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by: Porter Kirlin


Porter Kirlin
GPA 3.86

C. Spring

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C. Spring
Class Notes
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This 246 page Class Notes was uploaded by Porter Kirlin on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CM 3303 at Louisiana State University taught by C. Spring in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see /class/222675/cm-3303-louisiana-state-university in Construction Management at Louisiana State University.

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Date Created: 10/13/15
WATER SUPPLY for FIRE PROTECTION amp HVAC vr WATER for FIRE PROTECTION CLASSIFICATION of FIRE HAZARDS Four Categories Classes of Fire Hazards Class A solid combustibles which are best extinguished by water or dry chemicals Class 3 liquid combustibles which are best extinguished by foam carbon dioxide or dry chemicals Class C involve live electrical equipment amp must be extinguished by a nonconductive agent such as carbon dioxide or dry chemicals Class D fires that involve combustible metals such as magnesium ortitanium and must be extinguished by special dry chemicals CLASSIFICATION of OCCUPANCY HAZARDS Three Categories of Hazard Occupancies Light hazard occupancies where the quantity and combustibility of contents are low Low rate of development low rate of heat release Ordinary Hazard Group 1 occupancies consisting of materials low in combustibles and stockpiles of combustibles not exceeding 8 high Group 2 occupancies where quantity and combustibility of materials are moderate to high Stockpiles not over 12 high Extra Hazard occupancies where the quantity and combustibility of materials are very high Group 1 include occupancies having hydraulic systems w flammable or combustible hydraulic fluids under pressure Properties w process equipment that use flammable or combustible liquids in closed systems and those with dust amp lint in suspension Group 2 occupancies that contain larger amounts of flammable or combustible liquids than Group 1 METHODS FOR FIRE DETECTION Two Types of Fire Detection Systems for ResidentialCommercial 1 Smoke Detectors there are two types of smoke detectors ionization and photoelectric The ionization smoke detector works on the principle of changing the conductivity of air When smoke enters the detector it causes a reduction in the current flow which triggers the alarm This type of detector is very sensitive amp can detect the beginning of a fire A photoelectric smoke detector works on the scattering of light When smoke is present it scatters the light that is emitted by a LED This is picked up by a photocell and an alarm is triggered This type of detector works when more smoke is present visible to the naked eye SMOKE DETECTORS lonlnllnn mm Ammlum Snum Ionilation Smoke Detector METHODS FOR FIRE DETECTION cont 2 Heat Detectors there are two types of heat detectors fixed temperature and rate of rise Fixed temperature heat detectors may be self restoring bi metal strips that open and close electrical contacts or non restoring fusible links that melt and closes electrical contacts Rateof rise heat detectors activate when the temperature rises faster than a predetermined rate FLAME DETECTORS Flame Detectors are used to detect the direct radiation of a fire and are used mainly with industrial process equipment and combustion equipment There are two types infrared IR and ultraviolet UV Infrared is present in most flames and IR cuts through smoke but there are several other sources of IR that gives frequent false alarms Ultraviolet flame detectors detect the UV radiation produced by fire There are few other sources of UV which gives fewer false alarms Dual spectrum flame detectors have UV sensors and narrowband IR sensors which gives better reliability METHODS OF FIRE CONTROL Controlling oxygen fuel or heat will control fire Since water is plentiful inexpensive lowers heat and deprives the fire of oxygen it is used extensively Water supply for fire suppression can be manual or automatic Automatic Sprinkler Systems consist of a network of pipes that connect sprinkler heads to a source of water This system reacts to the heat of a fire FOUR TYPES OF AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEMS Wet Pipe is the most common t pe of sprinkler system The piping is kept continuously ull of water The sprink er eads open when fire is detected This system is simple reliable and relatively inexpensive It is not suitable for freezing conditions Dry Pipe systems have the pipes full of pressurized air or nitrogen There is a quotdr pipe valve that controls water entering the system W en a sprinkler head activates it releases the pressure in the piping which causes the valve to open and water to enter the system and flow out of the open sprinkler heads This system can be used in freezing conditions Response time ma be greater After a ire the pipes have to be draine and dried to prevent corrosion SPRINKLER HEAD quotCENTRALquot quotGBquot PENDENT 3 SHOWN DRY PIPE SPRINKLER SYSTEM FOUR TYPES or AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEMS cont Preaction systems are similar to dry systems in that the pipes are dry and there is a water control valve A detection device activates the control valve and the pipes are filled w water Each individual sprinkler head must then have to detect a fire and open Coverage is controlled by the sprinkler heads There is less chance of accidental sprinkler activation Deluge systems have sprinkler heads that stay open A control valve opens when fire is detected and water is sent through all the connected piping and out all the sprinkler heads This provides for fast and complete coverage of high risk fire areas STANDPIPE SYSTEMS Standpipe systems are required in high rise buildings to provide fire protection to the upper floors The system consists of piping valves hose racks hose connections pumps and auxiliary equipment to spray water There are three classifications for standpipe systems Class I have 2 V2 hose outlets at each floor for the use of firefighters Minimum water supply is 500 GPM for the 1st standpipe amp 250 GPM for each additional standpipe Class II has 1 V2 hose stations w racks designed to be used by the building occupants until firefighters arrive Minimum water supply is 100 GPM 100 hoses can reach all areas Class III has both 2 V2 hose outlets and 2 V2 hose stations FIRE HOSE CONNECTION STANDPIPE CLASS I OR II STANDPIPE SYSTEMS Fire department pumper connections Siamese Connections are required at ground floor They have two 2 V2 outlets supplied by a 4 pipe Maximum height for a standpipe system is 275 taller buildings need additional standpipe systems for each 275 in height Minimum residual pressure required is 65psi when the system is operating Water supply amp pressure can be from city main gravity tank or pressure tank Must have enough for 30 minutes of demand Wet or dry standpipe systems can be used STANDPIPE CONNECTION DESIGN OF AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEMS Piping Design the Hydraulic Method for pipe design takes into account the frictional resistance of the pipe flow rate frictional loss coefficient of piping material internal diameter of the pipe flow rate of sprinkler opening and the residual pressure of the water supply A simple method for smaller systems uses a piping schedule This schedule gives the sizes of branch pipes and risers w mandated residual pressures and flow rates DESIGN OF AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEMS Sprinklers on a branch line eight sprinklers are allowed on a branch line on either side of a main line for a light or ordinary hazard condition Only six on each side are allowed w an extra hazard condition Protection area maximum floor area is 52000 sf for a single sprinkler system under light or ordinary hazards and 25000 sf for extra hazard conditions if the system is designed using the piping schedule system amp 40000 sf if it is designed using the hydraulic method The actual of sprinkler heads is determined by the hazard classification Table 261 and their spacing by Table 262 PIPING DESIGN USING THE PIPING SCHEDULE METHOD Am m gg ummm 5 a Gnu mu man mm mm H 1 52mm an 1 cl Mn 1 1m mamummwupzaeaug r IIImrmzyz IABIE 252 Maxlmu m Spatan Between Sprlnklars and Cuvaragu pa Sprinkler Consumpter Typa Classificau39an of Hazar gm Giaw am Unuhmuazn Scan 1m 5 5 12 an 1 emf gasquot 13 9351 w mummen Swarm m 5 15 12 noncombusums Ares I51 1 2007225 13D sun 1 qr msmmem 323an m J 15 15 12 carnnuszme 2 sq I 1334254 an ar Kitquot M m 4 m m 21 m a mrm an army WATER DEMAND FOR FIRE PROTECTION Water demand for the sprinkler system is based on quotarea of sprinkler operation which is a small part of the total sprinkled area The size of this area varies from 1500sf for light hazard to 5000sf for extra hazard conditions A minimum quotdensityquot of water flow also has to be maintained Figure 266 shows areadensity curves The minimum water requirements are based on this quotarea of sprinkler operation and therefore total water demand is based on this requirement plus demand from hosesstandpipes Water requirements by hoses and duration of supply is shown in Table 263 Standpipe sizes is shown in Table 264 WATER DEMAND FOR FIRE PROTECTION Am of sprinkler Dpeml ian sq ft Density gpmlsq 11 FIGURE 255 AreaDensity Curves WATER DEMAND FOR FIRE PROTECTION TABLE 253 Water Requirements by Hose Pipes and Duration nf Supply Hazard Type Inside Hose Inside Outside Duration gpmJ Hose 9pm minutes Light 0 50 or 100 100 30 Ordinary 0 50 or 100 250 80 90 Extra 0 50 UP 100 500 90 120 TABLE 254 Supply Pipe Sizes for Standpipe Connections Total Accumulated Flaw in 8PM Over 1250 Total Distance of Piping from Furthest Outlet Less Than 50 Feet 50 100 Feet Over 100 Feet 2quot 39 212quot 3 4 If 8 5 51 8 B B 6 8 8n 8 WATER DEMAND FOR FIRE PROTECTION The total demand for combined sprinkler and standpipe systems is calculated by TWD ASOP x D OVF HSD Where TWD total water demand in gpm ASOP area of sprinkler operation in sqft D density of water flow in gpmsqft OVF overage factor usually 11 HSD hose stream demand in gpm OTHER METHODS OF FIRE SUPPRESION Carbon Dioxide is colorless amp odorless and leaves no residue t displaces the oxygen and cools the fuel CO2 works best in confined spaces esp those wo people Dry Chemicals industrial applications are best suited for dry chemicals The dry chemicals cover the fuel and prevent oxygen from entering Most ofthese chemicals contain bicarbonates chlorides and phosphates OTHER METHODS OF FIRE SUPPRESION Foam Systems millions of gasfilled bubbles produced by foaming detergents w water This blanket of foam is light weight and will float on liquids effectively removing the oxygen Vaporization of the water also cools the fuel Halogenated Agents gases that contain halogen atoms bromine chlorine fluorine or iodine The most common being Halon 1301 These gases inhibit the chemical reaction between fuel amp oxygen They also deplete ozone and have been banned in most cases Newer agents have been developed but are largely