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by: Porter Kirlin


Porter Kirlin
GPA 3.86

D. Kinchen

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D. Kinchen
Class Notes
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This 22 page Class Notes was uploaded by Porter Kirlin on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CM 2131 at Louisiana State University taught by D. Kinchen in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see /class/222676/cm-2131-louisiana-state-university in Construction Management at Louisiana State University.

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Date Created: 10/13/15
Industrial piping QR gig V qnmi Ea Nonmetallic emus m m m w Nonferro us Ferrous Low Alloy Steel adds alloy to carbon steel Cast quotwroughtquot iorn good for drainage Creep the tendency of a material to progressively deform over a period of time when exposed to high tepuratures ASTM American Society of Testing Materials A l a nerican sta nd ards association tells you how to put the pipe together for welding leaving ect a fabrication spec IP inside diameter Low alloy steel very small amounts of alloy elements max temp of 1100 degrees Principle AluyElements manganese phosphorous sufur nicke ch rom ium molybdenum iorn NOTALLUMNUM Stainless low limit Flanges Gasket Threaded flange Weld neck flange Important when referring to fla Blind flange Orifice ange Flange rating Socket flange weld Clock valve Ball valve negative 250 degrees bolted connection that can be taken apart and put together w no problems acts as a sealer in bw the flanges Slip on and treaded are same type except threaded has threads has limitations of temperature and pressure used 90 of the time nges size 6 type weldneck raised face WNRF 150 FCG ASSTM AISI GR lor ll caps the end of a system is an instrument registers and records the flow rate of the fluid inside the pipe determined by operating temperature and preasure used in small sizes quarter full on full off quarter full on full off EXAM 1 REVIEW Types of Corrosion 5 BASIC TYPES OF CORROSION 1 Corrosion of Iron Sowest Cathodes and Anodes equal in number and size Cathode NOT attacked Anode IS attacked Current dissipated by heat Electromechanical processNeeds oxygen and electrolyte l 1f A solution in water of salts and other compounds which conduct current The current carrying capacity of the electrolyte is due to IONS derived from salt or other chemical dissolved in the water 2 Galvanic Corrosion The FURTHER apart materials are on the Galvanic Scale the FASTER corrosion takes place 3 Crevice Corrosion Crevices have a tendency to corrode at a far greater rate than the adjacent flat metal areas Area exposed to most oxygen will become cathode Crevices should be avoided in design details lap welds lap sections riveted together etc In existing structures Fillers Mastics amp Proper Welding Techniques should be used 4 Pitting Corrosion Small chip causes quotsmallquot Anode and quotlargequot Cathode ex corrodes like a drill 5 Corrosion Under Mill Scale Form of l lquot quot while created during the fabrication of steel Different coefficients of expansion and contraction bw the film and steel causes cracks where corrosion occurs 5 METHODS OF CORROSION CONTROL 1 Altering the Environment Good maintenance beneficial less costly to fix now than replace later nhibitors can help but have Limitations Chem applications may be harmful to environment 2 Corrosion Resistant Materials PVC less expensive but has limitations pressure temp Aluminum Glass expensive No corrosion used in food industry Alloy Steels chemical resistance increased by m Amount Common alloys chromium copper nickel molybdenum Stainless Steel has high initial cost but lasts forever 3 Cathodic Protection quotDeliberater coupling two diff metals to save onequot ex wrap 100 miles of Carbon Steel pipe with cold tar epoxy and connect magnesium alloy blocks to be sacrificed utilizes galvonic corrosion corrosion battery 4 Overdesign The use of heavier structural members to offset corrosion Works well for limited life structures 5 Barriers Barriers Isolating Protection PAINT SURFACE PREPARATION quotSurface is only as good as the paint that covers itquot ex spec SSPC Steel Structure Painting Council SP Surface Prep 1 Specification 63 Last Year Revised 39 2w