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This 37 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gaetano Price on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CMST 2061 at Louisiana State University taught by S. Pride-Shaw in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see /class/222685/cmst-2061-louisiana-state-university in Communication Studies at Louisiana State University.
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Monroe s Motivation PPN NS Gain attention of the audience Motivate them to listen how the product will benefit them and change their life Credibility you are an expert experience knowledgebeen in the same situation before Establish a need trickiest generic need a Water i Do not say you need water ii Do you need to be healthy Satisfy the need eitheror a Water i Either go to the doctor ii Or you can drink this healthy water Visualization imagine what your life will be like with this product Call to action AT THE END specific Dial the phone and order the product now sign the contract and start today CMST 2061 Final Exam Study Guide Chapter 8 Difference between Leader amp Manager Leadership involves looking for the next development or opportunity for growth and change that might lead to increased organizational growth pro tability and market share Leaders look toward tomorrow to create the new status quo That is they engage in foresight more than presentsight The manager s focus is on the here and now or what is whereas the leader s focus is on tomorrow and what can be Managers generally do the telling eg This is the way we want you to do the job whereas leaders generally do the selling e g If we were to change this process how would you do things differently The manager s primary responsibility is to organize labor whereas the leader s primary responsibility is to inspire labor The reaction to information also highlights important differences between leaders and managers Managers tend to be reactive to new information in an effort to maintain the status quo whereas leaders tend to be proactive in that they use the untested and uncertain nature of new information as an opportunity for growth The same is true with regard to vision The manager will see the future through the prism of the past and present whereas the leader will see the present through the future A nal important difference between managers and leaders is the power that they use to get things done Managers tend to use legitimate power or power that is of cially granted to them by the organization as opposed to leaders who use referent power or the ability to get followers to act because the followers like the leader and believe in his or her vision Leadership styles 7To measure effective leadership we must consider the goal of the leader and organization Leaders of a forpro t company eg Walmart and a notforpro t eg American Heart Association are subject to different measures of success Speci cally a forprofit company one gauges success by quarterly revenue whereas a notfor profit organization measures success by the amount of donations in dollars received Trait The trait leadership perspective holds that people either possess the attributes of a leader or they do not This type of effort is known as the geat man theory of leadership Ralph Stodgill believed that leadership qualities are part of a person s personality There are several traits associated with leadership First leaders possess the trait of narcissism which is the belief that they as opposed to someone else are qualified to lead This trait assumes a higher level of self con dence and selfef cacy than those levels found in followers Second the trait of charisma re ects the leader s ability to display a high degree of communication competence the ability to inspire con dence the ability to inspire subordinates as well as the ability to convince subordinates to buy into the leader s vision It is important to remember that leaders possess charisma regardless of whether their intent is for good or evil Interpretation of events also distinguishes effective leaders from ineffective leaders Locus of control is a trait that concerns how people attribute causes to outcomes in life Carl Anderson and Craig Schneier found that people who exhibit an internal locus of control ie see outcomes as being a function of their own behavior are more likely to be leaders than people who exhibit an external locus of control ie see outcomes as being a function of luck chance fate other people etc Internally oriented people also reported having greater amounts of previous leadership experience and emerge as group leaders more frequently than people who report being externally oriented There has been much debate about whether men or women are better leaders Because men and women do display differences in their leadership styles both display effective and ineffective leadership behaviors Women in organizations tend to be more nurturing and socially sensitive whereas men tend to be more assertive and use more overt power More recently researchers have found that the most effective leaders display a genderneutral style or an androgynous style which is a combination of both masculine and feminine behaviors The trait perspective assumes that leaders simply move from situation to situation giving little value to the context or the situation but another perspective holds that both the situation and the context determine which qualities and behaviors are considered leader like Therefore leadership is believed to be situationally bound Situational 7 The situational leadership perspective assumes that there is no such thing as a born leader rather people act as leaders depending on the situation Consider the following list of people and whether they would be considered leaders without the particular situations in which they were involved Rosa Parks without segregation Abraham Lincoln without the Civil War Winston Churchill without the Battle of Britain lVIartin Luther King Jr without the civil rights struggles of the 1960s Rudy Giuliani without the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and Mother Teresa without Third World poverty and oppression The situational leadership theory assumes that any leadership style should be based on both the employee s psychological maturity ie degree of self ef cacy and willingness to accept responsibility and job maturity ie degree of skills and knowledge of the task As employees maturity increases the most appropriate leadership style is more relationally focused than task focused Specifically there is a hierarchy of maturity levels and each level requires a degree of both task and relational leadership styles At the most basic maturity level a leader would use the tell style which is high in task focus and low in relationship focus The tell style is advocated for employees who have low selfef cacy and are unmotivated Therefore the leader must simply instruct or train employees in skills used in accomplishing the task Second on the continuum is the sell style which assumes that employees have some maturity and are resistant to being told what to do yet are not fully motivated to show initiative Therefore the leader should be high in both task and employee focus This type of leadership style includes explaining decisions and advising employees in an effort to motivate them for task accomplishment At the third level is the participative style This style assumes that employees have high levels of ob maturity and low levels of psychological maturity Therefore a low task focus and high relational focus style is required because employees are capable of performing the task but are unwilling or resistant to perform the task The nal approach is the delegating style which re ects high levels of employee psychological and job maturity With these employees a low task focus and a low employee focus is required In this case employees are capable of performing the task and are motivated to do so Therefore the leader should simply allow employees to perform Another situational leadership theory is Fielder s contingency theory which holds that the degree of success of any leader is contingent on the situational demands ie whether the leader should have a task or employee focus and the amount of in uence and control the leader has in the given the situation Basically in situations that are in the extreme very successful or very unsuccessful outcomes with no middle option you would want a taskoriented leader When the situation is moderate in gravity moderately successful or moderately unsuccessful an employeefocused leader would be more effective Fielder believed that you cannot change the internal qualities of leaders and that we should nd situations that match our speci c style The match of the person s strengths to the speci c situation results in effective leadership but does not guarantee that the person will be successful in all situations because effective leadership is something that is only part of a leader s personality There is no True leadership style Therefore it is difficult to identify a leader before a situation occurs It remains intuitively appealing in its assumptions because it affords everyone the chance of being a leader given the right circumstances Exch an ge Looks at the quality of the relationship between the leader and subordinates in the organization to determine leadership effectiveness Leadermember exchange theory LMX theory assumes that leaders behave differently to individual members of the organization based on the interpersonal nature of each relationship That is leaders develop either highquality links or lowquality links with subordinates A highquality link is characterized by high trust respect and an overall positive tone whereas a lowquality link is characterized by mistrust lack of respect and an overall negative tone Subordinates with highquality links to the leader are called ingroup members as opposed to subordinates with low quality links to the leader who are called outgroup members Ingroup members are promoted more quickly and are more team oriented than outgroup members Another exchangebased leadership approach is transformational leadership Our culture values equal rights and justice but it also values competition and commitment Transformational leadership focuses on empowering individual workers and helping the organization adapt to changes in both intemal and external environments The basic premises of transformational leadership are as follows 1 the leader is an agent of change 2 the leader emphasizes the self actualization of subordinates and 3 leaders pursue the goals of the organization as well as satisfy the higher level needs of followers including opportunities for growth and selfful llment Tichy and Devanna highlighted seven characteristics that separate transformational leaders from other types of leaders Characterisitcs of Transformational Leaders Transfomiational Characteristics Thoughts Feeii ngs and Behaviors We Identi ed 35 Understand that the only thing that Change 3997quot remains stable in organizations is instability Welcome the challenge of being innovating and changing as the environment demands Show courage Will risk being ridiculed for the success of the organization and followers Have a clear vision Are able to constandy envision the future and possibilities that accompany change and innovation Are driven by values Demonstrate impeccable moral ber and integrate this moral code into they daytoday function of the organization and organizational members Never stop learning new Are lifelong learners who are always information interested in better ways of doing things Rarely satisfied with the status guo and always looking for the next innovation WCOF UE menainly arid Thrive on chaos and welcome complex ambiQU39ti39 challenges UncertaintyI and z imbiguitil are motivating and represent an opportunity for growth Believe in workers Have an undying commitment to bettering organizational members through opportunities for learning and growt Transformational leadership involves constant change and adaptation Given that society and organizational life are constantly changing effective leaders must adapt appropriately to those changes The only thing constant according to the transformational approach is the seven leadership characteristics described orgs as leaders Have you ever considered an organization as a whole when discussing leadership Peters and Waterman developed a set of seven interrelated concepts known as the McKinsey 7S Framework which is based on structure strategy systems style skills staff and shared values Peters and Waterman delineated eight attributes common to all 43 excellent companies studied Bias for action These companies exhibit a let s try it and see what happens attitude This shows a willingness to experiment with innovative ideas to see if there is any bene t to the company Close to the customer These companies view customers as the sole reason they exist and constantly remind employees of this fact Further the customer is considered an invaluable resource for innovation and change Autonomy and entrgpreneurship Excellent companies support and encourage risk taking internal competition as well as a high number of innovations They encourage innovations because the greater the