INTRO COMM STUDIES
INTRO COMM STUDIES CMST 1150
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CMST 1150 1272011 40800 PM COMMUNICATION SKILLS ARE IMPORTANT o The beginning of all skill building is becoming aware Labor Secretary s Education Recommendations o Robert Reich former Secretary of Labor said that if you are getting educated today one should get 1 A liberal arts education It expands you humans have been involved in liberal arts FOREVER 2 Public Communication skills 3 Small group experience comm in teams Communication is an Important Set of Workforce Skills o New economy is more information and service based Problem solving interpersonal communication decision making are soft skills which are crucial in the economy Communication is Important to Employers o 71 cited solid communication skills impact o A good working relationship includes employees feeling valued o Employee satisfaction includes understanding how their work contributes to organizational goals Workers Communication Most Important Workplace Skill o Ability to communicate and think critically seen as more important than computer or other jobspecific skills o 87 say communication skills as being very important for performing their jobs o Only 50 rated computer skills as very important 10 Areas of the Communication Field 1 Intrapersonal Communication 2 Interpersonal Communication 1 3 of Communication 4 Intercultural Communication 10 Ethics and Communication Performance Studies Group and Team Communication o Public Communication o Organizational Communication o Mass Communication o Technologies AUGUST 26 2009 THE RESEARCH PROCESS Background and Overview What is truth Truth is abstract to what a person thinks it is Has to do with how you were raised and what you were formerly taught what is proper and what is improper But how do you defend what you claim to know Nothing is ever completey black and whitebecause of di erent types of evidences Research tries to get that better answer I 1St stage in inquiry Ask questions o Inquiry is the process of asking interesting significant questions and getting disciplined and systematic answers A Q s of definition You cannot define something Without instantaneously stating what it s not What is it What shall we call it Q s of fact Properties that things have and relationships between properties that things have 2 Facts have to be verifiable We have to be careful of putative claims a There is no way of verifying a putative claimwyou can t prove it instead the person claiming it puts it on the other person questioning the claim to prove that its not correct c Its like a big guess C Q s of value Based on cultural preferences and experiences Aesthetic issues a Whether Or not something is attractive or beautiful that s each person s personal preference Pragmatic issues a Whether Or not its effective Ex Bridges Ethic issues a Whether or not its proper II 2nd stage of inquiry Observation III 3rd stage of inquiry Constructing Answers IV The 3 stages are not nec M Q s Theory 9 Observation V Types of Scholarship A Natural Science When you apply natural science to the study of human beings you get social science 1 The nature of sci a quotation by Michael Shermer u not word for word there 3 are no FINAL answers even smentific facts are just conclusions confirmed to such an extent that it would be reasonable to go along With them agreement is never final but a process of inquiry constantly open to rejections and confirmation in SCIence knowledge is fluid and fleeing is at the heart of its limitations because some things might be overthrown in the future but it is also its greatest strength 2 Essential Characteristics of Natural Science A Guided by natural law B Has to be explanatory by ref to nat law C Testable against empirical world D Conclusions are tentative E It is falsifiable 3 Nat sCI depends on a standardization of method ie it aims at being objective n An objective method treat the physical object of your observations as though it is something beyond what you want it to do 4 Replications of studies 9 same results 5 Scientific philosophical position B Humanistic 1 Associated with subjectivity Reduce it to its essential self is parsimony 0 language philosophy religious studiesetc 2 Focus on individual amp soc Worlds 3 Doesn t separate knower from known 4 Humanistic and naturai suence is not entirely separate C Social Science 1 An extension of the natural science 2 Humans as object of the study more complex to study than anything seek to interpret behavior 3 Uses objective methods just study how it is o EXAMPLES Anthropology Psychology VI Research Design A Research is designed to isolate variables 1 Experimental designs Usually involves the control of ALL variables The outcome can be measured 2 Nonexperimental designs Does not involve control of variables Researchers can choose their variables 3 All research seeks confident conclusion B Researcher bias or experimenter bias 1 A is any intentional of unintentional in uence that the experimenter exerts on the subject in an attempt to confirm the hypothesis 2 Intentional influence includes A Grosst different treatment of subjects B disregarding data that doesn t meet expectations C Changing collected data 3 Unintentional influence is more serious problem A One may unwnttlngiy Influence expectations to subjects B Case study Clever Hans the harse n Said the horse could solve math and do music by tapping his hoof owner of the horse was not getting paid for the horses serwces but In fact he was only stomping his hoof when he d see the humans eyes move and stop when the human looked away 3 Solutions A Train experimenters well B Use standardization C Set up blind research An Introduction to Communication Review Communication Mosaics Ch1 amp 2 I History of Communication as a concept a When we look at rhetoric we look at in its use in public life b In democracy these skills are necessary II History of Communication as a discipline o 1914 National Association of Academic Teachers of Public Speaking 0 became as a study in departments of English some professors of English wish to study public speakingso this came about o 1950 Speech Association of America 0 broader topic than the one in 1914 o 1970 Speech Communication Association 0 now there is forms of communication that don t involve speech o 1997 National Communication Association 0 didn t want to limit it to speech US has the most developed academic process of communication III Definition of Communication o With every definition there is a problem with breadth accuracy adaptability o Def Of Communication from Wood p 12 o A systemic process in which people interact with and through symbols systemic n there s a system involved process a suggests something ongoing but with communication it doesn t have an absolute beginning or an absolute end 6 symbolic n with and through symbols symbols used as tools AND as an avenue u there is no self without symbols you are the sum of your symbols 3 aspects abstract they refer by being a shorthand arbitrary ants splahhh words DO NOT HAVE to be the way they are ambiguity words can mean more than one thing allows for new possibilities meanings o IV Models of Communication 0 Harold Lazwell 1948 linear S M9R 0 Claude Shannon amp Warren Weaver 1949 linear S M9R but with noise within 0 Wilber Schram 1955 interactional S M9R feedback ampfields of experience surrounding sender and receiver 0 Transaction communication model Complicated Understanding Communication Theories 1 General Goals of Theory A Theory p31 To study theory is not something removed from other life How sophisticated are you going to do it It helps you to be more thoughtful and strategic Sometimes theories explain what goes on they are mental models 7 in a short hand form They give us structure so we can quickly analyze things Theories 1 Describe What is it o ID s features amp constituent parts o Analysis vs systhesis 0 Leading to a better understanding of how the parts fit together 2 Explanation o By showing parts we show how they are related o Seeks to Clarify something POWER AND PERSONAL INFLUENCE o John R French and Bertram Raven o Reward Power 0 Coercive Power If you don t something you re fired Expert Power Referent Power Our models heroes ideals Legitimate Power Where society legitimates people to act on behalf of us Judges Firefighter Police 0 O O Dialectal Approach to IPC sees relationships as dialogues between opposing voices each expressing a different and contradictory impulse o Some Dialects of Intimacy o Affection vs Hostility Trust vs Risk Depth vs Superficially Inclusion vs Exclusion O O O Dialectic Structure Thesis quot96 Antithesis Synthesis Balancing Self and Relational Identities Dialectal Conflict o Expressive Protective o Autonomyalone time Togetherness o Noveltyrandomly Predictability B Prediction Control Understanding Understanding is often championed by humanistic research to why things happen More deeply grounded meaning than explanation Humanistic theory is often not down for prediction and controlbut not always KNAPP S ROMANTIC DEVELOPMENT STAGES BondingDifferentiating Integrating Circumscribing Intensifying Stagnate Experiment Avoiding Initiate a conversation Terminate The Model is developmental Each coming together stage has its coming apart complement The greater amount of intimacy usually requires more time to leave Differentiating is not necessarily a sign of relationship coming apart Helps understand the nature of a relationship and bring control to the relationship 0 C Reform 1 Goal Positive social change 9 n identifies problems in a society and analyze it but sometimes after analyzing it scholars tend to be a part of the change theory should make a difference in the world a relatively new trend 2 A newer friend subjective a form of control n explain the sources of oppression OVERVIEW OF 3 AREAS RHETORIC PERFORMANCE AND COMMUNICATION STUDIES I Rhetorical Theory amp Criticism So let rhetoric be defined as the faculty power of deciding in the particular case what the available means of persuasion are Lane Cooper Translation of Aristotle s definition of Rhetoric A Concerned with public symbolic messages B As formal study 2500 years old C Rhetoric is the public symbols themselves amp their study D Usually persuasive messages II Performance Studies A Concerned with the study of and the doing of performancebased acts of communication B Begs In English depts Early 19005 C Early focused on interpretation of literature Oral Interpretation Literature Cannon of Literature efficiently understood accepted literature To know it do it Theory amp practice Midtolate 805 began to be called performance studies Also at this time issue of WHERE is Performance Theory vs Practice III Communication Theory A A social science begins in 19605 uses quantitative experimental model CDTIITIU 10 B Relies on descriptive statistics C Research is written up different than Rhetoric or Performance Studies D Contexts SEPTEMBER 16 2009 Lecture3 An Introduction to Rhetoric I Problematizing the Term Rhetoric bloviation is what people confuse rhetoric as A Rhetoric encompasses ALL verbal pursuits Wayne Booth if its verbal written and spoken its more than advocacy which is what Crick was trying to imply Its strategic we use our verbal pursuits for a reasonfor goals B Richard McKeon Rhetoric is a universal and architectonic art architectonic it is the underlying principal for everything your going to build on top of itFOUNDATION H ex no philosophy without rhetoric II Rhetoric and Persuasion o persuasion is now broader than rhetoric When you see rhetoric or even when you hear the word rhetoric or persuasion we tend to get suspicious and they also make us interested III Definition of Rhetoric and other Related Terms A Herrick expands Rhetoric Doesn t have to always mean persuasion It can be seen as equal to persuasion it seeks to change or reinforce beliefs or cause an action Rhetoric can help it can be used to awaken a sense of beauty in someone else instead of saying you will think this is beautiful B Art of Rhetoric 11 Systematic study and intentional practice of the use of symbols C Rhetor o D Rhetoric What s created and studied E Rhetorical theory Look it up IV Characteristics of Rhetorical Discourse Rhetoric is A Planned B Adapted to an audience C Reveals human motives after It l5 planned and at i5 adapted then it Will reveal human motives D Responsive E Seeks persuasion ASSIGNMENT Choose an example of rhetoric 1 It can be any form of rhetoric discussed in class or readings o TV Commercial 0 Print Ads 0 Speech a txt from book or www 0 Religious tract 2 Make a copy of it ampor secure it 3 On a separate sheet of paper Choose among the 5 Characteristics of Rhetoric the ONE it most clearly demonstrates ie your artifact is a good example of that category 4 In 45 sentences explain why it is a good representative of that category 5 Put your name and section number and it needs to be TYPED EXAMPLE CARTOON BUSH WITH A HALO OVER HIS HEAD BIBLE IN FRONT OF HIM WITH BOOKMARKS TO MANY ISSUES o HE S SAYING RELIGIOUS FUNDAMENTALISY INFLUENCES ARE A TIRENT TO DEMOCRACYIN IRAQ 12 I REVEALS HUMAN MOTIVES THE CARTOON CLEARLY ILLUSTRATES A PUBLIC STATEMENT OF THE ARTISTS WORLD VIEWS AND VALUES THE DESIRED OUTCOME OF THIS RHETORICAL DEVICE WOULD MOST LIKELY BE TO CAUSE THE AUDIENCE TO QUESTION THEIR OWN PSYCHOLOGICAL MOTIVES IN THIS CASE DEVOTION TO THE CURRENT AGENDA OF THE US FURTHER THIS DEVICE SEEMS TO BRING OUT INTO THE OPEN THE AUDIENCE S CONCEALED MOTIVES BY ALIGNING A PARTICULAR VALUE