ailing rillfitlgzytidlilallquotPi allgil39Eilill i recognized by NACE NACE National Association of Corrosion Engineers strongest No 1 White Metal Blast Cleaning 100sfhr 100 clean wea kest most abrasive most expensive No 2 Near White Blast Cleaning 160sfhr 95 clean No 3 Commercial Blast Cleaning 400sfhr 67 clean No 4 BrushOff Blast Cleaning salt and pepper effect only one Solvent Cleaning removes oil and grease from steel prior to mechanical or acid pickle treatment Hand Tool Cleaning with wire brushes scrapers chisels etc is a very slow process good for small projects Power Tool Cleaning pneumatic or elec steel rotary brush grinding sanding etc Flame cleaning for removing scale by rapid expansion caused by heat Acid Pickling often preferred to blast cleaning in a production line setup bc less labor required and no dust produced it 2 1 Solvent 2 lmmerse in Acid Sulfuric 10 180 deg 3 Rinse 4 lmmerse in Acid Phosphoric 5 180 deg 5 RemoveRinseDry Abrasive Blasting cont quot39 39 provides more surface are of bond for primer The size of the abrasive is the only thing that determines the depth of the anchor pattern in mils m elements are needed for effective and efficient blast 1 A hard clean abrasive 2 System to deploy it Automatic Blasting Process A I39scoopedquot wheel deploys abrasive onto steel on rollersconveyor Roller speed determines level of cleaning Fastess clean Slowmore clean IV COMPONENTS OF COATINGS Coatings break down into 2 components 1 Vehicle lncludes m makes paint wet and E i resin or glue that makes it stick 2 Pigment Makes paint dry and stay 4 lncludes mm to hide surface and protect resin from UV rays May add inhibitors such as zinc to pigment aso includes to increase coverage Paint Specifications Are based on quotDry Film Thicknessquot DFT A degree of protection expressed in mils 1 Mil 0001 in Theoretical Coverage TC 1604 sf x solids 100 x DFT 10 Wet Film Thickness WFT Solids Actual Coverage TC Waste WASTE 1 Testing and adiusting of equipment Paint lost for equipment testing 2 BySpray Paint lost from missing target area 3 Rebound Higher solids more apt to rebound bounce off 4 Excess Application Apply more than needed 5 CleanUP Discarded paint from equipment and containers pot Average job has 15 waste Recap of Protective coatings Surface Prep Primer ntermediate Coat FinishTop Coating Considerations Primer 1 Intermediate Coat 1 Adequate Film Thickness High solids needed 2 Bond bw primer and top coat 3 Appearance color for safety V SCAFFOLDING 2 TYPES OF quotSWINGquot PLATFORMS 1 S ge Lifted by hand ratchet or power Cost Effective but limited in application Wind factor Weight factor Good for large items tanks 2 m Single cable Good for spot items STANDARD SCAFFOLDING First Level 1 Must be LEVEL 2 Must be STABLE panks under base plate w screwjacks TUBE AND CLAMP SCAFFOLDING Attached with right angle or swivel clamps Base same as Standard Scaffolding More expensive than Standard More expensive to Erect More quotflexiblequot than Standard Built to suite project E UIPMENT Rated by Horsepower and Draw Bar Pull Blades traight Blade used for breaking out hard dirt gle Push dirt quot quot Universal Blade Keeps dirt in front of machine All blades attached by ii kilnhr ili le39i39i attached inside or outside of tracks CATS limited by short distances usually no more than 100 yds l vlov Lift up Standard Drop down Low Pressure Wider track Ange Tilt Pitch MAIN IMPROVEMENTS FROM EARLY MODELS g m iiiv iv iwg39i riixs Better controls vision adjustability safety AC 39i izi ri Modules allow for easy replacementrepair 1 3 CLASSES 1 Hi lng UL a Most Common ii tunnel construction quot original backhoe no longer in operation Backhoe Cont 2 TYPES 1 Wheel Mounted 2 Track BASIC PARTS Fore tractor Frame Stabilizers Backhoe Difference bw backhoe and excavator Backhoe 215 deg max swing Excavator 360 deg Equipment Selection Factors Reach arm Dig depth Production Rate Factors Depth of trench Width of trench Soil type 4 Common Attachments for Backhoe Auger Jackhammer Ripper Blade I Industrial Thermal Insulation Design Considerations I HighTemp Applications gt70 F O 0 Protective Heating I Tracers in pipe to keep it within temp tolerance I Freeze Protection I Keep material uid I Improve viscosity of material I Heat calculations per BTU cheapest combo Heat Control Process