number of total innovations given that some will fail the greater the number of successful innovations Productivity through people Although these companies are totally performance centered they see productivity not as a result of organizational control but as something born of the organization s great expectations for each employee The culture that results lters out lowperforming employees Lowperforming employees soon nd that they do not fit in the organization and will selfselect out Hands on value driven People at all levels of the organization get involved in all of the tasks performed by the organization For example at Service lVIaster Corporation which is the largest facility maintenance organization in the world all top management from the CEO down to front line supervisors will take one day out of the year put on work clothes and perform cleaning duties such as mopping oors dusting and vacuuming Stick to the knitting Excellent companies focus only on doing what they do best They do not seek to grow for the sake of growing Basically this concept urges organizations to stick with the services products andor sectors that have brought success in the first place Simple form lean staff Companies that enjoy great success have extremely streamlined organizational structures Authority is well de ned at all levels of the organization Simultaneous loosetight properties Excellent companies give departments and divisions a great degree of autonomy and latitude At the same time however all departments and divisions are bound to the central value system and culture of the organization One of the key lessons from the Peters and Waterman book is that excellence is temporary As society technology and consumer tastes change excellent organizations must also adapt change and innovate to stay relevant Simply put what is effective today will be ineffective tomorrow Applied It has become common practice in business to promote employees who are successful at what they do This is the best recipe for managerial disaster More often than not this person may not be an effective leader It is one thing to be a high quality producer at a task and quite a different thing to manage people who produce This notion is also known as the Peter Principle That is people rise to their level of incompetence This is a principle of hierarchiology and holds that organizational members are promoted to their highest level of competence Any further promotion results in becoming incompetent Success therefore is about growing other people through making your workers better more intelligent and more secure in their professional identities This is accomplished through nurturing and support and is not as easy as it seems For example chances are you are reading this material because you hope to get one of the best grades in the course When you complete your degree you work hard to be promoted to a position of power All of this focus is about you This type of focus is vital to initial success However when you become a leader you must turn off this tendency toward selffocus That is you must behave in ways that differ completely from the behaviors that brought you initial professional success New York Mayor Giuliani s l4 leadership principles First things rst Meetings are the most important vehicle for setting reaching an overachieving goals Prepare relentlessly Never stop learning about the issues people tasks and any other aspect related to your mission Everyone s accountable all of the time Don t expect more from your people than you would from yourself A leader is a model a mentor and a benchmark for the rest of the organization Surround yourself with great people This includes people who have diverse experiences opinions and perspectives Further consult people who are noted authorities on any given issue Employ people who think differently than you but who are equally as great Re ect then decide Never make a decision until you have to However you should begin thinking about the possible decision choices immediately Underpromise and overdeliver This concept re ects the ability to make goals that you know are attainable and then overachieve or at least meet the goal Develop and communicate strong beliefs The notion that people believe and are willing to follow you assumes that you are relaying a belief system that is seen as legitimate and sound Be your own person Tapping into and understanding your unique leadership attributes will enable you to lead people in a way that is consistent with your genetic predisposition ie leadership traits as well as your experiences ie socially learned leadership behaviors Loyalty The vital virtue Loyalty is the mark of a noble leader A person must be willing to stick with his or her convictions even in the face of adversity Weddings discretionag funerals mandatog An effective leader understands that profound events occur in the lives of team members It is not enough simply to recognize these events It is pivotal to also act during these events Stand up to bullies This concept is simply not taught in terms of leadership qualities Bullies are people who use power eg nancial physical emotional to control others The assumption that everyone has value is vital to an effective leader Because bullies are selffocused their actions are exactly opposite those of a leader Action is all about them The leader on the other hand will stand up for others who cannot stand up for themselves regardless of the odds of success or failure Study read and learn independently An effective leader is a constant student intellectually curious and willing to put in the time to understand concepts that he or she deems necessary and valuable Organize around a purpose Leadership involves purpose Having a clear and concise reason for existing is critical for both leaders and followers alike Consider how mission statements are developed They are clear unambiguous statements that re ect the core reason for the organization s existence Bribe only those who will stay bribed Some people can be given something and will be satisfied whereas others when given something will only come back for more An effective leader must know how to navigate through obstacles and difficult personalities Relationships from Moodle Dimensions of relationships Power and Status Attraction Involvement and Situation Power Referent Expert Legitimate Reward and Coercive Stages Coming Together Initiating Experimenting intensifying integrating and Bonding Coming Apart Differentiating circumscribing stagnating avoiding and terminating superior subordinate relationships peer harassment Chapter 9 Language in workplace Comrnunication is the glue that keeps the organization together Language can be de ned as a collection of signs symbols codes and rules used to construct and convey messages These elements form the medium through which we communicate our ideas desires and feelings The main function of language is to allow human beings to stimulate meaning in the minds of other people Human beings have an innate ability to acquire a language In other words people are hard wired to acquire a language Just as society changes so too does language What is and what is not considered language First there are behaviors called signs that are not considered to be language Signs are things that stand for or represent something else The thing that the sign is representing is called a referent In other words the sign is indicating that something else is present For example in a bad national and local economy employee downsizing is a common practice Therefore the sign of a bad economy can be an indicator of an organizational action the referent of downsizing The two types of signs are signals and symbols Signals are direct one toone relationships with the things that they represent For example the symptoms of a runny nose pounding head and nausea all may be indicating the onset of in uenza whereas coworkers who are happy upbeat and overall helpful may be indicating that it is a Friday afternoon The second type of sign is known as a symbol and re ects humanmade or arti cial phenomena Symbols are considered arbitrary and ambiguous because people in a society simply agree that a particular word represents something and there is no direct referent with what the symbols represent By arbitrary and ambiguous we are referring to words such as cool nuts canned and given the ax For example if you think critically about the meaning of these words cool can re ect a temperature or something that is desirable or correct whereas the word canned can re ect something that has been sealed in a metal container being terminated from an organization or a generic way of doing something A ritual is a sign behavior that is neither totally arbitrary like a symbol nor symptomatic like a signal Consider sitting in a business meeting that started at 200 pm and is scheduled to conclude at 3 30 pm At about 320 pm people will begin to dget and behave in ways that re ect slight discomfort Some of these behaviors may be signs of being uncomfortable or signs that are intentionally displayed to send a message to the chairperson of the meeting There are two different types of meaning that are given to language Denotative meaning re ects the literal or dictionary meaning of a word Connotative meaning is the subjective association people attach to verbal messages In connotative meaning judgment and evaluation of language come into play When a coworker asks you to go out for a couple of drinks after work what is he or she actually requesting Have 2 drinks 10 drinks start an outofwork friendship start a romantic relationship or something else entirely Connotative meanings tend to be heavily in uenced by the situation in which the language is used Some simple suggestions when addressing superiors in the organization First always use last names for managers and executives until told to do otherwise If you witness most people in the organization using rst names then follow that pattern Second ask permission to address someone based on how he or she signs letters If someone signs his letters Bob then ask if it is appropriate to address him as Bob Styles Much of our language choice and use is done in a mindless fashion For example how many times a day does the average person say Hi Hello or what s up This mindlessness can become second nature For example if someone believes that all union members are lazy or all managers are abusive this person will interact in ways that will relay this information even though the person may not be aware of it The same can be said for positive language and negative language The use of negative language creates an impression of someone who is pessimistic and threatened by situations people and places The negative explanatory style is somewhat infectious and can turn a wellfunctioning work team into a dysfunctional group On the other hand use of positive language projects a con dent wellmeaning and teamoriented person Language is also in uenced by our gender People tend to avoid using masculine pronouns and choose more gender neutral terms for both males and females as well as avoid language that sex stereotypes job titles In the workplace we generally address someone as lVIr or Ms and this does not require us to know the marital status of the people we are addressing Although there have been great advances with regard to using genderneutral terms for describing occupations some occupations still remain gendered by language For example when a male chooses the profession of nursing he is commonly referred to as a male nurse as opposed to being referred to as a nurse Learned differences often result in communication breakdowns when members of one sex try to use their language behaviors in speaking with members of the other sex For example men generally do not have as large a vocabulary when it comes to language about their emotional state Perception The structure of language we use in uences the way we perceive the environment It is a common assumption that the more words a given culture has for something the more valuable it is to the culture and the better it is understood For example a boss believes that there are two types of people people who are ambitious and people who are lazy This categorization grossly oversimpli es the range of work performance that lies between being ambitious and lazy Therefore the boss s perception of employees is constrained by the language he uses to describe employees The language we choose when posing questions to others also influences how people perceive and react to such questions The language we use when developing questions can drastically change what is implied about the question as well as the relationship between the two people in the interaction Ex 1 Could you possibly work harder on this project 2 Could you possibly work harder on this project Paralanguage is the use of all elements associated with the voice other than the actual words we use Things such as inflection tone speech rate and accent are all examples of this type of communication Paralanguage can be mindful or mindless depending on the person using it Competent communicators will be aware of the paralinguistic messages they are sending whereas less competent communicators can be unaware of the messages being sent and as such suffer