FUND OF COMMUNICATN
FUND OF COMMUNICATN CMST 1061
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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gaetano Price on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CMST 1061 at Louisiana State University taught by L. Hebert in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see /class/222688/cmst-1061-louisiana-state-university in Communication Studies at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
12012 Communication the imparting conveying or exchange ofinfo via spoken words sounds writing or signs Models 0 Linear Model 0 Encodes sender9receiver decodes I 9Method of communication 0 There are forms ofnoise noise refers to any distractions I Physical any noise other than the speaker I Physiological physical barriers within the speaker or listener 0 Ex Lose of hearing visual impairment I Psychological voice in head telling you everything you have to do in life I Semantic relation to meaning 0 EX Dog you def would be lab or poodle 0 Interactive Model where the sender amp receiver become communicators O Encodes resources Communicatorltgt communicator resource Encode I Here we look at conteXt and environment Channel is the method of communication you choose 0 Media Richness encourages you to look at the message amp type of info in message before choosing a channel 0 Transactional Model 0 Communicatorltgt communicator I Looks at someone s reaction from both ways simultaneous 0 Each person in the communication act is both a speaker and a listener and can be simultaneously sending and receiving messages 0 REVIEW meaning eXist in and among people I Communication is transactional it can be intentional or unintentional communication also has a content amp relational context I ConteXt what you say I Relational relation among people I Communication ifirreversible I Communication is irreparable Communication Misconceptions 1 Not all communication seeks understanding 2 More communication is not always better a EX If someone is mad let them calm down 3 Affective communication is not a natural thing a EX It takes effort to communicate correctly Features of Communication 1 Communication is a process you cannot turn it off 2 Communication consists of creating and responding to messages 3 Responding 4 Adaption you have to adjust to the circumstances Visible and Invisible Aspects o Visible the people involved speaker listener 0 Symbols represent some idea or concept 0 Technology computers 0 Invisible 0 Meaning how we define or create meaning 0 Subjectivity different among people I Red may mean different thing bt people 0 Learning Communication Modes 0 Visually o Tactile touch 0 Smell amp taste 0 Olfactory gustation o Auditory sounds see ambulance you automatically pull over Communication Theory 0 Rhetoric persuasion 0 Performance look at communication as drawing 0 Attitude o Belief 0 Values I Agent person communicating I Audience play role based on environment I Message talk to adults differently than kids I Meaning how you put it together 12312 History of Rhetoric I Elite stayed in power through the use of propaganda 0 Ex Thing that set you apart make special I In 5th century Grease Democracy evolved o Sophists wisdom barriers these people tough the people to debate 0 Protagdias 1St to teach the art of debate 0 Gorgias 1St teacher to teach the importance oflanguage I To use language to develop speech Plato he disliked sophists he wanted to control rhetoric by using it as a tool to spread truth I Aristotole Plato s student came up with idea of social truths He believed both sides should be trained in rhetoric o Developed artistic proofs evidence I Logos logic facts statistics I Ethos Incredibility I Pathos emotions What is rhetoric I Rhetoric is the study of effective language use the study of persuasion o The intention source created message with specific goal toward the audience trying to get someone to do something I Rhetorical Act eX Politian speaking I Rhetorical artifact a manuscript print add work of art etc o 3 Dimensions of Rhetoric Humans create message we put it together 2 Symbols are the medium for rhetoric visuals 3 Persuade in uence goal is to persuade or in uence of others I Belief Initiate action to do something join organization Maintain Action 0 EX How to we plan action talk about action Alterperceptionschange the way you feel about something Virtual EXperience the message that comes to you mind when something is said Understanding aid and understanding Aristotle I 2 truths 1 Scientific 2 Social truths a Cultural values situation immedicable conteXt i What is happening within the person b This is created by groups i Groups parents college students religious groups 1 Truths that groups agrees to believe a What each group agrees to accept b Hinges on values ii Have to look at situation and whole picture I 2 types of evidence 1 Inartistic 2 Artistic a Ethos b Logos c Pathos Rhetorical Criticism I