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by: Gaetano Price


Gaetano Price
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K. Filbel

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K. Filbel
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gaetano Price on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CMST 2064 at Louisiana State University taught by K. Filbel in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see /class/222687/cmst-2064-louisiana-state-university in Communication Studies at Louisiana State University.

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Date Created: 10/13/15
Chapter 1 Mid Term Notes Group Communication the interaction of three or more interdependent members working to achieve a common goal I Systems T Virtual Gr Key Elements Three or more members 0 Ideal group size is 39 are more productive 0 Ideal group size for problem solving is 57 members Interaction requires communication among group members who use verbal and nonverbal messages to generate meanings and establish relationships Interdependence each group member is affected and in uenced by the actions of other members a successful interdependent group functions as a cohesive team in which every member is responsible for doing his or her part Working the physical or mental effort you use when trying to accomplish something a social goal family goal management goal Common Goal 7 group members come together for a reason a common goal unifies the group A goal is the purpose objective toward which group work is directed Types of Groups Primary 7 provide members with affection support and a sense of belonging Social 7 to share common interests in a friendly setting or participate in social activities Selfhelp 7to support and encourage members who want or need help with personal problems Leaming help members gain knowledge and develop skills Service 7 to assist worthy causes that help other people outside the group Civic 7 to support worthy causes that help people within the group Work 7 to achieve specific goals on behalf of a business or organization Public 7to discuss important issues in front of or for the benefit of the public heory examines how interdependent factors affect one another Recognizes that communication does not take place in isolation but is rather a system System a quot o 39 39 39 r J elements working together to form a complex whole that adapts to a changing environment oups Uses technology to communicate across time distance and organizational boundaries u ion39 occurs 39 quot 39 y and in real time 7 conference calls webinars Asynchronous Communication electronic communication that does not occur simultaneously or in real time 7 email voice mail Advantages and Disadvantages of Working in Groups Advantages Superior Resources Member Satisfaction Learning Cultural Understanding Creativity Civic Engagement Disadvantages More time energy and resources Con ict People problems The Nature of Group Communication Theory a statement that tries to explain or predict events and behavior Strategy a method guideline or technique for dealing with the issues and problems that arise in groups 7 based on theories Skill a speci c ability that helps a group carry out or achieve its common goal 7 based on theory Basic Ele ments of Group Communication pg 13 Members Messages Context Channels Feedback Noise Balance a state of equilibrium in which no signi cant factor dominates or interferes with other factors 7 usually balanced on a common goal Best resolved by taking a bothand approach rather than an eitheror Group Dialectics the contradictory tensions group experience as they work toward a common goal Individual goals vs group goals Con ict vs cohesion Conforming vs nonconforming Task dimensions vs social dimensions Homogeneous vs heterogeneous 7 member similarities are balanced with member differences Leadership vs followership Structure vs spontaneity Engaged vs disengaged 7 member energy and labor are balanced with the group s need for rest and renewal 0 Open system vs closed system Relational Dialectics Theory relationships are characterized by ongoing dialectic tensions between the multiple contradictions complexities and changes in human experiences Opposites attract but Birds of a feather stick together 00000 000 Optimal Group Experience groups provide optimal experiences members are highly motivated creative thinking comes easy members are committed and inspired hard work is energizing Achieved through bothand approach Chapter 2 Tuckman s Group Development Stages Forming 0 Group members are socially cautious and polite 0 Members explore both their personal goals and the group s goal 0 Primary Tension the social unease and stiffness that accompanies the getting acquainted stage in anew group 0 Socialize Newcomers I Socialization the process by which an individual acquires the social knowledge and skills necessary to assume an organizational role Antecedent phase 7 a new comer brings beliefs and attitudes cultural dimensions needs and