negative relational and professional consequences Power The pursuit of power control and status is believed to be the core of many social relationships especially those occurring within the organization Verbal intensifiers are words that increase the intensity of the emotion the speaker is experiencing as opposed to the literal information contained in the message For example a coworker comes back from a meeting with her boss and w en asked about it states It was such a wonderfully superproductive meeting The way the person feels wonderful and superproductive about the meeting draws the listener s attention to the emotional state of the speaker and draws less attention to the content of the meeting People should be careful when using verbal inter1si ers because their chronic use communicates a powerless position Verbal quali ers are words that reduce the strength and impact of credibility This type of language use is relevant in the speech patterns of the powerless person because it draws away from the speaker s certainty of the statement as well as the assertion made by the statement 1 I may be wrong but 2 This may sound dumb but 3 This is not my area of expertise but Tag questions are a form of powerless language use that are tagged onto the end of the statement as opposed to verbal quali ers which are attached to the front of the statement and greatly detract from the power and status of the speaker By adding questions on the end of sentences speakers indicate to listeners that they are either unsure of their position on the issue or that the listener will not agree with the statement The length of the requests that people make also reveals insights into both the sender and receiver of the message Long requests are called compound requests and re ect a more powerless less assertive and lower status position There is one caveat to this generalization Powerlessness as indicated by longer length of requests should not be confused with politeness Polite people tend to have longer requests due to the addition of language that is affirming to the person they are speaking to The perception of language can also be in uenced by the gender of the person using it Women tend to use more verbal intensi ers verbal quali ers tag questions and lengthening of requests than men Female language styles were seen as less powerful than were male patterns Powerful language is perceived to be a male 1ype of language Therefore when a male uses such language people may describe him as con dent determined and precise whereas when a woman employs similar language she is viewed as difficult hostile and undesirable Language can protect us from threats to our psychological wellbeing Language can be used to protect ourselves from situations that can result in negative consequences Selfhandicapping is one such linguistic device and is de ned as the adoption or advocacy of impediments to success in a situation where the person anticipates failure By assuming a self handicap the person has an excuse for the impending failure and thereby may maintain selfesteem and the illusion of competence For example a manager is expecting you to provide a presentation You show up with the presentation and upon beginning the presentation you mention how your 3yearold child had the u and this resulted in your missing several hours of sleep Interaction including CAT Communication accommodation theory CAT says we use language to t in with people we like and are attracted to much more than people whom we are not According to CAT there are two central premises at work First when communicating with others people try to accommodate or adjust their style of language to one another Second people perform this accommodation process to gain approval increase communication ef ciency and createmaintain a positive selfimage with the person with whom they are speaking People engage in two different strategies when interacting with others convergence and divergence The use of convergence strategies re ects how people use language to adapt to one another When we use convergence strategies we seek to increase liking membership and sociological status with the other person Overconvergence occurs when a person adapts to the language patterns of another person to the point that the language use is perceived as condescending and ridiculing Divergence re ects how people maximize vocal and linguistic differences to highlight differences between themselves and others People utilize divergence strategies when they want to maintain social distance Divergence is also a strategy that people use to establish credibility Interaction adaptation theory IAT was developed to explain conscious communicative behavior or behavior that is mindful intentional and symbolic Adaptation re ects the degree to which we alter our behavior in response to the behavior of another person There are no random adaptations when people interact with each other all adaptation is considered intentional The major in uence on your behavior will be the behaviors of the other person The two adaptation patterns that people use in an interaction re ect either reciprocating patterns or compensating patterns Adaptation that uses reciprocating patterns re ects matching behavior or reciprocating the behavior of the other person This is similar to the communication accommodation theory concept of converging our speech patterns to the other person to show liking and af liation Adaptation as a compensating pattern re ects the balancing out of the other s behavior An example of this would be a subordinate who is incredibly excited and enters his supervisor s of ce to say that he is putting his entire life savings into the buying and selling of real estate In this case the supervisor s interaction pattern may be one of a cautious and skeptical tone thus not matching the euphoric and excited patterns of the subordinate When we rst encounter someone in conversation we bring with us a host of conversational requirements R 1 quot E and quot 39 desires D with regard to the person and the speci c conversation These three components are referred to as RED For example a person may have a great need to avoid a dif cult coworker ie conversational requirement This need for avoidance can be so strong that it supersedes our desires ie individual interests and our expectations ie what is social appropriate behavior in that situation Language expectancy Language expectancy theory LET is based on how people are persuaded LET focuses on language and how language affects both the change and reinforcement of attitudes and beliefs This theory seeks to explain why some linguistic forms of persuasive messages are more effective than others Ex male with accent versus female without accent When people engage in persuasion they need to consider how the audience was culturally programmed to determine what is considered competent and appropriate persuasive communication as well as what is considered inappropriate and ineffective language use When we violate linguistic norms either positively or negatively these violations have effects on the perceived appropriateness and effectiveness of the persuasive message The formation of linguistic expectations can encompass entire social categories such as sex ethnicity organizational position tenure in the organization and socioeconomic status As such these categories de ne what is considere appropriate communication behavior For example males have greater linguistic freedom than females For example a male supervisor addressing a work team about slumping sales would probably be afforded a much greater bandwidth e g using profanity intimidation sympathy support than would a female supervisor addressing the same group Other social classes may be constrained to a small bandwidth or not given a large degree of linguistic freedom regarding what is considered appropriate linguistic strategies People with high credibility are afforded greater bandwidth than people with low credibility When we believe that a person has a degree of expertise or is highly trustworthy we tend to afford that person more latitude in the types of language he or she uses when trying to persuade us Conversation analysis Conversation analysis theory CA views communication as actions constructed by communicators out of talk and body behavior Communication is considered a primary resource through which social life is constructed Communication is a re ection of how people construct and maintain relationships Conversational analysis theory provides a framework through which the practice of talk can be analyzed in a way that reveals not only how communication patterns can constrain a relationship but also how changes in the action of talk can rede ne relationships Ex You are promoted and no longer use Mr and Ms The change in name re ects an equal power between two people CA consists of three main components for understanding talk talk is action action is structured and action is locally organized Talk is something that people do Talk is something that can be viewed as performance or something people do beyond merely describing something or transmitting information The action is guided by a structure that allows the communicators to coordinate the interaction in a way that allows for things such as turn taking and establishes patterns of interaction The third component of CA is that action is locally organized There are two ways that the term local is conceptualized First local can mean what is relevant to the interactants within a speci c or particular context The context is believed to be created and enacted by the particular behaviors of the interactants Consider how people interact on Monday mornings Some Mondays are different from others but taken as a whole Monday morning conversations have a similar tone when compared to Friday afternoon conversations Second local can refer to adjacency or sequence of actions as a process for communicators to work together in predictable ways to construct a recognizable course of action Given that misunderstanding and confusion are inherent in human communication people also develop patterns or practices of conversational repair Conversational repair can be used not only to clarify problems of communication or meaning but also to achieve other communication goals That is when someone says something that is not understood ie speaker has a set of practices for xing the problem and the recipients have a set of practices for prompting the speaker to fix it Sexual harassment and language Unwelcome sexual advances requests for sexual favors and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature constitute sexual harassment when this conduct explicitly or implicitly affects an individual s employment unreasonably interferes with an individual s work performance or creates an intimidating hostile or offensive work environment Further The victim as well as the harasser may be a woman or a man The victim does not have to be of the opposite sex The harasser can be the victim s supervisor and agent of the employer a supervisor in another area a coworker or a nonemployee The victim does not have to be the person harassed but could be anyone affected by the offensive conduct Unlawful sexual harassment may occur without economic injury to or discharge of the victim The harasser s conduct must be unwelcome Often people use the term political correctness PC referring to language that is strategically used to replace other language so as not to be discriminatory harassing or offensive to others Sexual harassment can be based on two factors 1 quid pro quo defined as sexual behavior in exchange for something eg promotions pay raise time off and 2 the creation and maintenance of a hostile work environment that re ects a sexually charged work atmosphere The hostile environment criterion is based on judgment such as the degree to which the person was victimized if at all Theories to explainpredict sexual harassment The sexrole spillover approach assumes that when the sex ratio is disproportionate ie more men than women or vice versa there is a higher probability for sexual harassment The power differential approach assumes that the larger the power difference between people the more probable that there will be sexual harassment We rarely hear of complaints from people in powerful positions claiming to be harassed by subordinates This is not to say that such incidences do not take place but that the person in power has the ability to terminate the employee on the spot thus ending any further problems The sociopsychological approach assumes that there are particular combinations of an individual s personality and speci c situations that when aligned bring about sexual harassment It is assumed that some people have the predisposition to harass others but having that predisposition does not mean that a person will do so Instead sexually harassing behavior is most likely to emerge when a person with a predisposition for sexually harassing behavior is in a situation that fosters emergence of that behavior A fourfactor model of sexually harassing behavior These four factors consist of two internal factors and two external factors The intemal factors consist of motives for harassment and overcoming internal inhibitors Motives for harassment can range from a