year Mostly target centrarchids and ictalurids sun fish and catfish Small warm water streams typically resemble coldwater systems with abundant woody debris contributing to habitat complexity However flow velocity in small wallet streams is low during the summer and early fall with many streams becoming series of warm stagnant pools these conditions require substantial physiological adaptations by fishes that do not emigrate Midreach provide subst habitat diversity with welldeveloped riffles pools and glide and more stable flow regimes the canopy is open resulting in increased heating and increased primary productionperiphyton Large rivers usually provide mostly pools and deep glides although backwaters and eddies contribute to habitat diversity Fish community composition changes with increasing order with species richness increasing downstream Warm Water Management Issues 0 Traditionally ignored as fisheries resources although surveys indicate that 20 of annual recreational fishing effort in MO 25 in OR and 35 in KY occurs warm water systems 0 Nonpoint source pollution agricultural and municipal development sediment fertilizers herbicides and pesticides and organic and inorganic pollutants most problematic 0 Water loss wetland loss Altered hydrographs flashy discharge profiles habitat effects 0 Channelization clearing and snagging Large River Systems 0 Large river systems exhibit extensive modifications for flood control hydroelectric generation navigation industry and agriculture 0 Extensive dam construction has altered many large river to a series of mainstream reservoirs many of which no longer function as rivers the Colorado no longer connects to the Gulf of California 0 Large rivers are dynamic and complex systems that support a diversity of habitat types and biotic assemblages 0 They have important connections with upstream and downstream systems longitudinal interactions the riverbed and groundwater vertical interaction and riparian and floodplain habitats horizontal interactions the latter is perhaps the most altered characteristic of large rivers in the US 0 Throughout history large rivers have been particularly susceptible to anthropogenic degradation with river training riparian development and floodplain restriction in huge losses of riverine habitat 0 Most Freshwater commercial fishing in the US is outside of the Great Lakes is in large rivers 0 Consequences river alterations to fishes and invertebrates are complex but it is likely that a tremendous number of aquatic species large rivers that were ecologically tied to flooding flow variability and habitat complexity are either extinct or in low abundance o ldeally land use activities would affect all lotic systems such that they would not be aggrading or degrading 0 Unfortunately this has not been the case Watershed Habitats All Lotic systems occur in a larger ecosystem called a watershed drainage basin or catchment which should be the management unit of interest Hierarchy of Watersheds Lotic System function is closely linked and dependent on the adjacent watershed o Geomorphologytopography soil type sedimentation o Productivitynutrient inputs 0 Allochthonous CarbonCoarse Particualte Organinc Matter Fine Particulate Organic Matter Dissolved Organinc Carbon Large Woody Debris Small Woody Debris o Biotavertebrate predators invertebrate forage o Hyrdologywateryield Water Yield in a watershed is controlled by climatic geomorphologic geologic and vegetative variable result of Precipitation Evapotranspiration Storage RPEtS Water Yield varies considerably throughout the US timing magnitude and duration most important on fisheries production The temporal pattern of discharge is known as the hydrograph which can tell us a great deal about how streams function Flashy Streams show intense runoff events with a rapid rise and fall and high peaks often result from human alterations to a watershed Flashy discharge hydrographs select for tolerant organisms that can withstand high current and bed and bank scoring Many Characteristics change from the source to the mouth of the stream Gradient Power channel morphology and substrate size Physicochemistry LWD function and importance These changes were incorporated into the River Contuum Concept predicting invertebrate community changes based on stream gradients and can also be applied to the stream fish community Many stream fishes respond to gradients eg elevation slope width depth and distribution of species and life history stages tied to stream changes throughout the watershedthese may be important in understanding movement and habitat use Land Use Most significant effects on watershed Vegetation modification and