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by: Miss Jayme Block


Miss Jayme Block
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W. Kelso

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W. Kelso
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This 80 page Class Notes was uploaded by Miss Jayme Block on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to RNR 1001 at Louisiana State University taught by W. Kelso in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see /class/222666/rnr-1001-louisiana-state-university in Renewable Natural Resources at Louisiana State University.

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Date Created: 10/13/15
Aquatic Ecosystems Coastal zone high tide mark to the edge of the continental shelf Continental slope Coastal Wetlands Estuaries anadromous species Barrier islands and barrier beaches Coral reefs reef problems Ocean zones differences in depth salinity light nutrient levels Neritic zone Oceanic zone Euphotic zone Bathyl zone compensation depth zone Upwellings wind patterns and the Coreolis effect Freshwater lentic systems Littoral zone rooted plants Limnetic zone Profundal zone Thermocline Benthic zone Annual mixing cycle thermocline formation hypoxia in the rofundal zone Lake productivity and the trophic state Oligotrophic Hypereutrophic Reservoirs intermediate between lentic and lotic Reservoir residence time highly variable Some reservoirs can support tailwater and twostory fisheries Freshwater lotic systems Characterized by variability in depth flow substrate composition allochthonous in u Riparian zone functions shade bank stabilization instream habitat woody debris allochthonous organic matter River habitats meanders tributaries distributaries deltas Aquatic pollution sediment metals acidic and alkaline ischarges pesticides herbicides organic waste inorganic chemicals Cultural eutrophication algae blooms fish kills yanobacteria and anatoxins Mining operations and leaching from tailings Sewage disposal nutrients and diseases less developed countries Point source and nonpoint source pollution Wetlands transitional ecosys em Hydrophytes and hydric soils 7 types of wetlands Tidal salt marshes Spartina Tidal freshwater marshes tidal dammin Mangroves many lost to shrimp farms around the world Southern deepwater swamps Riparian wetlands many destroyed by levees US wetland loss about 50 from 17901990 Wetland functions Store and regulate stormflow Improve water quality constructed wetlands Waterfowl production problems with reduced wetland area Furbearers and alligators Shoreline stabilization Recreation Coastal spawning and nursery habitat Marsh problems subsidence marsh canals saltwater intrusion exotic species Weirs good and ba Sediment delivery projects in the Mississippi River Marsh restoration projects dredging terraces Wetland management authority USACE EPA USFWS NOAA Fisheries NRCS agricultural wetlands 1985 Food Security Act swampbuster provisions Landowner programs availability of costsharing funds Wetland taking Wetland impacts water disturbance nutrients exotic species Wetland conservation Other activities mowing burning etc Tax incentives Protection through the Endangered Species Act Fisheries Aquatic habitat characteristics Densit Pressure Temperature versus DO Turbidity Dissolved ions Physicochemistry important to open fishes Poikilothermic Indeterminate growth High fecundity and juvenile mortality High population diversity Trophic ontogen Commercial and recreational user groups Common property resources Catch and release Fisheries management objectives Commercial versus recreational Stocking maintenance and supplemental habitat modification biotic manipulation Stocking piscivores stunting Stocking pre Genetic manipulation hybrids and polyploids Problems with stocking programs Population eradication Rotenone TFM Bayer 73 Minimumsize regulations Maximumsize regulations Slot limits Macrophyte control mechanical chemical biological Habitat manipulations in lentic and marine systems Benefits of artificial structures Pond management Habitat manipulations in lotic systems Fish passage facilities anadromous and potamodromous Marine habitat improvement Recreational fisheries management Federal Aid in Fish Restoration Act Recreational regulations Commercial fisheries management Sustainable Fisheries Act Commercial regulations Controlling effort common property problems regulated inefficiency 101011 Test 3 Fisheries Conservation In addition to fresh water and wetland ecosystem services aquatic ecosystems around the planet provide a huge diversity of fisheries resources World commercial fisheries harvests in 2008 was about 142 million metric tons About 100 MMT was made up of finfishes The other 32 MMT comprised of mostly crustaceans and mollusks The commercial sector includes food fisheries as well as industrial fisheries Freshwater and marine recreational fishing important in many countries Many commercially and recreationally exploited fish and invertebrate stocks declined during the 19 h and 20h centuries Reasons include In and I In addition many nonexploited aquatic species also declined in abundance from habitat loss and degradation Fisheries are another example of a renewable resource Stock increase each year from growth and reproduction Sustainable harvest quotmaintain the principal Historic trends in many fish stocks illustrate the Law of Commons Exploitation without ownership and then the resource declined An important part of fisheries conservation has been the ownership of resources by governments Development of management and research agencies Controlling effort of primary importance Harvest fishers boats gear season area Fisheries Biota Aquatic habitats and the characteristics of fishes and invertebrates provide opportunities to managers but can also limit CampM options High density Movement Difficult stress Pressuredepth physiological problems TemperatureDO stress in poikilotherms cold blooded Turbidity a problem for plants fishes Fishes are open to the environment Indeterminate growth increasing size with age Growing throughout their life span High fecundity lots of eggs produced but poor survival of early life stages Type 3 survival curve Have many babies because most won t survive Notes 101711 Recreational Fisheries Management Recreational fisheries mostly managed by state agencies ex LDWF Jurisdiction over state waters Other statesToledo Bend Reservoir State territorial sea GOM NOAA Fisheries Service Management of Straddling stocks State can be more restrictive not less LA Fisheries and Wildlife Commission 7 members appointed by governor 3 members fur and commercial fishing 4 member other Interesting examples of fish and politics Red drum as a sport fish Funding for recreational fisheries can come from license sales boat registration fees mineral revenues state general taxes and federal costsharing funds The federal Aid in Fish Restoration Act 1950 and WallopBreaux Act 1984 are particularly important 10 tax paid by manufactures on sportfishing equipment also as of 2005 185 of motorboat fuels tax placed in the Aquatic Resources Trust Fund 750 millionyear split into Boating Safety Account 70 million and Sport Fish Restoration Account Sportfish fund redistributed to states on a 7525 coast share for approved projects 60 based on a number of licenses sold 40 state are no state gets gt5 Equitable split between freshwater and marine divisions Extremely important source of funds for most states supporting personnel research and management programs 125 on access mandatory up to 15 on education 18 to three wetlands programs 70 to Louisiana Fisheries Management Manipulation of biota habitats and user groups to achieve specified goals and objectives Dependent of Data Biota total and relative abundance species composition growth mortality recruitment food habits fecundity and parasite loads Mortality looks at an Age vs Ln number caught graph Habitat Date water quality structural abundance and complexity depth flow substrate riparian characteristics Water quality because fish is open to the environment Structure complexity wanting good cover Stakeholder Data Attitudes values expenditures harvest understanding of regulations A persons reason for going fishing the type of fishing they do how they look at fishing how expensive their trip is look at the amount of harvest on certain types of organism education making sure they understand what the things are and why they are what they are Recreational Fisheries Sportfish population enhancement Sportfish introductions Maintenance stocking if we want a fishery to be there we have to maintain it with stocking Supplemental stocking Commonly done for trout species we bring them to a hatchery spawn them and re introduce them into the streams Forage fish introductions Introducing food base for fish bringing in baitfish Population control or eradication example common carp Carp cause turbidity and loss of macrophytes Rotenone baiting drawdown and netting help get the fish out of the unwanted lake Rotenone is a poison that kills most all the fish Baiting allows the carp to gather in one place Drawdown is effective to kill the eggs if one can control the lake flow Barriers help keep fish out of unwanted places Invasive species control Fish Prevention laws and guidelines Aquatic nuisance prevention and control act of 1990 Standards for living organisms in ships ballast water discharged in US Waters TampE species programs Habitat manipulation dam removals to restore streams Artificial Propagation Predatorcompetitor control Habitat restorationenhancement streams Stabilizing the banks with rocks and brake pool flows Placement of rocks in stream Constructed structure man made Goals are to increase productivity and attract fish Water Quality Improvement Riparian Zone restoration go in and re align the bank of streams Liming acidified lakes in order to manipulate the Ph of lake systems low Phmore lime adding Calcium Carbonate we do this to biologically dead lakes Reduction in gas supersaturation llflip lipquot through the use of daming Lake destratification Dissolved Oxygen improvement putting in big bubblers on the bottom of lakes however temperature remains constant top to bottom Can create riparian wetlands do this to process runoff and stop materials from getting into a stream Invasive species control plants Water hyacinth Giant salvinia Water lettuce hydrilla common waterweed Eurasian water milfoil Water quality problems Dissolved Oxygen very little light no phytoplankton and no oxygen Problems with fish stunting slow growth of overabundant juveniles in plant beds Control options advantagesdisadvantages Mechanical removal effective for some species but expensive cuttings can cause even more and excessive decomposition from the crushed dead plants that take out oxygen in water Chemical Treatment Effective for many species but expensive and nonselective also excessive decomposition Biological control probably the best method Introduce bugs to eat the plants long development time takes a few years to get started many control organisms are untested Marginal control they just don t do it all that well Highly selective need to have bugs that stay on one plant once established repopulation means no more cost Accessfacilities improvement Parking boat ramps jetties Also fishing facilities have been created for anglers such as bridges and jetties Human user groups stakeholders Regulations For anglers closed areas putting up signs and making certain fishing areas off limits consumption advisories what kind of fish is good to eat or safe to eat Outreach getting out in the community For out fish stocks Openclosed seasons Creel limits how many fish you can have on a person Possession limits how many fish you can have in your possession anywhere anytime Catch and release voluntary in some places its mandatory Gear restrictions mostly hook and line also there is bowfishing but most is related to hook and line No live bait helps protect waterbodies and fish because fish tend to swallow the hooks Treble hooks regulated making anglers less effective Then making flyfishing only and then barbless hook only Manipulate agesize distributions Size limits making limits to the size of fish you can keep Slot limit idea is to produce big fish gives you regulations like you can catch so many under 12 inches and none between 1215 inches and a restricted amount above 15 Commercial fisheries management activities Fishing for money Focused mostly of stock production and harvest of finfishes and invertebrates Stocks instead of species or populations Stock a unit of management Preventeliminate overfishing Rebuild depleted stocks many places with fishing have been overdone so we want to rebuild the stocks to become much more usable Commercial fishers in the US are managed under the Sustainable fisheries Act 1996 Amendment to the Fishery conservation and management act of 1976 Managed by the NOAA fisheries Commerce Department Novel legislation extension of EEZ to 200 miles Authority over 39 39 shelf and 39 resources 39 039 their range Creation of Regional Councils Federal and State members Develop a fisheries management plan for all the commercially exploited stocks in that certain region No foreign fishing anymore in the EEZ it can only happen in a country signs a GIFA with the US and only if there is a TALFF a total allowable level of foreign fishing if the optimum yield not harvested by the US The Creation of a Foreign Observer program he would be responsible to make sure they were fishing under all the right rules and be out for 13 months at sea doing research on fish as well Sanctions for noncompliant countries what do we do Economic sanctions we won t buy their products that usually works Some focus on habitat diversity Rigs to Reefs Most activities involve stock and 39 39 fishing 0 39 Stock Assessment Abundance ofjuveniles recruits fishable stock Determine of MSY Maximum sustain Yield and CY Optimum Yield usually lower than MSY Sources and relative magnitude of mortality important to know how fast they are dying and if that changes How important is fishing in relation to that stock Natural Mortality Environmental Temperature Predators etx Fishing Mortality Compensatory The mortality that we take from fishing substitute from natural mortality So its not getting more mortality just in another way Determination of overfished and overfishing Thresholds Spawning stock biomass SSB Commercial fishing regulations Control of harvest quotas ex 48 million pound quota for the 2011 US Atlantic Skate fishery Transferable quotas ITQ Individual Transferrable Quota VQ Individual vessel quota Ownership or resource property Safer prevents dangerous fishing Maximize profit based on market fluctuations Maintains fresh product Gear specifications help control how much fish is caught Net Size llmesh size Gear Dimensions the size of the gear Gear number how many pots or nets to use Boat Size limits size of the net you can use limiting the amount of fish to catch Control of Effort Seasons certain times of the year can and cant fish Closed areas allow it in certain areas and not in certain areas Days at sea limits the amount of days you can fish Crew Size how much you can work in a day A Major objective of marine fisheries management is to reduce overcapacity and overcapitalization too much put into to fishing that you are getting out of it Terrestrial Ecosystems are called Biomes Obviously not completely separated from other biomes eoctones but remember the strength of integrations within versus without Desert Interior of continents often found in a rainshadow where rainfall is very low Dominated by sparse droughtresistant shrubs creosote bush cactus Short lived annuals that can bloom quickly after rainfall or barren have no vegetation at all Mammals tend to be nocturnal Rich lizard and snake fauna because of the warmth Soils can be organically poor and saline Farming of semiarid areas salinization of irrigated desert lands Makes it unusable Overgrazing of desert shrub communities Desertification conversion of desert fringes it s a compress process but removal of vegetation and wind erosion is critical as are changes in global temperatures and rainfall patters Chaparral western coasts of US Africa South Africa Australia also Mediterranean are between hit dry pressure and cool wet low pressure usually between desert and grassland biomes Flat hills mountain slopes Hot dry rain during the mild winters Dominated by short vegetation with thick leaves extensive horizontal and vertical roots fire resistant dwarf evergreen forest Wildlife can resemble desert biota Chaparral conservation issues Development Santa Barbara CA in chaparral habitat Fire suppression Climate Change decreased rainfall increasing in fires Desertification loss of endemic biodiversity Grasslands Often in central portions of the continents High rainfall tallgrass or dry shortgrass conditions Drought fire common lldisturbance climax community Fire lack of water eliminate most trees Arid grasslands not suitable for agriculture Characteristic herbivorebased biodiversity Polar Grasslands Found in the Tundra Tundra covers 15 of Earth s land surface Cold windy 5 of precipitationyear snow Lichens sedges mosses grasses low shrubs Decomposition slow permafrost summer marshes Shallow soil slow plant growth One of the most fragile ecosystems in the world Highly susceptible to human disturbance Substantial engineering problems Grassland conservation issues We continue to farm these areas easy to have another dustbowl Invasive plants come in and colonize because we aren t grazing very well Poison 2 4D reduce grazing and range deterioration Cheatgrass acceptable for livestock prolific seed production rapid colonization of degraded range Short growing season dry 6 weeks earlier than native grasses Increased fire susceptibility Historic fire interval 3270 years now 5 years increased damage Unsustainablegrazing Grasslands cover about 26 of the worlds land surface 10 classified as rangelands Important in grainpoor nations gt 34 billion cows sheep and goats worldwide Short grass prairies of minimal agricultural use without irrigation Renewable source of forage with proper management Forbs broadleaved flowering plants Grasses Very deep fibrous root systems highly tolerant of drought and fire grasses grow from the base of the plantthe lower part known as the Metabolic reserve needed for nourishment of extensive root system Chronic loss of the metabolic reserve from overgrazing can destroy rangeland sustainability Forest Sustainable grazing system slows forage recovery fallow period a brake in grazing Fenced paddocks frequent movement of animals ex 3d grazing 30d fallow period Grazing qualified with an animal unit month Stocking rates of AUMacre based on forage production More fencing and livestock movement required however Forage production improved Rainfall infiltration improved Runoff and erosion reduced Wildlife habitat maintained higher nutrition grazing concentrated on new foliage Improved health and growth livestock More uniform range use Water