need for power and dominance over someone else to a desire to exercise total control over someone The external factors consist of overcoming external inhibitors and overcoming victim resistance Overcoming external inhibitors consists of issues such as organizational reaction to the behavior and any legal rami cations that the harasser may encounter Overcoming victim resistance concerns using power factors such as job factors which affords the more powerful person the privilege of being the initiator of most communication with subordinates thus allowing an opportunity for the higher status person to move beyond the victim s refutations Whenever a case is settled in a civil litigation generally the accused harasser as well as the organization are identi ed as the defendants It is therefore imperative for organizations to address problematic behavior before it starts This is not just a moral argument this is also a nancial argument Most if not all major corporations offer some form of training in identifying and addressing harassing behaviors Corp suffers because it s costly and embarrassing Victim suffers because people judge and victim has to go get another job Chapter 10 Close encounters The amount of space a client needs to feel comfortable varies according to an assortment of factors Cultural differences age sex and personality all play a major part in the preferred style of negotiation Peers will tolerate a closer range of contact than people with a wide gap in age Conversations between females will occur at closer range than malefemale talks and maletomale encounters show the most distance People who are outgoing by nature are comfortable in a closer friendlier position than those who are shy or aloof Once a prospect and a sales person have built a relationship the speaking distance between the two decreases Estimates for the amount of space a person will need in a given situation vary Intimate Space Up to 15 feet Back off This is too close for business situations Personal Space 172 feet Use for longtime clients and only if they are comfortable Social Space 7 feet This distance allows room for stretching and gesturing without invading the client s territory Public Space 10 feet or more This is a good distance for delivering a speech or making small presentations A person feels that his territory is the area or space that he claims as his own Along with his personal territory man has his own private portable air bubble that he carries around with him The size of his portable bubble is dependent on the density of the population where he grew up 5 ch annels CHANNEL ONEiBODY ANGLE Ifthe prospect is seated in an upright posture and all of his body movement is directed toward you you are receiving a positive signal that the negotiation is heading in a successful direction A client will sit closer to you if he feels comfortable and friendly he will lean his body towards you if he is intent on listening to your presentation Typically the client is sending a negative message if he leans back in his chair 1 Slumped posture low spirits dejection 2 Erect posture high spirits energy and con dence 3 Leaning forward interest openness positive attitude toward other person 4 Leaning away distrusting defensive and disinterested 5 Crossed arms defensive not listening unsympathetic 6 Uncrossed arms willingness to listen accessible 7 Sitting on edge of chair receptive ready to listen 8 Unbuttoning suit coat agreement is near CHANNEL TW07FACE eyebrow ashiThis gesture appears almost universally at the beginning of the greeting phase It is the rapid up and down movement of the eyebrows that signals acknowledgement of another person eye contactiOne can regard too much eye contact as communicating superiority or a lack of respect The interpretation of too little eye contact is that someone is not paying attention is covering up his true emotions is being insincere or is being impolite If a client gazes past the negotiator or around the room he is probably bored Direct eye contact signals honesty and interest facial expressioniA person s state of health can affect facial expression Anxiety causes a person s face to show stress People who generally feel bad frown more than those who feel good Depressed people smile wider and longer to cover up the fact that they are unhappy Genuine facial expressions only last seconds People even judge such things as criminality from the face some believe that the more pleasant the face the less likely it is that the person could commit a cr1me smilesiThe smile is the most universally used and the most positive facial expression Genuine smiles involve the whole face An unforced con dent smile signi es that the client is content with the information that he is hearing CHANNEL THREEiARMS A defensive prospect raises his hands in a stop gesture or has his upper arms and elbows as far back on his chair as they will go The client who places one arm on the back of his own chair is displaying con dence Handsbehindthehead signals a position of dominance A client typically shows rejection to your ideas when he crosses or folds his arms across his chest When he places his hands on his hips he is sending you a message of de ance and readiness to move on with the conversation CHANNEL FOURiHANDS Open and relaxed hands especially when the palms are facing upward are a positive selling signal Tightly clinched sts represent defensiveness People who use selftouching gestures such as hands on chin ear nose arm or clothing indicate that they are tense or nervous Fidgeting with hair pens paper or paper clips are annoying and are all gestures typically done by those who are impatient or nervous CHANNEL FIVEiLEGS Even if the client appears to be open and positive if he keeps his legs crossed he may have some minor hesitations that will prevent the negotiator from successfully completing the negotiation On the other hand uncrossed legs send a message of cooperation con dence and friendly interest in the other person An individual who keeps his feet on his desk during a negotiation displays an attitude of ownership superiority and dominance Although it is best not to cross your legs at all a leg crossed toward the client is acceptable in the early phase of a sale If the client mirrors the negotiator s legscrossedtoward position he is sending a message that he feels mentally tuned in to what he is hearing Gestures This section is unnecessarily long and goes into excruciating detail about hands I tried to pick out the most important info but just letting you know there is lots more hand gestures cooccur just slightly before hesitations Putting the ngertips of one hand against the ngertips of the other is a form of steepling that conveys con dence and superiority A speaker uses it during presentations when he is selfassured about his information Those who cling to objects during negotiations such as notebooks les or tables show a need for support The action conveys confusion insecurity and difficulty in coping with the current situation Twisted hands crossing both hands then clasping the palms together are an expression of a complex personality or a difficult emotional life This manner in which the hands are held together conveys a need to conceal information Thumb displays in North America are positive signals and are signs of proudness Exposed thumbs are used to display dominance superiority or even aggression When a person places the tip of his bent fore nger upon his lips and keeps it there while he ponders he is sending out a message that he either has something to say or that he would like the speaker to stop talking In reading clients a negotiator should look for Open and relaxed hands especially when the palms are facing upward These are positive selling signals Selftouching gestures such as hands on chin ear nose arm or clothing indicate tension Probing for dif culties or simply relaxing the pace of the presentation can calm the client Gestures that contradict a facial expression Actions speak louder than words and these involuntary hand gestures indicate the client s true feelings Watch for tightly clasped hands or sts that signal defensiveness Eye signals Same as with gestures Just wayyy to much detailed stuff that probably won t be on the test In America make eye contact A person s pupils dilate when he becomes excited or frightened An angry or negative mood causes an individual s pupils to contract making his beady eyes appear as though they have narrowed In normal conversations eye contact plays an important role as the regulator of turn taking A person needs to rst establish eye contact with someone to start a conversation then if the person looks back he has granted permission to begin speaking As two people enjoy a conversation each looks away intermittently then glances back toward the other to check in When one conversation partner nishes speaking he gives permission via eye contact for the other person to speak If a person does not want to be interrupted he should avoid the listener s gaze Generally when seeking stored information the eyes will go to the left When seeking creative answers eyes will travel to the right THE BUSINESS GAZE Keeping a gaze directed at an inverted triangle on the other person s forehead eyeeyemiddleofforehead allows a negotiator to create a serious atmosphere in a business conversation He can easily maintain control of the interaction if his gaze does not drop below the level of the other person s eyes It is a technique that allows the speaker and listener to leave the impression that each is attentive and committed to the conversation THE SOCIAL GAZE Social gazing happens when the point of the triangle drops to include the chin area This more intimate gaze allows the negotiator to look into the eyes of his client while also observing his mouth It is a gaze that occurs in casual conversations between friends and allows the eyes to follow a natural continuous path along the three points THE INTIMATE GAZE This gaze goes across the eyes below the chin and down to the chest area It is considered a very intimate gaze and one should not use it in business conversations When presenting to a large audience it is essential for a speaker to move his gaze so that each person receives some eye contact and feels included in the lecture Chapter 11 Handout Responsive Listening Styles are should is do that because worry you39ll be fine is another day you do you plan to do now Information sound really me see ifl understand how you feel Chapter 11 Intro 0 According to research we are listening about 80 of our waking hours which makes it our most frequently used communication skill o 80 of executives ranked listening as the most important workplace skill Listening to Customers 0 By listening to customers an organization can learn objective information about its products and services 0 Can suggest product improvements that may have been overlooked 0 Listening to customers can tell us a great deal about the competition 0 One way to communicate with customers is through a public or company blog 0 Listening to customers can increase sales and customer satisfaction Listening to employees 0 Listening to employees shows support and an open climate which increases employee satisfaction and productivity 0 Manager s responses must communicate acceptance of the person supporting or listening to you 0 Ways that managers can listen 0 Deal and Kennedy state I 1 Write down key beliefs they hope employees share I 2 Listen to what employees believe is the quotheart of the business I 3 Compare views If significant challenges that lie ahead 0 Ask hard hitting opinion questions of groups and then discuss them 0 Employees must feel as though manager is sincere Listening to coworkers 0 Effective listening with peers is improved when we are aware of which listening method is needed Comprehension Therapeutic or Critical Listening to coworkers may be made difficult because of technology cultural differences or lack of personal differences about the other Technology such as email can also improve communication Listening to Supervisors o It is important to show that you re listening Listeners can show their listening by maintaining good eye contact a relaxed posture shaking the head and responsive sounds quotuh huh 0 Managers who suspect the employee is not listening repeat themselves ask for feedback or become frustrated These are time consuming and can hurt the career of the employee Signs of Poor Listening 0 As a manager a sure sign of poor listening is when employees go around you or over your head to talk to others By breaking this chain of command it is frustrating for both the employee and the manager this results when the manager s poor listening leaves the employee no choice 0 Employees must have someone in authority who will listen to them 0 Another sign is learning about important events too late Cause of Poor listening 0 Physical Barriers o A hearing disability noisy office or loud conversation 0 Personal Barriers 0 Physical wellbeing Illness and fatigue Psychological distractions personal problems of finances spouse problems Attitudinal biases judging and creating biases on the other person 0 Gender Differences 0 Women typically are better at decoding nonverbal cues view communication as a cooperative tool and work harder to maintain