water yield Agricultureirrigation reduction in quantity and quality and loss of riparian inputs Livestockerosion infiltration reduction riparian vegetationloss Channelizationreduced habitat diversity high peak flows Urbanizationincreased water yield low storage high peak flows Land use often related to watershed characteristicssope soil type vegetation typeeffects on stream organisms can be predicted Erosion may be the most obvious problem in a watershed o Surfacecontinualerosion 0 Mass movementarge chunks fall in 0 Channel cuttingbank cutting 0 Reduction in reservoir storage and stream conveyance 0 Reduction in stream habitat diversity 0 Turbidity o Conveyor ofabsorbed material metals bacteria pesticides 0 Loss of macroinvertebrate and fish habitat o 50 accounted for by agriculture but construction and mining have the highest rates per area 0 Application of BMPs and revegetation of cleared areas critical to sediment load reductio BMPs are activity specific but sediment BMPs are similar for all land use activities Lotic Habitat Impacts o Channelization is one of the most devastating impacts to stream ecosystems o Widely used to increase channel capacity drain wetlands reduce flooding relocate channels eliminate channel migration improve navigation and eliminate streambank erosion 0 However it also 0 Eliminates pools and riffles o Reduces habitat diversity fish and invertebrate densities o lncreases stream slope storm velocities stream power scouring channel cutting 0 Improved land use planning zoning and floodway alterations would be a much better approach to land use that would protect streams o Snagging grading dredging bank armoring used to remove stream debris increase channel capacity improve navigation 0 Loss of instream cover and velocity refugia habitat diversity and fishes and invertebrates o lnstream barriers extremely detrimental to fluvial fish populations including potamod romous nonsalmonids o Dams and culverts must be completely evaluated in light of their influences on stream biota o Dam passage facilities are important for many anadromous fishes o Fishway upstream and downstream design based on swimming abilities of migrating organisms o Fishways should 0 Be passable by all migratory species Operate at all water levels Be navigable without excessive injury or stress 000 Have easily located entrances Lotic Fisheries Obiectives As discussed earlier the management process involves goals and objectives problem identification actions and evaluation Habitat Biota Assuming an agreedu pon goal what objecives would we typically have for a lotic fishery Reproductive habitatSubstrate Cover Channel diversity riffles pools glides Invertebrate Habitat Riparian DensityComposition o Filterbuffer 0 Channel Stability 0 Inputs of woody debris CPOM Water quality Fish Community composition Abundance Reproduction Growth Age structureRecruitment Mortality sourcesrate lnve rtebrate production o Macrophytes amp Algae o Diseases amp Parasites Human Users 0 Access private property 0 Participation 0 Species 0 Size 0 Angling Experience 0 Economic Impact 0 Education 0 Environmental Protection When objectives are developed the next step is to identify obstacles that make achieving the objectives problematicASSESSMENT We will talk about many techniques for assessing lotic and lentic habitats but two things are of critical importance 0 Sampling of habitat Biota and human users must be designed to have consistency over time and space years and bodies of water so that the data reveals actual results in the parameters of interest 0 Time of the Year 0 Time of Day 0 Gear Type and Specifications 0 Sampling Locations 0 Effortpeople o For biotic sampling extensive knowledge about your test species is required utmost 0 Another important consideration is representativeness of the data bias is inherent in any sampling method and we must make sure that the data we collect for a praticular parameter is representative of the stock or is at least consistently biased among samples Lotic Fisheries Assessment 0 When objectives have been developed the next step is to identify obstacless that make achieving the objectives problematic 0 Assessment 0 Stream habitat Features I Stream Orderorder increases when two same orders converges 0 Channel Form I Related to stream sinuosity A A over the reach of 20xW Wwidth increasing sinuosity gt139better habitat diversity A is the actual stream length as it winds and A is the straight line length O O O O 0 Width and Depth I Depth variability important for habitat diversity productive streams support a diversity of pool glide and riffle dwelling organisms Flow Velocity and Discharge I Flow varies inversely with