SYSTEM I Historical Beginnings of Rhetoric As a Study humans have the same motives all around the world A 467 BCE Syracuse Sicily 1St systematic study B Carried to Athens C Why Rhetoric is important in Athens 0 Polis an independent citystate 0 Athens was the first democracy in human history II Persuasion in the Courts To be successful in court get your land back A The Sophists o Began to teach certain thingsAthens easier hearing they wrote speeches and taught people how to speak for themselves 0 Performed fantastic feats of oration as a calling card 0 SOPHES means wise B For sophists rhetoric was pragmatic o Rhetoric was for USE most of their philosophy wasn t USEFUL III What the Sophists Taught A Some professed to teach ar te o Kind of like successfulness how to be a natural leader charisma o Plato suspicious that you could teach this to people B Used dialektike dialectic arguments for amp against any position as the means of coming to a final position 13 o Plato used and understood and used the tool or dialectic But the way the Sophists used it he didn t like C Used dissoi logoi contradictory arguments based on enoxa widelyheld premises 1 kairos the doctrine that one must consider all possible arguments to an issue Saying what s fitting What s called for In the proper time or proper place 2 The dialectical opposition Thesisee Antithesis Synthesis You don t come to a final INARGUABLE answer IV Sophists Were Controversial 5 Reasons A Taught for pay NOT GOOD B Were foreigners People skeptic of foreigners They were from the outSide C Taught cultural relativism Knows more about the world than what s just in Athens Whatever you were taught in your own culture about the way it is is only from your culture s perspective And how they saw the world the differences only not the similarities they focused on Stubbed toe D Truth is from clash of arguments Truth is not something ultimate to them truth was an ongoung building thing to them E Truthjustice derives from social agreement nomos Law was never written downwpeople just went along with the culture V Plato s Opposition to the Sophists A He said that they gave recipes for flatterytrickery o This was also and indictment of rhetoric itself B Beginnings of iong struggle between Philosophy and Rhetoric C Proper understanding demanded true knowledge episteme 14 o The sophists were just trying to manipulate public belief 0 But Plato says only philosophy can get to the truth A GENERAL DEFINITION OF RHETORIC o The STRATEGY one uses to be effective in symbolic expression A Brief Explanation of the Study of Rhetoric o Rhetoric is about the social struggle over meaning and hence over power It is about how people use language and symbols to replace one thing with another and hence transform the way a society or community thinks feels and behaves To understand this process we must know what society is what makes it possible and in a way impossible what it fears and desires what it acknowledges and ignores Rhetoric is ultimately about how people act as agents of social change using whatever symbolic power they can harness to move people from this place to that place Language and rhetoric understood as speech plays a role in that process but it is not an exclusive one Speeches are merely manifestations and representative of a larger social consciousness One also persuades through images protests presentations performances music sculpture and all the other arts and sciences that make up that culture Prof Nathan VI Aristotle on Rhetoric A A pupil of Plato Buffered from MS master in some key issues B Approached rhetoric pragmatically and systematically C Rhetoric is a true art By defining it it turns unto an art He recognized what human bemgs were actually dorng and defining rhetoric that way D 3 Kinds of Oratory I Deliberative legislative Issues of the future anti dealt deliberately 2 Epideictic ceremonial About what s going on now 3 Forenstc courtroomlegal 15 About the past E Artistic Proofs 0 When you make a claim proof is the artistic proofs 1 Logos n with evidence 2 Pathos n emotional put your audience in a state of mind 3 ethos n credibility ENLIGHTENMENT RENASSIANCE 9 CONTEMPORARY Contemporary Study of Rhetoric I Influenced by behavioral sciences literary criticism and ancient theory II Early on social science approach later an interdisciplinary approach based on symbol systems A Kenneth Burke 18971993 studied human communication in all its aspects important in rhetoric and performance studies 1 Defined humans as the symbolusing animal a we use symbols but we also abuse symbols 2 Defined rhetoric as the use of symbols to induce cooperation in those who by nature respond to symbols B Current rhetorical theory draws on cultural studies performance studies and design studies C Some Critical Methods NeoAristotelian Generic Feminist Metaphoric Narrative story telling Fantasytheme Pentadic Cluster cluster around values etc Contemp Rhetoric Continued Lloyd Blitzer 1960 The Rhetorical Situation answers how and wh rhetoric was developed 3 Factors 16 1 Exigency n Defecturgency something waiting to be done a laws that urgency provokes action a response 2 Rhetorical Audience 3 Constraints a To control that is limit movement a Also means to motivate to action a Constraining you to respond A consideration of these factors by the rhetor should lead to a Fitting Response They could then measure how good the response was by the rhetor and the rhetorical audience Feminism search for greater equality for women Feminist Rhetoric last 25 years c A fundamental principle Women are people 0 A CRITICAL THEORY perspective 0 Conversion Model of Rhetoric Says this is the masculine way I must defeat youI must win 0 Invitational Model of Rhetoric More feminine instead of me trying to win this argument I want you to see my perspective 17 CMST 1150 1272011 40800 PM AN INTRODUCTION TO PERFORMANCE STUDIES interest understanding and memory are three aspects of public speaking perform follow the form I Intro to Performance Discipline what scholars would do A Richard Schechner s focus 0 The field is wide open 0 Human values are from social agreement Values are a FUNCTION of culture There is no single source of values they are not monolithic and never change they do change B Identity an important element C PS is vast in scope II What is Performance Studies The Study of Performance you study what people perform We will not give a FINAL definition for performance studies you can t finally define the term A Some basic Assumptions 0 PS examines behavior as an object of study What are people doing Not exactly what they SAY they are doing Both need to be looked at o PS involves M performance U can t easily observe something without being a part of it You need to join in Do this in order to participate with the people doing the behaviors 0 Participant observation ethnography Frequently involved in social practices AND advocacy Important aspect Ideology a system of beliefs 0 Performance should be seen as a broad spectrum or continuum of behaviors None of our behaviors are totally isolated Where did we learn our behaviors Trying to understand where behaviors came fromwhy we do them 0 18 0 Performance Studies views culture groups in 2 ways 1 cultural groups are always interacting n There aren t that many isolated groups these days 2 cultural groups separate themselves from others a By saying I m this but not that e We live in a world of multiple literacies which are performed body literacies n Clothing n handshakes aural literacy a music a sounds visual literacy electronic literacy B 3 Types of Performance Studies coursework at LSU 1 Analysis and performance of literary texts Based on some kind of literary source a Ex Harry Potter booksmovies 2 How people perform in everyday life How act with each other or toward each other How we express our own individuality 4 Study and practice of avantgarde and performance art Avantgarde leaders of all kinds Performance art the art of bringing some kind of a message to an audience III The Histories of Performance Studies A The NYU Line 1 1st called performance studies in 1980 2 Emerged from theatre and anthropology Schehner befriended Victor Turner an anthropologist a They found that they had common interests They decided to blend their studies together and now at NYU performance studies is more anthropological based studies 19 n Fusing of theatre as it relates in different countries Western theatre pretty much equals psychological realism o Narrative fidelity they seem real to you B The Northwestern Louisiana State University Line Dr Hopkins developed it at LSU 1 Emerged from oral interpretation as a way to study performance its not so theatrically or anthropologically focused Eventually the oral was called into question it doesn t have to be just oral 2 Emphasis on literature instead Literature is a well understood category of cultural expression C 4 Criteria for Examining Performance 1 Text The thing that is studied Doesn t HAVE to be a literary textcould be an event a play how you stage a performance a protest a backpacker traveling through Europe facial expressions 2 Event Includes the scene setting and the purpose 3 Performers 4 Audience The audience can also be performers pull audience members out cheersmotions Discipline lawyers medicine etc being trained in one thing D Performance Studies is interdisciplinary 0 Since anything can become a text for performancewe can get information from other disciplines no matter whatusually They put no definite definition around performance studies E Performance Studies is antidisciplinary e We don t want to over determine who we are 20 THEORIES ABOUT SYMBOLIC ACTIVITY I Symbolic Interactionism A George Hebert Mead Mind Self and Society 1934 0 Still useful 0 We are symbolic creatures B Mind 1 Born without mind or self tabula rasa We acquire these through social interaction 2 Mind is defined as the ability to use symbols having common social set of meanings Society provides you with meanings in symbolic form The appropriate meanings of words for the words to work they have to be common between at least two people It must be similar enough between people to be useful 3 Meanings of words are situated in particular contexts Words themselves don t have meanings they have agreed to meanings depending on the context C Self 1 Self is the ability to reflect on ourselves from others perspectives We develop an idea of who we are by how others think of us quotLookingGlass Self 2 Selffulfilling prophecy where people live up to a label that others give them or live up to how people treat them D I and ME 1 I viewing the self as subject ME viewing the self as an object Ahow I think other ppl wil perceive me 2 I is impulsive creative spontaneous Creates individually by trying new things 3 ME is analytical evaluative aware of social rulesexpectations 21 Reflects the social acceptability of the 1 s impulsesactions The ME supervises the I aspects of you another word for the ME is socialization E Role Taking 1 Particular others individuals that are important to us in our lives 2 The generalized other what are moms like in generalthey re extraordinary o Leon Festinger social comparison theory states that we have a need to know how our needs and abilities stack up with other people 0 We don t just turn to ANYBODY with this kind of comparison II Kenneth Burke s Dramatism A Life is a drama 1 People are actors agent in dramatic scenes doingsaying things acts by various means agency to achieve a purpose 0 Act agent agency scene purpose 2 All good dramas involve conflict and resolution 0 Without conflict it is just description most people want resolutions B Identification and Guilt identification is the opposite of alienation we have a need to understand other peoplehelps us overcome differences 1 Acquiting language overcomes isolation e We are able to overcome epistemic alienation your thoughts are yours and mine are mine but we will never share thoughts 2 Consubstantiality identification 0 Identification subsequently creates alienation o Consubstantiality two things seen as similarsun and paperclip example 3 Communication is primary way to overcome alienation amp create identity C Guilt 22 1 Guilt caused by 0 Uhh look it up 2 We try to purge guilt 0 We clean it out To do this what can I do to make it up to youquotetc Desperate measures would be self abuse 3 Guilt caused by hierarchy perfection and the negative 0 Hierarchy people are put above others Feel guilt cause you re not good enough Perfection The Negative we are diseased by the negative Guilt is fueled by this III Narrative Theory A Walter Fisher humans are natural storytellers homo narrans the human or animal that tells stories 0 Stories are how things make sense to us B Defined narrative very broadly p105 N Communication C The Narrative Paradigm vs The Rational World Paradigm 0 We are more narrative than rational 1 Storytelling is more compelling than argumentation 2 Narrative Coherence a Do the parts of the story fit together 3 Narrative Fidelity n Have you ever experienced it or heard about itdoes it seem real to you IV Purging Guilt 2 ways 1 Mortification blaming ourselves 2 Victimage blaming something or someone else for the failing V The Dramatistic Pentad Hexad A Act Scene Agent Agency Purpose Attitude o Attitude is how u feel about the communication B Dramatistic Analysis 1 Identify elements emphasized most What is the focus And also what is overlooked 2 Analyze the ratios between elements Agent act agentagency agentscene agentpurpose then act