unproven WATER FOR HVAC Water as a Medium for HeatingCooling water is chemically stable nontoxic and inexpensive It can also absorb large amounts of heat It takes 5833 cubic feet of air to carry 100 BTU10F but only 0016 cubic feet of water to carry 100 BTU10F This makes water piping for heatingcooling much smaller than the equivalent ductwork for air Hot or cold water run through coils is very effective amp efficient WATER FOR HVAC Water Demand for Heating amp Cooling the amount of water needed for heatingcooling of a building is the function ofthe peak load of a building and the required rise or drop in water temperature for the process Flow is usually in GPM One gallon of water weights 833 pounds x lGPM or 60 GPH 500 poundshr This can be used to calculate the water demand for heatingcooling of a building Estimated Water Demand for Heating amp Cooling Where FL flow rate of water in gpm Q heat required to be added or removed in BTUH t1 t2 difference between supply and return water temperatures For heating a 20 F drop between supply amp return is an industry standard Therefore 1gpm x 500 x 20 F 10000 BTUH PIPING Materials for HVAC piping include schedule 40 steel copper K L M and schedule 80 CPVC Pipe size is based on velocity or head loss both are about equal A friction loss of 25 feet per 100 of pipe is used for design Water velocities are recommended to be 3 5 feet per second Once the flow rate or demand for water has been determined Figure 267 or Figure 268 can be used to determine the size of HVAC piping HVAC piping has to be insulated to slow heat transfer and to prevent condensation on chill water piping HVAC PIPE SIZING g8 u uunug Head loss in feet100 feet 01 05 l 1 3455 N300 no mu 400 II 1mm Flnwmteingpm HEIJRE 2B1 Sizing Chart for Copper Pipes HVAC PIPE SIZING 5 8 u uuau5 Headless in feet100 feet a La 05 l 2 3456510 29304060100 no 400 III 2000 AND mme 100000 Flawmxeingpm FIGURE 268 Sizing Chart for Steel Pipes HVAC WATER QUALITY Boiler Water scaleforming minerals such as calcium and magnesium cause deposits in boilers Makeup water needs to be treated to remove these minerals Oxygen will accelerate corrosion in boilers and deaeration is used to remove the majority of free oxygen The remainder can be removed by using sulfites that readily combine w oxygen pHvalue should be controlled between 8 and 85 to protect steel boilers and piping from corrosion If a build up of solids occurs the boiler water should be replaced HVAC WATER QUALITY Chiller and Cooling Tower Water minerals should be removed as well as microorganisms that can grow and clog the chiller tubes Chlorine or ozone can be used to prevent the growth Chiller loops are closed and need treating when new make up water is added Cooling towers have open loops that will collect dust and air borne debris These impurities can be removed by filtering Microorganisms will also grow in cooling tower water it is typically warm They can be controlled w chlorine or ozone treatment If solids build up some of the water usually from the bottom will have to be replaced w treated water BUILDING PLUMBING J x quotv inn u I l r 1 9 WATER DEMAND Quantities of Potable Water Required Average Daily Demand Table 241 Peak Demand maximum momentary demandmaxmo Determined by calculating Total Water DemandChap25 Hot Water Demand 20gppd for 2 people 15gppdadd l person Average hourly hot water is 21 galsperson Average Daily Demand Avrilnan Daily Water Drnglnd Type a Faclllzy Cnunu y club pur hum 65mm mambar mummy Gnurh m nah kah Individual mm mm par pcl39snn om nus HnanHnuhuu vs per hasn er on par shim L name Par p mnn n 9 nemlcs we usean Livestock lvur armnan mum dnnk K Dc 1 m u and Samar ma 3m mumm HDH unnunal Mdua banks nu awm Du m um ban15 mum r nr bur rmum nuwm39 rpm umsun Husmuruntu war mum lacinn nx par pawn nmumm WIUKIUK mnec mamas mu vuu m RummyID mu xius and norm In nun aualnunal quanuw pnl nnu nn Schoolz Beard n ma muriar d Day w ubivmv in aymnnshlms arm shown per smaanu I my Wm cnllaisrha nu nu gymnan rnn or uhawul pzr39 amdant uulul u a pymnanh na ul mum4m um Lu lan Thurman mu u lpEr Semi mem my par parsnn pru Hhv tl Waser Demand In galans par WATER HEATERS Water heaters may be fueled by natural gas fuel oil electricity or solar Electric water heaters may use resistance or heat pump w the heat pump type being more energy efficient but higher in price Water heaters may be storage type or instantaneous Storage types have a heat source and insulated storage tank Instantaneous have a heat source built into a heat exchanger and provide continuous hot water Water heaters are rated by their tank capacity gallons and recovery rate gallonshour Water heaters use about 1525 of household energy WATER HEATERS STORAGE TYPE WATER HEATER INSTANTANEOUS WATE R HEATER TANKLESS Swvage Wmev Heme Her Wm nude Fresmve mmm mmsz V21 plpt 7 aldwuerlnm 4m mm m gummy me baffle Mm m mmm human 7 nMdngaluA 7m bumav man m opemngs HOT WATER CALCULATIONS Annual fuel usage F QVn F annual quantity of fuel used 2 annual quantity of heat required in BTU s V heat content of fuel and n efficiency of the water heater Heat required per year Q G 833TD QBTU per year 6 gallons of hot water per year 833 is the weight of 1 gal of water and TD the temperature difference between cold water supply amp hot water produced Fuel required per year E QFe E quantity of fuel F fuel heat content in BTU and e heater efficiency Natural gas is typically the fuel of choice because of its heat content in BTU s cost and availability WATER HEATER INFO TABLE 243 Sizing of Domestic Water Heater Tank Hot Water Load Number Size of household Bathtubs or showers Washing machines Automatic dishwashers indicate total number persons in the family Indicate total number of xtures Indicate total number of fixtures Indicate total number of xtures Total load Sum of the above numbers Total Load Capacity of Gas Water Total Load Capacity of Electric Heater Tank in gallons Water Heater Tank in gallons 3 or less 30 4 or less 40 4 or 5 4O 5 to 7 50 B 50 B or more 80 7 or more 60 WATER HEATER INFO cont TABLE 242 TllBlE 244 Residential Hot Water Fuel Heat Content Consumption Fuel Ul39llli Heat Content Usage Consumption in gppd in BTU Bath 25 Goal Pound 14000 Shower 5 minutes 6 Electricity kWh 3400 Wash using lavatory 3 Baseline Gallon 125000 Dishwasher 1039 Natural gas MCF 1000 cu ft 1000000 Clothes washer 35 Oil 2 Gallon 140000 Kitchen sink 8 Propane Gallon 95500 WATER DISTRIBUTION Municipal Street Mains are supplied by the water companies and flow w a pressure of50 70 psi The supply pressure must be enough to overcome frictional resistance of piping and the static head of the water Static Pressure is the pressure exerted by standing water in vertical piping The pressure from municipal water mains is typically enough to supply lowrise buildings 0433 psi will support 100 vertical foot of water 50 psi 0433 1154 of building plumbing height Upfeed Distribution occurs when the pressure from the municipal water supply is used to feed the fixtures As buildings become larger and taller additional pressure must be supplied by pumps and or hydropneumatic tanks Downfeed Distribution systems are used for buildings six stories and taller Tanks are mounted on the roof or about every 67 stories Water is pumped into these tanks and gravity is then used to distribute the water to the floors below Minimum pressure is usually 25 psi and maximum pressure recommended is 50 psi CrossConnection and Backflow Backflow can be a problem because it may introduce pollutants into the water system It is important that water always flows from the source to fixtures sinks and any nonpotable water or other substances Plumbing codes require that crossconnection control devices be installed These backflow preventers can be 1 air gaps 2 atmospheric vacuum breakers 3 pressure vacuum breakers or 4 double check valves WATER DISTRIBUTION Catchment mime W V 39 cmsquer WI I a awm La aw waterqywnw I I qu likequot M D masoucmn Pmducbmn m rmssx n mm 3 552256quot F W AL A Q Zonemew D Fr Trunkmams39 amp I I39m aw gt 7p t WI macar Damesm Kquot mums Dm a n a g 33 Imch k Dimmer where are II SUPPLY PIPING MATERIALS Supply piping may be one of several materials depending on need price and code The three most common materials are copper steel and plastic Steel and Galvanized Steel because of rusting galvanized steel is usually used It comes in sizes ranging from 18 to 12 and several wall thicknesses or quotschedulesquot Schedule 40 is most common with schedule 80 being used for higher pressures Smaller pipes up to 4 are typically threaded and larger pipe typically is welded or uses bolted flanges Because of problems w scaling high friction losses corrosion and cost of installation steel is seldom used in new building construction Copper is resistant to chemical attack handles high pressure and is fairly easy to work with It is also expensive amp usually requires soldering Copper is available in four types K L M ampDWV Types K amp L are available as rigid or soft type M only as rigid type DWV is used only for drainage Plastic is available in several kinds but only four are frequently used for plumbing 1 ABS acrylonitrile butadiene styrene 2 PVC polyvinyl chloride 3 CPVC chlorinated polyvinyl chloride and 4 PE polyethylene ABS is used for drainageDWV PVC is used for cold water supply CPVC is used for hot amp cold water supply and PE is used for cold water mains SUPPLY PIPING MATERIALS TABLE 245 Comparison of Different Pipe Materials for Water Supply Material Major Advantages Major Disadvantages Copper Long lasting Easy to put together and dismantle Resists attacks by most acids Thinwalled Lightweight Low frictional resistance Vary expensive Requires soldering Galvanized steel Strong Relatively inexpensive Resistant to rough handling High pressure rating Heavy Susceptible to corrosion High frictional resistance Plastic Inexpensive Lightweight Easy to install Very low frictional resistance Corrosion resistant High thermal expansion Low strength Brittle when cold Easily scratched PLASTIC PIPING Plastic piping is lightweight inexpensive resistant to corrosion chemical attack and weathering and has low frictional resistance The negative qualities are low resistance to heat high coefficient of expansion low resistance to crushing and lower burst strength than metal Plastic pipe can be joined by glue compression fittings heat fusion or threads WATER SUPPLY ACCESSORIES AND CONTROLS Valves used on piping systems to control flow of liquids Water Hammer Arrestor controls movement due to the force of water flow interruption Insulation of Pipes cold water pipes should be insulated to prevent condensation and hot water pipes should be insulated to prevent heat loss Pipe Expansion temperature changes can result in the expansioncontraction of piping which can cause buckling or breakage Pipe Support piping and water are heavy and will deflect if not properly supported E NUS HLJL ES ON 1 FCC 3 C lAFHV r y gm 1 41quot GATE VALVE open or closed mainly for shutoff flow GLOBE VALVE used to regulate WATER SUPPLY VALVES WATER SUPPLY VALVES CHECK VALVE Prevents baCk BALL VALVE free flow smaller w than 