depth high flow in riffles maintains DO and macroinvertebrate production and driftmean velocity 60 depth lt1m mean of 2080gt1m I Cut river and discover area and mean velocity for cells which are 10 of width Coefficient of Variation standard deviation may be most important Substrate I Substrate particel size positively related to flow velocity ranging from fine sediment to large bouldersimportant for reproduciton as well as velocity and predatory cover 0 Visual surveys near transect pointWentworth particle scale 0 Pebble counts along transect 0 Quantitative core samplessieved and weighedvolume I Quantified by the geometric mean diameter Dsubgsquare root D16 times D84 d16 is the diamter at which 16 of the sample is smallerd84 is the diametera t which 84 of the sample is smaller and the fredle index FDgS sorting coefficient S D75D25 Substrate Embededness I How much coarse particles are buriedestimated as percentage of rock surface covered by sediment or buried depth by total rock depth I As little as embededness as possible for salmonids Woody Debris I Periphytonsubstrate I Invertebrate habitat I Fish Cover I Stream Morphology habitat variability I Normally Quantified as number length diameter on transect line Bank Characteristics I Vegetation important for shading bank stability and allochthonous input Bank Height Bank Cutting Riparian Vegetation Density I Quick visual composition quantified by categorization and a Densiometer Channel Stability I Very important function of riparian vegetation geology water yield characteristics We normally measure these characterisitics along horizontal or perpendicular transects on a stream generating 30100 measurements along a stream reach O O O Stream Habitat Features Water quality included as part of a stream habitat assessment protocols In Situ monitorsT DO specific conductance pH turbidity Water SamplesNutrients BOD Biochemical Oxygen Demand heavy metals carbon bacterial counts 0 ISCO samplerremote sampling device24 bottles takes autmatic samples Watershed CharacteristicsGlSbased watershed assessment Stream Biota o Fishesnormally quantified with electrofishing seining light traps larvae piscicides rare 0 Abundance if possible we would like to know fish densitystock size before we develop a management plan I Feasible streams in certain situations particularly in small Depletion sampling is possible when the proportion of individuals captured within a defined area CPUE is high Capture Per Unit Effort I Assumptions Closed Population A sampling pass removes a significant proportion of fishes CPUE declines with successive passes All members are equally vulnerable size Catchability q is constant between sampling passes Two regression Based methods Leslie DeLury Leslie CtFtth CPUE at at timeon a given runnumber times catchability DeLury NtNOth number on given run tota number at initial minus accumulated catch SubstitutingCtFtqNth CPUEcatchabiity x total accumulated catch up to current run number at initial catchabiity x Lineslopesecond qx Ktintercept is qNOyCPU E regeression based methods have at least theoretically been replaced by maximum likelihood estimates Problems with declining q with successive passes Correlationof CPUE and accumulated catch due to variations in q Not included in linear models Improvement with maximum likelihood estimation Where 6x273xy 7y2y y26xy 73x A2 18xiy X2n12n2 and yn1n2n3 numbers caught on each run 3x7y7 26ch 73x A2 2x Stream Biota o Abundance Diversity Evenness Richness Trophic and Reproductive guilds o Growthassessment of how fast fish are growing index of habitat quality development and evaluation of management activities 0 O In Freshwater systems growth assessments usually focus on stock lengthatage Lengthfrequency histograms may be suitable for shortlived species or for the early age classes of longlived species with mean length at age estimated from the modal length 0 Most age and growth analyses however use annuli counts on calcified structures I Scales I Otoliths I Spines I Jaw Bones I Vertebrae I Opercula o Annuli position gives a growth history of the fishor does it 0 Let s say we measure scale radius and annulus width on 320 walleye from Lake Roosevelt WA I Measure rings from the center focus on the longest diameter I If this 3 year old walleye was 379mm with annuli widths of 51 71 88 mm and a scale radius of 94 mm can we say 379 x o W 354atage3 I Assumptions I A better way or o LiLcaScSia o Liength at previous age i o Lcength at capture 0 SiScale radius at previous age i o ScScale radius at capture 0 aconstantintercept of regression of hard part radius nd length our walleye example the SRTL regression yields the quation o TL6295R2503 rquot2091 