agency actscene etc 0 23 TH EORIES ABOUT PERFORMANCE TURNER SAYS aHomo performans humans are defined by their participation in rituals social drama and improvisational creative performances in daily life p 116 O I Dramaturgical Theory Performance in Everyday Life dramaturgy how we act in everyday life A Erving Goffman an early influence in performance studies setting the stage for study of performance in everyday life 3 central concepts B The Dramaturgical Model 1 Ordinary social interactions are like a drama Settingcontext stage People actors Those who watch audience Actor takes on roles Each drama has discreet scenes Frames models we rely on to make sense of experience a Framing theory useful tool to analyze something in detail 2 Impression Management process of managing setting words non verbal communication and dress to create a particular image of individuals and situations p 119120 3 Front Stage Back Stage We perform our identities n face a face work a front stage o in front of other people a personal front 24 Your hair jewelry makeupwhat you did for other people a scene setting 0 u back stage back region o how you act when you re not around people n role set a The set of roles that other people do that allows me to do my role II Performance Ethnography def p 124 A Ethnography B The essential problem III Performance as a Political Action A Performers and performances raise awareness call into question or alter society B Performativity performing and that which is performed social norms The act and the acting Both the doing and what is being done 1 Performance reiterates a social norm or set of norms one cannot act without enacting a socially approved norm to judge it Performance and Literature I Analysis of content and structure and literary work A Analysis of content 1 Distinguish content from structure Content what being said a intellectual or logical aspecte what the material says b emotional quality structure way it is said order B Analysis of Structure 1 Structure is how content is ordered and also the words and the relationship between them II Intertextuality e conversation or interaction between two things 25 A Any two objects put in time and place near each otherour minds tend to connect them 0 Any two things can be put together to make a connection 0 Shows how one story connects with another C Such conversations between texts occur a lot III Analyzing the Selection A Major Structural Components 1 denotative and connotative meanings Denotative dictionary like definitionsexplicit This is the common meaning It is conventional Connotative derived from your personal experience with that object The emotional message for you that is associated with it 2 personae Its like role taking This refers to a KIND of person we become in order to be appropriate in a situationetc 3 locus Location once you know who is speaking determine from what vantage point the persona speaks Not just where they are but also what s their state of mind 4 climax Important development in the plot doesn t have to be literature 0 5 Rhythm Can test a shift of focus from one thing to another IV Use of Voice A Phase B Projection C Change of Speed V Use of Body A Posture B Use of Movement 0 Also means take a pace or two to suggest something C Gesture o feel free to use your hands VI Rehearsal 26 o Tends to set in place how you are going to perform it o It is a discovery device Performance Art o A lot of time performance art is dependent on the reaction of the audience Critical mass riding bikes together The cars have to pay attention and notice Kitsch opposite of avant garde When does avantgarde stop be avantgarde When everybody has access to it AVANT GARDE POWERPOINT 27 CMST 1150 1272011 40800 PM WHAT IS COMMUNICATION THEORY Communication Theory ds 0 TERM A Definition by Ernest Bormdnn 0 An umbrelld term for oil coreful systemdtic and self conscious discussion This is too generdl not Q cledr distinction between this rhetoric and performdnce studies B Communicotion Theory uses socidl science methodology The interpretive dpprooch A Rhetoric and Performdnce Studies use on interpretive dpprooch 0 It s criticol philosophicol and subjective Relies on the critic to make decisions These dren t findl onswers you persudde your redder Philosophies behind these dpprooches with sets of volues attached to them B Redlity is constructed socidlly dnd persondlly o This redlity is the result of on interpreted event Redlity is constructed symbolicolly socidlly dnd persondlly Elements of Interpretdtion A Subjectivity 0 Point of A Who we ore effects whdt we seewhdt you do not volues you overloolltbut whdt you do volue you will pdy attention to o Wonts to convince others to fill in the X ds you do orwhoever is talking B Seeks to credte d porticuldr outloollt C A study of intent and motives 0 Think about things before you soy them 0 We look for motive in the act tht moves you tht moves your feelings tht moves you to act D Gools to expldin and critique o Expldin Interpret dnd understdnd behdvior o Critique Is it useful if so when where and how tht effect does it hove Is it right wrong good bddetc 28 IV Communication Theory ds 0 socidl science perspective A Tends to View Truth ds singuldr o The truth is ds dccurdte ds the informdtion you con get B Tends to View Truth ds discoverdble 0 And dpproochdbletdngible 0 Something you con reduce to numbers C Truth is ut dbsolute D Chordcteristics of socidl science 1 Objectivity ds opposed to subjectivity 2 Evidence is independent evidence should spedllt for itself 3 Outside forces contribute to humdn behdvior they do not CAUSE humdn behdvior 4 Emphdsizing testing theory PERCIEVING AND UNDERSTANDING An active psychologicol process we do not hove to be dere of it for it to be mentdlly dctive A A definition Perception the mentdl process of gathering informdtion dnd cotegorizing it into medning B 3 interreldted stdges brdin con do these three simultaneously 1 Selection 2 Organization 3 Interpretdtion Selection A We construct our own experiences of eventsphenomend Constructivism 0 Our brdins ore recredting oil of the externdl redlity inwordly B We experience the world in 0 unique woy and in d shdred woy o How you experience the world is in some woy unique to you and in some woy shdred with other people 0 White pdperexomple o Sensory reception 29 o Schemofo help us chorocferize differences befween fhings C Your behovior follows from your percepfions o All percepfions ore for survivol 0 Your percepfions direcf your behoviors which help you fo survive D Why we poy offenfion fo some fhings ond nof ofhers l Inherenf Selecfion Focfors 5 inherenf meons in born menfol A infensify n onyfhing fhof is infense you ll nofice B size C repefifion a When nofhing is compefing for your mind s selecfion your mind is more likely fo selecf if 0 Like if fhe foucef is dripping oll doy ond u don f nofice if fill fhere is nofhing else going on buf fhe consfonf repefifive dripping while your in bed D mofion n Somefimes repefifion con be perceived os mofion E fomiliorify vs novelfy n novelfy meons if is new fo you a new objecfs in o fdmilior seffing will pop ouf n fomilior objecfs in on unfomilior environmenf would pop ouf 2 Sociolized Selecfion Focfors 5 leorned A posf experiences B ossumpfions obouf humon behovior n so fhis is posf experiences obouf HUMANS C expecfofions n sef by circumsfonces dnd fhe individuols in fhose circumsfonces D persondl knowledge of ofhers E personol moods ond disposifions n fhe woy you ore feeling of o fime Orgonizofion A How do we orgonize informofion we hove selecfed Where ore we going fo ploce fhis informofion 30 l Prototypes described ds the best cose in the cotegorythe go to exomple for thdt cotegory the most important for thdt cotegory also the structure of the mentdl gdme itself a not sure tht thdt medns 2 Bipolor Constructs simple Hos to do with peopewe rely on these bipoldr constructs thdt help us define somebodyeX intelligentstupid friendlymeon boringnot boringetc this helps us to size up people very quickly when fdst decisions need to be modebipoldr persondl constructs come in hondy 3 Stereotypes d prediction of probdble behdvior use this term in 2 diff woys a prediction of probdble behoviors thdt follow from your persondl constructs a the over dpplicotion of d generdlizotion o The stereotype thdt is more of d generolizotion 4 Scripts fully elobordte EXPECTED order of behoviors a nice restdurdnt exomple B Sometimes orgdniZdtion tdlltes conscious effort 0 Closure d the tendency to fill in dct of seeing things ds 0 whole IV Interpretdtion A We tend to perceive whdt were expecting B Wood introduces 2 terms of interpretdtion Attributions l nterndl externol locus the interpretotion d nternoldispositionol n Action wos coused by the octors noture b Externolsitudtiondl n Action wos coused becouse of something outside of the octor another person or environment 31 c Where do ploce The blome or proise for The ocT Need To inTerpreT if iT is good or bod useful or useless If noT o siTuoTionol ocT Then They person is blomed for Their ocT becouse ThoT s who They ore Confessing is inTernol 2 STobiliTy consisTency over Time 3 ConTrollobiliTy ie behovior conTrol 4 DisTincTiveness omong TorgeTs Self serving bios group bios n Where we Tend To mollte oTTribuTions Tth serve our personol need roTher Thon inTerpreT our sociol siTuoTions 0 We re inclined To make inTernol sToble oTTribuTions for our posiTive dcTions successes b We re inclined To make eXTernol oTTribuTions for our misTolltes I m Tiredbloh bloh c AampB disTorT our percepTion OTher Terms 1 CogniTive compleXiTy 2 Person cenTeredness obiliTy To see someone else os on individuol noT os o sTereoType 3 EmpoThy obiliTy To feel olong wiTh someone else 4 MoniToring Explaining Behavior 2 kinds of oTTribuTions oTTribuTing cousoTion nTernol or disposiTionol ond EXTernol siTuoTionol Horold Kelley we goTher informoTion To oTTribuTe o couse To someone s behovior o Tolltes inTo occounT The Type of info we goTher To do The obove IV 4 Types of cousol oTTribuTions l AcTor 0 ACT ouT of your own impulses 2 TorgeT o STimulus objecT or person ThoT behovior is oimed oT eXTernol 3 CircumsTonces 32 4 Relationship 0 Contract of some sort V 3 Types of available information we seek A Consensus o Allta agreement Given the same set of social circumstances most people would act in this way high consensus B Consistency o How they usually act 0 High consistency is what they normally dolow is the opposite D Distinctiveness o Distinctiveness among targetsdid something specific cause them to act towards that target that way If so high distinctiveness VI We are more likely to attribute behaviors to the person internal when we perceive low consensus high consistency and low distinctiveness All other combinations and we assume the situation or target shaped the actor s behavior external NonVerbal Communication o Between 65 and 93 of meaning in communication 5510 Engaging n Nonverbal Communication Verbal communication is built on non verbal communication The majority of our message that is remembered is non verbal communication What is nv communication A includes all aspects of communication other than words It includes how we utterwordsfeatures of the environment and ob39ects B Nv is significant 5 Characteristics of nv communication 1 nv is ambiguous 0 Just like verbal messages they mean more than one thing 2 nv interact with verbal s 33 o 5 categories of this interaction i Repetition Repetition of the verbal message EX lillte nodding your head and say yes it s like emphasizing iiContradictionConflicting iii Complement two things that go together iv Substitution we don t have to say the verbal messagewe can replace it with non verbal v AccentingModerating can add emphasis or can moderate take away energy 3 NVs regulate our conversations i Regulate our own messages Posture might change to show a change in topic ii Regulate the flow between ourselves and an interactant signaling continuation finishing and starting of a conversation 4 NVs create relational level meanings relational messages Mehrabian s 3 Basic Kinds of Messages Communicate by NVs i Responsiveness Do they listen or ignore you If they look then they have high responsivenessif they are ignoring you they have low responsiveness ii Lillting How much similarity Lillting means identifying iii Powerstatus 5 NVs communicate cultural values affects things like kinds of touch space i learned socially 2 these cultural values affect other categories of NVs 34 III 9 types of WV behavior types are not always discrete A w Kinesics Elltman amp Friesen s meaning centered model Emblems Illustrators Regulator Adaptors Affect displays Haptics touch Handshallting vs slapping Physical Appearance Artifacts Proxemics personal space and territory Environmental Factors Chronemics Paralanguage Silence A Hearing B Understanding C Evaluation ii Acoustic ability our ears have of picking up noises and sending signals up to the brain 35 D Redction iii Do you react too soon ii 4 Redsons to Listen A To understdnd and retain informdtion 0 People remember differently B To evoludte the quality of messdges C To build and maintain relationships 0 Interpersondl aspect of it D To help Others I Orgdnize for Comprehension and Retention Orgdnized info is edsy to understand A Primdcy dnd Recency B Recognizoble potterns C Repetition D Grouping chunllting Techniques for Better Listening A Resist Distrdctions B Don t Be Diverted by Appedrdnce or Delivery C Suspend Judgment D Focus and Organize Your List E lelte Listening Seriously Conflict