3quot in size 08 H 06 3939 m 10 L V 9 N II If I m m II VIJVIIIII N I c w quot 1 4Lquot ll 1117 IA W7 WATER SUPPLY VALVES BU39I39I39ERFLY VALVE used for PISTON CHECK VALVE a control an pipes larger than 3quot controllable lift check valve gizggm WATER SUPPLY ACCESSORIES WATER HAMMER ARRESTORS EXPANSION COMPENSATORS THAVELING NIPPLE 1 NIFFLE Eunnun 533 EELLHWF INCLUDE ANTI39TDROUE DEVICE WATER SUPPLY ACCESSORIES PIPE SUPPORT hangers amp brackets spaced pipe PIPE RACK support of closely chm iuppa ior unicnl pipe Floor mm venical pin Hanna mmi Fedoraled band Hunger lam 1139 39lSz39I39W FWI llivll lII39I 12 1c R u PLUMBING FIXTURES Minimum Requirements plumbing codes give minimum numbers of fixtures and minimum quality standards General Fixture Characteristics fixtures are made from enameled cast iron stainless steel fiberglass reinforced plastic amp vitreous china and are installed using various control valuse Air Gap an unobstructed vertical separation between the water supply outlet and the flood level rim of the fixture 1 3 Vacuum Breaker used w fixtures that do not have an air gap dishwasher to prevent the possibility of backflow Supply Fixture UnitsSFU is the demand for water of a particular plumbing fixture Chap 25 VACUUM BREAKERS ATMOSPHERIC works by gravity PRESSURE VACUUM BREAKER uses to prOVIde an aIr gap pressure spring to open an air gap Almospheric Vacuum Breaker SIZING OF SUPPLY PIPES Total Water Demand the maximum momentary amount of water that a supply main should carry GPM This quantity is based on the total fixture units of the building and the demand curves that estimate the maxmo for these fixtures Water Pressure sufficient water pressure must be maintained to all fixtures for them to properly function Pressure Components for Water Supply Water pressure in municipal supply mainsPSM Pressure required for fixturePF Pressure lost due to height PHT Pressure loss from meter PM Pressure required for friction loss in piping PFLH Sizing of Building Supply Main is determined by total water demand GPM and the friction loss in head per 100 feet of pipe from the flow graphs in Chap 25 Water Velocity water velocity should not exceed 10 feet per second in order to minimize noise BUILDING DRAINAGE The drainage system safely removes wastes for treatment and keeps sewer gases from entering the building Basic Elements of Drainage System drainage waste amp venting DWV Drainage Pipes receive all the water and waste soilpipes carry solids amp waste pipes carry waste water Vertical pipes are called stacks soil or waste Traps provide water barriers at all fixtures to keep sewer gases from entering the building Vents provide for circulation of air w the drainage system They equalize pressure and allow sewer gases to escape to the outside BUILDING DRAINAGE TRAPS provide water barriers VENTS provide air circulation 4THmonL Trap terminology I H1 in Emma BATHROOM quot I39 eumrs wk 1 litr lfFiL z m inlel Di W1quot aim omlet Wm H BATH zust 1 E D S E E i i l b3 v 1rrnp 7 i 39L 3 a adapter w 5mm quot J Tom umrs ID I TOTAL LENGTH 25 FT SINK r Size RECOMMENDED 2 1UNIT395 i i a quotquot 7 It 1 mp arm 23 KB E i I mp gt m Maura drama 9 I w 3 Imp Wil ilv JI quot i v crown wen J trap seal depth musi be E 1 Ems 1H 10 3 4 To rib fn sJo and MI more man 4 1 Egr eiue m 3e FT PM oncoming lo some I 51239 iz cammen can 339 Mm de ne aulimyizias 1 ggfgggnvlg K I T quot OF HOUSE DRE 7 3 2 cleanom 5239 iuwor I M arms 3 secluon j a 2 5 7 II II T I HOUSE DRAM RECEIVES DISCHARGE OF wc Nus r BE aquot m DIA VARIOUS VENTS A vertical pipe installed to provide circulation of air to and from the drainage system is called a vent stack Stack vents are soil or waste stacks that extend above the highest horizontal drain for a group of fixtures A circuit vent serves more than two traps and extends from the front of the last fixture connection of a horizontal branch to the vent stack A loop vent loops back and connects to a stack vent not a vent stack BUILDING DRAINAGE cont Piping and Fitting Materials are cast iron copper plastic ABS ampPVC DWV or galvanized steel Change of Direction are always made w bends to avoid clogging 45 angles amp Y s Cleanouts provide for removal of obstructions and are placed at the outside wall where the building drain connects to the house drain at the base of all soil amp waste stacks at the upper terminal of all horizontal branch drains every 50 on horizontal piping 4 or less every 100 on horizontal piping greater than 4 and at all changes in direction that are greater than 45 Other Accessories include Floor Drains that receive water from floor surfaces have traps and strainers Backwater Valve check valve to prevent the backflow of sewage to basement levels Interceptor fixtures designed to trap hair grease plaster or etc DRAIN PIPE MATERIALS TABLE 245 Comparison of Different Pipe Materials for Drainage Material Major Advantages Major Disadvantages Cast iron I Long lasting Heavy Corrosion resistant I Plough inner surface Suitable for both aboveground 39 and underground applications Copper Long lasting Very expensive Resists attack by most acids Thin Walled Lightweight Low frictional resistance Easy to put together and dismantle Time consuming to install Does not work very well in underground service because of high conductivity of the material only K or L type is allowed for underground use Galvanized steel Strong Relativer inexpensive Resistant to rough handling Heavy Susceptible to corrosion Susceptible to clogging Not allowed for underground use Plastic ABS and PVC inexpensive Lightweight Easy to install Very low frictional resistance Corrosion resistant Suitable for both above and below ground applications High thermal expansion Low strength Brittle when cold Easily scratched Not allowed to be used in buildings having more than three floors above grade ABS pibes become brittle over time when exposed to sunlight SIZING OF DRAINAGE PIPES Drainage pipes are sized using an index called Drainage Fixture UnitDFU it is a measure of the probable discharge into the drainage system by various types of plumbing fixtures One DFU 7 V2 gallons of waste DFU values are given in Chap 25 Slope of Horizontal Drains waste moves by gravity which factors into certain minimum slopes shown in Chap25 Sizing of Vent Pipes are also sized using DFU s Single Pipe Drainage System consists only of drainpipes Specially engineered system used for high rise buildings that uses aerators and de aerators to produce a foamy effluent wlow pressure WATER CONSERVATION Reducing consumption to lower or prevent the loss in ground water National Water Conservation Standards Showerheads 25 gallonsminute Toilets 16 gallonsflush Faucets 25 gallonsminute Urinals 10 gallonflush Washing machines front loading machines use 33 less water Imgt rOmm m 59 092 in g Dd Emma grain 25 53 4 J mans g YN7 A a 4 M 4 w W I 4 3 92 w Heat flows from high temperature to low temperature There are 3 typesmethods of heat flowtransfer 1 Conduction through solids 2 Convection through liquids amp through convection currents in air 3 Radiation through space w or wo air Heat flow is measured in BTU s amt of heat needed to create a 1 F change in 1 pound of water Flow is usually in BTUhr or BTUH H EAT FLOW Insulation slows heat flow from conduction convection ampor radiation MOSt insulation USES Mamialtparinch lKVaIuo Miaqu tr poped air to 227 if nnnwnue MW w7 m cond uction amp QEiESEIZ fif convection foam lm 31quot 32 fiberglass dual pane lmm39IEme 7 i l glass Radiation 532321 1132 3 i bar ersare 39mmwwm amp9 am reflective and must 33232 face an air space to seramm 125 J Marble 11 009 function Resistance to heat flow is R Higher is better R values can be for a specific thickness or expressed in Rinch We usually look at assemblies of materials construction for walls ceilings roofs floors or etc This requires us to add the R values of all the materials in the assembly plus allowances for air films on the inside and outside surfaces CONDUCTANCE or U We typically look at the reciprocal value of this summation of R s 1R This is the opposite of resistance which is conductance or U It is measured by UBTUH 15F 1 F TYPICAL quotUquot VALUES Apprmmat 39u valuzs w1m1K l Brink will 350mm smndbricszll um 2 um mu 1972 man was 990 u vain 1n u v21 Loo u val 930 1 3mm mm mm 1 mm amg Dunk 53mm mes uwfy 50mm clear may wumm ivghmeighl mm 125mm hgh39wnvgm black any plaslev msh my D aslar rmn any plasmi39 nish u Vals Mawmm apprux Clear avm 103mm facmg mm mm hung hm 03mm mm bnc 15 render 5 39mr tawny 75mm carW was so 5 mm cam m 2I5mm aerated mack 1 Hmm 5mm mam quot5mm ae39aiid mm 50391quot ram mama 39mm meme mam 40 m hemnl beam my piasie39 mm 125 mm aerated mack any plasler 1mm Resistance Calculation Example The first example in your textbook is for a concrete wall w brick veneer Notice that the wood furring is not used in the calculations because it is not continuous We look at the continuous layers of materials In this case the outside air film 02 4 brick 04 air space w foil 30 2 polyurethane 120 5 concrete 05 air space wo foil 10 V2 gyp bd 05 and the inside air film 07 for a total R of 183 The internal temperature of the wall assembly can be determined at each layer of material by using the R values of the different layers in comparison to the total R value of the assembly times the Temperature Differential TD between the inside and the outside Why do we care about the temperature of any of these layers Two reasons 1 Comfort of people low surface temperatures will increase the loss of body heat by radiation you feel cold 2 For many structures ifthere is humid air passing through the assembly there can be condensation inside the assembly causing problems w mold mildew amp deterioration ofthe materials such as rottingrusting framing HEAT FLOW Infiltration amp Ventilation We need quotfreshquot air to flow into buildings in order to maintain a healthy environment This air can come from infiltration air that leaks into buildings through cracks and openings in the exterior shell or from ventilation air purposely brought into the building using fans We usually allow 15 cubic feet per minute CFM per person We also consider the number of air changes per hour Both the recommended CFMperson and the air changeshour can vary w conditions There are tables and charts that give these recommendations or averages 152 Infiltration is typically calculated by CA Volume ACH 60 mins Where 0A is the outdoor air in CFM Volume is the CF of the building s interior ACH is the rate of air change per hour and 60 minutes gives you the air flow in minutesCFM Ventilation Ventilation is typically calculated using the recommended cfmperson times the number of occupants In order to minimize the cost of heating and cooling 1 Use outdoor air when it can warm in winter or cool in summer the inside 2 Keep out outdoor air when it will impose additional heating or cooling loads 3 When ventilation is needed reduce energy loss by using a heat exchanger to temper the incoming air warm it or cool it as appropriate Estimating Building Heat Losses Use the largest or highest heat loss Calculate heat loss for 1 Conduction through walls roof