motives etc 7 can in uence how well the group accepts the newcomer Anticipatory Phase 7 members of an established group have expectations about newcomers 7 they may look for someone with certain types of knowledge or communication types Encounter Phase 7 newcomers try to fit in by adjusting to group expectations Assimilation Phase 7 newcomers become fully integrated into the group s culture I Exit phase Storming Stage 0 Groups address the con ict 1gt cohesion dialectic and the leadership 61gt followership dialectic 0 Members compete for status and openly disagree 0 Many groups try to skip this stage in order to avoid competition but this is a necessary part of group development to establish productive member roles leadership responsibilities and clear goals 0 Secondary Tension the frustrations and personality con icts experienced by group members as they compete for acceptance and achievement within a group Norming Stage 0 Members resolve these early tensions and learn to work as a committed and unified team 0 There is more order and direction 0 Members resolve status con icts and establish norms Performing Stage 0 O 0 Members are fully engaged and eager to work Roles and responsibilities are uid they adapt and change according to group needs Group identity loyalty and moral are high o Memb ers focus on both task and social dimensions of group work as they make major decisions and solve critical problems Adjouming Stage 0 The group has reached its goals and is beginning to disband 0 When comes an entire group disbands most members experiences the stress that with relinquishing group responsibilities They decide how to retain relationships with other members Group Goals Establishing Group Goals 0 Group must develop its own goal 0 The process of setting the goal can create a more interdependent cooperative and co I hesive environment to work Clarity 7 is the goal clear speci c and observable Challenge 7 is the goal difficult inspiring and thought provoking Commitment 7 do members see the goal as meaningful realistic and attainable Compatibility 7 can both group and individual goals be achieved Cooperation 7 does the goal require cooperation among group members Cost 7 does the group have adequate resources such as time and materials to achieve the goal 0 Hidden Agenda when a members goal is kept private and is different from the group 0 Locke Group Norms Explicit Norms are put in writing or stated verbally 0 Easy to recognize o Imposed on the group 0 Mayb s common goal and Latham s group goals Specific Hard but realistic Accepted by members Used to evaluate performance Linked to feedback and rewards Set by members and groups Framed to promote member grth e determined by the group leader or by an organization Implicit Norms rarely discussed or openly communicated 0 Not easily recognized 0 They evolve as members interact with one another Interaction Norms determine how group members communicate with one another and reveal what types of communication behavior are appropriate in a group Procedural Norms dictate how the group operates Status Norms identify the levels of in uence among group members and help explain how status is determined Group Motivation Chapter 3 Achievement Norms determine the quality and quantity of work expected from group members they help you make decisions about how much time and energy should be devoted to working with a particular group Conformity when group members adopt attitudes and actions that a majority favors or that adhere to the group s social norms Nonconformity occurs when a member behaviors counter to the expectations of the group 0 O O O O Constructive Nonconformity occurs when a member resists a norm while still working to promote a group goal Ex the hold out juror Destructive Nonconformity occurs when member resists conforming to norms without regard for the best interests of the group and its goals Accepting nonconformity 7 living with the disruptive behavior I If it is not critical to the groups ultimate success or when the members positive contributions far outweigh the inconvenience and annoyance Confronting nonconformity 7 when a member s behavior is impossible to accept or ignore and when it threatens the success of a group and its members I Discussing it in a nonthreatening setting can solve both a personal and a group problem Excluding nonconformity 7 exclude disruptive members I Turn away from problem members ignore their comments assigning disruptive members to unimportant solo tasks or ones that will drive them away Stanley Milgram s experiment of electric shocks Showing the extent people will go to conform to an authority Philip Zimbardo s prison experiment Extrinsic Rewards rewards that come from the external environment Intrinsic Rewards rewards that come from the group itself 7 pride in the work the praise of others a sense of personal accomplishment Sense of Meaningfulness shared feeling that the group is pursuing a meaningful goal 0 Highly motivated groups believe that the job is worth doing and that they are