Mondgement in Reldtionships Defining Interpersondl Conflict A Definition Interpersondl Conflict exists when people who depend on edch other express different view interest or gools dnd perceive their views ds incompdtible or oppositiondl Julio Wood B Expressed Disdgreement i Verbdl dnd nonverbdl communicotion i We express disdgreement bodily dnd vocolly 2 Verbdl expresses it nonverbdl emphdsizes it ii Overt communicotion dctudlly showing or sdying out in the open v convert communicotion hidden ex not 36 C A B onswer the phoneshowing thdt you re mod without dctudlly coming out and sdying it possive dggression Interdependence i like the elderly depending on someoneif the elderly hos 0 problem with the other person it will not be out in the open if it does not dffect the other person Opposition 39 conflict involves oppositiondrguments ore vitol to reldtionships it is how you dedl with the orguments is whdt makes it work or not work conflict is due to opposing volues needs and wonts Conflict Con Be Good Conflict moy propel persondl growth Conflict moy propel reldtiondl growth iv Conflict Strotegies 2 Mojor Concerns in Conflict i Achieving your gools i How importdnt is it for ME to dchieve MY gools 2 How important is it for you to maintain 0 good reldtionship with the person you ore hdving d conflict with The 2 Concerns Determine 0 Response A model with 5 strotegies Withdrowing turtle Forcing shdrllt Smoothing teddy bedr Problem solvingNegotioting owl Compromising fox v U PPON vi vii viii ix Conflict Resolution none is better than the other xi Smoothing 37 Problem Solving Compromising Withdrawing Forcing 38 Chapter 10 Kenneth Burke and Rhetoric as Symbolic Action His most foundational idea that language use is symbolic action and that rhetoric is symbolic inducement A Grammar ofMotl39ves Rhetoric was the use of symbols to shape and change human beings and their contexts Three fundamental elements of human social and private existence that knowledge of rhetoric helped us to understand 1 The symbolic means by which we define ourselves and our communities 2 The nature of meaning as a matter ofinterpreting symbols 3 Human motivation and action Symbolic inducement garnering cooperation by the strategic use of symbols quotRhetoric is rooted in an essential function oflanguage itself a function that is wholly realistic and is continually born anew the use oflanguage as a symbolic means of inducing cooperation in beings that by nature respond to symbols Language is not a neutral tool used to describe an objective existence Rather symbols are the essence of existence the mechanisms by which we understand ourselves and our world and the means by which we affect change Terministic screens directs attention toward one thing while de ecting it from another Dramatistic pentad language of drama provided a means of assessing rhetorical settings in order to come to some understanding ofwhy people choose the actions they do 1 The act what is done or being done 2 The scene the setting 3 The agent person performing the action 4 Agency means by which the agent performs 5 Purpose intended goal Syllogistic form the form ofa perfectly conducted argument advancing step by step Qualitative progression one incident in a plot prepares us from some other incident ofplot Repetitive form the consistent maintaining ofa principle under new guises Minor or incidental form any time we encounter metaphor paradox disclosure reversal Lloyd Bitzer and Rhetoric as Situational o Argued that a rhetorical situation is defined by three elements 1 Audience consists only of those persons who are capable ofbeing in uenced by discourse and of being mediators of change Exigence an imperfection marked by urgency it is defect an obstacle something waiting to be done a thing which is other than it should be a An exigence is rhetorical when it is capable ofpositive modification and when positive modification requires discourse or can be assisted by discourse Constraints made up of persons events and relations which are parts of the situation because they have the power to constrain decision and action needed to modify the exigence positive and negative Fitting response the situation must somehow prescribe the response which fits His basic insight that rhetoric is discourse situated in and responsive to particular settings Equot 539quot Weaver believed that rhetoric was the master study that governed all other studies Feminism and Rhetoric Critique and Reform in Rhetoric Sonja Foss two assumptions that connect gender with rhetoric undergird feminist criticism 1 Women s experiences are different from men s 2 Women s voices are not heard in language 0 Other groups facing rhetorical exclusion would include racial minorities the illiterate the poor and children 0 Invitational rhetoric one that does not require or assume intent to persuade on the part ofa source 0 Change may be the result of this but it is not the goal Gearhart 0 Conversion model the goal of rhetoric is to convert others to one s own views CMST 1150 1162013 93300 PM o The Research Process 1st stage in inquiry Ask Questions interesting significant questions and providing solid answers 0 Q s of definition identify what is observed and infer if they are active What is it What it isn t Involve naming o Q s of fact concern properties and relations of things that are observed and concepts of nature 0 Q s of value 0 Aesthetic is it beautiful 0 Pragmatic o ethical is it proper 2nd stage of inquiry Observation 3rd stage of inquiry Constructing Answers 0 The 3 stages are not necessarily linear 0 Types of Scholarship 0 Natural Science The nature of science a quotation by Michael Shermer What makes science different Its commitment to the tentative nature of all its conclusions Truth an ongoing process of refinement Your claims are only as good as the evidence and reasoning you have to back them up II Essential Characteristics of Natural Science Guided by natural law o Has to be explanatory by ref to natural law o Testable against empirical world o Conclusions are tentative o It is falsifiable III Natural Science depends on a standardization of method ie it aims at being objective o the standardization of method will sometimes even tell you you are wrong c not everything is self evident ex sunrise and sunset IV Replications of studiesgtsame results 0 V Scientificphilosophical position The world has form and structure independent of differences between individual observers what form and laws that science is trying to uncover B Humanistic 1 associated with subjectivity 2 focus on individual and social worlds 3 doesn t separate knower from known 3 Unintentional influence is a more serious probem o one may unwittingly influence expectations to subjects o case study Clever Hans the horse 4 Solutions o train experiments well on what to look out for need to be aware o use standardization o set up blind research researches tell experimenters how to do the procedures in how to get the info from the participants Overview of 3 Areas Rhetoric Performance amp Communication Studies I Rhetorical Theory amp Criticism Concerned with public symbolic messages As formal study 2500 yrs Old R the public symbols themselves amp their study Usually persuasive messages P 0093 H H Performance Studies A Concerned with the study of and the doing of performancebased acts of communication Begins in English depts early 1900s Early focused on interpretation of literature o Oral interpretation o Literature To know it do it theoryamp practice Midtolate 80s begin to be called PS 003 TIU F Also at this time issue of where is P G Theory vs Practice III Communication Theory A A social science begins in 19605 uses quantitative experimental method B Relies on descriptive statistics Aristotle s Definition of Rhetoric So let rhetoric be defined as the faculty power of deciding in the particular case what are the available mean of persuasion Lane Cooper translation IV Models of Communication o Harold Lazwell 1948 linear SMgtR o Claude Shannon amp Warren Weaver 1949 linear o Wilber Schram 1955 interactional Fields of experience 0 o Wood et al Transactional Chapter 2 Understanding Communication Theories I General Goals of Theory A Theory p31 B Description What is it o IDs features amp constituent parts An object or idea has parts o Analysis vs synthesis C Explanation D Prediction Control Understanding E Reform o Goal Positive social change CMST 1150 BOOK NOTES 1162013 93300 PM Chapter 1 Communication Careers and Foundations 6 basic communication processes concepts and skills relevant to a range of goals an settings of interaction Perceiving and understanding others Engaging in verbal communication Engaging in nonverbal communication o Listening and responding to others o Creating and sustaining communication climates o Adapting communication to cultural contexts 7 communication contexts that are common in our lives o Communication with yourself o Interaction with friends and romantic partners o Communicating in groups and on teams o Communication in organizations o Public speaking o Mass communication o Communication technologies From birth to death communication is central to our personal professional and civic lives Communicating with others promotes health whereas social isolation is linked to stress disease and early death Communicationa systemic process in which people interact with and through symbols to create and interpret meanings Openessis the extent to which a system affects and is affected by outside factors or processes Symbolsabstract arbitrary and ambiguous representations of other things Noise anything that interferes with the intended meaning of communication a model should include the feature of time and should depict communication as varying not constant Chapter 2 The Field of Communication in Historical and Contemporary Perspective the art of rhetoric was born in the mid400s BC in the port city of Syracuse on the island of Sicily when Sicilians overthrew an oppressive political regime and established a democratic society Aristotle believed truth could be discerned from careful observation of reality People must be able to voice their ideas and to listen thoughtfully and critically to the ideas of others quantitative research methods to gather info in numerical form qualitative research methods provide nonnumerical knowledge about communication critical research methods when scholars identify and challenge communication practices that oppress marginalize or otherwise harm individuals and social groups intrapersonal communication communication with ourselves or selftalk Interpersonal communication communication between people Ethics branch of philosophy that focuses on moral principles and codes of conduct Chapter 3 Perceiving and Understanding Perception the active process of selecting organizing and interpreting people objects events situations and activities perception consists of three interrelated processes selection organization and interpretation constructivism is a theory that holds that we organize and interpret experience by applying cognitive structures called cognitive schemata prototypes knowledge structures that define the clearest or more representative examples of some category interpretation is the subjective process of creating explanations for what we observe and experience cognitive complexity the number of personal constructs used how abstract they are and how elaborately they interact to shape perceptions monitoring is the process of calling behavior or other phenomena to our attention so that we can observe and regulate them Chapter 7 Expanding the Rhetorical Tradition Rhetoric has to do with the ways in which signs in uence people 1 Accomplished trough signs a Icon b Indices c Symbols 2 Irnplies attitude or behavior change Rhetorical Criticism the systematic analysis of an argument about what things are or the way things ought to be conveyed in a text through signs as artifacts Evolution of the Rhetorical Tradition Classical Period known as the Golden Age Sophists a group of professional public speaking experts Nonartistic proofs support appeals not invented by the speaker Artistic proofs rhetorical appeals invented by the speaker Canons rules 1 Intervention audience centered goal content and argument development 2 Arrangement organizational structure 3 Style language choice sentence composition tropes and gures 4 Memory mnemonic devices 5 Delivery controlled use of voice and body Middle Ages focused on Genres l Poetics 2 Letter writing 3 Preaching Renaissance 18111 and l9Lh Century Modern Rhetoric The NeoAristotelian Approach to Rhetorical Criticism NeoAristotelian newAristotle approach draws from the foundations of rhetoric as conceptualized rst method developed for examining rhetorical criticism of public speeches as distinct from literary criticism of written documents Step 1 Describing the Rhetorical Situation 1 Who is speaking what are their credentials Where and when does the speech take place To whom is the speech being given Characteristics of audience Why is the speech being given What are the constraints 959 Step 2 Interpreting the Text According to the Five Canons Phase 1 Invention gt Speakers content what do they use as inartistic proofs facts statistics examples journal articles research reports gt What does the speaker use as artistic proofs logos ethos pathos Phase 2 Arrangement gt Focus on the organizational structure of the speakers message and its effect on the audience gt Determine organizational pattern chronological spatial comparative advantages