ceilings floor amp etc Q U x A x TD 2 Infiltration of cold outside air Q CFM x 108 x TD Conduction Q U x A x TD Q quant Of heat flow in BTUH U conductance in BTUH per sf per F ofthe assembly A area ofthe assembly in sf TD Temperature Difference in F between indoor amp outdoor You will need to calculate Q for each assembly wall roof floor etc and total all the Q s Infiltration outside air Q CFM x 108 x TD Q quant of heat flow in BTUH 108 is a constant the of BTUH needed to increase the temperature of 1 CFM of air 1 F TD the temperature difference in F between indoor and outdoor air INFO 8 CALC S REQUIRED For most assemblies you will need to calculate U by adding the R values of the components of the assembly 1Total RU Will need to calculate the SF of the assembly may need to deduct doors windows amp etc Will need to know the outside temperature amp usually assume an indoor temperature of 70 F Will also need the ventilation rate if there is one and use the higher of infiltration or ventilation CFM INFO amp CALC S REQUIRED cont You will also need to consider Ducts outside the insulated space attic Basement walls amp floors Unheated spaces adjacent to heated space garage or storage Slab edge if it is exposed on the outside Use the form shown on p 206 for calculating Building Heat Loss or Gain What you will need to know for winter heat loss 1 The winter design temperature Fig 158 2 Infiltration amp ventilation rates pick the highest CFM usually infiltration 3 U values for various assemblies glass windows roof walls floor slab edge doors amp etc 4 SF of each of these assemblies 5 Add 10 if ductwork is in noninsulated space ON THE FORM Fill in factors and quantities calculate each BTUH loss and total all the losses to get the Total BTUH Loss Office Building 3A 600 our area gait 3 quotc7 quot a yr 5 lonahnn 6JA 1 auummsa by mm r g lt gamma 152 bewa but Agarquot musW um I munsour based on all mama n 1 go titular aummsr 2 Vanllmmn basad on cr M my 1 cans cmm mu u Ibslsq ovals 39 we M Iquot M um I ummsrgaraage L a m a nu Apn lmms a w 5F 5cz nun tank so Lighllrlg Pncplo mus n Cl hagHon 9 50 sqn multsam 2 yea I um um wens D Baosqn 7 gazuxaaTD an u ETD r 7 7 7 Floor ham 5 y mum am mum orI gm Sunlnlls 06 950 1 dual are oumvm mg cmdl nr ad Snags an 104 heatrlass g 50 neat gnu TOTAL Iaqu waxysin mam Cheek Mal Inca m 0 scum H N U Location 10 F winter temp amp Floor area 180 x60 2 floors nfitration075 air changeshr Given other info top Office Building Heat Loss 70 F indoor temp 60 F TD 21600 sf x 216005f x 11 clgs 178200CF 60 min 2970 CFM glass 06 U people 160 ceilingroof 005 U walls 007 U floor factor of 2 door 11 U slab edge 08 U Office Building Heat Loss cont 5 Glass total given 2400 sf 6 Ceilingroof amp floor is 72 of 21600 sf 10800 sf 7 Wall area given 10880 sf 8 Slab edge 210 150 267 494 If 9 Doors 2 5 x7 70 sf 10 Fill in info do calc s sum the numbers amp get Total of 406850 BTUH WATER SUPPLY amp WASTEWATER Water and plumbing terms are listed on pages 319321 of your text You should become familiar with these before you continue Most of these terms will be used in our discussion WATER SUPPLY Properties of water Stable chemical compound of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom H20 boils at 212 F amp freezes at 32 F is a universal solvent efficient for transporting organic matter has good heat storage capacity amp is good for heat transfer like for thermal solar systems amp for heatingcooling systems in general SOURCES OF WATER While most of the earth s surface is covered with water only about 3 of it is usable fresh water The hydrologic cycle provides for a continuous supply of fresh water in the form of precipitation This precipitation feeds rivers streams lakes and oceans Some of it also percolates into the soil and becomes ground water Rainwater is typically one of the purest sources of water If you could only catch enough of it in clean containers you would have a good supply in many areas In other more arid or desert areas the amount of rainfall would never keep up with the demand All of the water that percolates deep into the ground becomes part of the underground aquifers Most of this water is filtered by this process and is usually potable There can be enough dissolved minerals in it to produce quothard water THE HYDROLOGIC CYCLE ma U hnar SiyaLa Canaanluau 39 quot f2 ns s39 v n vs mm Wamrsmrngaln Ihe Amospnere Transplrallnn a Gmunn m lMlenlum Wnlar smug n In Oceans Grmlntlwmer 90 an x L 9 Wm D Iunum m A we uvs Gnalcnlanl lurvly AQUIFERS OKLAHOMA W Fort Srmm Ok1ahoma cuy ma FE th e Rock WHBHHO 39 ARBUCKLE SIMPSON AQ IFER WWW ESPANDLA BASIN AQUIFER SYSTEM AR KANSAS Lubhock NEW MEXICO Sr vevepeu LOUISIANA Fen WormPE HE S TEXAS Mvdhind Waco 52 n Angelo 43 X Nequ Isansf EDWARDS AQUIFER 39Aushn IHOLASIOH cruco quotw mum AQUIFER SYSTEM EDWARDS AQUIFER I Sole Source Aquifers EPA Region 6 Laredo m E ARBUCKLESIMPSON AQUJFER CHICOT AQUIFER SYSTEM l EDWARDS AQUIFERI EDWARDS AQUIFER n Ermvnsvms EPA Raglan 6 ESPANOLA BASIN AQUWFER SVSTEM 615 Support N 01302008 SOUTHERN H LLSAQU FER SYSTEM W V ZUUEUUUMLOW SURFACE WATER Surface water runoff may become quickly contaminated depending on where it flows Treatment of surface water is usually extensive unless it is a clear mountain stream It is obvious that the seas and oceans contain most of the water but this water has a high quantity of Total Dissolved Solids TDS Most of these are salts and minerals They can be removed but there is a cost for doing so Desalination plants have been built in many seacoast areas DESALINATION so av ramahun hmwatav evapma uv garage va8 pav m baa insu atiun cundsnsav W m vacmavy mt numm aw dunkmg War quotBatmem ms cuuhng Watay mschavgs mm mm mm n mmmacwaw mamumsn GROUNDWATER EleclrmnlcmtrolPaMl less than 25 0 or deep Flaw Vaiw wells Deep wells are quot5quot either driven bored or H II WWW drilled Driven wells and quot quotquot EH bored wells are limited in m depth but bored wells mmquot may be large in diameter rulmuna l u y and supply a large MWW amount of water Drilled fictr39c abquot I 39 wells are typically deeper Sum Chrck 39n39nlv l and can be over 1000 fe d e e p S llli fl39lln fSllil39ll39 F39qu PUMPS Two categories of pumps are used for the collection of water from wells positive displacement amp dynamic There are two major classes of positive displacement pumps reciprocating w a piston and valves and rotary w rotors that continuously spin creating suction 39 Mr ROTARY PU M PS Positive Displacement Pump slip ow M ow Suction Discharge low high pressure pressure ROTARY PUMP LOBE DYNAMIC PUMPS The two major classes of dynamic pumps used for water supply are centrifugal and jet pumps Centrifugal pumps use an impeller mounted on a rotating shaft inside a casing An impeller amp casing makes a stage a pump can have more than one stage and therefore are multistage pumps Turbine pumps and submersible pumps are both centrifugal pumps Centrifugal Pumps TURBINE PUMPS Turbine pumps have a suction head an impeller s discharge bowl 5 and impeller shaft w bearings The pump motor is located at grade over the well casing DUE Column Pipe SUBMERSIBLE PUMPS Hbad mm The pump and motor are coupled together as a single unit which eliminates the long pump shaft The motor is typically mounted beneath the impellers and water flows around the motor was Disclme MP 1 E33111quot tabla 2 may purqu 39 Wencasarg Elysian an um mm Sunmnrme ulgzzric mm Jet pump is composed of a nozzle diffuser and suction chamber A high pressure stream of water is forced down through a pipe and out through a high velocity nozzle The high velocity stream creates a low pressure area in the mixing chamberthat pulls the suctionwell water into the mixing chamber The diffuser converts the high velocity to pressure that forces the suction water up the discharge pipe pressuregage Pressure switch Discharge Groutseal Return pipe Venturi Nozzle Ejector Foot valve Screen Well casing HEAD FOR A PUMP The head for a pump is the vertical distance the water travels from intake to discharge Head is dependent on the total pump pressure that includes suction lift static head and friction loss plus pressure head The relationship between pressureP and headH can be expressed as Pbin2 Hft231 HEAD FOR A PUMP Where does the conversion number 231 come from A cubic foot of ambient water weighs 624 pounds A square foot of area contains 144 inZ If we divide one by the other we get our conversion number 231ie 144624 231 Figure 1 Remember some people prefer 433 the other conversion 624144 433 Here is another way to understand the same concept If I poured one pound of ambient water into a long narrow receptacle that measures one inZ the water would fill that receptacle to a height of 231 feet WATER QUANTITY Residential water consumption is estimated in gallons per person per day gppd The chart below shows average residential water use TABLE 222 Residential Water Consumptinn Pattern in the United States Type of Use Quantity of Water in gppd Indoor Bathing amp personal hygiene 2 l Flushing toilets 30 Laundry S dishwashing 15 Drinking amp cooking 4 Total indoor 70 Outdoor 39 Yard irrigation car wash etc 7D 14D Total WATER QUALITY Basic water quality POTABLE safe enough to drink Other minimum standards are for Turbidity insoluble suspended solids pHValue hydrogen ion concentration Hardness measure of detergent neutralizing ions Biochemical Oxygen Demand BOD oxygen required to oxidize organic matter TURBIDITY Measures the clarity of water The insoluble solids decrease the clarity Clarity is measured by the amount of light blocked by the particles Turbidity is more common in surface water One turbidity unitTU equals 1 mg of suspended matterliter of water Potable water should not have more than 5 turbidity units pH Value pH refers to quotpotential hydrogenquot which is a measure of the hydrogen ion concentration in water The higherthe concentration of hydrogen ions the lower is the pH level which indicates an acid solution pH log1H H of hydrogen ions Alkali reduces the of free hydrogen ions which causes an increase in pHValue pH is measured on a scale from O to 14 O is a strong acid amp 14 is extremely alkaline 7 is neutral HARDNESS Hardness is a measure of detergentneutralizing ions that are present in water These ions are primarily calcium amp magnesium salts A level of hardness between 60 and 120 mgL is acceptable in potable water High hardness levels lessen the cleaning action of detergents amp cause buildupsscaling in pipes amp cooking utensils BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMANDBOD Organic pollution is measured by biochemical oxygen demandBOD n orderfor organic matter to break down biologically oxygen is required A lot of organic matter results in low oxygen levels Oxygen acts as a catalyst in the elimination of many pollutants in water Supply water should not have more than 4 mgL of BOD WATER TREATMENT Water treatment provides water that is potable and safe without unpleasant smells or taste These treatment processes include Oxidation adding oxygen to break down organic amp chemical pollutants and help remove minerals to improve taste color and lessen staining