o What does this equation say What is a25 o L3379250394x882503356mm 0 Would back calculated ages for all fish in all age groups be the same Linear o It turns out that backcalculating the entire growth history of a fish often results in Lee s Phenomenon o For a given age saya ge 1 older fish will back calculate to a smaller size than younger fishlikely a reflection of size selective growth and mortality rates live die young live slow live long and prosper o ExampleBlackCrappie 0 Consequently it is now recommended that fish be backcalculated only to the most recent annulus o Eliminates many problems with nonlinear length hard part relationships differential mortality and growth Requires many more fish for reasonable estimates of lengthatage What about the envirnoment Weisberg methodused increments between annuli as a measuring stick I Given mean Lengthatage we might want to modelthe growth of a stock I A popular growth model used in fisheries is the Von Bertalanffy model which is similar to the logistic model of population growthlfi ll KLinfinity lt Lin nilV is the maximum growth It is the size at any time Integration yieldsLLin niW1equotKtt0 We can find Linfinity and K with a Wolford Plot Organize the mean lengthatage date in 2 columns and I where tage o 1Plot lt1 y coord and It x coord for ages 1 and above these points should be linear with the relationship well described by a line if they are not linear there is probably some problem with the dataage and scarcity at tale end of survivability 2 run a regression through these data pairs 3 the slope of the equation is equotKkKlnslope o 4 the intercept is Linfinity1slope Linfinityinterceptlslope o This is also where the line intercepts the line xy what is this point How about to Take the Von B model and rearrange LnLinfinityltnLinfinityKtokt There are analogous models for describing growth in weight but this is usually 0 unnecessary because of the close relationship between length and weight more later 0 Instead on Von B for weight it may be easiest to calculate a length from the model and convert it to weight with a length weight nodel Lotic Fisheries Assessment 0 Stream BiotaFishes 0 Mortality I Actual Mortality A expressed as the simple percentage decimal of the number of individuals dying over a given period oftime usually a year I Instantaneous Mortaliity ZFM useful because we can model mortality and predict the of organisms alive at the future time o F Instant Fish Mortaliy M instant natural mortality 0 Necessary Assumptions in our calculations I Stable Age Distributions I We know N Stream Biota 0 Reproductive Ecology o Fecundity 0 Egg Counts I Subsampling and extrapolation I Difficult with batch spawners Egg MassBody size relationships FaLAb Spawning time Gonad weightSomatic weight1OO OOOO Repeated sampling will identify spawning times multiple peaks may be evident diferent fish same fish delayed same fish batch o Invertebrates o Forage Index of Productivity Bioassessment Substrate samplersCores drift nets kick nets woody debris samples 000 Abundance mquot2 easy for benthos somewhat problematic for xylophillic and xylophagic taxa Richness evenness diversity 0 Important taxonomic group I Include EPTtaxa o Ephemeroptera mayflies o Plecopterans Stoneflies o Tricopterans caddisflies 0 Also tolerant group oftaxa may indicate stream impairment I Diptera common water fly I Oligochaetes 0 Non insect taxa may be particularly importantcrayfishes 0 Functional groups composition can reflect stream function I Shredders Plecopterans Crayfishes Amphipods I Collecters Filterers Tricopterans Gatherers Ephemeropterans dipterans Scrapers Ephemeropterans snails o Predators Odonatesdipterans Human Users 0 Socioeconomic Data surveys 0 Mail Survey 0 Respodent Identification 0 Item Development Important o Creel Surveys 0 Survey design critical I Access point survey I Roving survey I RANDOMIZED important if annual totals are calculated 0 Location critical 0 Days per month 0 Time of day 0 Season 0 Item development short 0 Harvest data included I Measurements I Tissue hard part samples After assessment all components of the fishery are identified and now its time to fix it o HbaitatImprovementRestoration 0 Protect restore or improve streams to provide diverse natural habitats critical refugia and natural ecosystem processes for a diversity of co adapted populations 0 Problems 0 Stream flow unstable is problem 0 Unstable banks riparian alteration 0 Flow disruption beavers o Channelization turns into a drain 0 Sediment inputs land use problems O O O O Blockage damsn Water quality ag municipal industrial Poor habitat diversity Shading riparian corridor Project 0 0 Base all stream