Description what is said what is done and what is seen 0 Need to know purpose or goal 0 Who are you talking to structure message differently 0 Persona tone presenting tone the image you are trying to conduct 0 Structure of the message how it is organized 0 Strategies I Interpretation I Evaluation was it effective of ineffective 12512 Performance 0 Highlights the social cultural amp aesthetic artistic dimensions of the communication process 0 History ofPerformance in book 0 Oral poetry Oral tradition I Rhapsodies would travel from town to town performing poetry I Scops I Troubadours musicians who would play songs 0 Oral interpretation 0 Performance studies I Merged in the 1980s Readers theatre and chamber theatre emerged focused on everyday life Definition Are of communicating a message through an aesthetic or artistic text Performance highlights the social cultural and aesthetic dimensions of the communication process Elements ofPerformance 0 Performance 0 Text 0 Context 0 O O O O o Purpos 0 Types ofPerformance I Everyday life Ex the time place audience Burke s Pentadi He looks at it through Act what is happening Agent who is it happening to Agency how is it happening Scene when where e why is it happening Role taking and role playing 0 Role taking are natural extension of yourself student friend 0 Role pl aying the acting of behavior with that role alter our behaviors and speech so they are appropriate I Literary Fiction N onfiction Story telling Oral histories Family story t O O I O O O 0 Stories I I Ethnographies 0 Behavior costume actions Working at a restaurant act certain ways at job Language elling Personal narratives we tell about ourselves The events for the most part are true You are a character in the stories that you tell The event you account have already taken place The event in your story reveal your personal values Your personal values spring from a common personal value that springs from a common bond A performer observes Cultural Performance These are performed within a community 0 They are scheduled 0 Defining being and end 0 Spacey bounded Programmed structured activity Publically Heightened more formal Re exive society values 0000 I Avantgarde 0 Uses performance as a instrument of social change Theory 0 Witness a phenomena That is repeated Don t understand EXplanation to understand Choose to change behavior choose to stay same Communication theory assumes the following o The world is predictable o Humans like to make sense out of every situation 0 We make and follow rules 0 Questioning of our values began and with this questioning 2 theories emerged I Symbolic interaction focuses on how individuals in society are related 0 We exchange info through the use of symbols but each symbol must be agreed upon by a social group 0 Because of discussion meaning often change I Social construction of reality our groups jointly create our meaning 0 Groups we are members ofwill affect how we see things 0 EX Fishing What is a relationship 0 Can be viewed as interdependence or a constellation ofbehaviors relationships are what you do together 0 Relationships are also viewed as multicultural very relationship has a culture 0 It can be viewed as dialectical tensions contradictory forces Characteristics of relationship s 0 Awareness 0 Prototype o The way we define relationship I EX 0 Label is person a friend 0 Attributes o Criterion what gives that person the attributes 0 Joint actions 0 What you do together 0 In uenced by outside forces 0 Maintained through communication Types of relationships 0 Relationship of circumstance our lives over lap in some way family teachers 0 Relationship of choice seek out that person 3 dimensions of relationship need all 3 in relationship 1 Trust 2 Intimacy degree to which you can be yourself with that person 3 Power Characteristics of a healthy relationship 0 Shared vision ofwhere its going 0 There are rules that have been negotiated that make it work 0 There is a shared work ethic 0 Meta communication is valued Levels of communication 0 Intrapersonal communication in your head Interpersonal communication among 2 people also called dyadic communication Small group group ofpeople that meet for a common purpose Organizational communication within a company or business Public communication in public when present an idea 0 Health communication within the health industry Context of communication 0 Psychological these are moods and attitudes ofthe participants 0 Physical location and the environment 0 Social conteth status 0 Cultural conteXt what is acceptable and not acceptable within a culture 0 Temporal time of day 13012 Agent 4 aspects of self 0 Spiritual values morals 0 Material stuff you own 0 EX You want many different colors of rosaries to make a collection Social your personality traits the groups you belong to Physical characteristics ofyour body 0 Distinctive postulate how do you classify yourself what makes you distinct Self