and salt provided Written Notes See Red Notebook Boreal forests Taiga Located below the tundra average temperatures from 5 to 5 degrees C Long cold winters Precipitation 20200 cm snow Growing season short but water and nutrients abundant Needle leaf trees water loss Acidic soils Boreal forest conservation issues Oil exploration Global warming Liberation of C02 and CH4 as decomposition increases with Temp Logging slow growth Teerrestrial ecosystem renewable products Food Fuel building materials Forage from domesticated livestock fiber meat milk leather Medicines leukemia Genetic warehouse Habitat for native biodiversity Recreation Terrestrial ecosystem services Photosynthesis oxygen carbon sequestration Hydrologic processing water quality and quantity local climate aquifer recharge Soil enhancement organic material physical structure Biogeochemical cycles sources sinks processes nitrification Biodiversity Habitats and resources Detrital processing nutrient cycling Ecology of Natural Resources Resource conservation can be viewed as applied ecology Ecology is a relatively young science mid20 h century 0 Relationship of living organisms to their environment 0 The sum total of all biotic and abiotic factors that affect an organism Applied ecology manipulation of organisms and their environment to achieve specific objectives Time out for science Good science conservation and management depend on good objectives 0 Quantifiable statement of purpose 0 llTo improve Henslow s sparrow habitat in Louisiana s longleaf pine prairiesquot o llTo increase the density of Henslow s sparrows in Louisiana s longleaf pine prairies from 17 to 60 per hectare through reforestation and controlled burningquot Back to applied ecology o Requires a thorough understanding of all of the effects of the proposed manipulations 0 Always positive and negative consequences Applied ecology therefore is dependent on understanding how nature works and the complex responses that living organisms exhibit when their environment is Earth systems also include atmosphere hydrosphere geosphere cryosphere Terresperical semi aquatic Aquatic Photosynthesis in aquatic systems also depends on temperature and nutrient concentration but is also highly dependent on light 0 Affected by abiotic and biotic turbidity o Abiotic turbidity is caused by particulate matter 0 Sediment is the 1 water pollutant in the US 0 Nonpoint sources are particularly important 0 Biogenicturbidity is cause by living organisms eg an algae bloom o Algae blooms become selflimiting a good example of negative feedback loop Life in the biosphere is based on the evolution of species 0 Organisms that can interbreed and produce completely fertile offspring Species living together that do actually breed and exchange genetic material Populations of different species live together in what we call a community 0 All of the populations living together within a habitat place to live The community in any habitat exhibits characteristic richness and evenness o Richness refers to the number of species in a community or the number of species in an assemblage o Evenness refers ton their relatively abundance two communities with 5 species each have the same richness but with 20 15 18 24 and 19 individuals in one and 6 5 17 11 and 257 individuals in the other you can see that the evenness would be very different Each species can be described by its ecological niche o The functional role ofa species predator herbivore etc o All of the resources used by a species Ndimensional hypervolume The ecological niche is composed of the fundamental and realized niches Generalist species have broad niches Specialist species have very narrow niches Some species are critical to maintaining the community keystone species 0 Black tailed prairie dog 0 Gopher tortoise 0 Sea otter o Ocher sea star 0 Mountain lion 0 nplications for biodiversity and species conservations One or more communities living within habitats that are functionally related to each other make up an ecosystem Strong internal ecological links 0 Consider again our small pond 0 Separate from the surrounding terreatrial system 0 Consider a small stream 0 Riparian links important 5 April 2011 Wednesday Beginning of Material for the Final Aguatic Ecos tems 71 of the Earth s surface is water 69 is saltwater Life on Earth depends on the small amount of freshwater Only 0002 of the earth s water can be used by humans What do the oceans do for us The oceans distribute heat currents feed the hydrologic cycle and provide sources and sinks for biogeochemical cycles example carbon cycle carbon is sequestered but also moves into the atmosphere About 250000 species of plants and animals have been identified in the ocean to date the research is ongoing and finding new species each week Other resources sand gravel minerals such as magnesium oil and natural gas fisheries Both renewable and nonrenewable resources are found in the oceans Marine ecosystems A Coastal Zone relatively warm shallow light penetration nutrient rich from the high tide mark on land to the edge of the continental shelf Used for commercial and recreational fishing lt10 ofthe ocean s area and gt90 of all plant and animal species ofthe ocean this area is where marine fisheries fish production occurs Why is the coastal zone so productive high primary production PP Nutrients run off the shore or coast and into the water Nutrients are the limiting factorto PP in the ocean 1 Coastal Wetlands occur in many shallow areas nursery reproductive habitat salt marsh areas the area is watered and dewatered daily due to tides 2 Estuaries have reduced salinity and high nutrient levels very productive access for anadromous fish fish that live in the ocean spawn in freshwater Estuaries are areas where rivers andor streams empty into the ocean meet the ocean 3 Barrier beaches and barrier islands are important to storm reduction important wildlife and plant habitat example dunes breeding area for birds Plants are very important because their root systems help hold the sand in place Using these areas for housing development is not a sustainable practice these areas often are reformed or disappear during storm events 4 Coral Reefs some coastal zones support coral reefs fragile 13 of all marine fishes human impacts are a big problem for the reefs Huge diversity of animals 13 of all marine fishes live here Problems cora bleaching coral dying and turning white seems to be temperature related ocean water is becoming more acidic due to the increase in 002 concentration acid breaks down the underwater structures which are made from calcium carbonate secreted by corals development for recreation area causes lose of habitat could lose 90 of all coral reefs in the next 100 years B Open Ocean extends from the continental slope 90 of all ocean s area 10 of its plant and animal diversity salinity of ocean 35 ppt There are several distinct oceanic habitats these differ primarily in salinitv light levels nutrient concentrations and depth 1 Neritic zone area from the water s edge and overlying the continental slope This area drives the food web due to having the most primary production phytoplankton fisheries marine mammals and birds 2 Oceanic zone continental slope to the bottom of the ocean A Euphotic top layer open water zone of the ocean abundance of light but lower nutrient level What lives there phytoplankton albatross marine turtles jellyfish fish such as tuna whale shark ocean sunfish B Compensation Depth where algae respiration equals photosynthesis primary production Above the zone extra oxygen is found below the zone an oxygen deficiency is normal This zone is found at the bottom of euphotic zone and top of bathyl zone C Bathyl zone beneath the euphotic zone 680 Ve limited photosynthesis very limited primary production due to low light level find worms crustaceans strange fish such as hatchfish and flashlight fish D Abyssal Zone beneath the bathyl zone cold dark area of the ocean 340 no primary production high pressure increase of 1 atmosphere per 10 meters find tube worms fish with phosphorescence body attachments used as lures and huge mouths Friday 8 April 2011 Marine Ecosystems continued Upwelling The movement of nutrientrich cold water from the ocean bottom to higher levels by means of vertically moving currents Example off the coast of California nutrients from the upper layers settle into the abyssal zone then southern wind blows along the coast and is always turning west due to the Coriolis effect spinning of the earth causing surface water to moves away and water underneath fills the space bringing nutrientrich cold water to the top An important area for fishery production C Freshwater Ecos tems 1 Lentic s tems no flow Lakes and ponds lentic systems standing water formed by runoff rain fall or groundwater flow Distinct regions based on biotic and abiotic characteristics A Littoral area of rooted plants sunlight can penetrate unless polluted by sediment turbidity B Limnetic high production rate no rooted plants deeper area phytoplankton eaten by zooplankton eaten by fish The thermocline is found between the limnetic and profundal C Profundal cold less light little or no primary production freshwater sportfish are found here example striped bass D Benthic bottom of the lake find catfish worms fly larvae Due to organic matter building up in this layer usually oxygen is near 0 anaerobic conditions Microorganisms breaking down the organic material use the available oxygen in the decomposition process Thermocline a physically defined area temperature changing more then 1 degree per meter very rapid cooling ofthe water column obvious feature of a lake The middle layer of water in a lake in summer characterized by a temperature gradient of more than 1 degree C per meter of depth Creating a layer of warm water over a layer of cold water these layers do not mix An important process in lake ecosystems that can affect fisheries management option is the annual mixing cycle Thermocline forms due to the annual mixing cycle Waters of different temperatures have different densities and will not readily mix Cold water will hold more oxygen than warm water GraphsAnnual mixing cycle ecological and fisheries impact Thermocline development in lakes In winter a lake is all one temp example 4 In spring beginning of spring winds blow a current is created causing mixing from top to bottom spring overturn In summer as the water warms in summer the water stratification begins layer of 25 C water on top layer of 6 C under different temperature and different density so they do not mix Summer stratification ln fall as water cools a current is created causing mixing from top to bottom Fall overturn Summer stratification little mixing occurs on bottom builtup of decomposing matter which is using up the oxygen so in the profundal zone the oxygen level gets lower and 6070 of the lake with be 0 mgl for oxygen Lake productivity and nutrient levels trophic state Lakes are described as oligotrophic no nutrients mesotrophic some nutrients eutrophic more nutrients and hypereutrophic too many nutrients depending on productivity and nutrient levels A manager can add nutrients such as P to a lake causing changes in the trophic state If P was the limiting element an algae bloom would occur with the addition As the algae bloom dies and drops to the bottom ofthe lake there is a build up of organic material bacteria use the available oxygen to breakdown this matter creating low oxygen conditions at the bottom of the lake Lakes are termed Oligotrophic very clear lake no nutrients a very unproductive lake usually found in mountain areas few plants and animals live here Mesotrophic less clear more nutrients more productive these lakes have the beginning of a true fishery Eutrophic less clear even more nutrients many plants phytoplankton zooplankton fish more primary production most lakes in Louisiana are eutrophic Hypereutrophic too many nutrients leading to algal bloom fish kills Hypereutrophic lakes have high oxygen level during the day from algae photosynthesis and low to zero oxygen at night as the algae use the oxygen respiration Example campus lakes Hypereutrophic systems are often caused by human addition of fertilizer to the system 2 Reservoirs are intermediate between lentic still water and lotic flowing water ecosystems similar to an ecotone Reservoirs typically exhibit flow making them different from a natural lake and have a characteristic residence time esidence time flow of water time for water to travel from one point to another Examples of residence time Runofariver reservoir usually days Reservoir lake system could be years functions as a lake Down draw reservoir ability to add water to the lake from any level behind the dam could take the bottom water the coldest to add to lake to create environment for coldtolerance fishes Dams and reservoir are built first to generate power can be very harmful to fisheries Reservoirs provide unique opportunities to establish twostory and tailwater fisheries Twostow occurs in a reservoir when oxygen is found below the thermocline due to flow in the reservoir creating a cold habitat with oxygen so different types of fisheries can be established above and below the thermocline Example Above bass perch Below salmon Tailwater area below the water flow of a dam at a reservoir creates high oxygen and a more even temperature area with more food resources so fish grow larger also dangerous due to generators raising and lowering the water level at the dam site Tailwater fisheries can be cold or warm temperature is determined by the level water is taken from behind the dam 3 Lotic Systems fowing Streams and rivers are characterized by flowing water lotic with habitat diversity difference in depth flow substrate and allochthonous debris from outside the system Flow is rate of movement Substrate is sand gravel rock boulder etc Allochthonous debris includes leaves branches logs insects anything organic falling in from outside This debris provides habitat and determines the flow pattern of the stream The riparian zone is the area bordering the stream zone of terrestrial ecosystem next to a stream Riparian zones provide shade to streams filtration of upland materials bank stabilization small and large wood debris with flow creates pool areas and organic matter leaves from hardwood deciduous trees Usually there is no primary production in the stream due to the lack of sunlight from shading by trees primam production occurring outside and leaves falls into stream trees and plants along banks Trees roots along the bank create undercut banks providing diversity of habitat Unlike lakes stream conditions can change rapidly and are closely tied to watershed land use Monday 11 April 2011 Aquatic Ecosystems continued Many streams and rivers have floodplains meanders tributaries distributaries and deltas All are important habitats for fish and wildlife Floodplain area that floods when the river is out of its banks Tributaries streams that run into a larger stream River meander curves and turns in a river creates oxbow lakes Distributaries main stream river that breaks into smaller streams occur near coastlines Delta found at the mouth of a river as it enters the ocean as water slows down it drops its sediment load and a delta coastal marsh begins to build Braided channels A river with extremely wide and shallow channels within which the normal river flow passes through a number of smaller interlaced channels separated by bars or shoals Water Pollution The solution to pollution is dilution an old adage which is not the answer to the problem of pollution Water Pollution types 1 S d e iment 1 water pollutant We need to take better care of topsoil 2 Acidic and alkaline industrial wastes dumping into holding ponds rivers and streams 3 Heavy metals Pb Hg Cd Cu Cr Fe a These are the byproduct of many industrial processes b Build up problem due to not released from tissue c Hg is the most important due to its toxicity in humans 4 Pesticides herbicides dioxin most toxic compound on Earth Dioxin is formed as a byproduct ofthe manufacture molding or burning of organic chemicals and plastics that contain chlorine 5 PCBs polychloratedbifinils these are good electric insulators Example Hudson River s high pollution level due to General Electric production of electrical transformers using PCBs 6 Livestock amount of manure produced in feedlots chicken houses 7 Inorganic fertilizer Eutrophication a process where water bodies receive excess nutrients that stimulate excessive plant growth A human source of nutrients such as N and P is called cultural eutrophication As fertilizer is removed from land areas by runoff and flows into water bodies it can cause problems such as a infants exposed too high levels of nitrates can develop nerve and brain damage b cyanobacteria bluegreen algae growth increases which produces anatoxin causing fish kills c green algae growth increases which make 02 during the day but then consumed all the 02 at night causing fish kills due to a lack of oxygen in the water column 8 Mining operations esired compounds often lt30 of mined materials disposal of tailing problematic including pH problems with increased acidity and erosion of tailings Tailings are the leftover rock from ore removal 9 Sewage A natural consequence of high density human population Nutrient enrichment can occur especially Foaming water is indicative of Phosphorus pollution and may result in large algae blooms Disease problems must have treatment to reduce E coli and pathogens may Homes with individual sewage treatment system often have runoff of untreated waste 10 Industrial outflows 135 outflows from Baton Rouge to New Orleans into the Mississippi River discharging over 50000 galday each each is a possible point source pollution outflow A Point Source pollution able to identify the source ofthe pollution such as an industrial pipeline into a river B Nonpoint source pollution not able to identifyjust one source ofthe pollution such as runoff from cattle farms or street runoff WETLANDS Wetlands are ecosystems which we make less use of directly as consumers than any other ecosystem Transitional ecosystems between terrestrial dry and aguatic wet systems an ecotone h se systems are very productive lots of plant material is produced Other names forwetlands include bogs fens bottomland marsh mires moors Definition of a wetland A system where the water table is at or near the surface often with standing water The water table is shallow Defined by the Fish and Wildlife Service in 1979 Defining characteristics 1 At least periodically the vegetation is predominately HYDROPHYTES plants able to grow in water or saturated soil deficient in oxygen concentration 2 The substrate is predominately HYDRIC SOIL Saturated flooded or ponded long enough during the growing season to be anaerobic hydric soil is anaerobic soil Hydric soil is wet soil devoid of oxygen 3 The substrate is saturated nonsoil sand example sandy shore line included in wetlands but not often dealt with 7 Categories of Wetlands 1 TlDAL SALT MARSHES function with rising