habitat improvement projects should be based on well defined ecological and engineering objectives Significant alterations to a stream might produce fisheries benefits but restoring natural stream form habitat diversity and floe profiles will have the most significant effects on the stream ecosystem I Important guiding principles 0 Learn from nature what is a quotgood stream for that watershed 0 Work with nature not against it o Indentify and ameliorate limiting factorspoo density structure 0 Consider ecological requirements of different life history stages 0 Natural looking stream inprovements are msot desirable 0 Manage the streamriparian corridor with natural and ecologically appropriate vegetation 0 Maintain flow cover relationships 0 Maintain or enhance base flows ameliorate peak flows 0 Activities geared towards maintaining physical structure and hydromorphology water quality energy source flow regimes and biotic interactions Physical Structure and Hydromorphology 0 0000000 0 O O Stream habitat improvement projects should incorporate adaptive management in a well designed planning process Inventory existing stream and watershed conditions potential Diagnosis identify problems in the three fisheries components SolutionsAppropriate treatments will habitat work to solve the problems Specific Objectives both project activities and resource rehabilitation Design Treatments based on stream mechanics and species requirements Cost estimationfeasibility labor heavy equipment resources available Permitting submission of plans to permitting agency off stream effects particularly flooding Organization identification of personnel and development of work schedule Management actions design team input and DO IT Evaluation based on objectives probably will requre 5 years for fish responses lless time for evaluation of installed habitat features Habitat Project Objectives include 0 Increasing habitat diversity depth flow substrate 0 Improving channel and adjacent riparian characteristics 0 Providing breeding foraging retreating resting habitats Habitat restoration and enhancement programs should emulate natural pooriffle ratios and channel profile Stream channel form can be broadly grouped into erosive meandering and braided channelsll PoolRiffle and meander belt spacing are usually 5 7 times the channel width 0 A good guide to plan restoration efforts Within channel forms above you have multiple fish habitats Rifer food Glidessmaller fish Pools adult fish area and Falls Riffles 0 low gradient lt4 o slope 20 50cms o rapids gt4 o slope gt50cms o cascades gt4 slope terraced streams Pools 0 Lateral scour most common 0 Trench bedrock o Plunge o Dammed o Backwater 0 Secondary channel pools Bank Stabilization o Bouldering not natural but it workskind of crappy looking 0 Tree revetments large brush and trees works fugly Pool falls Pool habitat o Sills boulders or logs water flow over or around obstacle I Remember size of obstacel should be relative to stream power flow Cover 0 Sills o Undercut Banks 0 Flow Disruptor 0 Depth 0 Hydraulic features Flow Management 0 Timing 0 Duration o Magnitude of flow variation 0 Many species require higly variable flows 0 Dams can be a problem or they can be not so bad 0 Instream Flow assessment 0 Extremely important in arid areas 0 Methods to determine acctable flow regimes I Habitat Preference Methods data intensive how many organisms and where they are located at different flow levels All biota including fish and bugs I Hydraulic Rating Methods field measurements of dishcarge versus wetted perimeter width depth water velocity Need additional meaurements of discharge versus important habitats so that they can be protected at low water levels Historical Stream Flow Methods simplest office method based on historical flow statistics to determine the natural flow regime based on magnitude frequency duration timing and rate of change 10 of MAF mean annual flow 60 is Excellent 0 Water Quality 0 Point and Non point source pollution identification mitigation o WQ improvement generally tied to reductions in nutrients sediment o Watershed BMP implementation critical for all land use activities 0 Energy Source 0 AutotrophicHeterotrophic o Shaded and full of good stuffuncovered but good stuff falls in 0 Natural canopy cover allochthonous inputs CPOM woody debris 0 Flow regime o Perennialintermittant 0 Maintain natural discharge patterns highlow flows 0 Biotic Interactions 0 Determine distribution abundance growth mortality Fish Invertebrate interactions important Exotic Interactions OOO Emphasize quotnaturalquot biodiversity species and links I Management 0 Generally focus on enhancing populations and eradicating