discussions Men talk more often and longer view communication as competitive and tend to interrupt more often 0 Semantic Barriers 0 Having different meanings interpretations or opinions on the same words stems from oddities of language Bad Listening Habits o The ineffective listener assumes the topic will be boring o The listener criticizes the speaker s delivery 0 Interrupts to disagree with the speaker or mentally argues against the speaker s ideas 0 Listens only for facts rather than the principles to which they relate 0 Takes detailed notes rather than REALLY listening 0 Reacts emotionally to some messages by tuning out the speaker o Daydreams during long presentations Improving listening skills 0 Understanding the basic stages 0 Sensing selecting or ignoring one or more stimuli Interpreting assign messages they have heard seen and felt Evaluating determine speaker credibility and message importance Responding reacting to speech usually through nonverbal cues Remember retain parts ofmessage in memory Attribution theory 0 Fritz Heider How individuals attribute causes to events 0 An important assumption of attribution theory is that people will interpret their environment in such a way as to maintain a positive self image That is they will attribute their successes or failures to factors that will enable them to feel as good as possible about themselves o In general this means that when learners succeed at an academic task they are likely to want to attribute this success to their own efforts or abilities but when they fail they will want to attribute their failure to factors over which they have no control such as bad teaching or bad luck I 3 step process 0 Perceive an action 0 Judge intent ofan action 0 Attribute reason for action Chapter 12 Dimensions of Relationships 0 Power and status refers to the ability of an individual to exert influence over others 0 No person in an organization is without power but because of the hierarchical nature of organizations some people have more influence than others 0 These scholars identified five bases from which people draw power o Referent power is viewed as the extent to which a person is liked by others Those possessing high levels of referent power are admired by others for their personal qualities and others often to seek to be like this person 0 Expert power is viewed as the extent to which a person is perceived as possessing extensive knowledge or expertise in a subjectactivity o Legitimate power is viewed as influence that stems from a code or standard of conduct In a business setting that code will include the formal authority granted to a person because of his or her position eg manager Coercive power is viewed as the extent to which a person is capable of punishing or withholding O benefits from others Reward power is viewed as the extent to which a person is capable of awarding benefits to 0 others 0 A second Dimension is an individual39s level of attraction is often assumed to be linked to physical characteristics o In business settings we think of attraction as a general feeling or desire that impacts on our willingness to initiate and maintain a relationship with others in the organization People in business settings may be perceived as more or less attractive based on quot factors success or skill level o In terms of attraction we initiate and maintain relationships based on 0 Task attractiveness The qualities that are considered appealing when the goal is to carry out workplace responsibilities People at work seek to build relationships with others who are known for getting the job done 0 Proximity attractiveness The closer our physical distance the more likely we will build a relationship with the other party 0 Social attractiveness Degree to which an individual is liked and valued by others for their social skills 0 Supportivementoring attractiveness Organizations are social systems in which qualities such as empathy and helpfulness are valued A third dimension of relationships is known as involvement which refers to the amount of interaction that takes place between the relational parties In general more interaction tends to lead to a greater degree of selfdisclosure and the perception of commitment to the other party A fourth Dimension is the situation or circumstances in which people work together will also impact on the relationship that they develop When circumstances change in the workplace relationships will likely be affected 0 Dimensions of relationships change over time Conflictrelated trait o Verbal Aggressiveness o Verbal Abuse is becoming more and more common in our society In the home school public areas television and of course the workplace I Verbal aggressiveness is defined as a tendency to attack the selfconcept of another person with the intent to inflict psychological harm or pain According to nfante amp Wigley 1986 0 Reasons for verbal aggressiveness in the workplace I Temperament of the person O O o This explanation holds that people are or are not verbally aggressive because they are biologically programmed to be that way 0 le Consider a supervisor who is always losing his temper no matter who he is speaking with This supervisor s aggressive behavior is rooted in his biology not his psychology I Disdain o This explanation holds that people use verbal aggression when they have a deepseated dislike for a person Says we carry around repressed hostility from a past traumatic experience When we are faced with a similar situation we attack the person for the pain caused by the past experience as well as for the present situation 0 le If you had a terrible work experience with a supervisor years ago and encounter a supervisor who behaves in a similar way you may verbally attack this person for perceived injustices done to you by a previous supervisor 0 Social learning assumes that we learn to use or not use verbal aggression in the workplace based on whether or not the behavior reaps a reward or a punishment 0 Le if we see an employee use verbal aggression with a supervisor and reap some benefit eg promotion extra time off we learn that the aggressive behavior is rewarded However if we see an employee verbally attack a supervisor and the employee is then reprimanded or terminated we learn not to be verbally aggressive because such behavior has negative consequences I Skills De ciency 0 When an employee lacks the ability to make or generate argument this person can become frustrated and resort to personal attacks 0 Side note teaching employees how to argue may reduce their tendency to use verbal aggression Rancer amp Avtgis 2006 Several forms of verbally aggressive communication including I competence attacks ie attacking someone s inability to do something I character attacks ie attacking someone for poor character such as llYou re a cheaterquot I profanity ie using obscene words and generally vulgar language I teasing and ridicule ie making light of someone s shortcomings in an antagonistic fashion I maledictions ie using phrases that wish someone harm I threats ie insinuating physical or psychological harm to another person I personality attacks ie attacking characteristics of the person s personality I nonverbal verbal aggression ie using nonverbal gestures to intimidate or humiliate another person Research findings on verbal aggression within the workplace overwhelmingly endorse the notion that verbal aggression is destructive to the employee and the organization as a whole Research indicates that employees who have a supervisor who is high in verbal aggressiveness report being less satis ed less committed and more frustrated on the job see Infante amp Rancer 1996 o Summa if you tend to be high in verbal aggressivenessI work hard to avoid attacking your 39 39 selfconcept because doing so can cost vou a 39 a iob andor 39 and mav escalate a verballv 39 into a phvsicallv 39 exchange 0 Argumentativeness o In today s culture people seem to be losing their ability to debate issues without resorting to personal attacks 0 One of the primary reasons for this response is our inability to distinguish between discussing issues of difference and verbally attacking the person who disagrees with us 0 Conflict should be a welcomed opportunity to work through areas of disagreement between two people 0 The tendency to approach or avoid arguing with others is termed trait argumentativeness Trait argumentativeness is defined as a tendency to present and defend positions on controversial issues while simultaneously attacking the positions of others on those issues Infante amp Rancer 1982 o VERY IMPORTANT CONCEPT The focus of effective arguing is on refuting theposition of the other person as opposed to refuting the person 0 According to the Theory of independent mindedness I One of the basic assumptions of the theory is that training all organizational members ie superiors and subordinates in argumentation will have bottom line effects for the organization I Other positive or 39 39 39 outcomes 39 39 with increased include o greater feelings of employee voice and freedom of speech 0 greater use of articulated dissent strategies ie going directly to your boss to discuss issues or difficulties you are experiencing o greater levels of subordinate work satisfaction 0 less tendency to suffer workplace burnout syndrome which is characterized by feelings of failure emotional exhaustion and an interpersonal disconnect from others 0 GENDERS Shullery 1998 found that the optimal level ofargumentativeness for women in the workplace is a moderate level of argumentativeness whereas for men high argumentativeness appears to be most beneficial o Regardless of this gender effect argumentativeness is a positive trait to possess and display because it results in numerous positive organizational outcomes 0 Taking Con ict Personally o TCP refers to the degree to which people view con ict as a punishing situation and tend to experience negative consequences thus it is something that should be avoided o The trait of TCP contains six dimensions related to con ict episodes I Direct personalization is the bad feelings people experience when in a conflict episode I Persecution feelings are the feelings that one is being personally attacked when engaged in conflict I stress reaction is the psychological and physical discomfort a person experiences in a conflict episode O I positive relational effects is the belief that conflict is positive and results in better quality relationships I negative relational effects is the belief that conflict is negative and only leads to damaged relationships likedislike valence is the degree to which people enjoy or do not enjoy engaging in interpersonal conflict People who report feeling personally attacked persecuted stressed and who perceive negative outcomes during conflict also avoid arguments with others and avoid discussion of controversial issues 0 Tolerance for Disagreement O O O TFD is defined as the amount of disagreement an individual can tolerate before he or she perceives the existence of con ict in a relationship That is argument is considered constructive whereas verbal aggression is considered 39 39 All quot is 39 39 39 destructive to the relationship and all conflict is considered People who are high in TFD are relatively resistant to engaging in conflict whereas people low in TFD are much more likely to engage in conflict I These differences are based on a person s threshold at which disagreement transforms into conflict Research says that employee satisfaction which involves satisfaction with supervisor work and pay was influenced more by the supervisor s TFD than by the employee s TFD I Therefore the greater the supervisor s level of tolerance for disagreement the more satisfied the employee Competence traits o The concept of communication competence refers to a person s ability to be both effective and appropriate in any given situation Communication competence encompasses flexibility in thoughts emotions and behaviors to adapt successfully to a particular situation For example any effective supervisor will be able to adapt to particular employees as well as to the different needs of each employee 0 3 most important trait of Communication styles 0 The CS trait holds that people have stylistic differences and that these differences between people are crosscontextual or carried across situations ie our communication style is a trait Communicator style is defined as llthe way one verbally and paraverbally interacts to signal how literal meaning should be taken interpreted filtered or understoodquot I contains 10 different dimensions or substyles of interaction dominant eg communicating in a way to gain control ofa situation dramatic eg communicating in a way that exaggerates information contentious eg communicating in an antagonistic and confrontational way impression leaving eg communicating in a unique fashion that leads others to remember you by your interaction style animated eg using physical and nonverbal behaviors extensively when interacting with others relaxed eg communicating in a way that reflects a lack of anxiety open eg interacting in a spontaneous and extroverted fashion O o attentive eg communicating in a way that suggests interest and involvement in a conversation o precise eg interacting in a way that focuses on correctness and