Stabilization I Control rate of heat loss Heat Conservation most common I Saving heat created I Reduce heat loss Personnel Protection very common I Insulate areas where workers are I Where someone can inadvertently contact pipe Fire Protection I Insulate tank from fire to prevent pressure buildup Sound Control I Sound level must be tolerated for 8 hours without damage to hearing I LowTemp Applications lt69 F Materials Sound Control same as high temp Personnel Protection rarely used I Protect employees from injury due to cold pipe Prevention on Condensation I Apply where important Reduction of Heat Gain most common I Protect temp of material I Direct relationship between density and compressive strength I Higher compressive strength more it can handle mechanical wear I High Temp Calcium silicate I Contains inhibitors mili spec I 36quot segments cover half I Soluble chloride if it gets wet I Stress Corrosion Cracking 225F400F Expanded perlite I High soluble chloride I High upper temp limit Mineral wool I N0 COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH I Limited applications good for vertical Fiberglass I Contains soluble chloride mili spec I Binder breaks down at high temp I 439X439 boards Cellular glass I 100 closed cell structure I Water resistant no water vapor I Fragile subject to thermal shock I Not ef cient at high temps I Insulating cement I Hydraulic set I 0r mineral wool set rough texture I Soluble chloride depends on water I LowTemp I Cellular Glass same as high temp I Urethanes I Good cold material density depends on mix I 96 closed cell structure I Segments blocks liquid form I Fiberglass Same as high temp I Cork I Very rare and expensive I Used in the past when cork was cheap and available 0 Securements I Tie Wire limited by size weight up to 12quot dia pipe I Stainless good corrosion resistance I Galvanized stiffer cheaper I Monell strongest softest most expensive used when necessary I Banding I Used where wire doesn39t I secured with wing clip and banding tool I Pins I Stickpin I Weld pin I Shoulder Stud I Insulation impaled over stud and fastened with tnut o Finishes Weatherproo ng wet insulation is not ef cient won39t hold up if used wrong I Metal ackets I Works easy cheap 50ft sheets I Some corrugated smooth for horizontal work I PVC I Expensive extremely corrosion resistant glued on I Mastics and glass mastic oozes through mesh and bonds I 1015 cheaper than aluminum shorter lifetime I Water based mastic emulsion I Allows excess water to break membrane I Used for hot applications I Solvent based mastic I Vapor barrier mastic I Used on cold applications I Fireproo ng o Considerations I Steel loses 50 strength at 1000F1200F I To prevent rapid failure of supporting members I Def to protect containers fire ghting operations and re ghter personnel from the effects of support failure during fire passive Fire protection is active such as sprinklers I We re proof supports to prevent loss of life or structure in a re hazardous space 0 Materials I Cementious Mixture oldest benchmark of industry I Adv hard durable cheap I Dis heavy I Sand and cement expensive labor cost requires heavy gauge reinforcement I Proprietary Cementious Mixture I Adv hard durable lightweight I Dis some cracking I Lightweight additives pre mixed I Intumescent I Adv hard durable thin protections I Dis High smoke development expensive I Coating that reacts with heat from re I Sprayed on expensive Failed after aging Inorganic Panel I Adv hard durable can be applied in almost any condition I Dis shape problems I Prefab panels good surface prep for long life 4 hr re rating Laser Equipment 0 LASER Light Ampli cation by Stimulated Emission of Radiation o 2 types I Rotating Beam I Stationary Beam 0 Used for efficiency and accuracy 0 Does not diffuse for 1000 LF or 2000 LF in diameter Monochromatic onecolor 0 Cannot penetrate light haze or fog 0 Features I Selfleveling I Auto shutoff if unlevel 0 Types of power source I Atomic helium neon construction I C02 for cutting molecular medical Cranes o Classifications I Hydraulic telescopic cantilever boom I Friction Lattice Boom 0 Types I Truck Mounted I Rough Terrain Mounted cherry picker I Crawler Mounted I Tower Crane 0 Functions I Lift Objects I Demolition I Pile Driving I Excavation 0 Lift Considerations I Type of load