problemsolution of the message How the speaker arranged main points Speculate as to the value of choosing that order Phase 3 Style gt Speakers language choices and sentence structure Phase 4 Memory gt gt gt Specific things that make the message positively memorable Mnemonic devices strategies employed to translate information into a form that aids retention Phase 5 Delivery gt Speakers actual presentation with regard to use of voice and body Step 3 Evaluating the Overall Effect and Implications New Contemporary and Postmodern Rhetorical Approaches Chapter 8 A Dramatistic Perspective Dramatistic perspective focuses on how we make sense of the world through stories grounded in theories of action rather than theories of knowledge Dramatism the study of human motivation by viewing events as dramas The Dramatistic Life Cycle Consubstantiality the process of identification among people who share similar attitude values ideas experiences goods properties and things Guilt any feeling of tension within a person such as anxiety angst disgust or embarrassment Life cycle consists of 1 Order 2 Pollution 3 Guilt 4 Puri cation 5 Redemption l gum 4 Order exists when people follow what Burke calls rules for living valueladen moralistic thou shalts and thou shalt nots Pollution occurs when an individual rejects the social order Guilt what we experience from personal transgressions and from intentionally or unintentionally Purification the absolution of guilt We may be absolved from guilt through 0 Victimage blaming someone or something else scapegoating When the guilty persons error is inevitable or a common fail they re accepted back into society as a comic fool EX Goodbye Earl song by Dixie Chix When the action is portrayed as someone or something else s fault but no one needs to be punished they are treated as a tragic hero 0 Morti cation punishing oneself EX confessing sins in church 0 T ranscendence following a higher calling EX it s a wonderful life George Bailey 5 Redemption a temporary rebirth into the social order of society Cluster Analysis Terministic screens verbal and nonverbal symbols that represent a particular worldview they act as filters that re ect and shape reality and motivate our behaviors Enablers granting permission for thinking or doing certain things Deterrents preventing us from thinking or doing certain things Clusters groups of associated symbols that suggest what goes with what Agons groups of symbols that reveal points of con ict by reinforcing opposites Freguency how often agons and clusters appear Intensity how forcefully clusters and agons are portrayed God terms considered good right and desirable Devil terms reinforce perception of what is bad wrong or undesirable Teleology the ways in which word clusters are ultimately completed The Pentad Pentad a macrostructural framework for analyzing life as a drama represented in texts Critics who examine texts from a dramatistic perspective do so by l S Nt Describing the five elements of the drama Act refers to the behavior what s going on Agent the characters Agency how was the act accomplished Scene the location where the act takes place VVVVV Purpose why the agents acted I M otive what makes the act justifiable absolution from guilt Determining the dominant element gt Critic creates ratios to reveal the dominant one in the drama Revealing the motive offered as justification Conducting A Dramatistic Analysis Selecting an Appropriate text Examining the Text 7 Describe Interpret Evaluating Potential Implications of the Text EX in Goodbye Earl you might talk about the ethical questions involved with Wanda amp Mary Ann taking the law into their own hands or failure of the legal system to protect victims Chapter 9 Visual Perspectives Visual art aesthetics devoted to the creation and appreciation of art Visual communication focuses on how images and objects convey meaning Visual rhetoric focuses more speci cally on how visuals communicate meanings that reinforce or challenge takenforgranted ideological beliefs and behaviors History and Nature of Visual Communication Pictograms pictures that resemble what they signify Ideograms pictures that resemble ideas Visual culture ways in which visual images are embedded in social life Visual literacy set of skills required to effectively find interpret evaluate use and create images and visual media Visual languagewisual images and objects use to describe color layout texture sequencing imagery style animation and sound Visual Theory Perspectives How we interpret or assign meanings based on three theories 1 Gestalt Theory our brains group individual items based on what seems to go together and what does not a Similarity group by color shape size b Proximity we associate objects that are or appear to be close to each other amp we notice things that are or appear to be close to us 0 Continuity we follow lines and curves that are arranged in an orderly fashion over those that change direction at Closure seeing and object or image as complete even when it is not 6 Common fate tendency to mentally group objects that appear to be going in the same direction 2 Semiotics Theory the study of signs designed to explain ways of seeing to examine the social meanings of visual images or objects Semiosisthe relationship between a sign which represents an object referent and a meaning interpretation attached to it Syntagmatic signs gain their meaning from the signs that surround them in a static image or by signs that come before and after them sequentially EX painting photo magazine advertisement TV program commercial Paradigmatic signs gain meaning as they fit with or in contrast to other signs Denotative meaning meanings we notice first at the surface Connotative meanings underlying messages related to social norms and practices Connotative Signs 1 7quot 39 signs 39 Jwith I39 else and represent something else 2 Synecdochal signs a part or piece of something that serves to stand in for the whole EX American ag represents 1 USA the country as a synecdochal sign and 2 freedom and democracy as a metonymic sign 3 Cognitive Theory focuses on what s going on in our minds when we view an image or object and how that affects our perception Psychoanal ic theories focus on how the mind psyche human subjectivity sexuality and the unconscious are constructed in rhetorical texts Visual Pleasure Theory Visual pleasure theory argues that visual images in media encourage viewers to look pleasurably at images via a male gaze Principles of Visual Pleasure Theory 1 Scopophelia the love of or sexually arousing 2 Narcissism excessive selflove based on selfimage Constructs of Visual Pleasure Theory 1 F etishism getting pleasure from looking at an item that is satisfying in itself 2 Voyeurism instances where people engaged in sexual sordid or scandalous acts are being watched without them knowing viewer is like a peeping Tom Male gaze the way viewers male amp female gaze at people in ways that in uence our subconscious beliefs about our own psyches Mirror stage an ongoing sexual relationship we have with body image Selfimage mental picture of one s self is formed from mirror stage experiences Conducting a Visual Pleasure Analysis Step 1 Selecting an Appropriate Text Step 2 Examining the Text describe amp interpret Step 3 Evaluating Potential Implications of the Text Chapter 10 MediaCentered Perspectives Media effects research uses social science methods to examine audience responses to media messages Media ecology theog focuses expressly on how media and communication processes affect human perception understanding beliefs and behaviors Theory suggest that l Infuse every act and action in society 2 Fix our perceptions and organize our experiences 3 Tie the world together into a global village Media History Preliterate era tribal people communicated in facetoface settings through storytelling and spoken language Literate era rint writing replaced speaking as the primary mode of communication Gutenberg era the invention of the printing press intensified the effects of individualism fragmentation and isolation Electronic era emerged with the invention of the telegraph telephone typewriter radio and TV describe the endless ways in which technology dominates our thinking and behav1ors today Media Laws Tetrad an organizing concept for understanding the impact of technology on society 1 What does the medium enhance or amplify in society 2 What does the medium make obsolete 3 What does the medium retrieve from the past 4 What does the medium ip into when pushed to its limits Media Logic Media logic focuses on the degree to which users tend to take the medium and its social uses for granted and then fail to realize how it in uences us to believe and behave about what is normal good desirable etc Mediatization account for the logic of this new media and these new areas of application ram has to do with advertisements blending with programming Ampli cation and Reduction has to do with what is shown and not shown on a TV program lm intemet website or video game Social Learning Theory 39 v focuses on how we learn to believe and behave based on observation imitation and modeling Live models actual people demonstrating a behavior Symbolic models people demonstrating a behavior through a medium such as TV film video games etc Parasocial Relationship Theory Parasocial relationship theory describes onesided relationships where one party knows a great deal about the other party but not vice versa r d x N created when a viewer begins to feel heshe really knows the celebrity or character even though they don t know the viewer how believable the characters and their encounters are perceived to be quot n how viewers often get to know characters personally as they watch them privately in the comfort of their own homes Cultivation theog suggests that cumulative exposure to violent behaviors on TV the Internet and video games leads to signi cant longterm effects regarding what the everyday real world is like Conducting an analysis using a mediacentered perspective Step 1 Selecting an Appropriate Text Step 2 Examining the Text Describe amp Interpret Step 3 Evaluate Potential Implications of the Text Chapter 11 Introducing Theories of Performance Theories describe predict and explain the world through what why and how game of trut String Theory rejects the idea that the smallest building blocks of the universe are little dots neutrons protons electrons the dots can be broken down into even smaller components size of a tree they vibrate Theory Types 1 Covering laws I Answer wha questions I Generalizations that describe amp measure the world as we see it I Explain I What is performance Describe performance amp it s components performers actions audience texts contexts and events 2 Enlightenment I Answer why questions I They seek to make the familiar world around us rich unfamiliar and paradoxical I Explain the world in new unexpected and artful ways 3 Narrative I Answer how questions I Attempt to tell a story to account for complex and intertwined processes around us 4 Critical Theory I Expose critique and change the assumptions that ground our descriptions and explanations of the world around us Dennis Mumby argues that theory has been written in discourses of gt Representation gt Understanding gt Suspicion Theories compete for gt Claims gt Authority gt Knowledge gt Truth Discourses of representation rely on the scienti c method to observe and describe the world Principles three c s 1 Closure 2 Certainty 3 Control Discourses of understanding assume that communication is based on communities that reach a consensus about what something means 0 Interpretation of truth 0 Relies on ethnographic studies Language and communication processes create 1 Ideas 2 Identities 3 Organizations Discourses of suspicion assume that surface meanings of language obscure deep structures of oppression Focuses on 1 Power 2 Ideologies 3 The process through which certain realities are priVileged over others Performance theog a way of exploring the possibilities of performance Models of Communication quot a symbolic process whereby reality is produced maintained repaired and transformed shared beliefs expressed in community ideals and embodied in material forms dance plays architecture news stories strings of speech I Emphasized on orality Sharing participation community Maintains that culture is created maintained repaired and transformed in and through communication gt7 4 gt7 4 association fellowship common faith and 2 Transmission a process whereby messages are transmitted and distributed in space for the control of distance and people I Emphasized on transportation and geography I Imparting sending transmitting or giving information to others Richard Bauman s claims about communication 1 Communication is the ways in which information ideas and attitudes pass among individuals groups nations and generations C 39 quot is a construction rooted in social 39 quot 39 39 and produced in the conduct of social life 2 The expressive forms of culture forms of art play display and performance offer an especially productive vantage point on culture society and communication 3 Communicative forms constitute social resources equipment for living 4 Communicative forms and practices are differently valued and differently accessible to members of society 5 Communicative forms and practices are crossculturally and historically variable Assumptions about Performance 39239 Mimesis an imitation or mirror re ection of the world Mg and falsehood the pretend world