capable of getting it done Sense of Choice 0 The shared feeling that the group has the power and ability to make decisions about how to organize and do its job Sense of Competence O The shared felling that your group is doing good high quality work Sense of Progress 0 The shared feeling that the group is accomplishing something 7tracking and measuring progress monitoring and finding ways to sustain group motivation celebrating group accomplishments Group Member Needs Schutz s Theory of Interpersonal Needs Fundamental Interpersonal relationship Orientation FIRO Theory 0 Need For Inclusion 7 represents our desire to belong to be involved and to be accepted I Social member 7 when a group meets a members inclusion need a person who enjoys working with people but is comfortable working alone Undersocial Member 7 feels unworthy or undervalued by the group and may withdraw and become a loner Oversocial Member 7 tries to attract attention to compensate for feelings of inadequacy 0 Need for Control 7 refers to whether we feel competent confident and free to make our own decisions I Democratic member 7 when a group meets a member s control need a person who has no problems with power and control and who feels just as comfortable giving orders as taking them Often excellent leaders Abdicrat 7 wants control but is reluctant to pursue it often a submissive member who has not hope of having any control in the group they do as they are told and avoid responsibilities I Autocrat 7 tries to take control by dominating the group often criticize other members and try to force their decisions on the group 0 Need for Affection 7 re ects our desire to be liked by others I Personal member 7 meets a members need for affection a person who has no emotional problems dealing with group members social interaction and affection are not high priorities Underpersonal Members 7 believe no one likes them they establish superficial relationships appear uninvolved and aloof rarely share their honest feeling or opinions Overpersonal Member 7 tries to get close to everyone and seeks intimate friendships despite the disinterest of other members often too talkative too personal and too confiding Member Roles Benne and Sheats Functional Group Roles 0 Task Roles 7 affect a group s ability to achieve its common goal by focusing on behaviors that help get the job done I Information seeker opinion seeker opinion giver coordinator energizer elaborator recorder 0 Maintenance Roles 7 affect how group members get along with one another while pursuing a shared goal concerned with building relationships and keeping the group cohesive and cooperative I Encouragersupporter harmonizer compromiser tension releaser gate keeper observercommentator follower o SelfCentered Roles 7 put individual needs ahead of the group s goal and other members needs Aggressor blocker dominator recognition seeker clown deserter selfconfessor helpseeker special interest pleader TeamRole Theory not intellect but balance Coordinator 0 00000000 Shaper Innovator Resource investigator Monitor evaluator Implementer Teamworker Completerfmisher Specialist Member Con dence Communication Apprehension an individual s level of fear or anxiety associated with either real or anticipated communication with another person 0 Dependent on the personality of the speaker the nature of the listeners and the characteristics of the occasion or setting 0 Reduci ng Communication Apprehension Know that you are not alone Be well prepared Learn communication skills Relax physically Think positively 7 cognitive restructuring Visualize success 0 Helping Apprehensive Members Provide supportive and constructive feedback Encourage and include anxious members Stop talking Hyperpersonal Communication an increase in con dence and a decrease in communication apprehension that occurs in computermediated rather than face toface communication Member Assertiveness Assertiveness speaking up and acting in your own best interests without denying the rights and denying the rights and interests of others Assertive group members get along well with other members are usually relaxed focus on the present rather than on the past and are con dent about themselves and respectful of others Balancing Passivity and Aggression I O O Passivity is expressed when group members lack con dence and or are reluctant to express their opinions and feelings They are rarely satis ed with their group experiences because they feel powerless and putupon Aggressiveness members act in their own selfinterest at the expense of others They are critical insensitive combative and even abusive I PassiveAggressive 7 often get their way by undermining other members behind their backs by behaving cooperatively but rarely following through with promised contributions and by appearing to agree while privately planning an opposite action 0 Assertiveness Skills I Prepare for meetings I Express your opinions clearly don t talk around the issue or ramble I Assume an assertive body posture I Express your feelings as well as