accuracy 0 friendly eg communicating in a way that shows increased intimacy o Collectively these substyles are combined to produce the communicator image or the degree to which a person is seen as a competent and effective communicator Particular combinations of communicator style dimensions can be either prosocial or antisocial in nature Particular combinations of styles either validate the selfconcept of the other person ie an affirming style or threaten the other person s selfconcept ie nonaffirming style Cognitive Flexibility O 0 Cognitive flexibility as the degree to which communicators are llable to adapt their communication to meet the demands of the situations and perhaps more importantly to consider options and alternative ways of behaving in different situations someone who is high in cognitive flexibility will be able to identify and enact a variety of different behaviors as mandated by the situation Communicative Adaptability O 0 Defined communicative adaptability as llthe ability to perceive sociointerpersonal relationships and adapt one s interaction goals and behaviors accordingly p 320 The basic premise is that the greater a person s repertoire of social skills the more he or she will be able to display a successful communicative performance Communicative adaptability consists of six dimensions that are closely related to aspects of communication competence O O O 0 Social confirmation is the degree to which a person can affirm or maintain the other person s face or selfimage while interacting Social experience is the degree to which a person actually experiences or is willing to experience novel situations Appropriate disclosure is the degree to which a person reveals personal information in the appropriate amount as dictated by any given social situation Articulation is the degree to which a person is proficient or skilled in the expression of ideas I Includes appropriate syntax and semantic elements The wit dimension reflects the degree to which a person uses humor in appropriate situations to diffuse escalating aggressive communication exchanges Although there is overlap among communicative adaptability with other competencerelated and adaptive traits communicative adaptability is unique in that it encompasses cognitive affective and behavioral dimensions of competence This is especially important in today s organizations because appropriate and effective behaviors are highly valued yet are ever changing as the nature of appropriate organizational behavior changes Chapter 13 o Persuausion At its core persuasion involves the changing or reinforcing of attitudes andor behaviors We will adopt the working definition used by O39Keefe for persuasion as the intentional influencing of receiver39s attitudes andor behaviors through communication 0 How persuasion works Persuasion takes place when messages influence the attitudes andor behaviors of receivers 0 Types of persuasion presentations 0 Questions of Fact Persuasive presentations that address questions of fact focus on the truth of a claim or assertion 0 Questions ofValue Persuasive presentations that address questions of value focus on the worth we attach to an idea or action 0 Questions of Policy Persuasive presentations that address questions of policy focus on change 0 Monroe s o a sequential pattern known as Monroe39s Motivational Sequence is the recommended pattern to use because it follows a logical pattern of thought and ensures that you include all aspects in your persuasive message 0 Intro Arousal state problem establish credibility 0 Need step 0 Satisfaction step 0 Visualization step 0 Action step 0 Building arguments 0 Must establish I Source credibility I Competence I Trustworthiness 0 Building credibility 0 Be prepared o establish your 39 39 39 in the39 39 0 stress the commonalities that you share with audience members 0 Make use of twosided arguments o In addition be likeable similar to the listeners and proper physical attractiveness o Reasoning 0 we will define reasoning as the way people draw conclusions from the available information and evidence 0 Causal reasoning When individuals use casual reasoning they draw the conclusion that a cause often the presence of something or some act leads to a specific effect or set of effects 0 Analogical reasoning When individuals employ analogical reasoning they draw conclusions based on comparisons o Reasoning from principle This type of reasoning suggests that a person applies a general premise principle to arrive at a very specific conclusion Elevator speech 0 An elevator speech is a short 1530 second 90150 word sound bite that succinctly and memorably introduces you The presentation spotlights your uniqueness focuses on the benefits you provide and is delivered effortlessly Elevator speeches are intended to prepare you for brief chance encounters in an elevator c To be successful consider 0 Who is your audience 0 Who are you 0 Are your thoughts organized 0 Finalize and practice your speech 0 Source credibility 0 Based on ethos Scales were based on Authoritativeness and character Lectures Leadersh pe make and Muumn Sums ezders are verytzsk nented they mph want u get thmgs dune Others are very peupxememed they want penp etu be happy emp uyee needs then yudre mare peupxemehted High 9 been cancem lav Peop e w Law Concern tor Rasmls High y and arezsuf persunz deve upmem when demdmg huw besltu accumphsh ztzsk Ef mency and hng prududmty when demdhg huw besltu accumphsh ztzsk and feelmgs ofmembers ofhsherteam hassmd mkru ohm andnr Am employees Irnpoverished Leadership 7 Low ProductionLow People This leader is mostly inelTective Heshe has neither a high regard for creating systems for getting the job done nor for creating a work environment that is satisfying and motivating WORST MiddleoftheRoad Leadership 7 Medium ProductionMedium People When you compromise you necessarily give away a bit of each concem so that neither production nor people needs are llly met Leaders who use this style settle for average performance and o en believe that this is the most anyone can expect Team Leadership 7 High ProductionHigh People These leaders stress production needs and the needs of the people equally highly The premise here is that employees are involved in understanding organizational purpose and determining production needs When employees are committed to and have a stake in the organization s success their needs and production needs coincide BEST Assertiveness know difference between submission and aggression 0 Definition Affirms the person39s rights or point of view without 0 either aggressively threatening the rights of another assuming a position of dominance 0 or submissiver permitting another to ignore or deny one39s rights or point of view 0 To be successful you must be assertive 0 Need to stand up for yourself while not hurting others Communication behaviors for submission assertiveness and aggression o Submissive behaviors submissive or passive behavior means shying away from saying what you really mean and not seeking to achieve your needs particularly when someone else has conflicting needs avoiding upsetting others either because they fear them or they fear to hurt their feelings o Assertive behavior is clear and direct communication Anger and other strong feelings are expressed in a straightforward manner that takes into account the feelings and views of others Acting in an assertive way builds on a person39s self esteem and the selfesteem of others 0 Aggressive behavior means standing up for your rights but in a way that violates the rights of other people It means saying what you believe in a way that assumes that it the only truth and that any contradictory statement is wrong Aggressive people often uses anger aggressive body language other threatening behavior to bully subjugate and dominate other people You and messages and 3 step process 0 To better handle assertiveness people use You and I messages 0 You and messages should focus on the quotIquot messages When quotyouquot is used it seems as though someone is attacking They are most specific I messages foster the relationship and help build up selfesteem o 3 steps for assertiveness o 1 Positiondescribing stating or describing the behavior 0 2 Feeling expressing emotions that are important 0 3 ExplanationEffect How to say NO and way to do it best 0 Say quotNOquot firmly 0 Do not apologize 0 Do not create a longwinded excuse afterwards 0 Must determine if the requests is reasonable Define both verbal and nonverbal o Verbal communication is one way for people to communicate facetoface Some of the key components of verbal communication are sound words speaking and language 0 Nonverbal communication includes facial expressions eye contact tone of voice body posture and motions and positioning within groups Includes physical aesthetic signs and symbolic Ways nonverbal can help and ways to improve 0 Must monitor your nonverbal o Lets other people know about our interest 0 Must make sure we understand the cultural rules ie Smiling eyecontact 0 Ways to improve 0 Pay attention to your nonverbal Use eyecontact Pay attention to other s nonverbal Consider signals can be misread Listen Monitor tone of voice Match all of your nonverbal to portray you intended message Ask for feedback Practice Listening Reflective listening what involves 0000000 0 Reflective listening and giving understanding ques in response to the speaker When responding one must understand the context and feeling 0 Sorting through information deciding what to listen to 0 Drawing a conclusion what s most important 0 Expressing the essence responding back Skills of Attending and Responding Listening Styles and how to respond 0 5styles oflistening o Judgmental Interpretive Supportive ProbingQuestioning UnderstandingEmpathetic OOO Conflict Thomas amp Killman o ManagingconflictTampK 0 Low concern for self low concern for others I Avoidance 0 Low concern for self High concern for others I Accommodate 0 High concern for self low concern for others I Compete 0 High concern for self High concern for others I Collaborate 0 Middle I Compromise optimal solution but can lead to resentment 0 To be successful in the workplace one must decide which style is best Conflict management Needs Values amp Conflict Management Process 0 Most difficult part is to decide what the argument is about 0 Must decide if the conflict is about needs or values 0 Needs being a scarce resource 0 Values beliefs we hold 0 Conflict management steps 0 Awareness 0 Diagnose the issue 0 Conflict reduction 0 Problem Solving Way to prepare presentations audience analysis ID general topic specific topic body conclusion and introduction 0 Introduction Arousal establish credibility preview rest of presentation 0 Specific topic thesis statement 0 Analyze audience who the audience is what they know needs motivations 0 General topic broad idea of message 0 Specific topic Goal of presentation 0 Body What you are going to talk about 0 Conclusion Summary memorable thought Types of persuasive presentations 0 2 types 0 Proposal What you have to offer is the best choice 0 Sales pitch Behavior focused Persuade audience to buy a product Classify audience persuasive proof logos ethos and pathos o 3 types 0 Ethos I Credibility of speaker I More likely to be persuaded by a positive reputation I Help audience understand how you are just like them O O Logos I Logical arguments I Deductive reasoning from general to specific I Inductive reasoning specific to general Pathos I Emotional appeal I Connecting with your audience 0 Must use all types notjust one Monroe s Motivated Sequence 0 5 step process 0 OOO Toulmin Attention must gain audience attentionarousal Need making an argument that their life is lacking or missing something Must be specific ethos Satisfaction argument will satisfy the need Visualization most important Must have the audience imagine themselves and their life with this satisfaction Painting a picture pathos Call to action makes a demand for a specific behavior e Call 1800 NOW I Must be possible States that you must have a connection between claim and evidence CMST 2061 Final Exam Study Guide Chapter 8 Difference between Leader 8 Manager Leadership styles Trait situational exchange orgs as leaders applied including specific theories within each style Managers generally do the quottellingquot eg quotThis is the way we want you to do the jobquot whereas leaders generally do the quotsellingquot eg quotIf we were to change this process how would you do things differentlyquot The manager s primary responsibility is to organize labor whereas the leader s primary responsibility is to inspire labor The reaction to information also highlights important differences between leaders and managers Managers tend to be reactive to new information in an effort to maintain the status quo whereas leaders tend to be proactive in that they use the untested and uncertain nature of new information as an opportunity for growth The same is true with regard to vision The manager will see the future through the prism ofthe past and present whereas the leader will see the present through the future Afinal important difference between managers and leaders is the power that they use to get things done Managers tend to use legitimate power or power that is officially granted