Sedimentation allowing water to stand amp suspended solids to settle to the bottom reducing turbidity Coagulatesalum can be added to increase sedimentation WATER TREATMENT cont Filtration removes suspended matter from water by passing it through porous materials either natural or manufactured Improves turbidity and removes some bacteria Disinfecting the addition of chlorine or ozone treats water by providing a strong oxidizing action that destroys bacteria and eliminates odor improves taste amp color Only chlorine remains in water ozone dissipates WATER TREATMENT cont Softening is the process of removing hardness from the water Hardness results from the presence of dissolved carbonates of calcium or magnesium in water usually groundwater that has percolated through strata of limestone Systems of water softening include deionization which removes the calcium or magnesium ions from the water and adds sodium ions This is typically done in tanks using ionexchange resins hydrated sodium aluminosilicates WATER TREATMENT PROCESS unammnnr F nnma nn Emu WATER TREATMENT PROCESS The water treatment process consists of ve steps 1 Coagulationflocculation Raw water from terminal reservoirs is drawn into mixing basins at ourtreatment plants where we add alum polymer and sometimes lime and carbon dioxide This process causes small particles to stick to one another forming larger particles 2 Sedimentation Over time the nowlarger particles become heavy enough to settle to the bottom ofa basin from which sediment is removed 3 Filtration The water is then filtered through layers of fine granulated materials either sand or sand and coal depending on the treatment plant As smaller suspended particles are removed turbidity diminishes and clear water emerges 4 Disinfection To protect against any bacteria viruses and other microbes that might remain disinfectant is added before the water flows into underground reservoirs throughout the distribution system and into your home or business Denver Water carefully monitors the amount of disinfectant added to maintain quality ofthe water at the farthest reaches ofthe system Fluoride occurs naturally in our water but also is added to treated water 5 Corrosion control pH is maintained by adding alkaline substances to reduce corrosion in the distribution system and the plumbing in your home or business WATER SOFTENING rne water softening system onsi39sts of a mineraitankand a bri39rietarik rne minerai tank noidssmaii oeads aiso known as resini tnat tarry a negative eiemieai enarge rne oositiveiy Harged eaieidm and magnesium aHed ionsi are attraded to tne negativeiy Harged oeadsTnisattraetion makestne minerais stiektotne beads as tne Hard water passesthroughthe minerai tank Eventdaiiytne suriazes oitne oeads intne minerai tank bemme mated witn tne eaieidm and ma nesidm minerais To eiean tne heads a strongsodi39um Sam soidtion t neid in tne bri39rietari isiidsned Hroughthe mi39rieraitarik Sodium ions aiso nave a positive eiemieai enarge idst notddite as strori astnat of eaieidm and magnesium rnis iarge voidme oisodidm io s erpo tne eaieidm nd i nsand drives tnem off oitne beads and i i i ne sodi id i n arryirigthe minerais istnen drained odt oi tnednit 5 did i i i n WASTEWATER Two principle sources Sanitary wastesewer and storm watermainly surface runoff Sanitary waste contains a high level of BOD and pollutants and should be separated from storm water Storm water is not usually treated and is not usually sent through the sewer system MUNICIPAL SEWAGE TREATMENT Occurs mainly in central plants Most of the incoming sewage is about 99 water The four stages of sewage treatment are Sedimentation removal of most suspended solids Aeration sewage mixes wair amp aerobic bacteria which break down the organic matter Chlorination treating effluent wchlorine Dechlorination removing the chlorine MUNICIPAL SEWAGE TREATMENT Aeration Thnk Ll i Grit Staliun Screening Remuva l i G l T L anquot 4 r if E39me a n 39 Settling Tank cascade Disinfectiun Clarmaeri Aeration D39Chlor Chum um 6 65 ea 9quot 23quot Q 6 99 0quot 1 5 Land ll H m Hausa Biasc l39ds BiDsolids Hullclzlinglll Davwatering Digestion SEPTIC TANK SYSTEMS Praducti n Dispersal Well I I Preh eamlem Emmrrafmpfm n a 139 Septic Tank 7 r 7 Subsmface Dispomi 33m S VI39J39E l f f iii f r v W I Sail bsorp an 1 Suit ngmf Pun cadon f 1 l 7 1 Water THEE 7 SEPTIC TANKS The effluent comes in through the pipe on the left and is deposited into the main chamber of the septic tank If the solids are denser than water they will fall straight to the bottom of the tank and the less dense solids and the greases will float at the surface The solids that sink to the bottom right away are digested by anaerobic bacteria and the same goes for the solids that float on top Bacteria can digest most of the organic matter in human effluent but they cannot digest all of it The materials that they cannot digest settle to the bottom of the septic tank and we call this material sludge Ground 5 junk liquid lwel 9 a ill HE 7 11ml from I in Dmlnlmlij MUSl 39 f or Plum humbler Rimming Elm l P x l 1 Working ver Depth Mm Flnt Second Enmpanment Compartment hump Tank When Sm m imam u ii I fi fl u 39 L39V39TT llunwn imam W1 T I39FlCAI SEPTIC TANK WlTH RlSEHS SEPTIC TANKS It is the sludge that is pumped during routine septic tank maintenance Grease and ELWE a is other insoluble materials will WEN stay afloat on the surface of y f the tank The water in the tank h r is not pure water it is called Egg I H Emil mm gray water because it still i 39 mummy contains organic materials that mfcmm need to be filtered out As Jquuld ml if I i Dulhl bifllu mm r more water enters the effluent gm fume pipe coming from your house Hm I 39 mm the water level inside the tumplnmen umpartment septic tank rises and gray WWW rm water will exit through the EIW I l 3992 11531th sewage pipe on the right and head towards the drainage field WHEN SEPIIIE TANK W lTll FllSERS SEPTIC TANKS Septic tank clwo cum partmanlh Vaquot 39 r I ar I as an Aim Pp wage I quot Il u nl dlr I 5 PM al IL mum cnl39mge to u M n G tan Courtesy cattageremmtesom 39 39pt39 quot u sludge 53W SEPTIC TANK SYSTEMS npe oratg pipe Housemld wasmwater Performed pipe Gravalxpr SEPTIC TANK SYSTEMS Pressure Distribution System Observation Porl amp Cleanout Access SEPTIC TANK SIZING TABLE 223 S ptic Tank Capacity SingleFamily Multiple Dwelling Other Uses Minimum Saptic Dweilings Number Units or Maximum Fixture Tank Capacity in of Bedrooms Apartments Dne Units Served gallons Bedroom Each 1 3 20 1000 4 2 25 1200 5 or 6 El 83 1500 4 45 2000 5 55 2250 8 60 2500 7 70 2750 8 80 3000 9 90 3250 IO 1 00 3500 TABLE 224 Septic Tank Sizes Capacity Length Width Air Space Liquid Depth in gallons 1 000 00 2039 1390quot 4390 1 200 92039 4quot 120 439 039 1500 95quot 4 1 Cr 43 2000 10 8 523 139 quot 2250 I 39 0quot 5 I39 3 5 0 2500 1125 5 9 139 5 4 2750 1239D 3 0 l 3 5 3000 I 2 6 9 3 1 43 5 8 3250 1339 N B39 quot 3 3500 13 6 B39 1L3 3 DRAINFIELD SIZING TABLE 225 Drainfield Area per Bedroom Average Area of Trench Length of Trench in Feet Pimalamquot 17 57er 18 Wide 24 Wide 35quot Wide minutes nch 39 Trench Trench Trench 5 125 B4 83 42 10 155 1 1O 83 55 l 5 SD 1 27 95 E4 20 21 5 144 l 08 72 SD 250 167 125 B4 45 3C0 20C 15C 100 50 315 2 1 0 l 58 l 05 80 34C 227 1 7D I l 3 70 350 240 l 80 39120 BO 380 254 130 127 SC 400 257 200 134 Percolation tests determine the absorption capacity of the soil before constructing a drain field Holes are dug at least 14 deep 2 of coarse sand placed in the bottom and 12 of water added This level is maintained for 4 hrs Then 6 of water is placed over the sand The level is then measured at 10 min intervals to determine percolation rate PERCOLATION TEST 47 YardsLJck Reference point for measuring 7 I X Vyl v xr V f 39 399 1 E F xi 7 x A fr a V epm of 4 a proposed a dramfxeld Yardsmk just touches Water 1 6 ofwater I k lt 2 of coarse gravel 7quot IW AkAkA PLUMBING EXAMPLES quot iv L J V A I I H V 3 PLUMBING SEQUENCE Underground supply and drainage tofrom the building and under the slab Roughin piping from the slab to the fixtures inside walls floors ceilings amp chases Set and Finish set fixtures connect valves amp trim out installation UNDERGROUND All the plumbing lines water amp sewer that attach to fixtures must be installed under the slab trenching or under the floor system Natural gas lines enter the building above grade Water lines are filled wwater and capped They are then tested Drainage lines w10 of hydrostatic pressure and supply lines w pressure equal to their service pressure Once tested the trenches are backfilled UNDERGROUND ROUGH IN Once wall floor and ceilingroof framing are complete and sheathing is finished piping rough in is done All water supply and drainpipes are installed and stubbed out for fixtures DWV is fabricated and installed to provide for proper air circulation and drainage Proper drainage slopes are maintained and flashing installed at roof amp exterior wall penetrations Any large fixtures such as tubshower units are set Piping in attic or other unheated space is insulated Black steel gas piping is run All rough in piping is tested A PLUMBING ROUGHIN PLUMBING TREE v 2f Erzjii Sod Xm 39k 39 Wan s nr 239 Supply mes 2 Vazto EPIHLYV LClFunauL FIEIIRE 252 Plumbing Tree SET AND FINISH When all interior finishes are complete and cabinetscounter tops are set the plumbers will set all the remaining fixtures They will also complete all plumbing trim including faucets and valves Any escutcheon plates required at walls or finish surfaces will be installed All fixtures will be checked for proper operation PLUMBING REQUIREMENTS LocalNational codes set minimum requirements for building plumbing systems Table 251 gives Occupancy Estimates for different type buildings for Floor area in Square Feet per Occupant This table can be used for preliminary estimates to obtain of people is Square Footage is known or Square Footage if of people served is known SETTING FIXTURES amp TRIM SETTING FIXTURES amp TRIM OCCUPANCY ESTIMATES TABLE 251 Occupancy Estimates WARNING Use the following APPROXIMATE values ONLY for rst estimates Codes vary and many39exceptions apply Local codes govern Floor Area In Square Feet per Occupant Churoh Theater Restaurant Stadium Arana etc xed chairs allow l occupant per seat xed pews or benches allow l 8 per seat movsable chairs 7 sq ft m0veabie chairs and tables 15 sq ft standing room only 3 sq ft Of ce 150 sq ft Retail ground floor and basement 30 sq ft othsr flciors E30 sq ft School classroom 20 sq ft Library reading areas 50 sq ft staclt areas 100 sq ft Hospital 240 sq ft Residential 200 sq ft Gmss building floor area enclosed by exterior walls Values without asterisk are Nelgt occupied room areas HOW MANY FIXTURES The applicable building codes use occupancy numbers to set the minimum number of fixtures required When there equal numbers of men and women 60 for each gender must be estimated Office Building Example 44000sf1SOsfperson 293 people x 60176 menwomen HOW MANY FIXTURES TABLE 252 Fixtures Flequlrad minimum Private WC Lav Bach HarmMoner mam 1 1 1 Huspibal private runm 1 1 1 Residsnc 1 1 e WA NJNG 