of makebelieve and play Antitheatrical prejudice performers are not to be trusted they easily manipulate their own emotions and those of audiences create falsehoods of trickery and deceit 0 39 Poiesis making not faking The rich corpus of performances each culture produces makes that culture EX traditions communities debates values and worldview 39 Kinesisbreaking and remaking ways that performance can transgress boundaries break structures and remake social and political rules movement motion uidity uctuation 0 0 7 Includes cultural intervention v Answer two theoretical questions 1 What is performance 2 What does performance do Contested all terms mean different things to different groups and people Slippery terms slide across a range of meanings within one definition Unstable terms refuse to be pinned down to mean only one thing Performance is Constitutive When something is constituted it is established created and given form Constitutive elements are components the working parts the gears in the machinery of the creation Performance is Epistemic A branch of philosophy that is concerned with knowledge A way of knowing ourselves others and the world Performance is Critical To articulate and identify hidden forces and ambiguities that operate beneath appearances To guide judgments and evaluations emanating from our discontent To direct our attention to the critical expressions within different interpretive communities relative to their unique symbol systems customs and codes To demystify the ubiquity and magnitude of power To provide insight and inspire acts of justice To name and analyze what is intuitively felt Chapter 12 Performing Texts Clifford Geertz developed analogies for social interaction Life as a game Life as drama Life as text Must understand 1 How we are textcentered in print culture 2 How we are taught to interpret texts 3 How text building is central to the work of a number of areas of knowledge production literature history law music politics psychology trade even war and peace Humans and Symbol Use Symbol use that is Situated Mediated Learned Enacted Mnemonic Thought Thinking M emorably Based on memory Rules of Oral Expression 1 Repetition and redundancy 2 Stock phrases word clusters and formulas 3 Additive connectors 4 Concreteness Chirographic Thought Thinking Alone 7 Based on handwriting Typographic Thought Thinking through the Printed Page 7 Based on printandthe production of writing through mechanical means Electronic Thought Thinking Textually through Orality Electronic transformation of verbal expression through television radio and sound recordings Chapter 13 Performing Culture Sociological school Emilie Durkheim gt Maintained that religion is a social creation whose function is to preserve the welfare of a society Psychological approach Sigmund Freud gt Taboos of incest and patricide necessitate rituals that appease repressed desires Performance turn rejects the view of performance as fixed objects to be studied in the science of positivism and embraces performance as a paradigm for understanding how culture makes and remakes itself Victor Tumer s Performance Approach to Culture must 1 Re ect dynamic cultural processes 2 Enable possibilities between and within cultural structure 3 Provide opportunities for critique and transformation Performances are constitutive of culture not something added to culture Performances are epistemic the way culture members know and enact the possibilities in their worlds Performances are critical lenses for looking at and reshaping cultural forms Matthew Arnold proposed culture as the re nement of tastes and sensibilities gt Culture is the pursuit of our total perfection by means of getting to know the best which has been thought and said in the world Edward Burnett Tylor de ned culture as that complex whole which includes knowledge belief art morals law custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society Raymond Williams was the first to propose that culture is ordinary the common meanings and directions of a society Culture is Traditional a whole way of life passed on through generations Creative the processes of discovery that lead to new ways of thinking and doing Clifford Geertz argues that culture is semiotic Systems of meaning signification and symbol use are central to both patterned conduct and individual frames of mind John Bodley Components of Culture 39239 What people think shared 39239 What they do learned 39239 The material products they produce symbolically transmitted cross generationally adaptive to the physical world and integrated with it Wen Shu Lee defines culture as the shifting tensions between the shared and the unshared acknowledging that culture is contested within and across groups Robert Wuthnow approaches to studying culture 1 Subjective approach focuses on beliefs attitudes and values held by individuals 7 Mental constructions The individuals interpretation of reality 2 Structural approach seeks out the patterns and rules that hold a culture together Symbolic boundaries 7 How these boundaries among cultural elements are maintained and changed 3 Dramaturgical approach focuses on the expressive or communicative properties of culture culture is approached in interaction with social structure Classifies observations as utterances acts objects and events 7 Explore the dramatic ordering of social life not as information but for the ways that rituals ideologies and other symbolic acts dramatize the nature of social relations 4 Institutional approach adds the elements of culture as studied by structuralists to the moral order studied by dramaturgists to explore the organizations that constitute culture Require resources and in uence the distribution of these resources across members of their culture Often feature the interplay between culture and state Judith N Martin and Thomas K Nakayama Dialectical approach to studying culture as heterogeneous dynamic and contested accepts that human nature is probably both creative and deterministic that research goals can be to predict describe and change that the relationship between culture and communication is most likely both reciprocal and contested D Soyini Madison says that performance is central to the meanings and effects of human behavior consciousness and culture Arnold van Gennep theorized rites of passage John Huizinga theorized play Play gt The force of uncertainty gt Stresses innovation and creativity gt Contingent gt Most forms involve preestablished patterns of behavior Ritual gt Depends on repetition gt Predictable gt Contain some element of play some space for variation Van Gennep s thesis all individuals undergo life crises and that ceremonies exist to assure safe travel through those crises hence rites of passage Safe travel is always about thresholds movement and territory Signi cance l Rites of passage are ordered in a typical recurring pattern separation transition and incorporation 2 Transition is the stage that orients and enables the other two stages 3 Rites of passage are territorial passages involve physical space spatial separation of distinct groups is an aspect of social organization N LA 4 VI 9 3 4 Categories of Rites of Passage Stranger ceremonies greeting rituals signs of friendship protections and taboos and how to move them from separation to transition and to incorporation safely within the group Rites of pregnancy the pregnant woman is separated or isolated from the group because she is considered impure and dangerous or because her very pregnancy places her physiologically and socially in an abnormal c0ndition and childbirth marks the beginning of a transition period with gradual removal of barriers and then reintegration into ordinary life as a social return from childbirth for the mother 7 May be marked by special taboos against food sex or places during pregnancy Birth and childhood rites of passage often begin with ceremonies for the newborn child to highlight separation from mother s body Transition rites for the newborn feature moving into this new world incorporation involves being accepted into family extended family tribe and clan through naming ceremonies ritual nursing or baptism introduce the child into the world Initiation rites include ceremonies which bring about admission to age groups and secret societies Puberty rites which involved physical or sexual maturation from the asexual world to the world of sexuality then con ned to persons of one sex or the other Betrothal and marriage to marry is to pass from the group of children into the adult group from one family to another Transitions are sometimes marked by breaking virginity symbolically bathing or anointments veiling oneself or changing ones name or personality Other rites include passing over something uniting two people together exchanging gifts and food All should be understood literally the cord that binds the ring the bracelet and the garland which encircles have a real coercive effect Funeral ceremonies for mourners separation involves marking them off as a special group Transition involves the extended stay of the corpse or coffin the funeral itself the meal after the funeral Characteristics of Play Play is voluntary Must be freely chosen otherwise it becomes duty or obligation Play steps out of real ordinary life and into a temporary sphere of activity with a disposition all its own Transports us into another world and we are fully aware that the other world is pretend Play creates its own limits of time and place Nothing is produced by play i No material gains or profits Play creates its own rules Spoilsports destroy the play world shattering the illusion of play 6 Play promotes both secrecy and social groups Connections between play and three concepts 1 Language a play on words creating a symbolic world alongside material realities 2 Myth an account of the world that plays on the borderline between jest and earnest 3 Ritual the spirit of pure play is truly understood Characteristics of Ritual 39239 Ritual action is communal involving groups of people who gain social solidarity through their participation 39239 Ritual action is traditional and understood as carrying on ways of acting established in the past 39239 Ritual is rooted in beliefs in divine beings Genres o Rites ofpassage Calendrical rites Rules of exchange and communication Rites of af iction feasting fasting and festivals Political rites Ritualization is a process exible and strategic 1 F ormalization the degree of formality in dress or speech that marks an activity as ritual like I Ceremonial costumes language gestures and movement 2 T raditionalism we have always done this I Using grandma s tablecloth at Thanksgiving Pledge of Allegiance 3 Invariance precise repetition and physical control I Actions are performed exactly the same each time AA 4 Rulegovernance maintains that rituallike activities are governed by rules that guide and direct the activities I Sporting events debates legal proceedings 5 Sacral symbolism appeals to supernatural beings people and objects become sacred through the ritual acts or rituallike acts that create them I The cross Star of David American ag Mt Everest Elements of Cultural Performances Formal Characteristics 0 A limited time span beginning middle end 0 An organized program of activity 0 A set of performers 0 An audience 0 A place and occasion of performance Cnltnral Stage the place where the performance occurs Cultural Specialists people who are especially recruited trained paid and motivated to engage in performances Cultural Media the modes and forms of communication the performance utilizes singing dancing acting and recitation as well as graphic arts PerformanceCentered approach highlights features of culture 39239 Play the way cultural structures are manipulated critiqued and changed in and through performance genres 39239 Poetics emphasizes the contructedness of culture 39239 Power 39239 Process Liminality include categories of people and public places Communitas the sense of sharing and intimacy that develops among persons who experience liminality as a group the gift of togetherness Arises 1 Through the interstices of structure in liminality times of changes of status 2 At the edges of structure in marginalin 3 From beneath structure in inferiority What do cultural performances do As re ective cultural performances communicate the content of culture through orchestrations of cultural media 1 Cultural performances are capable of carrying many messages at once 2 They are capable of subverting on one level what another level seems to be saying 3 And the full reality of meaning and messages is only attained through the performance As re exive cultural performances provide moments to enact comment on critique and evaluate the norms and values of a culture Performance re exivity a sociocultural group turns bends re ects back on itself upon the relations actions symbols meanings codes roles statuses social structures ethical and legal rules and other components that make up their public selves The Custodian s Rip Off is characterized by sel shness and the desire to take to own and to sell performances and artifacts of others often preserving dying cultures The Enthusiast s Infatuation trivializes the other in superficial and often na39139ve performances based on little or no eldwork or contact The Curator s Exhibitionism is committed to difference but difference that is exotic remote and often shaped to shock audiences The Skeptic s Cop Out is familiar I am neither black nor female Iwill not perform The