to them by the organization as opposed to leaders who use referent power or the ability to get followers to act because the followers like the leader and believe in his or her vision The trait leadership perspective holds that people either possess the attributes of a leader or they do not For centuries people have studied royalty and others in positions of power to determine what qualities they possess that make them effective leaders This type of effort is known as the great man theory of leadershipThere are several traits associated with leadership First leaders possess the trait of narcissism which is the belief that they as opposed to someone else are qualified to lead This trait assumes a higher level of self confidence and self efficacy than those levels found in followers Second the trait of charisma reflects the leader s ability to display a high degree of communication competence the ability to inspire confidence the ability to inspire subordinates as well as the ability to convince subordinates to quotbuy intoquot the leader s vision The situational leadership perspective assumes that there is no such thing as a born leader rather people act as leaders depending on the situationThe situational leadership theory of Paul Hersey and Kenneth Blanchard 1977 assumes that any leadership style should be based on both the employee s psychological maturity ie degree of self efficacy and willingness to accept responsibility and job maturity ie degree of skills and knowledge of the task As employees maturity increases the most appropriate leadership style is more relationally focused than task focused Specifically there is a hierarchy of maturity levels and each level requires a degree of both task and relational leadership stylesAnother situational leadership theory is Fielder s 1972 contingency theory which holds that the degree of success of any leader is contingent on the situational demands ie whether the leader should have a task or employee focus and the amount of influence and control the leader has in the given the situation Basically in situations that are in the extreme very successful or very unsuccessful outcomes with no middle option you would want a task oriented leader When the situation is moderate in gravity moderately successful or moderately unsuccessful an employee focused leader would be more effective Leadermember exchange theory LMX focuses on the quality of relational linkages between both the superior aka leader and subordinates aka member as a major influence in determining effective leadership More specifically the way in which leaders and subordinates negotiate their specific roles influences how both leaders and subordinates will interpret work and the work experience LMX theory assumes that leaders behave differently to individual members ofthe organization based on the interpersonal nature of each relationship That is leaders develop either high quality links or low quality links with subordinates A high quality link is characterized by high trust respect and an overall positive tone whereas a low quality link is characterized by mistrust lack of respect and an overall negative tone Subordinates with high quality links to the leader are called in group members as opposed to subordinates with low quality links to the leader who are called out group members Organizations as leadersWhen people generally think of leadership they speak in terms of specific individuals However have you ever considered an organization as a whole when discussing leadershipPeters and Waterman 1982 along with other colleagues developed a set of seven interrelated concepts known as the McKinsey 7 S Framework which is based on structure strategy systems style skills staff and shared values 0 Bias for action These companies exhibit a quotlet s try it and see what happens attitude This shows a willingness to experiment with innovative ideas to see if there is any benefit to the company Close to the customer These companies view customers as the sole reason they exist and constantly remind employees ofthis fact Further the customer is considered an invaluable resource for innovation and change 0 Autonomy and entrepreneurship Excellent companies support and encourage risk taking internal competition as well as a high number of innovations They encourage innovations because the greater the number of total innovations given that some will fail the greater the number of successful innovations Productivity through people Although these companies are totally performance centered they see productivity not as a result of organizational control but as something born of the organization s great expectations for each employee The culture that results filters out low performing employees Low performing employees soon find that they do not fit in the organization and will self select out That is they will actively seek other employment opportunities 0 Hands on value driven People at all levels of the organization get involved in all of the tasks performed by the organization For example at Service Master Corporation which is the largest facility maintenance organization in the worldal top management from the CEO down to front line supervisors will take one day out ofthe year put on work clothes and perform cleaning duties such as mopping floors dusting and vacuuming This is done to remind all members of the organization that they are not too busy to serve other people as well as to remind them ofthe business that they have chosen to be in This commitment to the organizational wide value system is the organization s cohesive glue Excellent companies have a focused value system that permeates every aspect of the organization Stick to the knitting Excellent companies focus only on doing what they do best They do not seek to grow for the sake of growing eg a high tech company should not acquire an airline simply because it can afford to do so Basically this concept urges organizations to stick with the services products andor sectors that have brought success in the first place 0 Simple form lean staff Companies that enjoy great success have extremely streamlined organizational structures Authority is well defined at all levels of the organization For example it was common practice in the Japanese automobile industry to cut resources down to where the organization was most efficient Once achieved management would attempt to cut another 10 of the resources and see how efficient and streamlined the organization could become Once the cutting of resources resulted in decreased quality or performance previous levels offunding were restored and the organization was deemed to be efficient and streamlined Simultaneous loose tight properties Excellent companies give departments and divisions a great degree of autonomy and latitude At the same time however all departments and divisions are bound to the central value system and culture of the organization Applied Leadership Simply put doing something well does not necessarily give you the skill set to manage people who do the same thing This notion is also known as the Peter Principle That is people rise to their level of incompetence This is a principle of hierarch ology and holds that organizational members are promoted to their highest level of competence Relationships from Moodle Dimensions of relationships power stages su periorsubordinate relationships peer harassment s or t39 nships There are several models that seek to explain the stages that we follow from initiating to temiinaling relationships Perhaps the most widely Knon model builds on the work of Mark Knapp37 Knapp suggests that costs and rewards are the general motivation behind the establishment of relationships Simply put relationships are based on an exchange We seek to maximize rewards and minimize Cos s According to Knapp we Follow predictable phases or stages in establishing and terminating relationships Speeitieally these phases include ve Stages eremning together and ve stages tireeming apart The stages involved in eorning together begin with initiating I ma eventually evelve inlo bending in contrast when relationships begin to dccscalat or come apart we fall into the differentiating stage and Patsy eventually evolve into a terminating stage Stages of Rclntinnships ominn Together Corn p A rt Stage One initiating Stage One Differentiating Stage l39wo Txperirnenting Stage Two circumscrihing Stage Three lntensit ying Stage Three Stagnating Stage Four Integrating Stage Four Avoiding Stage Five Bending Stage Five 39lerminating Coming together Relationships begin with tho in iatiun stage in the initiation stage both parties develop mutual awareness of the other party We recognize this individual and associale him or her with some aspect of our work world Communication associated with this stage is limilcd In greetings eg How are you followed by Fine Ilow are yntt397 The relationship may remain in this stage or it may move on to the second stage known as 39 39 ln the 39 39 39 39 stage of the parties move beyond mulual awareness and begin to engage in slnall talk or discu 39uns ol39common concern cage weather state of the local economy gas prices etc One or both parties will begin to experiment at this stage by seeking out commonalities as a basis for developing a closer relationship For example one or both parties may explore how the other feels about company policies or events that take place at work At his stage of relationship the parties have made no commitments to do things together outside of regular duties and responsibilities eg eating lunch together As with the initiation stage a workplace relationship may rcn lain at this stage or may evolve into the third stage of coming together tn the intensifying stage or reletienships the parties develop a greater degree of closeness and begin to commit to aetivities outside ortheir assigned duties and Relational partners at this stage begin to speak ofa We as in we like to responsibilities In Ibis stage the partners disclose to walk over lunch or we like to he the top markeiing team e greater degree and otten develop their own language based on private symbols springing rrorn shared experiences and knowledge et eaeh othcr s habits new relationships in organizations develop beyond this point However irthe relationship continues to develop the relational partners reach what is referred to as the integrating stage or a relationship tn the integrating stage the relational pannets are viewed by others as having a clear identity as a due or twosome The rclalinnnl partners are trcnterl as a unit by coewnrker and inlhrrnaiien shared with one person is expeeted to he shared wiih the timer For example William Hewlett and avid Packard the Foundch or what is commonly known today as HP The nal stage of relationships is known as bonding mending suggests that the relational partners have made a publie commitment to the relationship This type of familyovned companies when relationships extend beyond lhe 39 rt we initially begin to focus rclalionship is most visth1e in Comin apart When relationships begin to come ap39 en the ways in which we differ from our relationship partner This practice i contrast to the practice when initiating relationships and the focus on similarities inilial stage referer to as 39 39 39 39 V V 39 is A 39 For Cxaniple We may next stage circumscribing fewer topics are raised for fear of con ict Comments such as Let s not go there are heard more o cn as the relationship hegins to decay Changes in topics of discussion and reluctance to discuss many issues make clear to both parties that the relationship is beginning to decay Iflhe relational partners do not act to repair the relationship it will continue into the next stage known as stagnating In this stage one or both parties invest linle ifany energy to maintain the relationship For example calls or emails will not receive a response and commitments to engage in activities will wane lfthc stagnatlng experience continues and the relational partners bcgin to Vicw the relationship as unpleasant the stage of avoidance may result In this stage partnch make excuses Why they cannot sec or interact with one another Increasingly communication bctwccn the txvo is reduced It is Often impossible to physically avoid someone at work but nnnWork relulod activilies such as lunch or coffoc breaks will be experienced separately One or both partners will change their work routines and will no longer be available for joint activities Sorry but 1 have a deadline to meet so 1 can t havc lunch The terminating stage occurs when the partners dccidejolntly or individually to put tl permanent and to the rclatlonshipl Some relationship terminate shortly after the relationship has been established whereas others may terminate Uflcl longer periods as co workers andor friends The termination process may be straightforward and swl W s have to end thisquot it may involve an unspoken understanding whch nonverbal cues convey that the relalionship is at an end or it may takc a great deal of discussion For example the well publicized dispute between Michael Llsner former CEO of Walt Disney and Jeffrey Katzenburg resulted in Kulacnburg s resignation from Disney an extensive legal battle and ultimately the termint tion oftheir relationship over a period of years Supervisory