39 quotWe fUHuwvng exceptions apply Luca nudes gavem Public wm Lav DF maximum number af occupants pEr39 xture u 111 he u39mdw Church master we 50 50 12 WC mu Iver SD 150 12 WC ma Darmmry a charm uccupanm par emwer 3 Hanan rsz 1 5 1 5 1 2 WC 100 gtuver 15 25 12 WE 1mm Educac mneknursery 15 2 WC an I r y some 25 12 WC 4 econdary sense 30 12 we mauegw 40mm 12 we 100 aspile Ward 12 WC 100 ED patienrsbam amupanrs per xturz mete female College maJEfemsk 4050 12 WC 100 Restaurant rst 150 me1e ur female 50 1 2 WC EDD over 150 malalemale EDD100 12 WC EDD Night club Just 40 male Dr temexe 4D 1 2 WD 75 aver AD malefemale 4020 12 We 75 Stadiums amp sl enss male or female ED 12 WC EDD ver 150 maleErnie 3001 50 12 WC EDD Up an 50 m rEqL red main was may he rsp ced unetamne mm un nms 1 m m e HOW MANY FIXTURES cont Office Building Example Using Table 252 Water Closets women 1St 15 req s 1 WC next 161 req s 125 6441 744 8 WC s 8 WC s required for men but use V2 WC s amp V2 urinals 4 of ea for men Lavatories 16 WC s2 8 Lavatories Drinking Fountains 293100 3 Drinking Fountains ELEMENTARY SCHOOL EXAMPLE Classroom wing for 600 students 600 x 60 360 ea boys amp girls WC s 125 3602515ea boysgirls UR s replace V2 of WC s for boys 7 WC samp 8U R LAV s V2 of required WC s 15 DF s 140 60040 15 FIXTURE UNITS Fixture units are used to indicate the water quantity that will be needed for the fixtures One SFUSupply Fixture Unit1GPM One DFUDrainage Fixture UnitOSGPM TABLE 253 Fixture Units gives SFU s DFU s and psi for various plumbing fixtures FIXTURE UNITS TABlE 253 FiXture Units Private SFU DFU psi Bathroom group gravity tank Bathroom group pressure tank Bathroom group flush valve Lavatory Tub or shower Water closet gravity tank Water closet pressure tank Water closet ush valve Kitchen Sink Washer clothes B lb Dishwasher Hose bib B B 10 B 8 25 l l 10 2 10 CO 5 3 C 2 2 25 B B 25 E 2 ID 2 3 10 l 2 10 4 10 TABLE 253 FiXture Units Public SFU DFU psi Lavatory 2 l 39l D Tub or shower 4 2 ID Urinal gravity tank 3 2 l O Urinal flush valve 5 4 15 Water closet 39 gravity tank 5 4 lD Water closet pressure tank 2 2 25 Water closet flush valve 10 S 25 Kitchen sink 4 8 10 Service 5ka 3 3 10 Drinking fountain l 4 l 2 1D Hose bib 4 10 psi minimum xture supply pressure psi minimum fixture supply pressure FIXTURE UNIT EXAMPLE 1 Calculate SFU s amp DFU s for a public building with 12 WC s 4 Urinals 8 Lavatories amp 3 DF s from Table 253 SUPPLY WC s wflush valves 1210 120 SFU Urinals wflush valves 45 20 SFU Lavatories82 16 SFU DF s 314 1FU Hose Bibs 64 24 SFU Total SFU 181 DRAINAGE WC s wflush valves126 72DFU Urinals wflush valves44 16DFU Lavatories81 8DFU DF39s 312 2DFU Total DFU 98 FIXTURE UNIT EXAMPLE 2 School w23 flush valve WC s 6 urinals 15 lavatories 2 service sinks 15 DF s and 6 hose bibs from table 253 Supply Flush valve WC s 2310 230 SFU Flush valve urinals 65 30 SFU Lavatories 152 3O SFU Service sinks 23 6 SFU DF s 1514 4 SFU Hose bibs64 24 SFU Total SFU 324 Drainage Flush valve WC s 236 138 DFU Flush valve urinals64 24 DFU Lavatories 151 15 DFU Service sinks 23 6 DFU DF s 1512 8 DFU Total DFU 191 SUPPLY GPM Figure 254 graphs give water supply in GPM based on SFU The dashed curves are for large assembly buildings and the solid lines are for residential and commercial buildings Hotel Example find water demand using pressure tank WC s that 2000 SFU From the dashed curve 2000 SFU reads 310 GPM School Example flush valve WC s w324 SFU From the solid line curve 324 SFU reads 97 GPM Gallons per Minute SUPPLY FIXTURE UNITS 600 500 J o O Gallons per Minute 55 O N o O IOO 500 500 1000 3000 5000 7000 Supply Fixture Units SFU 100 200 300 400 Supply Fixture Units SFU 9000 SIZE WATER SUPPLY GPM from a water main depends on flow in feet per secondFPS Greater FPS gives more GPM more pressure loss due to friction psi100 amp more noise Figure 255GPM and Friction Loss Examples V2 dia 2 GPM 2 FPS 2 psi100 3 dia 10 GPM 6 FPS 10 psi100 3 dia 5 GPM 5 GPM 3 psi100 Figure 256 Water Supply Example Size water main to deliver 200 GPM 8FPS need 3 pipe friction loss 4 psi SIZE WATER SUPPLY woo mm 800 500 Flow velocity in feet per second fps water Supply m 3 4 5 6 quot 34quot 200 m nominal disarming ior 395 Size 1 ialriy smouih pipe 100 E 1 II a 80 E E 114quot 60 5 E 40 a 2 2 U 10 5 8 1 s 1 4 1o 4 Friction loss in psi per 100 of pipe 2 HGUHE 255 GPM and Friction Loss 1 Friction loss In psi per 1003901 pipe FIEURE 256 Piping Finw Velocity and Pressure Drop in Fairly Smuath Copper ar PVC Pipe SIZE RISERS AND BRANCHES The building main is sized for all water demand hot amp cold The individual risers or branches are sized for hot or cold water demand The actual friction loss psi100 for the pipe size selected for the main is used to size all branches and risers Fixtures that are connected to both hot and cold water are rated at 75 for each a lavatory rated at 4SFU is counted as 3 SFU for hot amp 3 SFU for cold RISERS AND BRANCHES marginIlium SIZE RISERS AND BRANCHES Example A gymnasium water main calculation gave a friction loss of 5 psi100 for all pipe runs Size hot amp cold water supply branches for a locker room with 1 flush valve WC 1 urinal 2 lav s amp 4 showers SFU s from Table 253 1WC 10 10 SFU amp 10 CW 1Urinal 5 5SFUamp 5CW 2Lav s 4 85FUamp 6CWamp 6HW 4 Showers 4 16 SFU amp 12 CW amp 12 HW SFU 33 for CW and SFU 18 for HW From Fig 254 read CW from solid valve curve 33 SFU 4O GPM amp read HW from solid tank curve 18 SFU 12 GPM From Fig 256 5psi100 CW 4O GPM 1 V2 HW 12GPM 1 M ETERS Meter sizing is shown in Table 254 Larger meter sizes cost more money initially but give more flow in GPM A meter w lower pressure will have less flow for the same size If pressure loss creates a problem use a larger meter Example Select a meter to deliver 60 GPM w 10 psi pressure loss from Table 254 1 V2 required Same 60 GPM but 4 psi loss 2 req METER SIZING TABLE 254 Meter GPM and Pressure Meter Size 10 psi loss 4 psi Loss 5PM GPM 58 1 E 8 3 21 l 4 I 33 20 1 12quot 63 40 2 100 63 3 200 1 25 4quot 350 EDD E3 825 440 SIZE DWV DWV pipe sizes increase w the number of DFU drainage fixture units required Table 255 DWV Minimums Table 256 Building Drains Tabe257 Soil and Waste BranchesStacks and Table 258 Vent Stacks are all used to size various components of the DWV system DWV SIZING TABLE 255 DWV Minimums Drains Drainpipe size 114quot Branch Size below the floor 2 Allow l per foot fall for waste and soil branches Water closet outlet 4 A 3quot drain can serve 2 WC s but 4 preferred Vents Vent pipe size 114 Individual vent 1 2 size of trap served Circuit vent 12 size of drain branch served Vents gt 40 long increase to next std pipe size Vents gt 100 long increase another std pipe sxze 5m pipe sizes lquot4 vet Leigamesquot Bn gm 0 TABLE 255 Building Drains Maximum DFU for Building Drains condensed from the National Plumbing Code Pipe Fall in inches per foat of run Size 776 18 14 I 2 2 l 28 212quot 24 31 3 BB 42 50 4 l 80 2 1 8 250 6 700 840 l 000 8 1400 39 1500 1920 2800 10quot 2500 2900 3500 4200 Not more than 2 water closets DWV SIZING cont TABLE 251 Soil and Waste Branches and Stacks TABLE 258 Maximum DFU for Branches amp Stacks cpndensed from the National Plumbing Code Bl Branch Interval each building story with drain branches is counted as one Bl Pipe Stack33 Stack gt 33 Size Branch or Less Total Each BI 2quot B 10 24 B 3 20 48 72 20 4 160 240 500 50 El 520 980 l 800 350 8 1400 2200 3800 800 10 2500 3800 5800 1000 Vent Stacks Maximum Vent length set by soil stack DFU condensed from the National Plumbing Code SailWaste Vent Pipe Size Stack dfu 3 4 B 8quot 3quot BO 400 4 500 l 80 500 6 1 900 20 70 700 8 3500 25 250 800 10 5600 60 250 Nol more than 2 water closets quot Exceps branches of the building drain Field numbers are the maximum vent length in feet RESIDENCE EXAMPLE The example residence is a singlestory slab ongrade structure w 1568 SF The baths kitchen and laundry room all require plumbing and there are also outside hose bibs Water supply gas supply and sewer tie ins have to be located These lines will be run underground to the residence using the shortest route feasible UNDERGROUND Layout is the first step All piping that goes under the slab has to be laid out so that it will match wall or fixture locations Trenching before slab placement is necessary for the wastesoil piping and hotcold water supply the amount of the hotcold water that is run overhead will vary All lines that are below the slab are appropriately tested and then backfilled Sleeves are placed around the piping stub ups UNDERGROUND ROUGHIN When framing is complete and all exterior sheathing is finished rough in begins Water supply and drains are placed at the proper height to match fixture type and location DWV trees are assembled and installed to service all the fixtures At least one 3 VTR is installed and flashed to service the bathrooms Access panels are placed at tubsshowers Waterdrain is installed for the washer All piping stubouts are anchored to secure them for fixture attachment All piping rough in should be tested before gypsum board is completed ROUGHIN SET AND FINISH Once floors walls and ceilings are finished and cabinetstops complete the plumbers can set all the water closets lavatories sinks and water heaters There are accessory items needed for AC pansdrains water heater pans amp vents water hammer arrestors insulation of any piping in attic spaces and freeze plugs at hose bibs All the faucets valves garbage disposer dishwasher and trim is completed A final inspection will then test all fixtures for function and leaks SET and FINISH RESIDENCE EXAMPLE Plumbing Sizing Water supply typically a 3 meter 3 piping should run to hose bibs water heater and groups of fixtures w more than 4 SFU s combined V2 pipes will service other fixtures Flexible 38 lines are used to connect water closets and lavatoriessinks Figure 2512 shows the water supply schematic w the meter in the front ofthe house RESIDENCE EXAMPLE Plumbing Sizing 1 pg Rquot 39 W Q J i m I E ummnnummuu GEE 1 3M I J mmmuunnumm j RESIDENCE WATER SUPPLY 39 slab Bumbag w has no Ni gs bum 5m Section FIGURE 2512 Water Suppiy Schematic RESIDENCE DRAINAGE SIZING Sewer typically a 4 pipe is minimum by code A 2 drain will carry 20 DFU a 3 30 DFU amp 4quot16O DFU FIGURE 2510 shows the underground drains starting with 2 at the laundry 3DFU then the kitchen sink 2DFU tubshower 2DFUand lavatory 1DFUare connected 8DFU The drain increases to 4 at the tie in of the first water closet All other fixture drains can then be connected RESIDENCE DRAINAGE SIZING FIEIIIIE 2510 Underground Drains RESIDENCE VENT SIZING Vents required at fixtures at least one 3 VTR of baths and locations may call for additional 3 VTR s most other vents are 1 M amp will connect to VTR s if possible FIGURE 2511 shows a 1 M VTR at the laundry a 1 M VTR at the kitchen sink picks up the AC drain and a 3 VTR at the plumbing fixtures for the two baths connected to this 3 VTR are 1 M vents from the lavatories amp tubs FIGIIIIE 2511 Rough In RESIDENCE VENT SIZING RESIDENCE EXAMPLE Pressure Check Since pressure tank toilets are specified for this residence there must be at least 25 psi