populations 0 Enhancementstocking disease considerations 0 Maintenance Stocking No natural spawning all hatchery fish 0 Human Users Supplemental Stocking Some natural Spawning but not enough to sustain Gila CopetitionHabitat Manipulation Species Recovery topminnowMosqutofishPredation Habitat Improvement cover flow Sedimentation control SpawningInvertebrate substrate Eradication problematicPiscicides and Migration barriers I Management Licenses and Stamps Regulations Developed to protect fluvial stocks and apportion harvest which may be up to 50 of the biomass annually among anglers Creel limits Traditional management tool may be effective at low angler densities limiting catch per angler fails to protect stocks as angler number increase Seasons have been used for some streams put and take fisheries but quotopening day phenomenon is problematic Length Limits used in many systems particularly those that are trying to establish trophy fisheries slot limits minimum length limits regulations are most common problematic with live bait Gear Limits may be necessary to protect stocks eg mortality of released bait caught trout may exceed 30 so artificial lure single hook art lure fly fishing only and barbless hook fly fishing have been established on many streams Catch and release gaining popularity since 1870 Fisheries Management Problems Competition for water 0 Western US is water poor with water rights determined by the Doctrine of Prior Appropriation fish and wildlife concerns were not considered 100 years ago 0 Loosing water too industry agriculture energy hydronuclear municipal use 0 Likely to be one of the most pressing issues of the new century 0 Habitatloss and degradation of quality 0 Industrial Municipal agricultural pollution o Wetland development too o Reservoir development 0 Issues larger than the field of fisheries science societal issues 0 Recreational vs Commercial Fishing 0 In 2006 30 million anglers spent over 517 million days and at least 42 billion dollars fishing 0 Rec anglers outnumber commercial 2001 0 FAQ estimates that 50 of the worlds fisheries are fully exploited 1518 are overexploited and 910 are depleted or recovering 0 When resources become limiting fair allocation w consideration Aguaculture Water demands and effluent quality Market competition with traditional capture methods 0 Escape of exotics 0 Introduction of diseases 0 Culture and sale of recreationally important fisheries 0 Common property resources 0 Lack of resources ownership creates a management hell lack of effort 0 Excessive fishing power 0 Exotic Organisms 0 Intro of diseaseparasites 0 Habitat alterations 0 Competition and predation Problems 0 Transportation 0 Dredgingforship channels Locksdams Channel training OOO Interbasin canals Other recreationjet skis boating Weather Climate Biotic responses OOOO Catastrophes Hurricanes Tornadoes Droughts Floods Ice Storms Fisheries Management The practices of developing analyzing and implementing decisions to maintain or alter the structure dynamics and interactions of habitat aquatic biota and human users to achieve specified goals and objectives 0 Biota inclusive 0 Human users 0 Emphasis on human component of the management system w full consideration of the Physicochemical and biotic resources that contribute to fisheries productivity 0 Clearly stated goals and quantifiable objectives crucial part of the management process 0 Other Consideration o A fishery is a dynamic system 0 Rates determine fisheries productivity eg primary productivity growth mortality recruitment However management is often based on periodic static measurement of the system 0 Measurements are often indirect and are subject to considerable error low precision O and low accuracy making the subject chaotic o How accurate is really necessary Fisheries Management in the US 0 5 Periods of freshwater fisheries in the US 0 Exploitation to the late 1800s Stocking 1880 to 1950 Population and Habitat assessment 1920 and on Socioeconomic Development 1970s and on 000 Ecosystem Focus 1990s and on The Exploitation Period 0 Frontier ethics during US colonizatyion o Localproblems with water quality habitat loss amp overfishing Landowners granted permission to fish until the American Revolution State goverments claim jurisdiction overfisheries when the US was formed managed as common property resources The 1st law restricting fishing times places amp methods of harvesting was enacted in 1652 in Massachusetts 0 Fisheries problems generally remained local during the colonization of North America Dam construction in the 1800 s 0 Atlantic salmon Salmo salar 0 American Shad Alosa sapidissima 0 Hickory ShadAlosa mediocris o Shortnose