Subordinate Relationships While we form relationships with many different people as part ofwork life few are as important as the relationship that we have VVith our supervisor In general the relationship a person has with his or her supervisor is the single most important relationship a person has in the organization A supervisor evaluates performance makes decisions about raises andor promotions and is the person that subordinates seek out when in need of assistance In fact this relationship is the best predictor ofhow satis ed a subordinate is with theirjoh how committed they are to the company and how satis ed thcy are with communication in the Openness Openness in the supervisory subordinate relationship is de ned as the willingness of both parties to be willing receptive listeners This is perhaps the single must i nant factor in the Supervisurj 39 Ln supervisor quot relationships with a high degree ofopenness subordinates are more candid in their interactions with their supervisor and more willing to reveal information that may be perceived as negative Not surprisingly a high degree of openness in this relationship is linked to higher levels ofjob 39 for 39 In 39 39 with a low degree oropenness subordinates are less willing to reveal negative infomation and report lower levels ofjob satisfaction I ard distortion Upward distortion is de ned as subordinates intentionally distorting 39 39 in their 39 with p 39 Upward distortion occurs for Subordinatcs seek to put a positive spin on the information that they share several reasons Subordinates with supervisors to manage their career and in uence performance evaluations may have concerns about the consequences of telling the complete truth as they understand it Upward distortion occurs in all supervisol yesubordinate relationships but it is most prevalent when there is a low degree or openness between the supervisor and subordinate Semantic infornlnlion distance Semantic information distance refers to the gap in inforrnation and understanding that exists between supewisors and subordinates Not surprisingly we expect supervisors to know more than subordinates about company policies and how t0 carry out work relath tasks T39his difference between vhat a supervisor knows and what his or her subordinates know has a special impact on the subordinate Where this gap is large subordinate job satisfaction tcnds to be lower Simply put subordinates may perceive that they do not have adequate information about the company or their job to lnctinn effectively ln situations where the gap small subordinates report higher levels of job satis action and a greater sense ofjoberclatcd competence Upward in uence refers to subordinate s perceptions of how Upward in uence Subordinates do take stock cfwhich in uential their supervisor is with upper management supervisors are more in uential and which are less influential with upper management In situations where a supervisor is perceived as having a great deal ofintltienec with upper management subordinates report higher levels ofjob satisfaction because they feel the supervisor is more likely to be in the knowquot about the organization Subordinates seek to strengthen ties with an upwardly in uential supervisor because any bene ts awarded to the supervisor promotion raise additional office space etc may bene t the subordinate Peer Relationships According to Modalf and DeWine interpersonal relationships among peers in organizations can take on two forms organizational and parsonal 9 In an organizational I peer 39 39 39 quot quot come together because of assigned duties and responsibilities cg similar schedulingjoint project assignment etc in this situation the relationship centers on taskoricntcd matters that is our relationship is all about ourjobs l39his relationship may remain focused on taskerelated matters or may evolve into a personal relationship see the pervions rnatcrial on stages of relationships A personal relations ip may develop because ofsimilar interests and viewpoints as well as to meet the social and emotional needs ofthe relational partners People also derive soeial support rrom personal relationships in organizations and a sense of belonging Chapter 9 Language in workplace styles perception power interaction including CAT language expectancy conversation analysis Sexual harassment and language Negative and Positive Language Styles Negative Style Posmve Style I would absolutely hale 1 If he Wouldn t ll be beiter If he Why tn God s ane can39tyou How aboul we This idea is team a failure Could we consider his 0pl0l What absolute Slupi ilym l nont mink that this suggestion will be as frulll39ul as uiese alners I can39t slam mm He certainly ullers unique pempectiues I hate mat new policy The new policy oerlalnly offers lnleresting challenges Don39l you ever do malagail1 Nex time I would Suggesl c 539 9 on IdEr ln another way to approach lhe situation PerceptionThe language we choose when posing questions to others also influences how people perceive and react to such questions The language we use when developing questions can drastically change what is implied about the question as well asthe relationship between the two people in the interactionThe following question is posed the same way with only the boldface word changing PowerVerba intensifiers are wordsthat increase the intensity ofthe emotion the speaker is experiencing as opposed to the literal information contained in the messagePeople should be careful when using verbal intensifiers because their chronic use communicates a powerless position People who are lower in the organizational structure tend to use verbal intensifiers much more than superiors and people at higher organizational levelsthus showing both respect as well as signaling acknowledgement and acceptance of their subordinate positionVerba qualifiers are words that reduce the strength and impact of the utterance This type of language use is relevant in the speech patterns of the powerless person because it draws away from the speaker39s certainty of the statement as well as the assertion made by the statement Interaction 8tCAT Communication accommodation theory CAT was developed to examine the underlying motivations and consequences of shifts in language patterns Giles ampWiemann 1987 The similarityattraction principle influences CAT in that we use language to quotfit inquot with people we like and are attracted to much more than people whom we are notAccording to CAT there are two central premises at work First when communicating with others people try to accommodate or adjust their style of language to one another Second people perform this accommodation process to gain approval increase communication efficiency and createmaintain a positive selfimage with the person with whom they are speaking Infante Rancer ampAvtgis 2009 The degree to which we match or mismatch another person39s language style is based on our perception of the other person and our motivation for engaging in a relationship with that personDivergence reflects how people maximize vocal and linguistic differences to highlight differences between themselves and others People utilize divergence strategies when they want to maintain social distance perhaps due to the belief that the other person belongs to an undesirable group has distasteful attributes or is in other ways undesirable to the speaker Divergence is also a strategy that people use to establish credibility For example if a CEO of an organization has a meeting with assembly line workersthe CEO will converge his or her language only to a certain degree The difference in language patterns helps reinforce his higher level position in the organization and the fact that he is not one ofthem Language expectancytheory LET was proposed by Michael Burgoon in 1995 and is based on an accumulation of research on how people are persuaded LET focuses on language and how language affects both the change and reinforcement of attitudes and beliefs This theory seeks to explain why some linguistic forms of persuasive messages are more effective than others Conversation analysis theory CA views communication as quotactions constructed by communicators out of talk and body behaviorquot Simply put communication is a reflection of how people construct and maintain relationships Conversational analysis theory provides a framework through which the practice oftalk can be analyzed in a way that reveals not only how communication patterns can constrain a relationship but also how changes in the action of talk can redefine relationships Chapter 10 Close encounters 5 channels gestures eye signals Functions from handout Close EncountersThe amount of space a client needs to feel comfortable varies according to an assortment of factors Cultural differences age sex and personality all play a major part in the preferred style of negotiation Generally speaking Eastern Europeans the French and the Arabs prefer a much closer space than British people do Peers will tolerate a closer range of contact than people with a wide gap in age Conversations between females will occur at closer range than male female talks and male to male encounters show the most distance People who are outgoing by nature are comfortable in a closer friendlier position than those who are shy or aloof Once a prospect and a sales person have built a relationship the speaking distance between the two decreases Intimate Space Up to 15 feet Back off This is too close for business situationsPersonal Space 1 2 feet Use for longtime clients and only if they are comfortableSocial Space 4 7 feet This distance allows room for stretching and gesturing without invading the client s territoryPubic Space 10 feet or more This is a good distance for delivering a speech or making small presentations 5 channels 1 Body angle 2 Face 3 Arms 4 Hands 5 Legs Evidence shows that people unsuspectingly produce gestures along with speech in any given communicative situation These gestures elaborate upon and develop the content of accompanying speech often giving clues to the underlying message of the speaker Research also shows that gestures identify the deeper meanings to the words that a speaker does not or cannot articulateBody language experts note that hand gestures co occur just slightly before hesitations pauses or a complex sentence Individuals synchronize their gestures and words in time so that the stroke most energetic part of the gesture occurs with or just before the most prominent syllable in the accompanying word Eye Signals Since eyes often labeled as the quotwindows to the soulquot reveal concrete information about a person s interest level it is wise not to hide them behind dark glasses during negotiations These speech regulators seemingly give permission to another person to begin a conversation Once eye contact occurs with another person each individual scans the other s face for further information about attitudes and intentions based on silent eye signals Nonverbal has six functions in the communication process 1 Substitute happens when we use a nonverbal symbol to replace verbal communication For example you are on a phone call and a colleague walks to your office door Instead of asking him to be quiet you might put a finger to your lips vertically 2 Complement when both verbal and nonverbal communication are used together at the same time it can improve the meaning When you meet someone for the first time you will often shake hands and say quotPleased to meet youquot Both the hand shake and the verbal message work to emphasize that you are indeed pleased to meet this person 3 Repeat is similar to complementing but the nonverbal replicates the verbal message after it is spoken For example you may say to colleagues who are arguing quotTime outquot After you say time you you make a T with your hands 4 Regulate nonverbal messages are used to control the interactions in a conversation For example in a meeting you might raise your hand to get the attention 5 Accent vocal qualities are used to emphasize and accent certain parts of the verbal message The choice of words to accent can dramatically change the meaning ofthe verbal message e 4 e u 4 w V 4 verbal and nonverbal ta match up and when they don t it takes time tar us ta decipher the meaning For exa 39 agine a HR manager smiling whiletelling you that your red Chapter 11 Chapter on Moodle a 1 r i nmnlnunn amp causes of oor 39 39 had hahit 39 39 39 39 39 theory Responsive Listening Styles Chapter 12 Dimensions p ower 39 rm anallu tnlnranrnl Competence traits style flex v adaptability Chapter 13 39 J 139 hmuitw rk Mnnrnn o 5 type in 39 ty reasoning Elevator speech and source cred Lectures Leadership 7 Blake and Mautan you and i messages and 3 step process Haw ta say No and way ta do it best Detine bath verbal and nonverbal Ways nonverbal can help and ways ta imprave Listening 7 Retlective listening 7 what invalves Skills at Attending and Respanding tistening Styles and hawta respand ConflictiThomas ampKilman 39 M d Values amp Way to prepare presentations audience analysis ID general topic specific topic body conclusion and introduction Types of persuasive presentations Classify audience persuasive proof logos ethos and pathos Monroe s Motivated Sequence Toulmin
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