and falling tides salt water is a problem grass in the intertidal zone often dominated by Spartina sp Found more in northern latitudes eg MA tidal changes average 3 m drastic changes in salinity 0 to 35 ppt flooding and dewatering and extreme temperature and salinities high primary production PP by the few plant varieties a Low diversity of vegetation Spartina sp b Tidal flooding and dewatering c Physiologically stressful Moving inland 2 TIDAL FRESHWATER MARSHES Usually no salinity but water level fluctuations from tidal damming often dominated by plants like pickerelweed sawgrass and arrowhead A much higher diversity of saltintolerant plants When plants in the marsh are stressed andor killed the soil becomes unstable and is quickly lost Important bird duck and fish habitat plant diversity is higher in tidal freshwater marshes than in tidal salt marshes Moving south 3 MANGROVE WETLANDS found in tropical and subtropical climates Texas Louisiana Florida in the US dominated by Rhizophora red and Avidennia black mangroves A Important nursery and rookery habitat B Soil stabilization nutrient cycling Problem Mangrove roots are important for substrate stability when these trees are cut down and replaced with shrimp farming the site is usually lost to pollution from the farm Wednesday 13 April 2011 Wetland types continued 4 FRESHWATER MARSHES Throughout the US and the world shallow and dominated by emergent vegetation like cattails sedges bulrushes and grasses Large tracts of freshwater marsh has been lost to agriculture Emergent plants roots in the water and plant above the waterline 5 NORTHERN PEATLAND Peat is partially decomposed plant material which builds up in layers over time Often found in Canada Sweden Britain Northern part of the northern hemisphere Peat deposits found in northern biomes Thick peat layers found in old lake basins often waterlogged and nutrient deficient cellulose is all that is left and does not make good soil Waterlogged soil acidic low nutrients CH4 methane emissions versus 002 carbon dioxide fixation during the growing stage at this time we do not know which is greater so we do not know if these wetlands are a benefit or not 6 SOUTHERN DEEPWATER SWAMPS Standing water for most of the year lakelike Dominated by cypresstupelo trees Often tied to a large river system Typically nutrient rich and very productive High habitat and biotic diversity Examples Atchafalaya Basin Great Dismal VA NC and Okefenokee GA 7 RIPARIAN WETLAND Riparian band of land bordering a stream or river These wetlands are the most impacted wetlands class and where the greatest loses have occurred Flooded bottomlands along a stream often characterized by oak magnolia willow hardwoods Depends on soil moisture nutrient rich very productive particularly for amphibian and reptiles may be important for stream fish Loss of this wetland type is due to keeping rivers and stream confined by levees Area with many amphibians reptiles and stream fishes Also extensive loss of riparian wetlands from urban development Wetlands in the US Colonial America Between 17801980 Alaska lost lt1 of the wetlands area however in the lower 48 states about 50 of wetlands were lost That is over 60 acres per hour for over 200 years Annual losses of 300000 to 800000 acres in the mid1900s declined to a 60000 acres loss by 1977 with some restoration Today most lost is due to urban development and not to agriculture as in the 19501970 s period Map United States Most loss has occurred in CA and Ohio the loss in CA means no s op over resting habitat for ducks and geese Louisiana has lost 5065 of her wetlands coastal loss is a big problem with the coast moving inland Wetland Function 1 Store and regulate stream flow A Reduce flooding Allowing overflow of water reduces flooding downstream B Increase infiltration to aquifers C Reduce bank erosion and stream bed scouring D Loss of riparian wetlands due to having levees built has changed the way rivers and streams function E Without lateral movement of water onto the wetlands floodplain storm damage intensifies Wetland Functions 2 Improve water quality Bacteria in the wetland will breakdown water pollution both organic and inorganic compounds Trap sediments Degrade organic pollutants waste effluents can be spread on wetlands Constructed wetlands for secondary sewage treatment mine drainage treatment The use of constructed wetlands has increased in the last 1520 years they are being by used by cities today 3 Waterfowl production Breeding nesting nursery habitat resting habitat these all occur in wetlands US prairie pothole region Iowa to Alberta Canada Edge value due to thousands of small ponds Flooded southern bottomland hardwood swamps California s Central Valley 95 wetland loss Reproductive grounds in Canada good Resting grounds in CA very poor Wintering ground in Mexico good So in CA we see high density flocks with problems of predation disease and foraging of cropland where they ingest pesticides and herbicides Wetland loss is critical to longterm waterfowl production Protecting habitat increases all diversity not just waterfowl 4 Furbearers and alligator habitat Louisiana harvests Wild alligator harvests skins and meat Captive alligator farms still dependent on wild eggs 20 farms in LA Shrews moles mice rabbits river otter muskrat 5 Habitat for other noncommercial wildlife birds frogs snakes turtles etc 6 Shallow Wetland areas on the shoreline of lakes A Shoreline stabilization Erosion reduction roots of wetland plants will stabilize soil stopping erosion due to wake action at lake sites B Spawning and nursery habitat for fish in the shallow wetland area C Function as a sediment trap example clean the water in a lake Friday 15 April 2011 No Class due to computer problem Monday 18 April Friday 22 April 2011 Spring Break Monday 25 April 2011 Wetland Functions 7 Recreation Fishing hunting wildlife photography birding and boating 8 Coastal spawning and nursery habitat Especially in Louisiana 65 of commercially important Gulf of Mexico species depend on coastal spawning noncommercial biodiversity Coastal Marsh Problems Discussion Subsidence The sinking of coastal marshes allowing salt water intrusion 1 No new sediment is being added as the soil compacts 2 Removal of oil and gas creates empty space the top of the space collapses allowing subsidence to proceed more quickly Building of canals in coastal wetlands for transport Again allowing salt water intrusion into fresh water wetlands killing the vegetation t Other problems common reed plants and invasive plan s Nutria animal Brown marsh disease cause unknown kills marsh vegetation Saltwater Intrusion Weirs A low head dam is called a weir They are used to protect fresh water marsh from salt water intrusion But becomes impassible for shrimp crabs oyster larva fishes reducing production by 50 Using flapgates slotted weirs andor boulders as weirs has help with this problem Sediment delivery Mississippi River the big muddy 500 million tonsyr of sediment comes down the river River diversion projects such as Davis Pond LA and Caernarvon LA let sediment into the marshland from the river restoring needed land mass Coastal Marsh Restoration Building islands with dredged material sediment islands made with a hydrodredge which works by vacuuming sediment off the bottom Building reefs Terraces which are lines of sediments and vegetation to break wave action CONTROVERIES INVOLVING WETLANDS 1 Continuing wetland losses The goal should be zero loss BUT The agricultural opportunity to convert wetland to cropland for corn production for ethanol will be a future problem 2 What constitutes a wetland how long does it need to be inundated to be classified as wetlands US Fish and Wildlife defines wetlands by soil type and plants But should a low spot on a farm that is flooded only 6 days out of the year be defined as a wetland 3 If landowners can not convert wetlands without losing federal benefits is this not a taking of land without compensation and should not eminent domain be applied Should the farmer be paid a fair market value for the land he is not allowed to use and crop he is not allowed to grow 4 What are the responsibilities of private landowners to protect a public resource The wetland is owned by an individual but the wetland helps society so responsible to society becomes the question 5 If compensation is to be offered to protect wetlands on private property who will pay and how much is it worth You the taxpayer will pay for this land and again How do you give a value to the property WETLAN DS MANAGEMENT Management Authority 1 US Army Corps of Engineers USACE are responsible for 1 wetland identification 2 delineation and 3 permit authority for activities affecting navigable and nonnavigable water resources includes dams dredge and fill ermit 404 under the Clean Water Act is the document issued by the Corp The USACE is the 1 group in charge of wetland in the United States 2 EPA This agency issues guidelines to the Corps for making permit decisions power to veto Corps permits numerous wetland programs The EPA has veto power over permits issued by the USACE 3 US Fish and Wildlife Service USFWS advises Corps on permits impacts on fish and wildlife 4 National Marine Fisheries Service NMFS advises Corps on permit impacts on fish and wildlife in coastal and marine areas 5 In 1985 Food Security Act FSA was passed and charged the National Resource Conservation Service NRCS with Wetlands delineation and identification on agricultural lands Identification of wetlands subject to Swampbuster Provisions provisions made farmers ineligible for crop insurance and other federal benefits if wetlands were converted So a farmer can not drain wetlands and increase his agricultural land without giving up federal benefits Granting of exemptions to the Swampbuster Provisions 6 1989 North American Wetlands Conservation Act protect and restore wetlands for migratory birds and other wildlife partnerships between public agencies and other interests including Mexico and Canada Free federal money available for the management of wetlands LANDOWNERS PROGRAMS 1 1970 Water Bank Act Contract between fed govt and landowner Ten 10 year contracts where landowners received annual payments and costshare money for approved wetland practices 614000 acres 30 million maximum annually Landowner agrees not to develop wetland area for costshare money 2 1990 Wetlands Reserve Program FSA Food Security Acts amendments Purchase of 10 year costshare restoration 30year wetland easements or permanent easement by the federal government for previously cropped agricultural land 23 million acres 267 million in 2005 Idea is to turn cropland back into wetlands with the possibility of it being a permanent easement 3 1996 Wildlife Habitat Incentives Program WHIP a Farm Bill 5 10 year agreement costshare assistance for farmers who develop wildlife habitat including wetlands 23 million acres 360 million from 20022007 4 1996 Environmental Quality Incentives Programs Farm Bill 5 to 10 year contracts up to 75 funding for conservation practices 50 of which must be applied to livestock related conservation to protect soil and water resources 515 million acres 11 billion since 1997 All these programs are popular the controversy comes in spending public money taxes dollars on private land however all people do benefit from having intact wetland systems There is a waiting list of individuals with wetlands to enter the program because there is not enough money appropriated to cover all wetlands IMPACTS ON WETLANDS FUNCTIONS R membering wetlands are defined by their hydrology water and impacts are usually manmade Types of changes 1 Decreased water in the wetlands draining wetlands for land to build on or for agricultural use 2 Increased water in the wetlands the building of a levee can cause flooding or impede the natural drainage 3 Increased nutrients while wetlands do a good job on taking excess nutrients and breaking them down there is a limit and with overloading comes eutrophication too many nutrients causing algae blooms and siltation filling in with sediment These events can accelerate the change of marsh land to a bottom land forest 4 Decrease nutrients example flood control leading to reduced spring siltation 5 Decreased disturbance Wetlands are by nature disturbed dynamic systems fire suppression causing a change in vegetation b flood control causing a change in use of the wetland c water level stabilization causing less diversity of plants 6 Increased disturbance a burning of the vegetation on the wetlands b reservoir construction c offroad vehicles causing structural damage to the soils of the wetlands d invasive species in the wetlands lant example purple Ioosestrife plant diversity is reduced due to this plant out competing native vegetation 2 animal example nutria these animals eat vegetation killing it and loss of these root systems leads to lose of soil WETLANDS RESTORATION How to restore wetlands How do we manage wetlands 1 Building dams and levees a can protect a wetland from draining particularly from nearby development b maintain water table and maximum water depth c holds water on previously dry land to construct wetlands in new areas 2 Dredging a create openwater areas in dense marsh b create wave breaks and Submerged Aquatic Vegetation SAV habitat c create deeper areas in marsh ponds for aquatic fish habitat diversity d create nesting islands for water fowl reproduction and terrestrial habitat diversity increasing overall wetland habitat complexity e increase marsh elevations Note Biotic diversity follows habitat diversity creating difference depths open and closed areas in a wetland will increase diversity 3 lrrigating to add water a Digging a well would allow The ability to raise the water level during periods of low rainfall important for manipulating plants that Plant diversity is dependent on the hydrology 1 Plants that thrive in water called hydrophytes 2 Plants that germinate on land but can then live in water 3 Removing those that live on land and die when submerged and decay thus adding nutrients a wetland manager can control vegetation diversity by raising water levels particularly to thin overvegetated areas and increase open water Raising water levels may also be important during periods of low rainfall to maintain wetland size 4 Drawdown removing water from the wetland a Aerate waterlogged soil and increase nutrient availability b Encourage germination of emergent plants like cattails and bulrushes c Permit colonization by terrestrial plants to take up nutrients and return them to aquatic vegetation after flooding and decomposition The idea is long term fertilization d Timing and duration is critical in determining plant community composition what plants will grow e Stimulate wildlife reproduce example muskrat and ducks or inhibit wildlife reproduction example carp 5 Other Management Activities a Grazing not long term short time will help break up soil b Mowing better regrowth of vegetation after cuttin Burning fire will clear area adding nutrients and allowing new vegetation c and diversity d Spraying herbicide pesticide fertilizer e Trapping to increase or decrease herbivores density as needed Example trapping muskrat Example of recreating a wetland Photos of a parking lot that was turned back into a wetland 1996 the land is a strip mall 2001 it is a functioning wetland 6 Other Management Options a 0 nothing as long as hydrology remain unaltered but because of urbanization this option is usually not available b Leasing or selling wetlands to conservation organizations such as the Nature Conservancy or a private hunting club donation of wetlands to the Nature Conservancy or National Audubon Society a tax writeoff c State tax incentive programs such as Minnesota excellent way to promote wetland conservation as benefits accrue to society society should pa d One important protection for wetlands is the ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF E designation of CRITICAL HABITAT when species are listed remember about 33 of endangered organisms plants and animals in the US are wetland species 27 April 2011 Wednesday Fisheries FISHERIES CONSERVATON Fisheries conservation and management parallels wildlife conservation and management with some notable differences 1 Habitat The habitat is water Water characteristics a high density because of high density movement in water is difficult leading to fatigue and stress especially when fish are caught Tuna are the best swimmer 60 mph Many sharks must swim continuously to keep water passing over their gills Ocean sunfish are not swimmer simply lay on the surface When a fish is caught fighting or playing the catch causes lactic acid to build up in the fish s muscles Even if released the fish may not survive b pressuredepth physiological problem example bringing a fish up from a deep depth can kill it due to gas bladder is unable to regulate Most fish no longer have a connection between their swim bladder and the throat air must be released by way ofthe circulatory system this process takes a long time Pressure increases with depth Catch and release may not be a practical management tool due to expansion of the gas bladder ote gas bladder and swim bladder are names for the same structure P1 V1 P2V2 ppressure vvoume c temperaturedissolved oxygen physiological stress during the summer a problem for fishes in lakes The maximum amount of oxygen in water 146 mgI ppm at 0 C 7 mgI at 30 C ppm parts per million Poikilothermic temperature and metabolism body temperature changes with habitat temperature Remember Cold water holds more oxygen warm water hold less oxygen Inverse relationship d low visibility turbidity is a problem for plants no sunlight for photosynthesis and for fish fish are visual predators need to see to feed and particles can cover nests Fishes and Invertebrates Characteristics 1 Fish are open to the water The term OPEN is used because a fish s gill tissue is 1 cell thick so anything in the water can move across the gill and into the fish so harmful chemical and particular matter move easily into fish Dissolved particles are part of the physiochemistry of water and very important to fish In water chemistry we check for pH temperature ion concentrations such as sodium P Cl metals dioxin PCBs organchlorines and benzene Note that all can be passed on to whatever eats the fish 2 Indeterminate growth with increasing age fish continue to increase in size this trait is very different from wildlife Fish growth is reduced with age but it will grow throughout its life 3 Usually High fecundity unique life history strategies Fecundity the number of eggs produced by a female per year Examples shark 12 pups large well developed at birth Jawfish hundred eggsyr eggs kept in males mouth Salmon 80000 eggs per yr large eggs because salmon lay eggs in the fall hatch in spring Ocean sunfish 300 million eggsyr large number due to no prenatal care 999 of eggs die each year 4 High juvenile mortality fecundity is not necessary related to population abundance adult fish care for young a week at most survival of young is very