your thoughts I Speak expressively use volume pitch and rate to help your statements stand out 0 Know when to say no I Don t ask permission to say no I Accept the consequences I Don t apologize or make an excuse when it isn t necessary I Decide on your wording I Use assertive body posture Chapter 4 Group Diversity Regardless of your culture nationality gender religion age and abilities you share more similarities than differences with others 0 Half the growth in the US population was due to Hispanics o The fastest growing population group is Asians 7 Core Values across culture love truthfulness fairness freedom unity tolerance responsibility and respect for life Culture a leamed set of shared interpretations about beliefs values and norms which affect the behaviors of a relatively large group of people 0 CoCultures groups of people who coexist within the mainstream society yet remain connected to one another through their cultural heritage 0 Diversity the quality of being different 0 Deep Diversity characteristics that are much more difficult to observe 7 a member s knowledge skills and abilities 0 Intellectual Diversity 7 intelligence alone cannot guarantee you different perspectives on a problem Three Layers of Diversity 0 Personality center 0 Internal Dimensions 7 age gender race mental ability ethnicity physical ability sexual orientation 0 External Dimensions 7 appearance work experience religion habits income political orientation family and marital status Obstacles to Understanding Others Ethnocentrism a belief that your culture is superior to others it is a mistaken belief that you have special rights and privileges that are or should be denied to others Stereotyping a generalization about a group of people that oversimplifies their characteristics 7 exaggerated beliefs Prejudice a negative attitude about other people based on faculty and in exible stereotypes 7 usually results from little or no direct experience with a cultural group Discrimination the behaviors of excluding people who are differen 7 from opportunities granted to others Big 5 Personality Traits Conclude that high levels of agreeableness and emotional stability in groups are associated with group 39 39 while con cientiml he is 39 A with task performance 0 Extraversion o Agreeableness o Conscientiousness o Emotional Stability o Openness to Experience The MyersBriggs Type Indicator Looks at the different ways in which people prefer to use their minds specifically the way they perceive and the way they make judgments Extrovert 61gtIntrovert 7 where you like to focus your attention 0 Extrovert 7focuses outward outgoing sociable expressive enjoys group discussions talks first then thinks may dominate discussion 0 Introvert 7 focuses inward reserved private prefers onetoone interactions thinks first then talks thinks to themselves needs alone time Sensor 61gt Intuitive 7how you look at the world around you 0 Sensor 7 likes facts and details trees in the forest I They like rules systematic explanations and detailed facts 0 Intuitive 7 prefer the big picture sees the forest I Theoretical models avoid rules and details Thinker 61gt Feeler 7 how you make decisions 0 Thinker 7task oriented and logical take pride in their ability to think objectively and enjoy arguing and making difficult decisions 0 Feeler 7 people oriented seeks group harmony will spend time and effort helping others subjective humane appreciative Judger 61gt Perceiver 7 how you deal with the outer world 0 Judger 7 highly structured and well organized plan ahead follow lengthy to do lists and look for closure 0 Perceiver 7 exible and open adaptable risk takers who are willing to try new options procrastinators work at the last minute Cultural Dimensions An aspect of a culture that can be measured relative to other cultures Individualism 7 Collectivism Individualism a cultural value that believes that the individual is important 0 that independence is worth pursuing personal achievement should be rewarded o Collectivism emphasize group identity I Prefer face to face interactions Power Distance the physical and psychological distance between those who have power and those who do not in relationships institutions and organizations 0 Also re ects the extent to which the less powerful person in society accepts inequality in power and considers it normal 0 High Power Distance individuals accept major differences in power as normal assuming that all people are not created equal 0 Low Power Distance power distinctions are minimized Masculine 7 Feminine Values 0 Masculine I men are supposed to be assertive tough and focused on material success esteem personal success competition assertiveness strength I women are supposed to be more modest tender and concerned with the quality of life 0 Feminine I Gender roles overlap I Both men and women are more modest tender and concerned with the quality of life High Context 7 Low Context 0 All communication occurs in context a physical and psychosocial environment 7 information that surrounds an event