Sturgeon Acipenser Brevirostrum o The use of streams amp rivers for sewage amp industrial effluent was obvious agricultural animal waste amp deforestation impacts on water quality 0 Stocking Period 0 During the late 1800 s amp early 1900 s it wwas clear that fisheries resources were becoming locally scarce amp sustanability of resources was important for the future 0 1871 0 US fish Commission under Spencer F Baird o The American Fish Culturist s Association formed in 1870 both organizations strongly believed that culture amp stocking was a primary population amp habitat assessment 0 1920 on 0 Early to mid 1900 s Max Sustained Yield MSYwas the management goal of commercial fisheries management based on population dynamics 0 Growth recruitment immigration emigration amp mortality 0 MSY was also applicable to recreational fisheriesathough biomass was replaced by numbers size amp species 0 In addition to population modeling fisheries research during this period focused on faunal studies habitat physiochemistry amp life history information 0 US lakes rivers amp streams all supported important commercial amp recreational fisheries during the last 200 years 0 Management emphasis during the mid 20 h century shifted from the fishery species stocking to the aquatic environment as physiochemical amp habitat data accumulated 0 Water development projects have severally impacted the quality amp quantity of habitat available to fisheries organisms o Reservoir construction has decreased survival of unadromous amp potamodrous fish stocks but has also increased the diversity of habitats available for recreational fisheries 0 Providing enhancing amp Maintaining adequate haboitat amp trophic web structure now comprise a large part of management activities Freshwater F 39 39 Fishina still exists in some systems but is of less 39 39 amp has less of an economic imgact because of o Declines in fish population from overharvesting Great Lakes habitat loss amp pollution Mississippi River 0 Reductions in commercial demand for quotroughquot fishes o Concerns about toxicity mercury 0 Competition from aquaculture 0 Commercial regulations in freshwater are typically minimals involving speciesspecific length limits Freshwater Recreational Fishing 0 Increased tremendously during the 20 h century 0 Stay same in freshwater increase for saltwater o The Black Bass Act passed in 1926 essentially elminated interstate commerce in important sportfishies 0 Farm ponds often overlooked as fisheries resource 0 Often not managed extensively but can provide tremendous fishing opportunities 0 Early Research by Homer Swingle focused on farm pond fish population amp how to achieve a balanced community with sustained production 0 Basic empirical research 0 Pond stocking fishing draining 0 Population indicies I ForageCarnivore ration 36 I Young Forage Carnivore 13 At index weight harvestableweight total 6080 0 65 in large mouthblue gill pond 0 During the 1950s management efforts w passage of the Federal Aid in the Sport Fish Restoration Act DingellJohnson and its amendments WallopBreaux Act 0 10 of the tax paid by manufacturers of sportfishing equipment 3 tax paid on fish finders and electric trolling motors 0 Funds placed in Aquatic Resource Trust Fund 570 million year split into Boating Safety Account7O million and Sport Fishing Recreation Account 500 million Sportfish Funds redistributed to states on a 7225 cost share for approved projects dealing with habitat improvement and acquisition stocking research surveys or facilities 15 and education 15 administrative expenses no more than 6 by law 0 The SFRH channels funds to 8 research and management programs 0 0 Sport Fishing 3OOmillion Coastal Wetlands80million Boating Safety64million Education10million Vessel Pumpout10million Nontrailerable boat tieup8million OOOOOO Multistate conservation3million 0 Interstate fishery Comm14million o Socioeconomic Developments1970s 0 During 60s70s sociological concerns became more important as management objectives ie access facilities 0 Future of Fish Surveying o 35 relaxation o 33 to be with family and friends 0 13 to be in nature o 7 for the sport 0 5 food 0 3 to catch large fish 0 3 to catch many fish Managing people now more important than ever before Survey development Valuation llHuman Dimensions Ecosystem Focus Opportunities Ponds Lakes Streams Rivers Watersheds Ecological research increased during the 20 h century Shift from single species to community ecosystem based management Emphasized protecting and enhancing habitat max biodiversity and satisfying diverse management techniques Why has ecosystem management emerged o Biodiversity crisis single species approach is