low Discussion Managers could change population size very quickly by changing the percent survival by only a small amount 5 Fish have Complex trophic ontogency many different types of prey are required at different life stages or how food stuff changes as the fish grows emember trophic feeding ontogency development Example bass fry zooplankton insect larvae fingerling shrimp small fish adult crayfish ducklings snakes large fish Management depends on the total trophic web 6 High population diversity due to reproductive isolation Remember A population is a group of individuals within a species that is exchanging genetic material One lake will not breed with another lake unless we move the fish this leads to reproductive isolation There are a huge number of populations in a fish species Does this concept lead to another Population differences Management difference Should we manage each population differently If yes how could we cover all the differences could this lead to a concept of endangered species within a population Example Sockeye salmon these fish travel back to their native stream to spawn so each stream represents a population However the fish are caught and remove from breeding in another area without knowledge of which population they represent Fishermen could remove a population without ever knowing it 29 April 2011 Friday Fisheries continued Fisheries Management What makes it unique 1 Commercial and recreational users complex management objectives user group conflicts Wildlife is designated recreational only except for whitetail deer farms but in fisheries we raise and sell wild stocks of fish in commercial fishery operations In Louisiana 25 billion a year are spent on recreational fishery this includes fuel boats fishing equipment lodging etc Allocation of fish to commercial or recreational fishermen is always a concern 2 Nonownership of resources problems of common property resources and difficulty in controlling effort fort is the 1 number of boats and fishermen 2 type of gear used and 3 how long the fishermen fish Discussion Principle Tragedy of the Commons no one owns the resource no control over the number of people who can fish technology makes harvest yields very high 3 Little nonconsumptive use however catchandrelease programs have gained in popularity 4 Population recovery potential can be high due to fecundity however moratoria complete stoppage of fishing is difficult for commercial stocks unction of scale due to the huge number of eggs produced by fish a 05 different in survival of larval fish makes a huge difference in fish surviving to adults 29 April 2011 Friday Fisheries As with wildlife fisheries management involves manipulation of 1 biota the organisms 2 habitat and 3 human user groups to achieve specific objectives Objectives create the ability to evaluate if a change has occurred collecting data on the objectives should be the goal Remember objectives are quantifiable Objectives could include Recreational Management Fishing for fun Sportfish population enhancement ex Increasing number of largemouth bass caught per fishing trip from 15 to 2 Habitat enhancement ex May need more or less structure for a fish species Population control ex Number of carp an exotic Threatened and Endangered species program example Freshwater mussels Devil s Hole pupfish nvasive species control ex Once a species is released it is hard to impossible to e it Water quality improvement dissolved oxygen DO pH all water chemistry is important to fish surviva Access to the water and facilities available ex Recreational fishermen like boat ramps parking lots fish cleaning facilities Commercial Fisheries Management Fishing for profit lncludes Maximizing catch Maximum sustainable yield A problem historically we looked at total catch not catch per unit effort As total catch remained the same catch per unit effort declined meaning more fishermen were catching the same number of fish Maximizing economic return This would mean reducing the number of people fishing Reducing the effort Maximizing employment This is a political view and not usual a biologist objective Rebuilding stock The fish stock is a management unit A stock could be a population or part of a population Examples 1 Black Crappie and White Crappie are found in False River these are two species of fish but are so similar they are treated as 1 stock for management purposes The striped bass in one river spawn and some fish migrate north where they do not grow due to colder temperature and some fish migrated south where the habitat is better for growth so in this case there are two stocks These two stocks would not be managed in the same way mproving habitat 1 fish are structure oriented so place structure to concentrate fish 2 coastal marshes are important to many fish for spawning and early development MPAs declaring a Marine Protection Area an offlimits area to provide critical habitat for fish same as a terrestrial wildlife refuge Fisheries Management Biota Stocking is a traditional sheries tool Stocking is the placing of fish is certain water bodies often these fish have been spawned and reared at a hatchery facility 1 Stocking is done to develop fisheries in reclaimed or restore habitats Example Great Lakes Cleaned up pollution and introduction of Pacific salmon due to native fishes being lost This new fishery is worth 57 billion per year 2 Stock to maintain fisheries called maintenance in maintenance stocking there is no natural reproduction Example striped bass population usually live off the Atlantic coast some move into rivers but do not spawn in fresh water So when these fish are placed in lakes they do not spawn 3 Stock to enhance fisheries called supplemental when ow natural production occurs along with a ngake of fish so stocking is needed Example rainbow trout Discussion A problem with hatchery raised fish due to the high density of animals diseases often develop and can be introduced to wild stocks when fish are stocked 4 Stocking for habitat modification example grass carp to eat plants from a lake Discussion aquatic rooted plants are called macrophytes Grass carp have a simple straight gut and must eat large qualities of plant material Stocking grass carp usually leads to eradication of plants not control of plants 5 Stocking piscivores to control stunting Remember fish have indeterminate growth but do not have to grow to live also they will become sexual mature even when not growing and breed more fish that also stay small due to limited food so a manager would stock piscivores to eat some ofthe fish leaving fewer to feed on the available food base Piscivores are fish that eat fish Crappie are a species prone to stunting 6 Stock prey organisms Think of as stocking food often not successful because the complete food pyramid for the prey fish is not available Minnows shad and shrimps often stocked Beware stocking invasive species 7 Stocking improved organisms i cussion Subspecies stockings in Louisiana The native northern largemouth bass species in Louisiana has been improved by the stocking of Florida largemouth bass in our water bodies The Florida largemouth grows faster and larger allowing the taking of larger trophy bass a External fertilization makes hybrization of fish easy perm and eggs are stripped fish allowing design a fish hybrid b Crosses are made for desirable traits Hybrization often results in a condition known as heterosisI or hybrid vigor a hybrid fish have faster growth b are more aggressive c are more disease resistance d more environmentally tolerant Discussion Common hybrid crosses used by fish managers are Tiger muskie cross a northern pike and a muskellunge Suageye cross a walleye and a sauger Hybrid stripped bass cross a strip bass and a white bass Splake cross a lake trout and a brook trout Tiger trout cross a brown trout and a brook trout e tend to be sterile or have highly reduced reproductive capacity less susceptibility to stunting and establishment in the water body this gives a manger control over the population The fish use more energy for growth and not for sexual development Note polyploids animals created with 3 or 4 sets of chromosomes unlike the normal set of 2 are also sterile Often grass carp eggs are treated to make the fish polyploids Fertilized eggs are exposed to high temperature or pressure interrupting mitosismeiosis and allowing additional sets of chromosomes to development 2 May 2011 Monday Fisheries Management Biota Stocking programs are less common now due to concerns related to 1 Genetic contamination when a cultured strain is introduced over a native strain Today fisheries managers take fish from a waterbody spawn them and return the fry or fingerlings to the same waterbody 2 Loss of control of introduced species many examples of exotic species problems and trophic web changes Example common carp an excellent sport fish in Europe US sport fishermen do not like it and it is now a nuisance fish 3 Loss of native species due to predation or competition Discussion Lake Victoria had evolved 400 cichlid species Nile perch were introduced into the lake as a protein source for people in the countries around the lake The Nile perch is an aggressive predator and has destroyed 200 cichlid species The need to fill an empty niche but there are no empty niches in nature Example the stocking of brown trout a native of Europe allowed them to take over the brook trout habitat and pushing brook trout out 4 Introduction of diseases and parasites Discussion whirling disease a parasite in trout induced from aquaculture facilities to wild stocks 80100 new parasites have been introduced in the last 200 yrs Other management tools 1 Population eradication has been successfully used to control nuisance fishes Example common carp Brought to the US in the 1880s it is a sport fish in Europe but has no sport value in the US due to red meat Americans do not like To try to remove this fish manager may use a Netting to remove carp from water body b Drawdown Carp come into shallow water to spawn ifthe water level is drawn down the eggs are exposed and die c Chemicals 1 Such as rotenone a nonselective piscicide fish poison Kills by inferring with respiration from a South American plant where natives use it as a fishing tool 2 TFM and Bayluscide for control of sea lamprey in the Great Lakes 2 Lengthbased regulations can be used to manipulate fisheries populations A Minimumsize regulations are used to protect fishes until they have had a chance to spawn at least once Discussion bass 12 minimumsize due to bass becoming sexually mature at 10 However minimumsize regulations do not work well because the fish that grow slower and mature when small are allowed to spawn several times before being caught These may not be the genetics a manager wants to perpetuate B Maximumsize regulations are used for fish populations in which old large spawners are an important part ofthe effective population size Discussion red drum Allow fishermen to keep 45 27 and smaller fish per trip but only 1 larger than 27 fish Also fecundity is directly related to size a large female will produce more eggs than a small one C Slot limit are designed to change the length distribution of a fish population to reduce the number of small fish and increase the number of large fish An example of a slot limit 11 12 14 above14 harvest no harvesting harvest The fish in the slot area 12 14 would grow quickly because the other two classes are being caught and removed increasing the food base for the slot group The success of using a slot limit depends on shermen harvesting small sh Term A stock is a management unit in fisheries Example A certain fish species spawns off the coast of South Carolina ALL members of the species spawn here then 1 group swim north to feed in Massachusetts waters and 1 group swims south to feed in Florida waters This is 1 population with 2 stocks each stock would be managed differently due to food source habitat difference water temperature etc Fisheries Management Lentic Standing Water Habitat Lentic standing water i e lakes pond Habitat Macrophyte Control Algae and macrophyte control Macrophyte large aquatic plants Controlling aquatic vegetation is often an important management activity 1 Control measures usually include A herbicides B mechanical harvest Removes the plants from the lake system so they do not decompose using up oxygen and causing a fish kill arvesters work well in Florida but the stumps of the TupeloCypress swamps of Louisiana make them impossible to use C biological controls Example biological control grass carp or insects to eat plants such as the water hyacinth flea beetle Lentic Habitat Improvement 2 Projects in lentic and marine systems may also focus on improving cover complexity with many different types of artificial structures Discussion Structures could be old tires buckets of concrete with tall sticks in it PVC structures expensive but anglers will not lose lures on it Select the best material for the budget and area of the specific project Desired effects of artificial structure A More primam production PP and more fish production by providing cover for f39sh i More PP would yield more food for fish research has not demonstrated that structure does increase PP B To concentrate fish so there is better fishin Structure provides cover and research has demonstrated fish do concentrate Lotlc flowmg water Habitat Management streams rivers Many management activities in lotic systems increase cover and variation in flow depth and substrate the bottom material of streams rivers lf flow is increased the substrate will be larger material rocks pebbles large material and if the flow is slow the substrate will be sand dirt small material Discussion A Adding a log sawed in half across a stream would increase cover for fish variation in flow and depth Also paraphyton growth would vary substrate B The roots of bushes planted in the riparian zone will help to stabilize the area C Add logs and boulders to stream to vary flow depth and substrate D Undercut banks may be natural or artificial the best habitat for fish Plants in the riparian zone stabilize the bank the under cut provides cover for fish Habitat Improvement Fish Passage 39 passage is very important for anadromous fish live in the ocean spawn in fresh water and potamadromous fish live in rivers migrate 100s of miles in the river system to spawn Louisiana example paddlefish Discussion Salmon can jump an 812 ft barrier so we can use a fish way or fish ladder with baffles to get them over dams Fish ways include steplike areas to allow fish to rest Passage culverts are often designed to maintain depth for easy passage by fish when water levels are low Example stepculverts Marine Habitat Improvement Added Structures in the ocean Discussion The placing of stuff in the water to provide cover Artificial reefs may be anything that provides a hard surface Examples include old oil rigs rigstoreefs program cars airplanes tanks reef balls Structure is added to increase habitat complexity provide cover areas to hide increases primary production to concentrate fish 4 May 2011 Wednesday Fisheries Recreational Fisheries Management Includes For recreational fisheries identification of objectives will lead to development of management programs and techniques to achieve the desired outcomes Objectives must be quantitative Example Not better manage the population BUT increase population to 500 spawnIng paIrs Management agencies for recreational fisheries must consider 1 Species of interest life history population dynamics 2 Angling population Who is fishing families or individuals Catching many small fish is great fun for children but adults who make large investments in boats and equipment want to catch large fish 3 Aquatic biota all components of the trophic web the food which fish are prey Biota refers to all living organisms that contribute to a fish harvest 4 Habitat characteristics and water quality what does the species need to live DO cover pH etc 5 Nature of the problemopportunity too few of a specific fish species the environment to start a new fishery The facilities boat ramps parking may need to be updated and enlarged 6 Resources funding Funding for recreational fisheries management in addition to license fees and state general fund contributions some states comes from the Federal Aid in Fish Restoration Act 1950 and its amendments VVallopBreaux Act 1984 Restoration and management projects for recreational sport fish only The funds can not be used for threatened and endangered species 10 tax paid by manufacturers on virtually all sport fishing equipment also as of 2005 185 of motorboat fuel tax all money now placed in the Aquatic Resource Trust and split between the Fund Sport Fish Restoration and Boating Safety Trust Fund about 570 million per year the 50 states divide this fund 3 times more money for fish as forwildlife from the PittmanRobertson Act Redistributed to states on a 75 federal 25 state cost share 60 based on numbers of licenses sold 40 state area no state gets gt5 equitable split between freshwater and marine The states decide what the term equitable means usually done by the number of each license type that is sold Important source of funds for most states supporting personnel biological research and management The SPRA Sport Fish Restoration Act channels funds to 8 programs of research and management Sport fish restoration Boat access and boating infrastructure Outreach public education Clean vessel facilities Coastal wetlands Boating safety Multistate conservation projects Striped bass projects FYI Do not memorize these 8 programs Recreational Fisheries User Groups Managed by state government Recreational fisheries management options Length limits Openclosed seasons not often used toda Closed area Examples The area below a dam tailwater area to protect anglers The spawning ground of certain fish Creel limit a bag limit how many you can have in your boat creel limits are used to spread fish out among more anglers Possession limits so you can not continue to take the creel limit several times over one day having the fish in your ice chest in the car and not the boat atch and release success depends on a low hooking mortality which includes temperature ofthe water cold is best and where the fish is hooked Gear restrictions Examples 1 barbless hooks 2 not using live bait so invasive species are not introduced from dumping bait buckets Consumption advisories Bioaccumulation refers to the accumulation of substances such as pesticides or other organic chemicals in an organism 6 May 2011 Friday Commercial Fisheries Management Managed by the Federal Government ommercial fisheries in the US are managed under the Sustainable Fisheries Act 1996 amendment to the Fishery Conservation and Management Act of 1976 2 Managed by the NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration under the Department of Commerce 3 Novel legist ration extension of EEZ Exclusive Economic Zone to 200 miles The EEZ includes minerals fisheries and any commodities with value 4 Management authority over all continental shelf and anadromous