I Size and shape I Height and weight of lift I Required movement radius of work I Clearance of path Average Hourly Ownership Expense Total Annual Ownership expenseAvg Use Hours per year lose 192 hours a year weather lose 64 hours 8 holidays lose more for idle time educated guess 0 total 20 416 hours all together 672 lost hours Avg Economic Life in hours normal use normal maintenance intended function Equipment Ownership disadvantages money invested Pressure is automatically on you Advantages competitive position Several Ways to obtain equipment rent buy lease lease purchase program midnight requisition steal I Industrial Piping 0 Function transportation of liquids 8 gases continuously safely and in large quantities o 2 classi cations Is a primary component of process plant Pipe work piping system that includes all the industrial components including pipe ttings valves anges supports Metallic Ferrous big ones 0 Carbon steel I Good limitations no alloy elements max temp 900F 0 Low alloy steel I Small amts of alloy elements max temp 1100F 0 Stainless steel I Large amt of alloy elements expensive max temp 1060F 39 20 different kinds Common alloy elements manganese phosphorus sulfur nickel molybdenum iron Nonferrous 0 Copper heat tracing pipe instrumentation 0 Lead heavy expensive good chemical resistance 0 Aluminum lightweight good material 0 Brass expensive certain applications used when necessary Non metallic Glass 0 Expensive fragile high initial cost used in food industry Cement 0 Large drainage pipes Rubber Mostly rubber lined pipes PVC Thermoplastic bonds by heat Thermosetting bonds by chemical reaction Cheap great when used in the right setting low labor cost Bad compressive strength limited pressure applications 0 Limited upper temp range 0 O O O Tensile strength max stress a material can withstand before it fractures Yield strength amt of force required to cause permanent deformation Creep tendency of material when exposed to high temp to progressively deform over period of time Piping specs ASTM American society for testing materials A53 grade B carbon steel ASA American standards association NPS nominal pipe size IPS iron pipe size Impact test test in which 1 or more blows at given intensity to break or fracture pipe 0 Nomenclature fittings Flanges different faces raised at tongue 8 groove come in pairs rated in lbs I I I I I I Valves Weld neck most widely used Slipon slides on and welded in place Socket weld ridge to align pipe on ange and welded in place Threaded ange threaded on inside leak slightly tac welded in place Ori ce ange metering device instrumentation device measure rate of ow Blind ange terminate a line bolted to stop ow Gate valve used fully open or fully closed cannot control rate of ow Globe valve intended to control rate of ow Cock or plug valve good for gas service opened or closed w wrench Ball valve has a handle turn 90 to open quick shutoff valve Butter y valve not used much used in water treatment plants Checkvalve used to prevent reverse ow ow one direction Ball check valve control ow one direction using ball in valve Wafer valve space saver ip opens Control valves control rate of ow automatically motorized and toed to instrumentation I Safety valve pressure relief valve to prevent dangerously high pressure Elbows 45 9 0 180 I Butt weld most widely used radius of curvature is 15pipe dia Screwed elbow threads on inside not as strong tendency to leak Socket weld pipe slides and welded in place strong good temp pressure resistance Flanged elbow only used if necessary Miter weld elbow used in large pipe 32quot and greater dia built on site Tees I Butt weld tee all one piece standard tee collar used for reinforcing I Olet welded to pipe not complete tee adds branch to pipe economical I Threaded tee weakest I Flanged tee heavy high cost used when necessary I Welded intersection 2 pieces fabed and welded together Reducers all butt welded I Concentric reducer centerline of reducer stays the same used where ow characteristics are main concern Eccentric reducer pipe reduced and centerline changes used where drainage is main concern Swage reducer swage is a reducer can have ange socket threaded or welded attachments used 99 in front or behind pumps Flanged reducers expensive can help around pumps when they need to be replaced