Concept you subjective view of self 0 Attitudes likes and dislikes o Beliefs what you believe to be true or false 0 values Re ected appraisals looking glass self the self that comes from someone else Significant others Statements is true 0 Credibility 0 Consistent with other experiences Social identity how we present ourselves as one of the group Personal identity Dialectical tensions relational tensions that occur when 2 opposing forces eXist at the same time 0 Internal external 0 Integration vs separation o Internally we want to be connected but at the same time we want to be autonomous do your own thing 0 EXternally you want to be included a part of the outside world But at the same time you need some time to yourself 0 Stability vs change o Internally we like thing predictable o Predictable vs novel 0 Externally the 2 tensions are conventional Conventional vs unique Expression vs privacy 0 Internally you want to be open with significant other but at the same time you don t want to say everything 0 Revelation vs concealment Strategies for managing tensions strategy 0 Denial Disorientation overwhelmed with life just gets away form you Alternation Segmentation compartmentalize your tensions Balance try to balance tensions Integration accept opposing forces without trying to diminish them Recalibration change the problem so it disappears Reaffirmation reaffirm the challenges of a relationship OOOOOOO 212012 0 SelfMonitoring o How we analyze and adjust our actions to achieve a goal what are we supposed to be doing 0 High self monitor someone who behaves in a way that they think is required use expected self I Public Self 0 Low self monitor behave in a way consistent with their values attitudes and beliefs real self 0 Selfawareness The ability to affect our own moods and drive and how they affect others knowing who you are 0 Self regulation the ability to think before taking action Factors In uencing Self 1 Perception act of process of selecting stimuli that we are receiving and making patterns with that stimuli a Selection 1St step of perception pay attention to other stimuli while ignoring others b Organization 2 101 step ofperception i Constructs stemas how we organize c Interpreting how we make sense ofit or assign meaning to it d Negotiation i Narrative stories tell storiesretell stories fit idea of our self concept 2 Expectation what do we expect will happen a Selfperception theorywho you think you are by the observation you think yourself 3 Social context Rule We all have rules we follow We also have roles a Roles are behavior guidelines i Position social label 1 Occupation 2 Family certain expectation based on placement in family 3 Social a Facts Learned you learn your role General roles are general not every situation is the same Sense of self roles affect your identity and sense of self iv Rigidity role takes over whole sense ofself i ii39 4 Multiple Roles to play a Role repitore number of roles you play b Role capeature 2 or more roles make opposing demands 5 Relational context a Look at relationship and try to figure it out 6 Public and private self a Public the selfyou let others see b Private the selfyou keep hidden from others 7 Real self is perceived self 8 Ideal self who you want to be or who you think you should be 9 Selfesteem evaluates who you are Your positive or negative evaluations of yourself a High self esteem evaluate our performances favorably b Low self esteem evaluate our performances less favorable Ways of thinking of self I Narrative self we make and remake our selfconcept through the stories of our lives 0 Theme images become who we are Within these stories there are themes these themes re ect our values 0 Persona motives amp beliefs about the world we modify our narrative as we change and grow they become an important part ofwho we are 0 Uncertainty reduction help us find who we are I Schemata Self o Constructs the principles that help us organize our self concept personal collection of stuff 0 Socialization the process we go through to become a member of a social group I Primary socialization get primary values I Secondary socialization 0 Life script the plan you have for yourself we adopt a script 0 Identity script scripts that guide us in certain behaviors I Behavioral self 0 Self perception Theory we learn through observing our behaviors 0 Self fulfilling prophecies when verbalize an addiction or eternalize an expectation that comes true because we act like its true I Steps to selffulfilling prophecies o Predictionbelief Act like its true Behavior that makes it come true 0 Comes true 0 Observe strengthens belief I Relational self the identity we normally display 0 We have multiple selves for multiple relationships defined by the relationships we have with others 0 Re ected appraisals the self that comes to us from others 0 Social comparison theory how we compare ourselves to others Like to get the idea of how we are measuring up