resources Anadromous fish fish that live in the ocean but spawn in fresh water 5 Creation of Regional Councils made up of federal and state representatives who develop FM Ps Fishery Management Plan for all commercially exploited species 6 NO foreign fishing fleets could fish in out 200 mile limit without signed fishing agreement 7 Implementation of a foreign observer program These observers are employees of the federal government placed on foreign boats that fish inside our EEZ Theirjob is to record location of fishing time and to sample the catch 8 Economic sanctions for noncompliant countries also the Coast guard will arrest violators and take the ships Commercial management is focused less on biota and habitat and more on harvest making money Commercial fisheries management options Openclosed seasons Example shrimp king crab Use more in commercial fishery and used to protect fish Harvest quotas Is the pounds of fish that can be harvested each year Gear types restrictions Focus on 1 habitat concerns ex Trawlers are very destructive to bottom habitat 2 bycatch all the species caught during fishing that are not the target species Example Dolphins when fishing for tuna Mesh regulations size First type of marine regulation used The idea is catch the older larger animal and allow the young small ones to escape to continue growing Daysatsea restrictions number of days you may fish during a season Closed area Marine Protection Area MPAs Areas in the ocean where no fishing is allowed Remember MPAs are a similar management idea to terrestrial wildlife refuges New Approaches to management options 39mited entry and ITQs individual transferable quota and Note the book calls these ITR individual transferable rights same thing have been 39 39 39to reduce overcapacity over capitalizationI and the race to fish lTQs are valuable tradable commodities Allows fishermen to choose when they fish and the market to have continuous fresh fish rather than fishermen taking the quota as quickly as possible and creating a market of only frozen fish lf l fisherman is making money catching a specific species many people move into fishing that species and the species numbers crash due to overfishing Tragedy of the Commons Also CDQ community development quota and comanagement are used a town is given a quote and the townspeople then decides by comanagement who will fish process etc Designed to reduce overcapacity overcapitalization and the race to fish The race to fish usually limits the number of day a season is open example to 2 day fishing season fresh product for only l day and all other product would be frozen The public prefers fresh product All management tools are designed to control effort it is the most difficult aspect of managing commercial fishery Effort is the number of people type of gear and time used for fishing Without property rights often result in regulated inefficiency Discussion At this time the amount taken is reduced the mesh size is increased the days of a season is reduced all this makes fishing as inefficiency as possible to keep from completely destroying a fishery This is not the way to run a fishery Problems in the commercial fisheries industry insurance very expensive because commercial fishing in dangerous foreign competition example Thailand shrimpers versus Louisiana shrimpers habitat loss and global warming End of material for Final Exam 4 Study Guide for Exam 2 Pollution Types of pollutants toxic versus nontoxic but released in high quantities such as manure Acute toxicity eg HZS Chronic toxicity eg CH3Hg Methylmercury the most toxic form subject to considerable bioaccumulation Organic versus inorganic pollutants Agricultural pollutants nitrate particular concern because of groundwater contamination pesticides effects on aquatic invertebrates herbicides effects on aquatic plants sediment 1 water pollutant in the US turbidity and filling in of aquatic habitats nutrients cultural eutrophication increased primary production Trophic state of waterbodies assessed with nutrient levels chlorophyll levels index of phytoplankton abundance Secchi disk oligotrophic mesotrophic eutrophic hypereutrophic problems Accuracy versus precision Signs of eutrophication in aquatic systems high macrophyte densities algal blooms fish kills some due to low oxygen levels caused by respiration and decomposition by dense algae blooms some due to production of cyanotoxins such as anatoxin and microcystin by cyanobacteria nutrient runoff primary source of nitrogen in the GOM dead zone mostserious effects on sessile organisms that can t move from hypoxic areas Best Management Practices to reduce runoff of chemicals loss of soil settling ponds and constructed wetlands strip cropping contour farming buffer strips between cultivated landand watercourses Irrigation problems loss of water through evaporation contamination of water returning to streams waterlogging salinization Industrial pollution Love Canal New York Bhopal India Institute West Virginia Dioxin Output control collection and dilution Trends in emissions of 6 principal pollutants in the US since 1980 End of pipe solutions bag filters cyclone filters electrostatic precipitator scrubber Better solutions increase efficiency of use eg for coal fluidized bed combustion coal gasification however coal extraction still highly problematic for the environment eg strip mining and mountain top removal nput control what are some approaches to eliminating pollution before it is created Greenhouse effect Greenhouse gasses mostly C02 CH4 and N20 methane and nitrous oxide far worse per molecule expressed as quotC02 equivalents C02 levels not exceptional in the history of the planet however speed of CO2 increase is exceptional 280380 parts per million in 160 years historic warming of 47 C over 5000 years versus projected 26 C warming over 100 years IPCC Evidence for global warming glacial ice organisms in marine sediments tree rings fossil in lake sediments Forcing factors for global tempereature E Ni o solar irradiance volcanic aerosols particles particularly 04 anthropogenic factors including greenhouse gasses warming changes in albedo warming or cooling and aerosols cooling Evidence for the importance of anthropogenic forcing factors 12C and13C ratios in the atmosphere ocean and marine sponges consistent with predictions based on burning plant material fossil fuels models of global temperature since 1900 cannot be fit with only natural forcing factors Effects of global warming increased planetary temperature reductions in ice sheets example of positive feedback enhancement of the effect increased dust storms example of negative feedback dampening of the effect higher and lower precipitation depending on the location across the globe higher and lower runoff depending on the location across the globe biggest problems in southern Europe and northern Africa glacial melting changes in albedo contributions to sea level rise reductions in water supply to lower elevation environments Water Resources and Wetlands About 0007 of water on the planet available for human use Hydrologic cycle sources of water movement of water Aquifers and problems with discharge gt recharge from precipitation and stream inputs subsidence Wetlands ecotonal ecosystems shallow water table often standing water 1 hydrophytes 2 hydric soils 3 wetland hydrology sands Tidal salt marshes saltwater intrusion during high tides often dominated bySpartina species in the US physiological problems for biota Tidal freshwater marshes tidal damming freshwater hydrophytes Mangrove wetlands replace salt marshes in tropical areas US dominated by red and black mangroves root systems important for retaining soil reducing wave action and as habitat for small fishes and invertebtrates Freshwater marshes dominated by emergent macrophytes significant losses to agriculture Northern peatlands thick deposits of peat partially decomposed plant material in n orthern lakes common nutrient deficient acidic Southern deepwater swamps standing water baldcypress and tupelo are characteristic trees nutrient rich and productive often tied to large river systems high biodiversity Riparian wetlands adjacent to streams and rivers dominated by bottomland hardwood trees significant losses from flood control Wetland loss in the US where is it the worst and why inland wetlands coastal wetlands Actual gains in wetland area since 1998 losses of 450000 acres per year in the mid1900s Wetland functions streamflow regulation and aquifer recharge water quality improvement and constructed wetlands waterfowl production wildlife habitat coastal spawning and nursery habitat lake improvement spawning and water quality improvement from tributary streams recreation Wetland impacts direct and indirect what happens reduction or addition of water vegetation removal changing hydrology eg where water enters how long it stays how deep it is reductions in water storage increased downstream flooding increased sedimentation increased nutrients Wetland management authority USACE EPA USFWS NCAA 1985 Food Security Act swampbuster provisions Wetland reserve program and tax incentives CZMA matching funds for coastal management programs CBRA no federal subsidies eg insurance for coastal development projects Wetland mitigation what is it what are the problems with it Wetland management activities hydrology removing dams pumping water create inflow channels control structures for drawdown water qualityvegetation buffers holding ponds public education programs managing the plant community planting protecting removal of invasives mechanical chemical and biological control advantages and disadvantages of each managing the animal community planting upland vegetation altering depth to increase habitat diversity enhancing reproductive and foraging habitats establishing aquatic and terrestrial corridors to other habitats weirs advantages and disadvantages grazing burning mowing spraying herbivore management Lentic lotic and marine habitats Lentic habitat structure littoral zone macrophytes high DO high abiogenic turbidity limneticzone high DO biogenic turbidity warm profundal zonecold little primary production DO can be low why thermocline formation and the annual mixing cycle benthic zone cold low DO Lotic habitat structure depth flow velocity substrate riffles important for invertebrate production pools important as fish habitat Reservoirs lotic and lentic characteristics higher DO levels in the profundal zonetwostory fisheries Marine habitats what are they where are they distinguishing characteristics Coastal marshes Barrier beaches Barrier islands Neritic zone Oceanic zone Epipelagic zone contains photic zone Mesopelagic Bathypelagic Abyssalpelagic Marine habitat structure current fronts salinity graduents physical structure can be important water quality concern increasing acidity lower pH Atmosphere 0 Global common property resource 0 Exploitation without property rights resource degradation 0 Troposphere most active 12 km where weather occurs temp decreases as you go up 0 Hydrologic cycle 0 Pollution gases liquids solid habitats ecosystems urban areas 0 Anthropogenic o Primary particulate matter toxic carcinogenic worst is PM 25 Nitrogen oxides lungs plants sulfur oxides odor carbon oxides poisonous greenhouse gases hydrocarbons9 regulated by HAPS and Clean Air Act 0 Secondary pollutants SOX and NOX o Photochemical smog ozone 400 other chemicals 0 Pollution effects respiratory problems ecosystem damage cardio problems climate change 0 Greenhouse effect sun s rays goes through greenhouse gases only some is reflected back up gases block some amount I C02 levels are very high compared to recent years most important anthropogenic GHG I C02 methane NOX most prevalent99 o Troposphere pollution control 0 Output control wetdry scrubbers electrostatic precipitators 0 Input control don t create in first place alt energy sources coal washing gasification o Stratosphere 12 50 km temp increasing as you group ozone layer at 25km o Ozone03 is thinning over Antarctica UV rays A long wave B C short wave 0 Ozone filters all of C most of B and little of A o Chlorofluorocarbons destroys ozone 0 Should recover by 2065 o Is cooling global warming not due to solar radiation 0 Mesosphere 50 80 km coldest meteor destructions o Thermosphere 80 500 km thin air sensitive to solar radiation ionosphere aurora borealis o Exosphere 500 80000km thin loss of atoms and molecules to space Ecosystems resilience reduced due to climate disturbance wildfire insects global changes in land use pollution fragmentation exploitation Increases extinction risk for 2030 of known plants and animals Food production increases slightly globally and at mid high lats decline aafter Crops decline in seasonally dry tropical and subtropical region Flooding increases for coast pops Coastal and river pops with resource based economies most vulnerable negantive health impacts malnutrition extreme weather diarrheal disease cardio respiratory ground level ozone increases in the spatial extent of diseases Highly dependent on education health care public health initiatives infrastructure econimc development human pop problems Mass water losses from glaciers and snowmelt will reduce water availiability hydropower potential irrigation potential seasonal availability in areas where 16 h of world pop currently live Precip and run off will decrease by 1030 at mid lats and dry tropics partially semi arid areas in us brazil and Africa Increases in frequency and severity of floods and drought Terrestrial EcosystemsBiomes Desert specific plants cactus mesquite resistant to drought can go dormant animals don t drink water dormancy nocturnal crops we spend too much money to grow in ungrowable lands have a good supply of water Grassland desert areas with more water suffers from drought frequent fires tropical and temperateshort and tall grass prairiesPampas SA veld Africa Steppe Europe grasslands 0 Dust bowl 1930 s 0 Poor farming of marginal land 0 Poor farming techniquesp o 9 million acres lost 80 million damaged 0 1935 created SC Soil conservation Polar grassland arctic tundra 15 of earths land surface cold windy 5 of precip snow covered with lichens sedges mosses grasses and low shrubs slow decomposition permafrost never melts results in summer marshes shallow soil slow plant growth highly susceptible to human disturbance engineering problems made heat dissipaters Chaparral western US Africa SA Australia Mediterranean Area between hot dry high pressure cool wet low pressure flat hills mountain slopes hot dry rain during mild winters short vegetation with thick leaves extensive roots fire resistant wildlife similar to desert biota Santa Barbera Forests 0 Tropical Rainforests near equator warm year round heavy rainfall dominated by evergreen trees water heat sunlight not limiting soil nutrients are low greatest biodiversity per area on earth lt7 of earths surface 50 of timber o Temperate Deciduous Forests moderate temps 4 seasons abundant rainfall dominated by a few winter trees nutrient rich soils 1 of old growth forests left never been cut down characteristic wildlife 0 Northern Coniferous Forests boreal foreststaigas below tundra sub arctic climate spruce fir cedar pine dense needles acidic soil little other vegetation characteristic wildlife short growing season not a lot of human activity Foodconsumption genetic resources biodiversity Fiber wood products Forage domesticated livestock Building material wood Transportation materialrubber Medicinal extractsasprin blood pressure cancer Energybiomass to generate electricity Ecosystem services m I o 39 u we carbon I Hydrologic processingwater quality and quantity local climate Soil enhancement organic material physical structure Biogeochemical cycles sources sinks processes denitrification Biodiversityhabitats and resources OOOO Detrial processingnutrient cycling Terrestrial Pollution Hazardous waste Usually products of industry Dioxin Nat l Academy Sciences doesn t know effects of 80 of 48500 potentially toxic chemicals on EPA list So lethal and dangerous often disposed of illegally Love canal CERCLA in 1980 administered by EPA in response to Love canal Times Beach 2007 50 of US pop Lives within 10 miles of 1304 superfund sites Originally funded by taxes on petrol chemical feed stocks corp income Expired in 1995 funds dwindled by 2003 20042008 SS to CERCLA is from general taxes 70 can get Polluter pays of NFL sites 15 billion needed a year congress not willing 319 fixed 240 now something else Diposal o Bioreactor landfills for organic compounds 0 Phytoremediation certain plants will detoxify compounds 0 Soil washing 0 Heat burn it best solution but expensive 0 Bury it Landfillsgarbage disposal Factors Influencing Forest Development 0 Seeding and germination habits 0 Birds and small mammals birds and insect pollinators 0 Indirect effects on forest production 0 Le magnolia trees by beetles Mexican coral tree by hummingbird birds and cherry trees comet orchids by hawkmoth Darwin in 1862 pattern and rate of growth 0 competition for light 0 escape from herbivory 0 recovery after disturbance sizeage of maturity o disturbance magnitude and frequency tolerance of soil type 0 nutrients silt content sand content clay content best are sandy silty o permeability how fast soil will transmit water 0 porositytotal volume of air space in a sample of soil 0 metal content 0 organic content humus 0 soil microorganisms 0 pH 0 fire 0 negative forest impact 0 Key role in forest ecology 0 Thick fire resistant barklodgepole pine longleaf pine sal khasia pine giant I sequoia have to be exposed 150 degrees to drop seeds 0 Rapid regeneration after fire 0 Party of tree life history 0 Surface firequotcoolquot low level fire I Removes competing plants Kills fungi Prescribed burning is a forest management tool 0 Crown fireextremely dangerous Travels up trees Burns entire forest More common in fire suppressed areas due to litter accumulation Forest wildlife erosion impacts Diseases and parasites o Parasitic fungi are most destructive o Viruses bacteria nematodes mistletoe 0 Dutch elm chestnut blight oak wilt needle blight peach leaf curl 0 Most destructive on tree farms 0 Exotic problematic chestnut dutch Insects o Bark beetles Wood borers o Larval insect defoliatior o Sap sucking insectsaphids 0 Primary avenue for secondary mortality Onnnnn Other Factors 0 Industrial urban areas in MDCs 0 Acid deposition ozone and SPM dust soot asbestos heavy metals 0 Leaf and bark damage increased susceptibility to pathogens World Forests Onnnnn Forests cover 34 of world s terrestrial biomes Onnnnn Forestlands decreasing in approximately 55 of countries increasing in about 32 Onnnnn 022 loss offorested areayear during 1990 s Onnnnn 199293 world coverage 0 deciduous broadleaf7oak maple2million sq km 0 evergreen needle leaf5 million sq km 0 evergreen broadleaf7tropicall3 million sq km Onnnnn 50 of annual harvest 7 heating and cooking 0 by 200 3 billion people in 77 LDCs with rewood shortages o burden on poor and women 0 burning manure and crop waste 0 charcoal 7 cleaner hotter than wood CO problem Increasing