Color Purple Conquergood characterizes Dialogical Performances in four ways N E 4 As stretched among the poles of identity difference detachment and commitment this stance falls between competing ideologies bringing them together even as it holds them apart As an examination of identity and difference that leads to questioning and challenging our own a priori assumptions about culture As dialogue with performance a twoway conversation with others that resists speaking to and for others As dialogue in which performance resists conclusions but instead begins a conversation Final Notes The Beginnings of the Rhetorical Tradition o CoraX the lSt professional rhetorician o Rhetoric as powerful skillset and necessary to democracy 0 Sophists teachers of public education available to those other than aristocracy Rhetoric is for practical ends Sophist s taught dialectic contradictory arguments based on widelyheld premises The Dialectic Structure Th esis 6A ntith esis l Synthesis becomes new thesis Rhetoric Focuses Primarily on Persuasion 0 James Herrick IUPers Creates interest amp suspicion Interest in in uencing others and gaining personal advantage Suspicion of being taken advantage of Principle to remember Persuasion works best which does not call attention to itself 9 don t tell someone you re trying to persuade them With persuasion we hope to in uence attitudes beliefs and behaviors Evolution of the Rhetorical Tradition 0 Classical Period 0 5Lh 7 41h centuries BCE emphasis on public speaking amp effective public engagement 0 Sophists saw truth as relative amp probable o Plato against the Sophists rhet ampdemoc an idealist o Aristotle differed with Plato saw truth as based on observation Aristotle s de nition of rhetoric our ability to discover in the particular case what are the available means of persuasion Protagorashumans are the measurers of all things unable to determine any single thing as having absolute truth Classical Rhetoric I Cicero amp Quintilian developed Aristotle into 5 cannons 1 Invention 2 Arrangement 3 Style 4 Memory 5 Delivery I In democratic invention is most important It requires freedom to fully inquire into public matters to gather all facts and arguments to devise public policy Middle Ages I The end of democracy in 27 BCE when Augustus became Emperor I The heart of the canon of invention was lost I The Church continued the tradition of truncated rhetoric I Aurelius Augustine reduced the 5 canons to 2 l Invention nding subject matter for sermons 2 Making them more understandable amp memorable arrangement style delivery Modern Rhetoric I Emerged out of linguistics philosophy amp literary theory I Began in English department some interested in oratory speech but were marginalized I Some teachers of speech broke from English and began new organization today called the National Communication Association NCA I Herbert Wichelns beginning of rhetorical criticism as separation from literary criticism enduring permanence seek performance RC focuses on effects on audience Kenneth Burke s Dramatistic Pentad gt Life is drama and can be understood in dramatistic terms gt Burke sought a grammar of motives A means of understanding human motivation But 1 Why do humans communicate Model for analyzing 2 basic terms help explain Alienation amp Identification A We 39 to If 39 isolation perceived difference and alienation B Language creates categories of similarity and difference Identi cation Consubstantiality orAlienatz39on C Focus on the dissimilar and will see little in common with others alienation D Focus on the similar and will see what you have in common with others identi cation Language offers hope for the latter The Dramatistic Life Cycle 1 Order Rules for living reinforce cultural norms social expectationshierarchies 2 PollutionSin One rejects or fails to live up to the social order 3 Guilt The feeling of failure from violating social order a Guilt is caused by violating or not living up to the social standard order or ideal b We continually feel guilt to varying degrees c Guilt is aroused by hierarchical structures perfectionism the negative 4 Puri cation The purgingremoval of guilt 5 Redemption Temporary restoration to the social order of society Purging Guilt We rid ourselves of guilt in 2 ways 1 Mortification blame yourself 2 Victimage this leads to the tragic frame blame someone else The Dramatistic Pentad ACT what was done SCENE where it was done AGENT who did the act AGENCY how the act was done PURPOSE why the act was done Dramatistic Analysis 0 Analyze a text by 1 identifying each of the 5 elements in the situation 0 Then look for which elements gets the most emphasis or focus 0 Finally analyze the ratios between the elements AgentiAct uses a person s character to explain actions EX He s the kind of guy who does that Friends don t let friends drive drunk AgentiAgency Agentiscene AgentiPurpose etc Burkean Frames 0 Frames are symbolic structures humans use to impose order on our lives 7 personal and social 0 Tragic frames creates a victim and oppressor Victimage where the oppressor must be sacri ced to bring about a change in society 0 Comic frames sees humanity as good but awed One must consider seeing the opposition as not evil but mistakenly have deemed their efforts as good One needs to recognize that one s own side is fallible as well In the comic frame the weaknesses lie in social structures themselves The comic frame challenges the status quo by a corrective ideology while simultaneously keeping the basic ordering intact The Importance of Visual Rhetoric gt Developing the ability to critically examine arguments embedded in visuals is vital because much of social life happens visually Visual Communication focuses on how images and objects convey meaning Visual Rhetoric focuses on how visuals communicate meanings that reinforce or challenge takenforgranted ideological beliefs and behaviors Visual Literagg is the set of skills used to effectively find interpret evaluate use and create images and visual media Gestalt Theory Gestalt whole in German Max Wertheimer The whole is greater than the sum of its parts nonsummativity synergy Some gestalt terms Similarity Proximity Continuity Closure Common fate Figure and Ground Similarity I Occurs when objects appear to share something in common I An object can be emphasized if it is dissimilar Proximity I When elements are placed close together they tend to be perceived as a group Continuity I The tendency to perceive a smooth move from one object through to another I The mind follows lines and curves arranged in an orderly fashion Closure I An incomplete object is perceived as whole by the mind filling in missing information Common Fate I We tend to perceive objects moving in the same direction as more related than stationary elements or those moving in different directions Figure and Ground 0 A form silhouette or shape is perceived as m object while the surrounding area is seen as ground background Male Gaze o VPT claims that visual images in media encourages viewers to look pleasurably at images via a male gaze 0 Male Gaze Males and females view people represented in visual images by identifying with the male actors Many of the images in society have a male bias Scopophelia o Psychoanalytic concept 0 The love of looking ipleasurable or sexuallyarousing looking Narcissism o Psychoanalytic concept 0 Excessive selflove based on one s self image 0 We identify with particular characters models or body images seeing ourselves in the roles portrayed that we re attracted to Fetishism 0 Getting pleasure from openly looking at an object that is satisfying in itself 0 Images of people are reduced to body parts synecdoche 7 trade part for the whole Voyeurism o Secretly observing others engaged in sexual sordid or scandalous acts Rhetorical Implications gt Images have a powerful unconscious in uence on those seeking to achieve the ideals portrayed gt In uence but not cause of actionsreactions to images Video games don t cause one to go out and kill But they might desensitize the viewer As well images sensitize toward realities and no realities gt EX In AHS Filbel wasn t affected when one of the 2 headed twins starts to decompose and die he s seenread about how this could happen MediaCentered Perspectives Media Effects Research 0 Based on social science methodologies o Rhetoricians also use these theories 0 For upcoming assignment consider using any classical dramatistic gestalt visual pleasure and mediacentered theories Media Ecology Theory 0 Central issue How media and communication processes affect perception understanding beliefs and behavior 0 Marshall McLuhan 7 a mediated messages content affects the conscious mind but the medium itself affects the unconscious mind 0 Hot medium high definition 7 contains a lot of information passive 0 Cool medium low resolution 7 requires a lot of interaction and practice get more involved EX TV it can be playing in the background Media History 0 The media age has become an increasingly dominant set of in uences pervading our lives 0 We are more connected to a greater variety of people and sources across time and space 0 EX art newspapers books but now we have more indepth social networks Media Logic 0 The degree to which users take a medium and its social uses for granted This takenforgranted status prevents one from seeing the effects media have on us Commodification product placement advertising is blended with programming 0 o o Amplification use of focus and selection that brings greater importance to an item 0 Reduction what brings less importance 0 Agendasetting theory ability to in uence the salience of topics on the public agenda Social Learning Theory 0 We learn by observing how others act 0 Imitations are impressionable Parasocial Relationship Theory 0 PR are asymmetrical one party knows a lot about another party but not vice versa 0 Bond of Intimacy created when viewers believe they know actorcharacter but actors rarely get to know the fans 0 Factors that create this bond of intimacy realism and privacy 0 Realism the believability of characters and their encounters 0 Privacy we often watch media alone Cultivation Theory 0 Exposure to violence leads to a perception of a violent world 0 Exposure to repeated ideas and consistent messages may shape attitudes about the real world Introduction to the Performance Discipline 0 Richard Schechner s focus The eld is wide open Human values are from social agpeement Identity an important element Performance studies is vast in scope O O Assumptions about Performance Studies 0 Examines behavior as an object of study 0 Involves Mg performance 0 Participant observation 0 Frequency involved in social practices and advocacy when you start to see someone s actions as normal Views cultural groups in 2 ways 1 Cultural groups are always interacting 2 Cultural groups have distinct identities and they protect those identities by enacting their performances 0 We live in a world of multiple literacies which are performed body literacies literacy visual literacy electronic literacy etc Performance Study Coursework at LSU 0 Analysis and performance of literary texts o How people perform in everyday life 0 Study and practice of avantgarde and performance art The Histories of Performance Studies 0 The NYU Line lst called performance studies in 1980 Emerged from theatre Richard Schechner befriended Victor Turner an gt7 4 aural gt7 4 anthropologist o The Northwestern UniversityLSU Line Emerged from oral interpretation Emphasis on literature Performance Studies as a Discipline o Is Interdisciplinary o Is Antidisciplinary Performance of Literature Analysis of Content and Structure in a Literary Work 0 Each point resembles the performance of literature can be made about daily performance 0 Analysis of Content Intellectuallogical aspects Emotional qualities 0 Analysis of Structure Org of expression of ideas choice of words and the relationship of the parts to the whole Prose Drama Poetry not discrete categories 7 Structures of language have speci c effects Alliteration Antithesis Asyndeton Polysyndeton InteItextuality o The interaction between stories ideas or objects 0 Each item resonates differently in the presence of the other Analyzing the Text 0 Major Structural Components Denotatitm commonly understood meanings Connotation experiential meanings with some mostly personal and some given by society Mythic dominant ideologies of our time Myths are extended metaphors or encompassing narratives that help us make sense of our experiences 7 Persona 2 kind or type of person Locus physical and physiological place Climax high point in logical development of plot Rhythm measured motion created by patterned sound Use of Voice I Volume I Focus of projection I Rate I Pause I Charactertypedialect Use ofthe Body I Posture I Movement I Gesture Rehearsal I Useful to set ideas I Aids confidence I Can be an heuristic for discovery The Nature of Culture 0 O O O 0 Matthew Arnold culture as the re nement of tastes and sensibilities 7 values high culture Edmund Burnett Tylor culture as complex whole Raymond Williams culture was essentially ordinary instead of high culture it is traditional as well as creative Clifford Geertz culture is semiotic ie systematic and symbolic for patterned conduct and framed thought Wen Shu Lee culture is contested CMST 1150 1242011 13000 PM January 19 2011 COMMUNICATION SKILLS ARE IMPORTANT o The beginning of all skill building is becoming aware Labor Secretary s Education Recommendations o Robert Reich former Secretary of Labor