and clarifies its meaning High Context Cultures 7 people are not totally dependent on words to express their meaning Meaning can be conveyed through status facial expressions gestures and even silence I in cyberspace more information rich technologies as well as media that offer the feeling of social presence Low Context Cultures 7 people are more dependent on language to express what they mean I Prefer asynchronous communication with the ability to get it in writing in cyber space Monochronic Time 7 Polychronic Time 0 Monochronic Time events are scheduled as separate items 0 Polychronic Time schedules are less important and are frequently broken relationships are far more important 0 0 Gender Differences Men and women speak the same number of words but it depends on the topic of conversation Men prefer nonpersonal Muted Group Theory the ways that communication practices of dominant groups suppress mute or devalue the words ideas and discourses of subordinate groups Generational Dimensions Traditionalists 7 1900 1945 Baby boomers 7 19461964 Generation X 7 19651980 0 Are often skeptical and distrustful of institutions MillennialGen Y 719811999 Religious Dimension Religious Literacy the ability to understand and use the religious terms symbols images beliefs practice scripture heroes themes and stories that are employed in American public life Ethics in Groups 7 The Golden Rule May Not Apply in Diverse Groups Practice selfre ection 7 when you learn about other cultures you learn about your own beliefs and prejudices Interact with others 7 group members learn more about others by interacting with them and talking about differences Listen to others voices 7 listening to the experiences of others has the power to transform your understanding of cultures and realize how their voices may be sti ed Chapter 5 What is Leadership Leadership the ability to make strategic decisions and use communication effectively to mobilize group members toward achieving a common goal 0 All Groups need leadership without it a group may be nothing more than a collection of individuals lacking the coordination and motivation to achieve a common goal Becoming a Leader Designated Leaders 7 selected by the group or an outside authority 0 When group members elect or appoint a leader from within a group the problems can be as difficult as those faced by a leader from outside the group Emergent Leaders 7 gradually achieves leadership by interacting with group members and contributing to the achievement of the group s goals 0 Very often the most effective leaders Strategies 0 Talk Early and Often and Listen to Others 7 the number of contributions is even more important than the quality of those contributions which become important after you become a leader 0 Know More and Share What You Know 7 leaders are seen as experts even if they are just able to explain ideas more clearly 0 Offer Your Opinion and Welcome Disagreement Leadership Integrity 7 is it ethical o Is it right ethical Is it fair Who gets hurt Would you be comfortable if the details of your decisions or actions were made public in the media or through email 0 How does it smell OOO Leadership and Power Power the ability or authority to in uence and motivate others 7the quality without which leaders cannot lead Types of Leadership Power 0 Position Power depends on a member s job or status within an organization 0 Personal Power stems from a member s individual character competencies and earned status Types of Power in Groups 0 Legitimate 7 relies on a job title formal authorization or assigned duty 0 Informational 7 controls and transmits needed information o Coercive 7 controls and deal out sanctions and punishments o Reward 7 controls and gives out resources valued by members 0 Referent 7 relies on members opinion and experience with the leader 0 Expert 7 relies on expertise and credentials o Persuasive 7 relies of effective communication studies 0 Charismatic 7 relies on leader s vitality character and competence I Coercive legitimate and reward power are the least effective Evolution of Leadership Theory 0 Trait Leadership Theory The Great Man theory leaders are born not made 0 Trait Leadership Theory identifies and prescribes individual characteristics and behaviors needed for effective leadership 0 Styles Leadership Theory groups specific leadership traits into distinct styles I Autocratic Leaders 7 seek power and authority by controlling the direction and outcome of group work Make many of the groups decisions expect followers to obey orders and take credit for group success Democratic Leaders 7 promote the interests of group members and practice social equality share decision making promote collaboration focus on task and group moral LaissezFaire Leaders 7 lets the group take charge of all decisions and actions Situational Leadership Prevalent Theory 7 claims that effective leaders use different leadership styles and strategies depending on the situation 0 Fielder s Contingency Model of Leader Effectiveness 7 effective leadership