remaining at the connection The calculations in your text excludes the hose bibs The following calculations allow for one hose bib to be in use adding 4 SFU which gives 19 SFU total Using Figure 254 this equates to about 18 GPM Using Figure 256 quot pipe w 18 GPM flow 30psi100 Pressure Losses Head 9 O433 39 4 psi Meter Figure 254 for 18 GPM 10 psi Pipe friction Figure 256 30psi100 for 120 36 psi Total Pressure lcss 50 psi City Main pressure 65 psi Pressure remaining 15 psi Not enough for the minimum of 25 psi Will need a larger meter amp supply line 1 a pressure pump or plan for using hose bibs or not using Gallons per Minute 0 D RESIDENCE EXAMPLE Pressure Check 1000 800 Water Supply 60 200 100 3 l E E 5 o 514 1 00 200 300 400 500 Supply Fixture Units SFU 04 10 Friction loss in psi per 10039 ol pipe FIGURE 255 Piping Flaw Velocity and Pressure Drop in Fairly Smooth Copper or PVC Pipe OFFICE BUILDING EXAMPLE This is a twostory structure w 21600 SF The drawings detail only the restroom facilities but all the building plumbing is included in the calculations Fixtures Required From Table 251 Office 1 occupant 150 SF allow for 160 per previous calculations From Table 252 Office amp Retail the minimum fixtures required are 5 WC s amp 3 Lav s for women and 3 WC s 2 UR s amp 3 Lav s for men 2 DF s 60 of 16096 womenmen In addition to these 12 WC s 8 Lav s 4 UR s 4 Kitchen Sinks 2 Service Sinks and 4 DF s are included for future tenants OFFICE BUILDING EXAMPLE Underground roughin and set amp finish will be required The water supply will enter the building below the restroom plumbing walls There will be two risers designed for quiet flow The building main is sized for fire protection The main enters the building close to the street where firefighters can access the sprinkler control valves the domestic water main is connected here DWV trees are the same on each floor separate soil and vent stacks are required The vent stack connects to the soil stack above the highest vent branch Supply branches run horizontally in the restroom walls and piping for remote fixtures runs above the ceiling Natural gas piping is run in firerated vertical chases that are vented above the roof Set amp finish occur after all interior finishes are complete Connections are made to the city water amp sewer after all fixtures are flushed and checked and all tests are completed OFFICE BUILDING EXAMPLE Plumbing Plan and Isometric Figure 2517 amp Figure 2518 show all the plumbing work in the office restrooms DWV Pipe Sizes the building drain runs from one end of the building to the other It carries waste from the non illustrated areas and picks up the restroom drains below the lobby floor Building drain sizes shown on the plans Figure 2517 DFU s are shown in Table 259 OFFICE BUILDING SFU39S and DFU39s TABLE 259 SFU and DFU from Table 253 fixture requirementl Fixture SFU DFU psi WC flush valve 12 120 72 25 Lav39s 8 l B 8 l D UR S flush valve 4 r 20 18 15 DF S 4 l 2 10 Kitchen Sinks 4 8 12 10 Service Sinks 2 B 8 ID Hose Bibs B 39 10 Landscape water 10 totals 179 1 l E SFUS are not cuunted for hose bibs ur the building s landscape watering system because their operation will be scheduled when xture water demand is low OFFICE RESTROOM PLANS Drain Sizes FIGURE 2517 Ground Floor Plan OFFICE RESTROOM ISOMETRICS FIEHRE 2518 lanmecriu Plan with Pipe Sizes anan39s mums b lnw right nimum vents man39s mums be CVW IEquot individual Vents 55 Sizes are DVW gull and waste Cult water Ugh schd Vertic l lines at each FIqu I haaw solid nes wanna heavy a had lines bald numbers lines but water light dashed lines Sizes are light numbers r e are water emmel39 enminamrs OFFICE BUILDING EXAMPLE Plumbing Plan and Isometric Stack and branch piping sizes are shown on the isometric Figure 2518 Circuit vents are shown on the women s single 2 riser from the 4 WC drain and individual vents on the men s multiple 2 risers from the 4 WCUR drain Supply the building supply main splits below the lobby floor to serve both men s and women s restrooms 1 hot water piping is provided from the service closet and splits to provide 3 hot water piping for men and women the service sinks and kitchen Water lines for the kitchen DF s and hose bibs run overhead OFFICE BUILDING EXAMPLE DWV Pipe Sizing DWV Pipe Sizes The 116 DFU s ofthe building will be carried by a 4 drain sloped at 18 per foot 4 branches and soil stacks will serve each rest room 3 pipe can serve a max of 2 WC s per Table 257 There is a 3 branch from the East end that carries 2 kitchen sinks amp 2 DF s 3 vent stacks are required to serve each restroom soil stack Table 258 OFFICE BUILDING EXAMPLE DWV Pipe Sizing TABLE 257 Soil and Waste Branches and Stacks Maximum DFU for Branches amp Stacks condensed from the National Plumbing Code Bl Branch interval each building story with drain branches is counted as one Bl TABLE 258 Vent Stacks Maximum Vent length set by soil stack DFU Condensed from the National Plumbing Code SoiIWaste Vent Pipe Size Stack dfu 3quot 6 8 Pipe Stack38 Stack gt SB Size Branch or Less Total Each B 2 B l 0 24 r E 3 20 48 72 20 4 l 60 240 500 90 Equot 520 960 l 900 350 B 1400 2200 3800 600 10 2500 3800 5600 1000 SNot more than 2 water closeml Except branches of the building drain 4 500 l 8039 50039 E i 900 2039 7039 70039 8 3500 25 250 800 10 5600 60 250 Field numbers are the maximum vent length in feet OFFICE BUILDING EXAMPLE Supply Pipe Sizing GPM the chart in Figure 254 shows 80 GPM for 179 SFU s Main and Meter Sizing a 2 main with a friction loss of 5psi100 was selected from Figure 256 Flow velocity is about 8 FPS The main is split as it enters the building allowing the branches and risers to be sized for 6 FPS to give quiet operation OFFICE BUILDING EXAMPLE Supply Pipe Sizing 140 F quot I Val 3916 Water Supply 120 Mk 100 I valve 3 I a C s 7 a a O Q g 60 5 c 40 20 Vh 15 I M I m 100 200 39300 400 500 Supmy FiXtUre Units u SFU Fncuon loss In psx per 10039 or pipe FIGURE 256 Piping Haw Velocity and Pressure Drop in Fairly Smooth Dapper nr PVC Pipe OFFICE BUILDING EXAMPLE Check Operating Pressure Given Longest run is 200 allow 50 for friction loss in pipe fittings developed pipe length of 300 city water main flows at 60 psi elevation of main is 20 below WC s on 2nd floor From Figures 254 amp 256 Max demand 80 GPM Pipe friction loss 5psi 100 OFFICE BUILDING EXAMPLE Check Operating Pressure cont Calculate Pressure Losses Head 20 O434 87 9 psi Meter 2 meter at 80 GPM 7 psi Pipe friction 5 psi100 300 psi Total Pressure Loss 31 psi Required toilet operating pressure 25 psi Pressure at toilet inlets 6031 29 psi OK OFFICE BUILDING EXAMPLE Size Risers and Branches Risers amp branches are sized w the same 5psi100 friction loss as the main Pipe sizes for risers and branches are also checked for velocity no greater than 6 FPS The 2 building main supplies up to 80 GPM It divides into two risers one serves the women s restroom on both floors water heater amp service sinks the other serves the men s restrooms DF s hose bibs and kitchen sinks OFFICE BUILDING EXAMPLE Size Risers and Branches Riser One 112 SFU s ground floor Riser One 53 SFU s second floor Riser Two 78 SFU s ground floor Riser Two 39 SFU s second floor Use Table 254 convert SFU s to GPM Use Table 256 size risers 5psi100 Riser SFU GPM Pipe 1 grnd Flr 112 70 2 12 1 2nd Flr 58 6O 2quot 2 grnd Flr 78 65 2 2 2nd Flr 39 55 2quot OFFICE BUILDING EXAMPLE Size Risers and Branches Supply piping for small numbers of fixtures 1 flush valve WC 1 min 23 flush valve WC s use 1 1A pipe 1 flush valve UR 3 min 24 UR s use 1 pipe Lav s showers sinks use 1A pipe up to 4 SFU and 3A pipe up to 12 SFU TALL BUILDINGS Taller buildings have increasingly more head loss Buildings over 45 stories will likely need storage tanks ampor pumps Downfeed systems w tanks and upfeed systems w pumps Codes will require standpipes and sprinklers in most cases Large mains are required to service these fire protection needs High rise buildings need tanks that can deliver 500 GPM 65 psi for 30 minutes from each tank The number of tankssize will depend on the of stories and the SFstory The loads will high tons of water TALL BUILDINGS 3w IllIIIIII IIL M u A 39539 5 i a i 6quot ov aquot ire main B walu mm was i 2 i n Scamp Symm BUILDING AIR CONDITIONING ZONING Components Air Handler controls air quantity temperature humidity and quality filters amp circulates the air Supply Duct distributes conditioned air to outlets Return Air brings air back to the air handler often in a plenum Exhaust Air sends contaminated air to the outdoors Fresh Air supplies outdoor air to replenish system ZONING COMPONENTS Iquot M H F O 39 I 4 43 quot lt 5 6 g FL 4 r H Plan zoning componcni 1 Air Handler 2 Supply Duct 3 Return Air Duct 4 Exhaust Air 5 Fresh Air ZONING ALTERNATIVES Zoning alternates provide methods for meeting various room differences needs Four zoning alternates are used Individual units Single zone installations Zoned installations Multizone installations ewzve INDIVIDUAL UNITS 1 Packaged units like window units or through wall units that can heat or cool a roomarea Examples include heat pumps and AC units welectric strip heat 2 Fan coil units that have hot amp cold water piped to them This will require central plants that have boilers and chillers as well as the piping runs to the fan coil units FAN COIL UNIT SINGLE ZONE INSTALLATIONS Provides the same air to a large area or group of rooms This requires that the rooms all have approximately the same needs for heatingcooling at the same time 27quot Nier air bander SINGLE ZONE INSTALLATION s um mc39r swans m xvs39ms unm umm nl m m l luldwr 9mm mly nun I nuk Yin n ull SIquot E1quot u a u an mm x dumpv J x 1rrmA I amp I 7 l x 39 7 lmpu all 4am F n nlurn ulum 1 mum ZONED INSTALLATION More than one air handler is used Areas w like needsrequirements are served by the same air handler Can have one air handler serving one area or you may have one air handler serving several areas ZONED INSTALLATION System 1 7 Zone 1 System 1 7 Zone 2 Bauer ZONED INSTALLATION SEVEN ZQNE svsTEM Alana Theme51m m Each Roam Measwes the Temperalure and Cammls a Zone Damper u39n the Supply Air Ducl The Zone Thermuslal Has a Display That Reparts Temperatures and Comrol Functioms Iii39l Plain English MULTIZONE INSTALLATION Multizone equipment can provide air with different temperatures to different roomszones Three types of multizone equipment are used 1 Reheat ducts cool air to a reheat terminal where a thermostat controls the reheating 2 Double Duct have separate warm amp cool air ducts that both deliver air to a mixing box where a thermostat adjust the quantities of warm amp cool air that are mixed 3 Individual Duct separate ducts to each room from the air handler with a thermostat controlling dampers in the air handler to proportion warm amp cool air MULTIZONE OPTIONS Multizona Reheai quotEUR 115 mixing box FIEIIHE 11 Mulllzona Double Dun FIEIIHE 175 Munlzune IndividuaiDucl Muiiizone Individual Duct caniigur log MULTIZONE INDIVIDUAL DUCT INSTALLATIONS Air handlers can be equipped with mixing type heating and cooling coils where each coil may be operating to get a mix of