Process Equipment 0 Column Tower Operates under temp pressure ASME boiler 8 pressure vessel code sec 8 div 1 I Stds specs for process equipment Vertical vessel I Inside dia controls specs for rest or vessel PVQ pressure vessel quality I Everything that matters beside the supporting members must be PVQ 21 semi elliptical heads on each end of vessel High inside pressure will collapse from external pressure Concrete base plate used to spread out weight and anchor bolts Nozzle short pipe with ange Manway way for man to enter vessel for routine inspections Transitions in tank I Conical cheapest most widely used I Toro conical more expensive skinny weld moved above transition I Reverse cone both weldments moved away from transition Skirts to support heavy vertical equipment I Inside dia of vessel is same as skirt I Must anchor tank to skirt and baseplate and anchor lugs I Access opening cut into skirt and replaced with pipe from base of tank I Leg bracing used on vertical vessels inside a structure Davit used to handle things that are heavy near man way used to hold heavy ange Must be able to operate 247365 Lights water air or anything required to facilitate operation of vessel Stiffener ring can be used to provide vacuum support to vessel 0 Small horizontal vessel Vertical specs apply to horizontal vessel as well Uses saddles as supports One set of bolts on saddle is fully tightened and other is slotted to allow expansion and contraction of tank under load I Pumps compressors and storage tanks 0 Pumps increase pressure of liquid and cause circulation 2 types I Central fugal impeller I Reciprocating piston used 99 of the time Can be vertical or horizontal mostly vertical Inline pumps fit into system to keep uid moving 4quot max dia Base pump any volume Reducer swage in front and behind pump Pressure indicator on downstream side of pump Always in pairs in industry as backups o Compressor increases pressure on vapor reciprocating central fugal Compress natural gas Large always horizontal base mounted spaced 300500 miles in line 0 Storage tanks 4 common types I Heat Exchangers Conical roof tank 1 atm pressure used for crude oil evaporation negligible I Kept warm to improve viscosity low rate of vaporization Floating roof tank I Roof oats on product high rate of vaporization products gasoline I no room above product roof can sink with rain pump sits on roof Bullet very long horizontal tank fits better I Used to store lightends propanes 8 butanes I Under some pressure Sphere tank I Usually in groups stores light ends I Leg supported double curvature uses spray on insulation Uncommon tanks extreme cost I Double wall tank used for LNG 250F I Carbon steel outside wall stainless inside wall I Heavily insulated foam glass underneath o Describes exactly what takes place 0 Shell 8 tube most common Usually horizontal heat transfer between 2 uids No contact between uids draws heat from one uid and gives it to another Uses pipe bundles with one uid inside a larger pipe containing other uid Very efficient raise temp differential to gain heat Canbe connected in series or parallel increase size to increase heat exchange Channel head then exchanger and bonnet head 0 Fin Fan heat exchanger similar to car radiator Fluid to air exchanger air ows across and cools pipe Always horizontal put on top of pipe rack elevated to save space and increase ef ciency Also called an air cooler 0 Double pipe heat exchanger I Normally horizontal uid to uid heat exchange I pipe inside bigger pipe I usually small can be used to heat oil for system I Motor Graders o 2 classi cations I Conventional rigid frame I Articulating jointed frame 125 of movement 0 Rated in HP and weight 0 Functions I Grading rough I Finishing ne tune I Side casting I Ditching I Bank sloping o Moldboard blade on grader I 6 movements I Lift drop angle pitch tilt Offset or Sideshift 0 300400 thousand dollars operator ef ciency allwheel drive I Frontend Loader 0 2 classi cations I Wheel type I Track type 0 3 types I Fixed frame I Articulated wheel loader I Skid steered Wheels do not provide good breakout power used on loose soil Rated in bucket size CY and HP 44160 Very versatile good in all weather conditions 0 O O 0 Very high initial cost Will ip if operated incorrectly


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