occurs only when there is an ideal match between the leader s style and the group s work situation I LeaderMember Relations I Task Structure I Power 0 Task Motivated Leader performs best in extremes 7 such as when the situation is highly controlled or when it is almost out of control because their primary motivation is to take charge and get the job done 0 Relationship 7 Motivated Leaders most effective when there is a mix of conditions HerseyBlanchard Situational Leadership Model 7 links leadership style to the readiness of group members 0 Member Readiness is the extent to which group members are willing and able to work together in order to achieve a common goal 0 4 Situational Guidelines I Low Readiness 7 The Telling Stage when followers are unable unwilling or insecure the leader tells the group what to do and closely supervises the work Moderate Readiness 7 The Selling Stage when group members are unable but willing or con dent leader should be relationship oriented and should sell by explaining the rationale for decisions Moderate to High Readiness 7 The Participating Stage when group members are able but unwilling or insecure leader should provide a high degree of relationship oriented behavior the leader participates by sharing ideas facilitating ideas and motivating members High Readiness 7 The Delegating Stage the leader delegates by granting group members independence and trust Functional Leadership Theory leadership is to do or get done 0 Rather than focusing on who a leader is the functional approach focuses on what a leader does to help the group achieve its common goal a leader is a job not a person 5M Model of Leadership Effectiveness Model Leadership 0 Publicly champion your group and its goals 0 Speak and listen effectively and confidently o Behave consistently and assertively 0 Demonstrate competence and trustworthiness Motivate Members 0 Seek members commitment to common goal 0 Appropriately reward the group and its members 0 Help solve interpersonal problems and con icts o Adapt tasks and assignments to members abilities Manage Group Process 0 Organize and fully prepare for group meetings and work sessions 0 Understand and adapt to members strengths and weaknesses 0 Help solve task related and procedural problems 0 Monitor and intervene to improve group performance Make Decisions 0 Better for a group leader to make a bad decision than to make no decision at all 0 Make sure that everyone share the information needed to make a quality decision o If appropriate discuss your pending decision and solicit feedback from members 0 Explain the rationale for the decision you intend to make Mentor Members 0 Be ready and willing to mentor every group member 0 Encourage and invite others to lead 0 Inspire optimism Two Sides of Leadership Professional Will 0 Creates superb results in achieving a clear goal 0 Does what needs to be done to achieve the goal 0 Sets high standards for achieving the group s goal 0 Apportions responsibility for succeeding or failing objectively and fairly Personal Humility o Acts modestly never boastful shuns public glorification Acts with calm determination relies on motivational strategies 0 0 Channels ambition into achieving the group s goal 0 Gives credit for success to other people not to self Chapter 8 Con ict in Groups Con ict the disagreement and disharmony that occur in groups when members express differences regarding group goals member ideas behavior and roles or group procedure and norms Con ict can improve group problem solving promote cohesiveness increase group knowledge enhance creativity and promote the group s goal Substantive Con ict occurs when members disagree about issues ideas decisions actions or goals Affective Con ict the result of interpersonal disagreements differences in personalities and communication styles and members con icting core values when members do not feel appreciated or struggle for power Procedural Con ict a disagreement among group members about the methods or process the group uses in its attempt to accomplish a goal 0 Sometimes arise when groups have difficulty resolving substantive or affective con ict Attribution Theory 7 claims that we make judgments about people s motives and characteristics that go beyond what we see and hear Constructive and Destructive Con ict o Constructive Con ict occurs when group members express disagreement in ways that value everyone s contributions and promote the group s goal I Respect for others focus on the issues supportiveness Con ict St 0 Destructive Con ict results when members engage in behaviors that create hostility and prevent the group from achieving its goals I Defensiveness in exibility con ict avoidance competition yles Avoidance when members are unable or unwilling to accomplish their own goals or contribute to achieving the group s goal 0 They are uncomfortable with or unskilled at asserting themselves 0 May change their subject avoid bringing up a controversial issue Accommodation when members give in to other members at the expense