said that if you are getting educated today one should get 1 A liberal arts education It expands you humans have been involved in liberal arts FOREVER 2 Public Communication skills 3 Small group experience comm in teams Communication is an Important Set of Workforce Skills o New economy is more information and service based Problem solving interpersonal communication decision making are soft skills which are crucial in the economy Communication is Important to Employers o 71 cited solid comm skills impact o A good working relationship includes employees feeling valued o Employee satisfaction includes understanding how their work contributes to organizational goals Workers Communication Most Important Workplace Skill o Ability to communicate and think critically seen as more important than computer or other jobspecific skills o 87 say comm skills as being very important for performing their jobs o Only 50 rated computer skills as very important 10 Areas of the Communication Field 1 Intrapersonal Communication 2 Interpersonal Communication 1 Performance studies Group and Team Communication Public Communication Organizational Communication Mass Communication Technologies of communication Intercultural Communication 10 Ethics and Communication 000 wa January 21 2011 THE RESEARCH PROCESS Background and Overview What is truth Truth is abstract to what a person thinks it is Has to do with how you were raised and what you were formerly taught what is proper and what is improper But how do you defend what you claim to know Nothing is ever completey black and whitebecause of di erent types of evidences Truth can not be found in the absolute Research tries to get that better answer I 1St stage in inquiry Ask questions o Inquiry is the process of asking interesting significant questions and getting disciplined and systematic answers A Q s of definition You cannot define something Without instantaneously stating what it s not What is it What shall we call it Q s of fact These concern properties and relations in what is observed Facts have to be verifiable We have to be careful of putative claims a There is no way of verifying a putative claim you can t prove it instead the person claiming it puts it on the other person questioning the claim to prove that its not correct o Its like a big guess Putative claim does not equal facts 1 C Q s of value Based on cultural preferences and experiences 1 Aesthetic issues n Whether or not something is attractive or beautiful that s each person s personal preference a Story of little girl and mom s scared hands 2 Pragmatic issues a Whether or not its effective Ex Bridges 3Ethic issues n Whether or not its proper In How do you behave in any given situation Are you acting in accord with the situation II 2nd stage of inquiry Observation III 3rd stage of inquiry Constructing Answers 0 IV The 3 stages are not nec linear Q s Theorye 9 Observation February 2 201 1 An Introduction to Communication Review Communication MosaicsCh 1 amp 2 3 I l History of Communication as a concept a When we look at rhetoric we look at in its use in public life b In democracy these skills are necessary c Rhetoric developed under the romans d There is a strong importance between rhetoric and democracy History of Communication as a discipline o 1914 National Association of Academic Teachers of Public Speaking 0 became as a study in departments of English some professors of English wish to study public speakingso this came about o 1950 Speech Association of America 0 broader topic than the one in 1914 o 1970 Speech Communication Association 0 now there is forms of communication that don t involve speech o 1997 National Communication Association 0 didn t want to limit it to speech US has the most developed academic process of communication H H III Definition of Communication o With every definition there is a problem with breadth accuracy adaptability o Def Of Communication from Wood p 10 o A systemic process in which people interact with and through symbols to create and interpret meanings systemic a Communication takes place within systems a Any change in one part will effect all the other parts to some degree n there s a system involved process a suggests something ongoing and dynamic but with communication it doesn t have an absolute beginning or an absolute end 4 symbolic with and through symbols symbols used as tools AND as an avenue there is no self without symbols you are the sum of your symbols Symbols allow for speed 3 aspects abstract I they refer by being a shorthand Allows you to easily translate from one system to the next n n n arbitrary ants splahhh words DO NOT HAVE to be the way they are ambiguity words can mean more than one thing allows for new possibilities meanings February 7 201 1 IV Models of Communication Harold Lazwell 1948 linear O Sender Message9Reciever 0 Claude Shannon amp Warren Weaver 1949 linear S M9R but with noise within 0 Wilber Schram 1955 interactional S M9R feedback amp fields of experience surrounding sender and receiver a Feedback allows you to change your message a Fields of experience Messages do better if you maximize the overlap of experience Transaction communication model Complicated O February 9 2011 Understanding Communication Theories 1 General Goals of Theory A Theory p31 To study theory is not something removed from other life How sophisticated are you going to do it It helps you to be more thoughtful and strategic Sometimes theories explain what goes on they are mental models in a short hand form They give us structure so we can quickly analyze things Theories 1 Describe What is it o ID s features amp constituent parts o Analysis vs systhesis 0 Leading to a better understanding of how the parts fit together B Explanation By showing parts we show how they are related Seeks to Clarify something Breaking it down so we can understand it better POWER AND PERSONAL INFLUENCE o John R French and Bertram Raven o Reward Power 0 Coercive Power If you don t do something you re fired 0 Expert Power Trusting people you know or people who have expert knowledge 0 Referent Power Our models heros ideals o Legitimate Power Where society legitimates people to act on behalf of us Judges Firefighter Police Dialectal Approach to IPC sees relationships as dialogues between opposing voices each expressing a different and contradictory impulse o Some Dialects of Intimacy o Affection vs Hostility Trust vs Risk Depth vs Superficially Inclusion vs Exclusion O O O Dialectic Structure Thesis quot96 Antithesis I I Synthesis Balancing Self and Relational Identities Dialectal Conflict o Expressive Protective o Autonomyalone time Togetherness o Noveltyrandomly new and exciting Predictability C Prediction Control Understanding Understanding is often championed by humanistic research to why things happen More deeply grounded meaning than explanation Humanistic theory is often not down for prediction and controlbut not always KNAPP S ROMANTIC DEVELOPMENT STAGES BondingDifferentiating Integrating Circumscribing Intensifying Stagnate Experiment Avoiding Initiate a conversation Terminate The Model is developmental Each coming together stage has its coming apart complement The greater amount of intimacy usually requires more time to leave Differentiating is not necessarily a sign of relationship coming apart Helps understand the nature of a relationship and bring control to the relationship 0 C Reform 1 Goal Positive social change a identifies problems in a society and analyze it but sometimes after analyzing it scholars tend to be a part of the change theory should make a difference in the world a relatively new trend 2 A newer friend subjective a form of control n explain the sources of oppression February 14 2011 Pg 11 textbook Lecture3 An Introduction to Rhetoric I Problematizing the Term Rhetoric bloviation is what people confuse rhetoric as A Rhetoric encompasses ALL verbal pursuits Wayne Booth s definition if its verbal written and spoken its more than advocacy which is what Crick was trying to imply Its strategic we use our verbal pursuits for a reasonfor goals B Richard McKeon Rhetoric is a universal and architectonic art architectonic it is the underlying principal for everything your going to build on top of itFOUNDATION H ex no philosophy without rhetoric II Rhetoric and Persuasion o persuasion is now broader than rhetoric When you see rhetoric or even when you hear the word rhetoric or persuasion we tend to get suspicious and they also make us interested February 16 2011 III Definition of Rhetoric and other Related Terms A Herrick expands Rhetoric Doesn t have to always mean persuasion It can be seen as equal to persuasion it seeks to change or reinforce beliefs or cause an action Rhetoric can help it can be used to awaken a sense of beauty in someone else instead of saying you will think this is beautiful B Art of Rhetoric Systematic study and intentional practice of the use of symbols Rhetor o D Rhetoric What s created and studied E Rhetorical theory a systematic presentation of the art of rhetoric look it up IV Characteristics of Rhetorical Discourse Rhetoric is A Planned B Adapted to an audience C Reveals human motives after it is planned and it is adaptedthen it Will reveal human motives D Responsive O ASSIGNMENT E Seeks persuasion Choose an example of rhetoric 1 It can be any form of rhetoric discussed in class or readings O O O O TV Commercial Print Ads Speech a txt from book or www Religious tract 2 Make a copy of it ampor secure it 3 On a separate sheet of paper Choose among the 5 Characteristics of Rhetoric the ONE it most clearly demonstrates ie your artifact is a good example of that category 4 In 45 sentences explain why it is a good representative of that category 5 Put your name and section number and it needs to be TYPED EXAMPLE CARTOON BUSH WITH A HALO OVER HIS HEAD BIBLE IN FRONT OF HIM WITH BOOKMARKS TO MANY ISSUES O HE S SAYING RELIGIOUS FUNDAMENTALISY INFLUENCES ARE A TIRENT TO DEMOCRACYIN IRAQ I REVEALS HUMAN MOTIVES THE CARTOON CLEARLY ILLUSTRATES A PUBLIC STATEMENT OF THE ARTISTS WORLD VIEWS AND VALUES THE DESIRED OUTCOME OF THIS RHETORICAL DEVICE WOULD MOST LIKELY BE TO CAUSE THE AUDIENCE TO QUESTION THEIR OWN PSYCHOLOGICAL MOTIVES IN THIS CASE DEVOTION TO THE CURRENT AGENDA OF THE US FURTHER THIS DEVICE SEEMS TO BRING OUT INTO THE OPEN THE AUDIENCE S CONCEALED MOTIVES BY ALIGNING A PARTICULAR VALUE SYSTEM February 18 2011 I Historical Beginnings of Rhetoric As a Study humans have the same motives all around the world A 467 BCE Syracuse Sicily 1St systematic study 10 B Carried to Athens C Why Rhetoric is important in Athens 0 Polis an independent citystate 0 Athens was the first democracy in human history II Persuasion in the Courts To be successful in court get your land back A The Sophists taught o Began to teach certain thingsAthens easier hearing they wrote speeches and taught people how to speak for themselves 0 Performed fantastic feats of oration as a calling card 0 SOPHES means wise B For sophists rhetoric was pragmatic o Rhetoric was for USE most of their philosophy wasn t USEFUL 0 Point of rhetoric in court was to win your case Obviously III What the Sophists Taught A Some professed to teach aret o Kind of like successfulness how to be a natural leader charisma o Plato suspicious that you could teach this to people B Used dialektik dialectic arguments for amp against any position as the means of coming to a final position 0 Plato used and understood and used the tool or dialectic But the way the Sophists used it he didn t like C Used dissoi logoi contradictory arguments based on enoxa widelyheld premises 1 kairos the doctrine that one must consider all possible arguments to an issue Saying what s fitting What s called for In the proper time or proper place 2 The dialectical opposition Thesis9e Antithesis Synthesis 11 You don t come to a final INARGUABLE answer IV Sophists Were Controversial 5 Reasons A Taught for pay NOT GOOD B Were foreigners People skeptic of foreigners They were fmm the outside C Taught cultural relativism Knows more about the world than what s just in Athens Whatever you were taught in your own culture about the way it is is only from yOur Culture39s perspective And how they saw the world the differences only not the similarities they focused on Stubbed toe D Truth is from clash of arguments Truth is not something ultimate to them truth was an ongomg building thing to them E Truthjustice derives from social agreement nomos Law was never written down people Just went alongquot With the culture V Plato s Opposition to the Sophists A He said that they gave recipes for flatterytrickery o This was also and indictment of rhetoric itself B Beginnings of long struggle between Philosophy and Rhetoric C Proper understanding demanded true knowledge episteme o The sophists were just trying to manipulate public belief 0 But Plato says only philosophy can get to the truth A GENERAL DEFINITION OF RHETORIC The STRATEGY one uses to be effective in symbolic expression A Brief Explanation of the Study of Rhetoric Rhetoric is about the social struggle over meaning and hence over power It is about how people use language and symbols to replace one thing with another and hence transform the way a society or community thinks feels and behaves To understand this process we must know what society is what makes it possible and in a way impossible what it fears and desires what it acknowledges and ignores FM iii filii H litilii ie ti l u 115w i If art 12
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