World Forest Yields Onnnnn Plant more trees increase efficiency other fuels ODDDDD H quot and p Lal y o Silvoarable 7 growing trees with arable land where you also grow crops 0 Silvopastortal 7 growing trees in pasture land 0 9these are huge programs in many countries and are better ways to do agriculture 0 Control runoff and erosion water nutrient loss 0 Soil biological activity 7 legumes increase nitrogen levels OM and nutrient input leaf fall 0 Improved soil structure OM and roots 0 More efficient use of solar energy Reduced insect pests and diseases 7 why Because ofbirds 5 of the area 50 of the biodiversity microclimate control 7 shade for livestock fuel wood diverse products increased economy carbon shortage ODDDDD Forest farming 7 going into a forest clearing the underbrush and planting your crops there 0 0 0 0 0 0 ODDDDD Riparian buffers 7 planting trees between crops ODDDDD Windbreaks 7 putting trees along the line where the prevailing wind pattern comes from helps prevent erosion ODDDDD Wildlife corridors 7 providing corridors in which wildlife can move around without being interrupted by human development ODDDDD Agroforestry 0 Lead tree 39 Grows 20ftyear 39 Leaves for fodder 39 Seed pods for food 39 Clean strong wood 39 Legume 39 Regrowth after coppicing which is where you cut down the tree about 35 feet up 39 Drought resistant 39 Sap sucking insect 7 unfortunate problem that goes along with planting this tree US Forests ODDDDD US leads the world in wood consumption ODDDDD 199 billion ft3 in 1997 90 produced in US ODDDDD One of the largest importers ODDDDD Pressure on Canadian and Asian forests ODDDDD Domestic consumption ins expected to double between 1980 and 2030 ODDDDD How can this increase in demand be met 0 Reforestation o Plantations 0 Improved yield 0 Alternatives Forest Management Forest management activities 0 Inventory I Species age classes core samples other vegetation I Logging road skid trails logging deck locations I Remote sensing allows estimation of tree height species composition and harvest volume 0 Forest management plan I Goals primary and secondary uses constraints I When where what how how much to harvest I Interharvest management site prep after harvest thinning herbicidespesticides o Cruising timber I Mark boundaries non harvestable trees riparian zones streamside management zone data for contract 0 Harvest I Road and trail constructioncontour I Implementation of Best Management Practices BMPs anything that movesdisrupts soil has BMP laws 0 Regeneration I Site prep making it ready for next harvest I Natural seeding planting I Genetic improvement I nterharvestmanagement I pesticidesherbicides I thinning I burning 0 Forest Controversies 0 Management of public forests Natl Forests how I Should timber harvesting be allowed and how should it be done I Should timber sales yield a profit I Who pays for construction of logging roads site prep and inter harvest management I Public forest management Multiple Use and Sustained Yield Act of 1960 0 Multiple use timber harvesting recreation livestock grazing watershed protection fisheries and wildlife habitatconflicts o What do we manage for Conservationists belive that public forest management should emphzsize MUampSY economic ecological and aesthetic values 0 Harvest high quality timber Long rotations 100 yrs Selective cutting Topsoil protection Contour road building 0000 Small lightweight equipment Clearcutting lt15 acres never gt1520 degree slopes Leave snags for wildlife Leave adequate slash for nutrients 0000 Integrated pest management IPM for pest outbreaks mechanical chemical biological I Loss of tropical forests lt50 tropical forests remain gt70 million acres destroyed annually At current rates gone by 2100 5 billion people in tropical LDCs by 2020 40 poverty rate poor economies What do we do Brazil Indonesia have worst deforestation rates Madagascar has lost 90 Why we care 0 Loss of trees CO2 buildup erosin etc o 6 of earths land surface 5080 of the earths plants and animals Estimated loss of 137 species daily Loss of biodiversityfast Diversity tied to vertical habitat complexity Emergent layer canopy understory shrub layer ground layer Large detrital web rapid decomp nutrients in biota Incredible diversity of living resources 25 acre pit in Borneo700 tree species Peru preserve more bird species than US Amazon more fishes than in Atlantic OOOOOOOOOO Products I Half of worlds harvest of hardwood I Food I Rubber I Raw materials for over V2 of over the counter and prescript drugs curare captopril vinblastine o Ecocentric ethics and stewardship Loss of industrial forest lands Timber investment mgmt org purchase and hold sell yrs later Real Estate investment Trustmgmt of real estate annual return to investors 30 million acres sold since 1996 tax advantages low risk Is profit dictation land disposition o Conservatino Issuethrowaway paper products 0000 O Recyclin 0 OOO Hastened softwood forest destruction proliferation of short rotation plantation 6 fold increase sincel950 300kg 675000 pieces of paper per person in MDCs Paper constitutes 40 of municipal waste in MDCs Energy and pollution to make new paper g Paper recycling saves 4570 of the energy Reduces air pollution by 95 Conserves water and landfill space AFPA 56 recovery in 2007 60 by 2012 Problems I Program development lt20 office wastepaper typically recycled I Tax subsidies and incentives new paper I Emphasis is on white paperchlorine pollution Fluctuating prices and lack of demand Recycled paper required for federal agencies contractors gt10000 All 50 states price preference 10 typical Success depends on market shift Grasslands and Rangelands 0 Cover about 26 of worlds land surface 0 10 classified as rangelands that are used for grazing o 25 of rangeland is in DC s cleared forests abandoned cropland o 80 of annual production of beef and mutton 0 Extremely important in grain poor nations Rangelands 0 19502001 world pop 25 to 61 bil o Cattle 720 mil 153 bil 0 Sheep and goat 104 to 175 bil o Degraded rangeland 680 mil ha worldwide increasing 0 How can rangeland be sustainable 0 Population pressure 0 Climate change 0 Invasive species 0 10billion domesticated animals worldwide 0 30 are ruminants multi chambered stomach regurg o 5A of worlds domesticated ruminants feed on rangelands the rest in feedlots o 200 million people graze livestock on rangeland o 85 in Africa or Asia 0 Minimal use land without irrigation o Vegetation is called forage o Decreasers highly palatable decline in abundance with grazing o ncreasers I ncreaser lmoderatly palatable secondary forage slight increase or stable levels under moderate grazing I ncreaser 2 increase in abundance as range declines generally unpalatable o Invaders non palatable I Invader 1 grazed as last resort I Invader 2 unpalatable o Abundant on overgrazed and under grazed range 0 Prickly pear curly cup gum weed leafy spurge o Rangeland sustainability depends on grazing pressure grazing and trampling and is a function of type of animal number of animals grazing time o Forbsbroad leafed flowering plants 0 Sedgesperennial herb with triangular stems o Rushes grasslike herbs with round stems 0 Plant characteristics 0 Most grasses sedges rushes perennial forbs often annual biennial Deep fiberous root systems Highly toerant of low moisture conditions tolerant of fire Grasses grow from base of plant The lower part 50metabolic reserve Needed for nourishment of extensive root system OOOOOO Chronic loss of metabolic reserve from overgrazing can destroy rangeland sustainability US Rangeland Rangela lt5 of worlds pop 9 of worlds cattle Livestock graze gt33 of N America More than V2 US croplands planted with livestock feed50 of annual water consumption Focus mainly on cattle 1000 lb cow280000 gallons of water nd Grazers Many grazers are defoliators Remove entire plants and branches Pops regulated by predation parasitism starvationovergrazing Pop movement selective herbivory and predation key to historical rangeland health Land use changes important Disturbance Grazing Disturbance integral to grassland ecosystems drought and fire maintain vegetation diversity However anthropogenic natural disturbance may degrade rangeland 0 Hunting Development Agriculture Exotic species Overgrazingundergrazing 0000 Need to develop sustainable grazing strategy Each grassland has a carrying capacity all grazers Max amt of grazing that wont degrade rangeland Varies with season range condition climate past grazing soil type type of grazers and grazing duration For large herbivores grazing is quantified as an animal unit month stocking rate can be expressed as acreAUM amt of animal forage an animal eats per months 1000lb per cow Carrying capacity is closely tied to rangelamd condition Rangeland mgmt The goal of rangeland is to maximize forage and livestock production while minimizing damage to the grassland ecosystem and ensure future production or forage and native biodiversity sustainability US Range Resources Prior to European settlement th eamerican prairie had a diverse rangeland community Competition predation migration and selective grazing minimized rangeland degredation Livestock grazing increased steadily through 19 h century Completion of the railroad on 1869 resulted in huge increases in grazing and huge increase in cattle pop 1909 Stockhraising Homestead Act granted 640 acres to ranchers to raise 50 cows widespread range destruction as most areas would not support this density As livestock pops And agr moved west native herbivores declined many precipitously Most obvious on tall grass prairies By 1900 most tall grass prairie lost 1905 US forest Service rangeland improvement in Natl Forest 1934 Taylor Grazing Act grazing service rangeland assessment 1978 Rangeland improvement act 50 grazing fees used for range improvement 1976 Federal Land Policy and mgmt act all federal lands other than natl forests and natl parks move to BLM Increased trend of rangeland conversion to suburbs and ranchettes Range Mgmt Grazing pressure Successful grazing systems have fallow period when not being grazed o Allows plants to seed Maintain forage diversity Obtain more uniform range use Restore forage vigor Prevent invasion by shrubs and woody veg 0000 Increase livestock production 0 Need off stream watering sites Continuous grazing season long or year long 0 Easy little livestock manipulation 0 Minimal manpower and fencing 0 However livestock in continuous grazing systems I Overgrazing in flat areas I Concentrate on decreasers and alter forage compositing I Promote increasers and invaders Degrade riparian system I Stream temp control 0 Rotation grazing moving high densities of livestock among a number of relatively small grazing cells for limited amounts of time o More manpower and fencing costs 0 No overgrazing 0 Better cattle growth 0 Distribution can be influenced by salt and water 0 Deferred rotation grazing alternates early season grazing among cells Range Mgmt Veg mgmt o Herbicidesselective ones generally used 0 Spraying most common 0 Generally benign to environment 0 Can be expensive 0 Fire Improves forage Reduces litterimprove growth Improve wildlife habitat Change veg structure 0 Mimic natural quotresetquot 0 Mechanical control 0 Tractor with front blades 0 Disks mowers o Chaining and cabling o Reseeding o Revegetating degraded range 0 Minimizing erosion loss critical after disturbance o Expensive 0 High rates of seed predation and seedling mortality 0 Some speies successful in certain habitats Range mgmt pest control 0 Insects o Mormon cricketpoison bait fences o Caterpillaspesticides parasitic wasp 0 Black grass bugsspring burning resistant grasses o Grasshoppersworst pesticides range condition mgmt like overgrazed land 0 Biological control 0 Exotic invaders often controlled with exotic herbivores o Moth introduced to control prickly pear cactus Range Mgmt controversy Predator control 0 Predators can be problematicsheep o 1963 ADC used Compound 1080 to kill coyotes mtn lions 1972 Nixon stopped use of it 0 Non target organisms Grazing fees 30 of US is rangeand mostly short grass Few restrictions on private rangeand Public grazing requires a permit land must be managed How much should fees be Wildlife Conservation Effective mgmt requires extensive education of wildlife professionals and public Ecosystems and succession Objectives and practices Maintain biodiversity Wildlife mgmt Manipulating wildlife pops habitats and human user groups Objective primary importance Ecologistsbiodiversity and ecosystem fxn I J Iand g CUIIgtCI I I We could designate a wilderness area to preserve rare species We could begin to captive breeding and habitat restoreation programs for species recovery Mgmt plan considers o Ecological sucession Pop dynamics Prey habitat predators disease Human impacts Politics Law Sociocultural factors OOOOOO Stochastic events Game 0 Large white tailed deer moose elk caribou black bear 0 Upland quail pheasant morning dove gray squirrel cotton tail Climax community species flourish only in pristine undisturbed habitatsold forests tundra grasslands of deserts Mgmt conservation refuges or biosphere reserves Midsuccession species can use fragmented habitats Wildlife mgmtedge 0 Increased breeding bird densities near forest edges preferred habitat o Predation and brown headed cowbird parasitism also greater reducing reproductive output ecological trap 0 Increasing edge fragmentation can result in the loss of species that require large tracts of continuous habitat Habitat Manipulation o Altering habitat to benefit of one or more species requires substantial knowledge of niche requirement and ecological succession 0 Elk burning on 45 yr schedule for forage o Rotational cattle grazing 0 Clear cutting mosaic or selective cutting o Minimizing human disturbance o Planting 0 Providing artificial nesting habitat has become an impotant part of mgmt efforts for many bird species 0 Creation or improvement of ponds lakes and guzzlers can provide water food and habitat fro wildlife Hunting o Moral and ethical issues killing animals at the heart of the activity 0 Mgmt tool for some species 0 Game farms and exotic introductions have become controversial 0 Bottom line hunting mortality should always be compensatory rather than additive 0 Can be used to help control population size 0 Can bring wildlife pops in line with habitat carrying capacity and reduce habitat damage 0 Can provide a compensatory mechanism to reduce diseases and starvation in high density populations 0 Sometimes used in parks and reserves to reduce potential impacts on external habitats o Alter sex ratios 0 Monogamous and polygamous o Protectharvest of females most important for polygamous ratios 0 Hunters provide much of te funding for wildlife mgmt and habitats projects benefit all wildlife 0 1937frederal aid in wildlife restoration act pittman Robertson 11 tax on arms and ammunition and divied between approved mgmt programs 0 Regulations 0 Closed seasons 0 Bag limits Closed areas Gear limitsspecial seasons Stamp requirementsmgmt funds 000 Data collection harvest info program Pop Controlnon hunting Chemical fertility control program can limit pop growth of large herbivores with Porcine Zona Pellucida P2P Vaccine developed from pigs used on horses elks deer exotic deer Advantages90 success is reversible small darts used on many species cannot pass through food web no side effects Disadvantages expensive boosters needed Migratory Waterfowl Require special mgmt programs Degradation of wintering grounds and summer breeding habitat Loss of flyway resting habitat Multiple hunting groups along migration routes Disease epizootics in high densityhabitats avian cholera North American Waterfowl Mgmt Plan1986 Joint Ventures Protectionhabitat acquisition conservation easement leases mgmt agreement w private land owners habitat enhancement Rotational grazing seasonal flooding nesting islands needing black ducks arctic nesting geese sea ducks Waterfowl pop Size dependent on available breeding migrating and overwintering habitat Waterfowl refuges and WPAs established by federal state and localDucks Unlimited Audubon Society and Nature Conservancy 1934 Migratory bird hunting and conservation stamp actrequired a 1 stamp to hunt waterfowlmoney placed in migratory bird conservation fund for purchase and protection Stamp fundscongressimport duties on guns and ammorefuge entrance fees40 mil a year Habitat enhancement may also focus nesting habitat o Electrified fence 0 Creating islands and making moats Lead shot banned in 19919 now use steel bismuth tungsten and tin US waterfowl hunting is managed in a cooperative state USFWS program called Adaptive Harvest Mgmt Hunting seasons set by states flyway councils and USFWS Continuous cycle of monitoring assessment decision making due to uncertainty regarding 0 Environment 0 Partial control over harvest 0 Data estimation 0 Biology and population dynamics Threatened and Endangered Species Endangered Species Act of 1973 created listing process critical habitat designation acquisition of habitat with monies from Land and Water Conservation Fund prohibition on taking and trade in T amp E species Amended in 1978 creation of review committee Amended in 1982 allowed landowners to create Habitat Conservation Plans allowed some incidental take and habitat impacts Egg pulling programs have been successful for some birdsincreases hatching success renesting California Condor 1 chick every 2 years monogamous interrupted brooding eggs will not hatch chicks depend on adults for 2 years 67 yrs to reach sexual maturity home range100 sq milesday only 10 of habitat is under federal protection 125 in CA 150 in San Diego Zoo Genetic concerns important in all breeding programs Must be concerned with Effective Pop size Continuing controversies o Reintroduction 0 Economic impacts of habitat protection 0 quottakingquot land without compensation o llperverse incentive purposely llgetting rid of habitat of a listed animal 0 Listing process Refuges and preservesfirst established in 1903 by Roosevelt on Pelcan Island 0 Now have about 548 wildlife refuges 3000 WPA 96 mil acres 80 is in Alaska 75 are wetlands 0 First refuge for an endangered plant established in CA in 1980 0 Many are open to farming hunting fishing oil and gas development timber harvesting o Suffer from invasive species urban sprawl water shortages Refuge designfragmentation edge effects home range territory Other tools 0 Gene banks seeds tissue DNA storage dry cold conditions9 won t work for everything 0 Captive breedingprograms have been successful in maintaining populations of scarce species Biosphere Reserves In 1981 proposed by UNESCO In all of the Earths 193 biogeographic zones 529 reserves in 105 countries US47 Russia39 Spain37 o Biosphere reserves have core areas protected buffer areas education research and transition areas sustainable production 0 Has problems 824 Natural Resource Conservation resource something that can be used for support or help natural resource is something that s found in nature useful to humans oil mine fresh air renewable natural resource constantly replenished by natural