of their own goals 0 Have a genuine desire to get along with other members and that giving in to others serves the needs of the group Competition occurs when group members are more concerned with their own goals than with those of the group 0 They want to win they argue that their ideas are superior 0 When used inappropriately it generates hostility ridicule and personal attacks 0 When used appropriately it may be productive 7 like when you have strong beliefs about an important issue the group must act immediately on an urgent issue or in an emergency you believe that the group may be acting unethically or illegally Compromise is a middle ground approach to con ict in which group members give in on some goals in order to achieve other goals they want more strongly o It is fair because everyone loses equally but at least everyone receives partial satisfaction 0 Works best when other methods for resolving the con ict are not working the members have reached an impasse and are no longer progressing Collaboration searches for new solutions that will achieve both the individual goals of group members and the goals of the group 0 Promotes synergy and resolves the dialectic tension between competition and cooperation o Requires a lot of the group s time and energy 0 All group members must participate fully Know When and How to Apologize Con ict M 0 When you apologize you take responsibility for your behavior and the consequences of your actions I Use I statements Clearly identify the behavior that was wrong Acknowledge how others might feel Acknowledge that you could have acted differently Express regret Follow through on any promises to correct the situation Request but don t demand forgiveness anagement Strategies The A EIOU Model 7focuses on collaboration and positive intentionality the assumption that other people are not trying to cause con ict 0 Every group member must want to resolve the con ict Assume that the other person means well Express your feelings Identify what you would like to have happen Outcomes you expect are made clear 0 Understanding on a mutual basis is achieved Negotiation in Groups 0 Negotiation is the process of bargaining in order to settle differences or solve a problem 0 Principled Negotiation 7 a process for resolving con ict 4 Elements I People 7 separate the people from the problem I Interests 7 focus on interests not positions I Options 7 generate a variety of possible solutions for mutual gain I Criteria 7 establish fair and objective criteria for evaluating and choosing a solution or course of action Third Party Intervention 7 occurs when a group seeks the services of an impartial outsider who has no direct connection to the group 0 Mediation 7 guide the group toward possible solutions but do not issue a binding decision 0 Arbitration 7 after considering all the sides the agreedupon arbitrator decides how to resolve the con ict and issues a decision 0 O O 0 Con ict and Member Diversity The cultural values of individual members greatly in uence the degree to which they feel comfortable with con ict and how it is resolved Cultural differences may be regional rather than international Gender Responses to Con ict There is little difference in the way men and women respond to con ict 0 Women are more likely to avoid con ict or to leave a group when there is continuous con ict More likely to address con ict privately The differences are in how people may expect women to think and behave in a con ict situation Group Cohesion Cohesion the mutual attraction that holds the members of a group together Enhancing Group Cohesion 0 Establish Group Identity and Traditions o Emphasize Teamwork o Recognize and Reward Contributions 0 Respect Group Members Groupthink 7 a mode of thinking that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive ingroup refers to a deterioration of mental efficiency reality testing and moral judgment that results from in group pressure o Preconditions of groupthink o Sympt The group is highly cohesive There are structural aws The situation is volatile oms Invulnerability 7 overly con dent willing to take big risks Rationalization 7 makes excuses discounts warnings Morality 7 ignores ethical and moral consequences Stereotyping Outsiders 7 considers opposition too weak and stupid SelfCensorship 7 doubts his or her own reservations unwilling to disagree or dissent Pressure on Dissent 7 pressures members to agree Illusion of Unanimity 7 believes everyone agrees Mindguarding 7 shields members from adverse information or opposition o Preventing Groupthink The best way to deal with group think is to prevent it in the rst place Ask each member to serve in the role of critical evaluator Have more than one group member work on the same problem independently Invite experts to join your meetings Discuss the potential negative consequences of any decision or action Follow a formal decision making procedure Ask questions offer reasons for positions and demand justi cations


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