warm and cool air This is not the most efficient situation Air handlers can also be equipped with bypass type configurations that allow for a flow of return air and either heating or cooling from the coils whichever is needed to get the desired temperature MULTIZONE INSTALLATION VAV Variable Air Volume or CV Constant Volume Fans The volume and temperature ofthe air that is available at the end ofthe primary ductwork and then flows into the secondary ductwork and out the diffusers can be controlled by the air handler constant fan speed and variable temperature VAV installations use a air handler with a variable speed fan and boxes at the ends ofthe primary ductwork to control the flow of air Variable Air Volume Fans VAV lagnaw MEI Aw M I39 IIH hl Dammu I i El l I I a t u I I I 39 I I 39 H 1 5 3 7 if L 7 if 7 777 H r a I 1 I 7 U I I I K 39 n me El 2 quot 39 I 5 39 a EU I i I I a H I I H I u E i N I 55 19 U E z ib 3 39 1 A W M I39 mum Jthmi irw ul Mhmrnm rmv uwgf39 u39 m I NJWIAIInldHn nda I Rlil mama iv l l39iquot ll1l In VAV Terminal Box VAV Terminal Box VAV Pros amp Cons Pros VAV installations can reduce fan operating cost compared to CV systems Constant volume systems may have fans that run 247 which adds significantly to energy costs Cons Lower air flow may create poor air movement a buildup of odors and higher humidity comfort control problems SELECTING HVAC EQUIPMENT Four Areas of Concern 1 Heating alternatives incl heat pumps furnaces and boilers 2 Cooling alternatives incl heat pumps air conditioners air cooled condensers amp chillers 3 Zoning alternatives incl individual units single zone or multizone equipment 4 Efficiency must consider the building construction and the type of facility Also consider any special circumstances waste heat initial costs and operating costs RETAIL BUILDING CASE STUDY Interior single large space Design considerations 1 Low initial cost 2 Low operating cost 3 Low equipment maintenance 4 Store will stay in operation w a HVAC failure HEATING SELECTION Use gas fired furnaces or if weather is mild heat pumps Use multiple units to allow for partial heating in case of one unit failing Contract with local heat amp air company that is the dealer for the equipment used and that maintains a large supply of replacement parts COOLING SELECTION Gas heating furnaces will work best with air cooled condensing units Consider heat pumps in both packaged units and split systems Consider location of condensing units for split systems noise and refrigerant piping runs Roof mounted equipment can save space and operate efficiently HVAC OPTIONS FIGURE 1713 59 f sgsL em Um s 1 9a 45A 0 cooL g a relurn air lter qnle slbglePackaze Unit s 4 r FIGURE 1714 ZONING For the single large retail space a single zone constant volume system will have lower first cost and will still perform well Select programmable thermostats to lessen the fan run time when the store is closed A suspended ceiling will work well with this type of system conceals ductwork supports diffusers and provides for a return air plenum EFFICIENCY Use a rateof return analysis to determine the SEER or COP levels that are most economical Look at payback periods Research for tax credits Roof mounted packaged units are easy to install conserve ground space allow for shallow plenum depth and can be purchased in a variety of types heat pumps AC w furnace amp fan unit etc OFFICE TOWER CASE STUDY Class A office tower with lease space and these HVAC considerations 1 Good comfort control for the quotsuitsquot 2 Low operating cost 3 Low initial cost HEATING amp COOLING SELECTION Large building that will need natural gas fired boilers for a hot water heating system Hot water piping will serve numerous air handling units Chillers will also be appropriate and will be housed in the same space as the boilers Chill water piping will run alongside the hot water piping to the air handlers Cooling towers will make the system more efficient Use several boilers amp chillers to provide for partial outages due to equipment failure ZONING AND EFFICIENCY Since the exterior cladding is glass use zoned constant volume equipment with zones designed around the orientation of each face to control solar gain and night time heat loss Use a single zone variable speed air handler for the core area with VAV boxes to further control air flow conserve energy at night and on weekends with few people and lights CHURCH CASE STUDY New church auditorium for 600 members w two morning services on Sundays The church is located in a small southern town The church s needs are 1 Low initia costs 2 Low operating costs HEATING SELECTION Use a natural gas fired furnace to supply heat Use a furnace with multiple burners so that rapid heating is available for services and lower heat is available to maintain minimum temperature at other times Ifthis is a rural area with mild winters a heat pump system esp water source may be a viable alternative COOLING SELECTION A water source heat pump may be a viable cooling solution if a unit w a high COP is used Since a large amount of energy is used during a short period before and during the services peak electrical cost will be the largest expense ce tank equipment that can help shift or spread out the electrical energy use can work under this scenario ZONING AND EFFICIENCY Since the sanctuary is mainly a single large space single zone constant volume air handlers are appropriate Since noise can be an issue lower fan speed and oversized ductwork may be required Since the sanctuary has limited use and is unoccupied most of the time operating cost is not as critical as peak electrical demand HOTEL CASE STU DY Moderate size exclusive hotel w 500 guest rooms meeting rooms and dining facilities A center atrium core that extends to the roof HVAC requirements are Individual control of guest rooms Noise control between rooms privacy Quick repairs to guest room equipment Separate control of all meeting amp dining rms Low operating cost Heat for the atrium in winter FDP PWN HOTEL CROSS SECTION HEATING AND COOLING SELECTION Several boilers w hot water piped to individual fan coil units for the guest rooms Use single zone air handlers for each dining or meeting room Use hot water radiant heat in the floor of the atrium A glass ceiling could add solar gain Use chillers to supply cold water piping to the fan coil units in the guest rooms and to the air handlers for public spaces VAV air handlers and boxes may save energy cost in the public spaces where occupancy varies EFFICIENCY In an exclusive hotel quality equipment that runs quietly and efficiently when operated is a good investment good from a guest point of view maintenance cost and operating costs Any waste heat from the atrium solar gain amp air against the ceiling can be recycled esp in the winter HOTEL OPTION 2 Choices 1 Four pipe boilerchiller installation wcooling towers and fan coil units 2 Loop connected water source heat pumps wboiler and cooling towers HOTEL OPTION 2 Choice 1 A four pipe system will typically have to run both boilers and chillers in order to provide both heating and cooling simultaneously This is often required when heating is needed in guest rooms and cooling is needed in meeting rooms restaurants or public spaces HOTEL OPTION 2 Choice 2 Loop heat pumps are very efficient when both heating and cooling are required When heating and cooling loads are balanced only the heat pumps need operate since they can transfer warm or cool water from the heat pumps that are producing the warm or cool water to the heat pumps that need the warm or cool water to operate efficiently When heating loads are large the boilers will supply hot water and when the cooling loads are large the cooling towers will supply cool water LOOP CONNECTED WATER SOURCE HEAT PUMPS A K 2 supply quot Um bgpqss s v39n a39uq he r 21 Purgps I 1 v w Schematic diagram water loop and39heal pumps FIGURE 1722 HOME HEATING HVAC OPTIONS Option 1 Convectors w a boiler pump amp pipe loop Option 2 Individual units through wall using heat pumps or AC units wstrip heat Option 3 Single zone constant volume using a heat pump or split system with furnace and air cooled condensing unit wductwork Option 4 Radiant heat using piping embedded in the floor and zoned cooling using two single zone constant volume AC units wductwork OPTION1 CONVECTORS Provide low cost heat but cooling is dependent on cool outside air from ventilation Convectors are located in each room and connected by hot water piping a two pipe reverse return system provides more even heat Boilers can be purchased which use the cheapest fuel available locally The boiler can also supply domestic hot water a water heater will Zpipe reverse return not be required 39 OPTION 2 INDIVIDUAL UNITS Through the wall units can provide comfortable heatingcooling They can also be efficient esp when the units are only operated in occupied rooms If one unit goes out the others can still provide heatingcooling Major disadvantages are aesthetics and noise although high quality units will be more attractive and quieter OPTION 3 SINGLE ZONE The most often chosen option in new homes Heating can be a furnace w an air cooled condensing unit outside to supply refrigerant to the evaporator coils that are housed w the furnace and fan indoors closet or attic A heat pump can replace both the furnace and condensing unit Ductwork is required that distributes the heated or cooled air Larger homes may use two single zone systems OPTION 4 RADIANT HEATZONED COOLING Probably the most expensive system to install The piping is usually embedded in concrete so this occurs mostly w new construction Radiant heat is quiet and comfortable and operating cost is about the same as for convectors Cooling is by two constant volume AC units one serving the bedrooms and the other the remainder of the home The example in you text calls for oversize supply ducts and insulated return air ducts While this does provide for a quieter system it also does increase initial cost Operating cost may be slightly lower RADIANT HEATZONED COOLING i Radiant floor 4 zones FIGURE 1727 2 Cooling Zones Option 4 schematic FIElIHE 1729 Cooling 2 CV zones FIBUHE 1728 OFFICE HVAC OPTIONS ACheating equipment options include heat pumps furnaces wDX cooling or boilers amp chillers The options that will be considered are for zoning not heatingcooling equipment Option 1 Zoned w many heat pumps Option 2 Zoned w four air handlers Option 3 Multizoned wone air handler Option 4 Zoned w four VAV units OFFICE OPTION 1 Several single zone units w individual air handlers are installed above the suspended ceiling Heat pumps are used for heating amp cooling This allows individual control for each tenant and individual billing Maintenance amp service for the units is more difficult A boiler amp chiller could supply the air handlers in each space This may give excess capacity at night amp weekends and if there was a failure the entire building would be impacted Another option would be roof mounted packaged units w AC amp furnaces This would require space for chases to serve the first floor


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