processes either living organisms or the product of living organisms that should be abundant in the future if we take care of them 11 n Idea of conservation was written first by Aldo Leopold quota state of harmony between men and land people understanding appreciating and living with naturein the past it was more about conquering nature rather than living with nature land ethicquotexistence of an ecological consciousindividual responsibility for the health of the land Sustainability key concepts we have in resource use it s what we are trying to do defined as a rate of resource use that meets needs without impairing their ability to meet the needs of future generations we only wanna use resources in a way that they will still be available in the future CBD Convention on Biological Diversityearth summit in 1992 binding treaty currently signed by 193 parties one aspect of sustainability is productivitywe need to know productivity to know how much something can maintain ex blue fin tuna function is also an important part of sustainability History of Natural Resource Conservation exploitation of natural resources has been evident throughout history These resources were not used sustainablyit was never a concept when resources didn t seem to run out Ex roman empire cause massive changes in ecosystem deforestation was common overgrazing as populations grewcaused massive erosion forest loss increase in marshlands along the Mediterranean then mosquitoes then malaria They had no concept of ecosystems how the world works and how its connected Another problem was salinization from irrigation which led to crop reductions Lots of species extinctions loss ofmesocarnivores explosion of rodent population crop loss Pollution was also rampant high levels oflead bc of the unknown risks May have not cause the decline of the roman empire but certainly contributed to it Industrial Age late 1700s required use of our fossil fuels resulted in considerable environmental change in which many were not particularly good water pollution land became degraded urban centers continued to grow Romanticists very much against science and technology bc they saw it as degrading to nature and humans reaction against the industrial age in the 18 and 19 centuries Sir Francis Bacon wrote often of the idea of reduction which means ifwe want to know how something works reduce it to smaller and smaller scales until understood romanticists rejected this they felt nature was more than the sum of its parts very mysterious and complexhad intrinsic value outside of the human utilitarian value Alexander Von Humboldt German scientist wrote a lot ab out problems with sustainability overharvesting the trees and changes in water sources to lakes overharvesting of birds and turtle eggs and lack of retribution Souhth America In North America long history of naturalists through American expansion and industrialization Henry David Thoreau was a naturalist writer and perhaps and anarchist who wrote extensively about nature including the forest succession and how the world works Geroge Perkins Marshscientist and congressman from Vermont who wrote man and naturenatural laws and harmony humans cause disturbed harmonies ohn Muirfounder of the Sierra Club in 1892very vocal and environmental organizations in the US wrote about environmental destruction in the development of California 8 2 6 Pinchot first chief of the service Wise use not preservation Teddy Roosevelt first president to be involved Franklin Roosevelt Created the TVA Tennessee Valley Authority amp CCC Civilian Conservation Corps one of the first efforts by the government Aldo Leopold Wrote The Land Ethic 1949 Colonization of the US was characterized by frontier ethics there will always be a new frontier we can just move on Colorado River gt40 dams and diversions reduction in water quantity reduced quality gt increased salinization saltiness septic tanks leaking into groundwater gt nitrates Switch from organic to inorganic fertilizers gt runoff and onpoint source pollutions tall grass praires more rainfall most are gone due to agriculture short grass prairie little rainfall not good for agriculture gt Dust Bowl Dust Bowl drought between 1927 1934 poor farming of marginal land Rachel Carson Published Silent Spring 1962 wrote about environmental contamination Bioaccumulation DDTpersistence and human tissue loads in nontechnical terms increased awareness Pesticide resistence genetic makeup of the pest population some survive then they become immune Good example of the overriding view of technological fixes to any problem at any cost that prevailed during the 1900 s Paul Ehrlich Professor at Stanford The Population Bomb 1969 made predictions about pop growth and resource depletion Barry Commoner Professor at Queens University NY The Closing Circle 1971 Four laws of ecology 1 Everything is connected to everything else 2 Everything must go somewhere there is no waste in nature 3 Nature knows best technological quotimprovementquot is likely to be detrimental 4 There is no such thing asa a free lunch resource use will result in conversion from useful to useless forms 829 History of Natural Resource Conservation Stewardship taking care of the planet conservation depends on it to ensure sustainability by taking ccare of the resources that support life on the planet perhaps the most important part of consevation we have to make a commitment to take care of resourceswildlife tropical rainforests we want to move from frontier ethics to conservation ethics environmental ethics conservation ethics will tell us what s right and what s wrong history of strong conservation ethics in the US No we don t if conservation is a Virtue it is then a function of ethics and social tradition conservation needs actual changes in human behavior Value if we have value for something we can then develop ethics thus leading to a sense of stewardship leading to conservation and management without stewardship for resources people have no basis to think conservation is important everyone needs to understand the importance of it Ralph Nader Edward Abbey Winkie Pratney Pope Benedict XVI Where do we stand ethically regarding our natural resources Pollution a certain amount it ok laws limit not forbid it Deforestation in some places we can regenerate forests but in tropical forests it is not easy to reforest them Hunting cant kill too much Time out for science How do we determine the ethical views of the American public regarding natural resources Surveys survey design survey questionswording is critical clear and understandable for intended audience not leading or biased survey distribution can be random can be stratified random but need to consider age home place gender survey formatmail email telephone we do surveys to identify differences in ethical Viewpoints by regions age gender education income level etc development ofpublic View in democratic society In addition to anthropocentric instrumental values we have an ethical obligation to protect restore and enhance Earth s ecosystems and the natural resources they provide quotWe don t inherit the earth from out ancestors we borrow it from children David Browerworry less about the past and concentrate on our future for other generations we can no longer not worry about these issues Ecology of Natural Resources resources conservation can he views as applied ecology ecology is a newer branch of science it is the study of relationships of living organisms to their environment environment is the sum total of all biotic and abiotic factors that affect an organism applied ecology means manipulation of organisms and their environment to achieve specific objectives Good science conservation and management depend on good objectives quantifiable with numbers statement of purpose applied ecology requires a thorough understanding of all the effects of the proposed manipulations always positive and negative consequences it is therefore dependent on the understanding ofhow nature works and the complex responses that the living organisms exhibit when their environment is altered Life in the biosphere where life on earth is contained depends on photosynthesis plants C02 and water and make carbohydrates and oxygen by autotrophic self feeding organisms Atmosphere Hydrosphere geo Photosyntheis in terrestrial systems is primarily dependent on temperature water availability and nutrient concentrations Photosynthesis in water is affected by aboigenic caused by particute matter and biogenic turbidity caused by living organisms ex Algea Bloom non point sources are particularly important Algea bloom becomes self limiting a good example ofa negative feedback loop Life in the biosphere is based on the ecolution of species organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring Species exist in one or more populations species that lives together in a group that does breed Populations of different species live together in communities All of the populations living together within a habitat a place to live The community in any habitat exhibits characteristic richness number of species in a community or an assemblage and evenness relative abundance Each species can be described by it s ecological niche functional role of an organism in an ecosystem Ex Herbavore predator The ecological niche is composed of the fundamental where they are thought to be able to live and the realized where they actually live niches Generalist species have broad niches Specialists species have narrow niches Some species are critical to maintenance of the community Keystone species One or more communities that live within habitats that are functionally related to each other make up an ecosystem strong internal ecological links Riparian zone right next to a stream links important allochthonous versus autochtonous inputs Living and nonliving parts biota and their environment ecosystem is a stable and resilient system 831 Life in the biosphere where life on earth is contained depends on photosynthesis plants C02 and water and make carbohydrates and oxygen by autotrophic self feeding organisms Atmosphere Hydrosphere geo Photosyntheis in terrestrial systems is primarily dependent on temperature water availability and nutrient concentrations Photosynthesis in water is affected by aboigenic caused by particute matter and biogenic turbidity caused by living organisms ex Algea Bloom non point sources are particularly important Algea bloom becomes self limiting a good example of a negative feedback loop Life in the biosphere is based on the ecolution of species organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring Species exist in one or more populations species that lives together in a group that does breed Populations of different species live together in communities All of the populations living together within a habitat a place to live The community in any habitat exhibits characteristic richness number of species in a community or an assemblage and evenness relative abundance Each species can be described by it s ecological niche functional role of an organism in an ecosystem Ex Herbavore predator The ecological niche is composed of the fundamental where they are thought to be able to live and the realized where they actually live niches Generalist species have broad niches Specialists species have narrow niches Some species are critical to maintenance of the community Keystone species One or more communities that live within habitats that are functionally related to each other make up an ecosystem strong internal ecological links Riparian zone right next to a stream links important allochthonous versus autochtonous inputs Living and nonliving parts biota and their environment ecosystem is a stable and resilient system 92 Handwritten 95 Labor Day 9 7 Adjacent ecosystems often have a transition habitat with it s own distinct vegetation and biota ecotone Human activities tend to simplify ecosystems by altering trophic webs reducing habitat complexity reducing bio diversity Unlimited resources results in exponential growth of living organisms the rate of increase in numbers in proportional to the population size Exponential growth can be expressed as dNdtrNpopulation growth rate dN dtrN KN K Kcarrying capacity The logistic equation of population growth As it approaches carrying capacity exponential growth slows down Environmental resistance everything that could slow the population growth down Logisitc population growth has given rise to the concepts of rselected and kselected species dN dtrNKN K rselected species small low reproduction investment per offspring highly recund early maturity shortlived type III survivor have many babies but most of the die ex mice bass insects kselected species larges high reproductive investment per offspring low fecundity late maturity longlived type I survivorship take good care of their young and do not have as many Ex humans Interspecific cooperation as populations grow fitness have more of our gino in future generations increases because ofincrease in mates feeding success and defense competition simultaneous demand for resources in limited supply As populations continue to growm the effects of densitydependent interactions with other species also increase perdation consumption by carnivorous heterotrophs interaction As populations continue to gorw the effects of densitydependent interactions with other species also increase interspecific competition interference competition direct competition for a resource exploitation competition Interspecific interactions as populations continue to grow the effects of density dependent interactions with other species increase parasitism disease detrimental organisms infesting or infecting a host species interacton host doesn t do well Interspecific interactions interactions with other species may not be detrimental mutualism interaction Some highly mutualistic interactions species involve one species investing their fitness in another species coevolution Interspecific interactions interactions with other species may not be determined commensalism interaction 99 missing 912 Study Guide Chapter 8 Aquatic quot39 quot quot Covering 71 of the Earth s surface aquatic systems on the planet are divided into aquatic life zones the equivalent of the terrestrial biomes we discussed in class Two major divisions of these life zones based on differences in salinity are marine and freshwater systems Although not a great map Fig 83 gives you an idea of the distribution of the world s major aquatic life zones note the distribution of coral reefs and mangrove ecosystems in tropical parts of the planet Most freshwater and marine systems are characterized by microscopic floating plants called phytoplankton and small herbivorous animals called zooplankton with plankton referring to the weak swimming abilities of these organisms ie although they can move in the water column they mostly drift with currents Ultraplankton are extremely small photosynthetic bacteria that are important primary producers in the ocean s surface waters Further up the aquatic trophic web fish turtles whales dolphins etc strong swimmers that are known as nekton Of course there are also huge populations of decomposers as we have talked about in class particularly at the bottom of most aquatic systems Temperature dissolved oxygen salinity food availability and availability of g and nutrients primarily determine what kinds of organisms occupy different freshwater and marine habitats although I would probably include depth and water flow as two additional important habitat characteristics that strongly influence the type of community that a habitat supports As we have discussed in class the book stresses turbidity either from algae or sediment as an important factor affecting primary production and the abundance of animals in freshwater and marine systems Marine systems are divided into 3 major life zones the coastal zone is the nutrientrich area between the high tide mark and the edge of the continental shelf It is highly productive because of the runoff of nutrients from the land and contains 90 of all known marine species and most of the world s important fisheries Estuaries and coastal wetlands are prominent features of the coastal zone Although physiologically stressful from frequent changes in temperature salinity and runoff from terrestrial systems these systems exhibit high primary production although low plant diversity Mangrove ecosystems are particularly important in tropical areas as they filter pollutants nutrients and sediment they provide food and habitat for aquatic and terrestrial organisms they reduce storm damage and can supply timber and fuel Unfortunately at least 20 of the world s mangrove forests have disappeared since 1980 Tides typically rise and fall every 6 hours along the coast and intertidal organisms must deal with considerable changes in temperature and salinity as the tide changes Figure 8 9 shows differences in two major types of intertidal areas rocky shores and sandy shores which have characteristic organisms that have evolved to live in each type of habitat The book stresses the role of barrier beaches and barrier islands in storm protection loss of these habitats increases storm damage inland Coral reefs are also characteristic of the coastal zone in some tropical parts of the world s oceans Although incredibly diverse and productive they are also among some of the world s most threatened ecosystems The open ocean is divided into the euphotic zone the zone at the surface where considerable photosynthesis occurs even though nutrient levels are low Belowthis layer lies the bathyl zone a dimly lit layer where many fishes and invertebrates live during the day and move into the euphotic zone to feed at night Belowthis is the abyssal zone which is dark and cold but supports a relatively high diversity of living organisms even though there is no photosynthesis to support the food web could we consider the constant rain of dead organisms from above as an allochthonous input to this system just like organic material falling into a stream Remember that most of the ocean is not very productive on a net primary production NPP per m2 basis but there is so much open ocean that if we add up all of the area the total amount of NPP is still greater than any other ecosystem on the planet Several oceanic areas around the world called upwellings are particularly productive In these areas surface water moving offshore because of prevailing winds is replaced by deep nutrientrich water moving up from the bottom the nutrients cause a tremendous increase in primary production as well as increases in invertebrates and fishes that feed on this productivity Marine systems are constantly being affected by human activities especially nearshore habitats like coastal marshes and coral reefs By 2040 it is proiected that up to 80 of all people on the planet will be living in or near coastal zones the potential for pollution and other impacts is significant Threats include coastal development overfishing runoff of nonpoint source pollution introduction of point