inadequate 0 Recognition of ecosystem structure large interconnected units 0 Consideration of Human Values Ecosystem Integrity usually related to unimpacted conditions llcomparable to natural habitat praticularly important concept in the context of TE species Human Benefits must be realized w the natural structure and function of ecosystems Eco man Should focus on ecoscale problems and the ultimate causes and solutions to eco problemsmuch less of a band aid fix To effect sig change EM also requires dealing with numerous admin entities and private interestseco problems often extend beyond the authority of the fisheries agencies and effective managers will have to be much better versed in team development and group problem solving Communication skills are an integral part of all man efforts to facilitate interactions among agencies as well as the public Constraints Identifying spatial scale ecosystem complexity Timelines Collab teams Strong coordinated policy Priv Prop Rights Funding ECO Focus has also resulted in considerable effort at bioassessment ECO health assessed based on the composition of resident biota typically fishes andor macro invertebrates Richness of taxa Abundance total of organisms Trophic functional groups predators filters Reproductive guides nesters broadcast spawners Sensitive taxa Ephemeoptera Plecoptera Trichoptera Fisheries Management in the US The ECO focus has led to federalstate partnerships w landowners local communities and organizations for the development of mitigation projects to restoreenhance eco function ECO concerns have also increased focus on threatened and endangered species 138 as of 52009 at state and federal levels habitat restoration propagation reintroduction The Process of Fisheries Management GRAPH Most freshwater man conducted by state or provincial govs a few fisheries are more complicated w state provincial trival and federal responsibilities Fisheries man involves much more that just those involved in catching fish and the term quotstakeholderquot has evolved to rep llany citizen potentially affected by or having a vested interest in an issue program action or decision leading to an action Stakeholders include everyone Such a definition includes future beneficiaries and thus fits well with the concept of sustainability As mentioned before the factors that influence fisheries management SpaceTimeEconomicEcologicaPoliticaSocioculturalManagement Process Ecological Stock production characteristics water quality cover spawning substrate forage predators parasites weather Economic Market and Nonmarket forces licenses and fees agency budgets local economic impact recreational value existence value Political Laws and policies beliefs and attittudes of gov employees fisheries issues are best decided b y fisheries experts lack of conflict resolution can result in legislative or judicial solutions often to the detriment of the resource Sociocultural traditions values norms religions philosophies these may significantly influence the ECO management Identifying the limiting factors is not only the first step in any management problem but also the most imortant Goals Overriding the long term statements of where the management program is going Objectives Concise quantifiable end points within a defined time period 0 Problem lD What obstacles are currently preventing adequate growth of largemouth bass to sustain a trophy fishery o Forage 0 Harvest 0 Water Quality 0 Watershed land use 0 Habitat Alteration Management Actions Programs developed and implemented to solve the problems based on a strategy 0 Growth lmprove growth by improving foraged annually stocking of the threadfin shad for 3 years 0 Watershed Land Use To improve habitat and forage production by reducing inflow of sugarcane effluent o Evaluation Easy part were objectives of the program met 0 Followed by a reformulation of objectives problems man actions and future evaluations in an iterative cycle 0 Conflict resolution is always an important part of the management process 0 Often several options available 0 Diff levels of beneficiaries to stakeholder groups depending on the program selected 0 No shortage of vigorously defended option 0 Communications btwn stakeholders and man agencies is key feeling left out of the decision loop is the fastest way to start a conflict 0 3 Ideas of Good Negotiations 0 Wise agreements 0 Efficient negotiations 0 Improve relationships among parties 0 Try not to use positional bargainingemphasis on position differences and argument 0 Use principled negotiations focus on people interests options and onjective criteria for choosing an option


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