source pollution habitat destruction invasive species climate change NP QPPN The Case Study on the Chesapeake Bay illustrates many of the impacts humans can have on coastal systems from increasing population densities and pollution is introducing the Asian oyster a good idea Freshwater habitats can be divided into flowing lotic and standing lentic waters Lakes can be divided into distinct habitats which include the littoral zone from the shore to a depth where rooted aquatic plants will no longer grow limnetic zone beyond the littoral zone where photosynthesis occurs profundal zone below the limnetic zone separated by the thermocline remember from class the layer of rapid temperature change caused by rapid warming of the surface in late spring during the annual lake mixing cycle and the benthic zone or bottom layer Remember that in many lakes that stratify in late spring with the formation of the thermocline oxygen in the profundal and benthic zones may be extremely low by late summer Lakes can be divided by productivity into oligotrophic low nutrient levels unproductive many in mountainous areas r 39 39 39 39 quot p39 39 very p 39 39 often shallow and turbid and hypereutrophic excessive nutrients from cultural eutrophication often with noxious algal blooms and low diversity of fishes and invertebrates in the lake Freshwater streams and rivers are fed by springs and rainfall and occur within watersheds ie all the land that drains into a stream or river Figure 8 17 shows how streams change from their origin in higher elevations to their deltas at the edge of the ocean three zones can be seen in this diagram the source zone high gradients because of steep terrain in the mountains the transition zone intermediate gradients in hilly country and the floodplain zone low elevations near the ocean note how rivers meander as they move through the floodplain zone not much gradient here usually large low velocity habitats Coastal wetlands floodplains and riparian wetlands are important ecosystems that perform many ecological services the productivity and health of these systems depend on what is going on in the watershed and it is easy to see how rivers and streams become polluted because of what is going on in adjacent terrestrial systems You should all be familiar with the Case Study on Dams Deltas Wetlands Hurricanes and New Orleans the loss of coastal wetlands barrier islands and barrier beaches is resulting in increasing damage from coastal storms around the world like Hurricane Katrina and New Orleans in 2005 How much can we protect coastal areas with levees and pumps Doesn t it make more sense to rebuild coastal marshes and barrier systems and let nature help to reduce storm damage The book talks about freshwater wetlands as sponges for nutrients sediment and other types of pollutants and the ecological services that these wetlands provide 1 filtering wastes and pollutants 2 reducing flooding and erosion by absorbing floodwaters 3 providing water to streams during dry periods 4 recharging groundwater aquifers 5 providing habitats for biodiversity exploited animals and other forms of recreation As with coastal systems human activities are also degrading lakes streams and freshwater wetlands Dams and canals fragment freshwater systems destroying habitats eliminating migratory fishes like salmon and turning flowing systems into lakes Flood control levees and dikes disconnect rivers and streams from their floodplains which affects not only the stream but also the floodplain habitat whether it is terrestrial or aquatic Pollution from farms cities and industries can affect primary productivity both up and down and kill or reduce the abundances of numerous aquatic species Wetland destruction from farming and municipal development eliminates all of the ecosystem services that these ecosystems provide We have lost more than half of the wetlands in the US since the Europeans arrived mostly to agricultural development The costs in terms of increased flooding reduced water quality and loss of aquatic and terrestrial wildlife are probably incalculable We know now how important these systems are to a healthy environment and we need aggressive programs to reestablish wetlands throughout the country Natural Resource Conservation Perpetual Resourcesunlimited availability Geothermal Wind Hydropowertidal PPN Solar Non Renewable Resourcesneed to be efficient and recycle 1 Oil 2 Coal 3 Minerals Renewable resources Soil Forestscut down How Rangelandgrassland Wetlandgroup of organisms that grow together Wildlifeall part of biodiversity of planet P F PS JE JE Fisheries exploit but maintain Health and productivity depend on 1 Conservationquotphilosophy of managing the environment in a way that does not despoil exhaust or extinguishquot 2 Land Use Planning ie building houses in forests prone to fires in California or building on coast on a beach fragmentation 3 Stewardship taking care of planet ie trees industries farm runoff wetlands land use mosaic Responsibilities of private land owners regarding public resources Compensation for maintaining public lands 4 Sustainability harvest the interest keep the principal make sure resources continue to be productive for as long as possible ie contour and strip farming Conservation Concepts History pragmatism scarcity idealismpreservation economics politics culture Gifford Pinchot Chief of US forest service 1905 1910 opposed to massive destruction of forests John Muir founded Sierra Club in 1892 David Brower helped found Sierra Club extremely fanatic radical founded Friends of the Earth kicked out for radicalness Teddy Roosevelt 230 million acres in federal system first president to be a conversationalist Aldo Leopold most famous naturalist developed quotland ethicquotrespect for nature a way to look at nature Hydrologic system Aquifers underground tanksstorage of water amt pulling out must amt being put in not the case pulling out too much Problems water logging salinization pollution Environmental Ethics a healthy environmental heritage is a primary responsibility Ecological Economics frontier ethics not viable sustainability social responsibility should be the focus Conservation Concepts Biodiversity which habitats do we protect Principles 0 No waste in nature 0 Recycle and reuse 0 Recycling limitation o Ecosystem relationships problems can affect multiple peopleareas quotmesocarnivore release 0 The Commons when you don t have property rights resources become degraded Resource Problemsquantity quality productivity Absolute resource scarcity no resources for current or near future needs finite relative resource scarcity have enough on planet but distribution is wrong ie food water Quality used but not returned as same quality ie runoffs sewage erosion Productivity conservation land use planning Population growth a billion new people every 10 11 yrs large family sizes infant mortality rates are going down and survival rates are increasingmore pop quotthe rate of growth is proportional to the state of growthquot World Conservation 0 Developed countries about 35 0 Developing countries about 152 0 Least developed countries about 49 countries classified by 0 Gross National Product GDP plus income from other countries 0 Human resource problems health edu 0 Economic vulnerability debt eco instability 0 Human Development Index income investment in edu And health 0 Overpopulation based resource degradation deforestation overgrazing erosion wildlife desalinization Desertification loss of productive ecosystems Overgrazing over cultivation over drafting of groundwater water impoundment deforestation desalinization global climate change Developed countries 0 Industrialized diverse economies based on secondary processing 0 Conservation funding 0 Consumption based resource degradation 0 Pollution 0 Habitat loss 0 Wildlife 12 bil 2007 2050 TFR 16 pop65 6 6 Infant deaths1000 pop 57 77 Life expectancy 66 0 underweight kidslt5 24 29680 Per capita GNI 5480 117 mt Per cap C02 emissions 21 mt 27 Densitykm2 65 Geographic Distribution 0 Infrastructure and food Urbanization o Consistent trend throughout history 0 Important change in human society 0 2ofpeople are farmers o In developing countries and LDC s urbanization is delayed but is still happening 0 Consequences energy enough habitat loss problems pollution water Population impacts on resource conservation 0 Age structure don t want fat bottomexpansive pyramids too many of pre reproductive females 0 Constrictive pyramids have a heavier middle and evened out top and bottom Demographic Transition As developing countries become more industrialized they undergo relatively rapid population change called demographic transition Declining death rates stable birth rates then birth rates decline often takes 100 years but can occur quickly if birth rates can be controlled 0 Reducing death rates is relatively easy but not everywhere AIDS birth rates are very difficult culture changes can be slow 0 Many countries caught in 2 quotdemographic trap 0 As HDI increases total fertility rate decreases Energy and Resource Conservation Increase In per capita energy consumption Hydro not perfect makes a river a lake How will we power the world Fission reactor fusion reactor needs more worktechnology 2nd law ofthermodynamics every time energy changes states you lose some energy usually in the form of heat Economics and Resource Conservation Ethics most ofthe world has a market economy what are the effects on resource conservation Environmental cost do we pay environmental cost Degradation pollution Sustainability of raw materials Think about consequences of production Social costs of development and loss Amazonian cultures cities in Yangtze river How do we value 0 Clean air and water 0 Functioning ecosystems 0 Fish and wildlife 0 Biodiversity Traditional economic analysis uses GNI GDP purchasevalue Beneficial economic gainsnegative economic output 0 Income distribution o Housework volunteering education 0 Crime o Pollution GDP GPI 0 Loss degradation of resources 0 Long term environ Damage o Commuting accidents If we can decide as a society where we should be then we know what is right and wrong Science vs society culture and tradition s conservation a virtue or simply good science Science conservation becomes a function of good research effective politics and power Virtue the argument shifts to ethics and social tradition US doesn t really have that Ecology Relationship of organisms and their environment Biotic environment living organisms that live on or in the fist A biotic environment trees rocks Populations individuals that exchange genetic material Habitat fxns Escape from weather Evading predatiors Attacking prey Habitat complexity can influence carrying capacity and biodiversity Ecosystems Communities in habitats in a similar environment Strong internal links Living and non living parts A stable and resilient system Flows of energy via food webs Cycling of nutrients Ecotone Transitional habitats between ecosystems Like a field next to a forest Has its own unique organisms Primary Production Life depends on autotrophic organism the most important of which are plants Photosynthesis C02H209CH2002 Net primary productionkcam2 yrproduction respiration Terrestrial o Rainfall 0 Temp latitude and elevation o Nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus 0 Arctic tundra grassland desert boreal forest rainforest Aquatic Primary Production 0 Temp nutrients and light Absorption Turbidityno plants will grow if light is needed biogenic and abiogentic Headwater stream estuary open ocean Macronutrients oxygen carbon nitrogen hydrogen phosphorus Micro zinc copper magnesium iron iodine OOOOOO essential plant nutrients nitrogen phosphorus potassium Nutrients in Ecosystems o nutrients are fixed some not in a useable form 0 Nitrogen N29NH3 NH4 done by bacteria nitrogen fixation nitrification o Nutrients change through biological geological and chemical processes biogeochemical cycles Ecological Principles for Living Organisms 0 Population growth with unlimited resources all populations grow exponentially o ntraspecificwithin a species cooperation with increase densities evolutionary fitness increases mates food defense 0 ntraspecific competition with increasing densities per capita resources decline 0 Interspecific interactions as populations grow effects of density dependant interactions increase 0 Predation 0 Plants are not passive organism 0 Secondary chemical production alkaloids phenols o Competition simultaneous demand for resources in limited supply interface competition exploitation competition allelopathic chemicals plants fight other plants 0 Parasitism disease detrimental organisms infesting or infecting a host species Ecosystem Structure 0 The trophic web is comprised ofa grazing web and a detritaldead organic material web 0 Trophic webs are inefficient 9 2nd law of thermodynamics 90 is lost per trophic level 0 Shorter food webs more energy available 0 Consequences for LDC s 0 Food quantity v food quality Essential amino acids 0 Very complex Beginning of Material Exam 3 Grasslands Rangelands Grasslands cover about 26 of the world39s land surface Grasslands are disturbanceclimax communities ecosystems with less water than forests so trees do not grow 10 of grasslands are classi ed as rangelands which are used to graze livestock 25 of rangeland is in developing countries can be cleared forest or abandon cropland 80 of the annual production of beef and mutton is on rangeland It is extremely important in grain poor nations where growing grasses to raise domestic animals increases their protein sources Map United States is 1030 grassland Asia up to 50 grassland From 19502001 World population 25 to 61 billion people Cattle 720 million to 153 billion Sheep 8L goats 104 to 175 billion Degraded rangeland 680 million ha worldwide and increasing ha hectare metric 1 ha 247 acres Map North Africa 70 degraded rangeland How can rangeland be managed sustainably Problems include Population pressure Climate change Invasive species many are unpalatable and or poisonous 10 billion domesticated animals worldwide 30 are ruminants Ruminant are animals with multiple chambered stomachs such as cattle sheep deer giraffe camel and buffalo 3A of the world domesticated ruminants feed on rangelands the rest are fed on feedlots 200 million people graze livestock on rangelands 85 in Asia and Africa The United States has gt5 of the world39s population 9 of the world39s cattle and livestock graze gt33 ofthe United States More than 12 of the Unites States croplands are planted to grow livestock feed with the main focus on cattle Side note livestock production uses 50 of the aImual water consumption in the United States 1 pound of feedlot fattened beef 5 lb of grain 280 gallons of water 1000 lb cow 280000 gallons ofwater Rangeland is Minimal use land without irrigation it39s a dry ecosystem with rich soil Renewable resource that provides many materials meat hides milk Vegetation collectively known as FORAGE Rangeland vegetation is dominated by Forbs broadleaved owering plants sun ower goldenrod ax Sedges perennial herb with triangular stems slough sedge sedges have edgesquot Rushes round hollow stems path rushes Grasses annual and perennial switch grass big bluestem the most important forage type on rangelands Characteristics of rangeland vegetation Most grasses are perennial forbs often annual or biennial All have brous root systems due to dry periods in the ecosystem Fibrous root system is the reason the metal plow had to be developed to turn rangeland into cropland Highly tolerant of low moisture conditions plants will become dormant till adequate water is available Highly tolerant of re Biggest Problem in management of a rangeland is GRAZING PRESSURE both under grazing and over grazing Grasses grow from the base of the plant The lower part of the plant is known as the METABOLIC RESERVE needed for nourishment of extensive root system chronic loss of the metabolic reserve from overgrazing can destroy rangeland sustainability allowing erosion from wind and water Rangeland Forage A functional grouping Decreasers highly palatable high water content and taste good plants decline in abundance with grazing pressure Cows seek out and eat these plants so they are quickly removed from the rangeland Examples big bluestem Canada wild rye side oats gramma buffalograsss Increasers these plants become more abundant as decreasers are removed Increaser I moderately palatable a secondary forage slight increase or stable levels under moderate grazing at higher grazing levels they also decline Increaser 11 increase in abundance as range declines generally unpalatable Examples of Increasers needle and thistle western wheatgrass Russian thistle Invaders these plants are nonpalatable animals will graze as a last resort Examples prickly pear Canada thistle chess knapweed leafy spurge poisonous Invader I grazed as a last resort Invader II unpalatable Invaders are abundant on overgrazed or undergrazed range Grazing is part of the rangeland ecosystem Note Known terms for classes but not the plant names Rangeland sustainability is a function of grazing pressure which is the grazing and trampling activities made up of 1 Type of animals cattle sheep insects gopher or hares 2 Number of animals 3 Grazing time Many grazer are defoliators they remove the entire plant or all the branches in trees and brushes Populations are regulated by predation parasitism starvation over grazing All these factors are density dependent factors Population movement selective herbivory and predation are the keys historically to rangeland health Native populations migrated across large areas feeding as they moved This movement of animals and selective grazing of certain plants by certain animals kept the rangeland from being overgrazed Land use changes are important today there is less grassland that is not fragmented by urbanization Disturbance Disturbance is integral to grassland ecosystems drought and re maintain vegetation diversity Today due to suppression of re and build up of litter res burn hotter and kill the root systems killing the plant However anthropogenic disturbance natural disturbance may degrade rangeland these manmade disturbances include Hunting Development roads and towns Agriculture prairie converted to cropland Exotic species example cheatgrass poor forage susceptible to re Overgrazing or Undergrazing There is a need to develop a sustainable grazing strategy Each grassland has a carrying capacity the maximum amount of grazing that won39t degrade the range Carrying capacity varies with season range condition climate past grazing soil type type of grazers and grazing duration For large herbivores grazing is quantifies as an animal unit month AUM stocking rate can be expressed as acreAUM 10 AUM the food for a cowcalfunit for one month which is 1000 lb dry matter per month this level is used to de ne AUM so horse 12 sheep 02 elk 05 deer 02 Carry capacity is closely tied to rangeland conditions Range condition Factor excellent good fair poor


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