We compare ourselves to others we believe to be our equals 0 When present our self have public and private self and also go through identity management I Identity management how we manage our identity 0 We have more than one identity each day 0 Construct through others 0 You differ in your degree to identity management 0 What manage self I Want to accomplish certain goals I May want to accomplish relational goals 0 How we do it is through manner appearance setting how you choose to live your life I How assertive you are 0 Driver highly assertive but less responsive very task oriented control conversations 0 Analytical low assertive and less responsive just want to do job and go home 0 Expressive highly assertive and highly responsive like to display how they feel 0 Amiable low assertive and high responsive like affection relationship driven I Look at these and we what the best time for each situation good test questions I Rhetorical sensitivity how sensitive we are to words 0 Noble self these people are true to themselves low self monitors have a strong personal identity when in a crisis situation this is the person to go to similar to driver 0 Rhetorical re ection persons have no self that they call their own re ects what others say high self monitors say what you want them to hear 0 Rhetorically sensitive ideal be sensitive to other people and to yourself Self disclosure revealing selfrevealing information to others I The matching principles try to match the amount of others show empathy I Premature disclosure you reveal intimate details to quickly often occurs in the dating conteXt I Flooded disclosure common in elderly you disclose everything at once 0 Rules for disclosure I Make sure it appropriate I Safe and nonrisky disclosure don t want to defend someone I Disclose in small doses I Match level where possible I Style is as important as substance I Save important disclosure for important relationships Resist Pressure I Don t be pushed make sure your confortable I Be indirect move to another topic I Assertive don t want to talk about it Rewards I Self knowledge I Coping abilities 0 Especially if you feel guilty I Communicate effectively I Relationship depth will increase 0 Social Penetration theory measures how deep selfpenetration goes or how much do you talk about also helps you determine if the relationship is casual or private I Types ofinformation that is usually given Clich stock answers 0 Facts 0 Opinions was it right of wrong 0 Feelings Optimum level of disclosure Iohari Window communication model that helps you measure selfawareness and self disclosure I Open behaviors that you know about yourself and others know about you what you not trying to hind I Blind reveals information about yourself that you know but others don t I Hidden what you choose not to share secrets I Unknown what you don t know yet Agent Rhetoric o Sophists wisdom barer 0 1st teachers of rhetoric taught for money men no slaves or women Lead to their reputation for deceptive reasoning Their philosophy was truth is relative I They believe that true is relative it all in how we perceive things 0 Relativism philosophy 0 Protagoras o Socrates didn tlike sophists 0 He believed that id was you duty to giveprovide o Believed the highest state you can achieve is to have moral knowledge I And with this you can see the best course ofaction 0 He believed evil acts were only committed through ignorance o Plato a student of Socrates o Believed that it was wrong to have winning at all cost I No winning at all cost 0 He was the first to teach ethics 0 Believed ideal truth and he believed that the kings were the only to have this ideal truth 0 Aristotle o Believed in the idea of social truth I it depends on the context the time period and the people involved 0 Golden Mean the truth lies in the middle of two means I He believed rhetoric is not bad it can be used for bad things OOO Rhetor agent speaker center of the message 0 Ethics principles of acceptable and unacceptable behavior 0 Guided by our values or value system 0 Value system is the basis for your communication ethics 0 Ethical communicators 0 Present the truth to the best of their abilities 0 Give credit to the source when its not their own 0 DO not do the following I Do not intentionally lie I Don t expose the audience to half truths I Don t make up info I Do not plagiarize o Ethos personal credibility o What makes you trust worthy I Aristotle says you need 3 things to have ethos 0 Intelligence knowledge 0 Virtue o Empathy 0 Persona not the actual character but how they present themselves 0 Public face the different self 1St impression I Public image you are trying to get across 0 Interest the goal or why the speaker or rhetoreris speaking o Explicit interest those interest that are in the language take the form of should or aught o Hendrit interest those that you do not want to make public 0 Constraints the limitations we face or obstacles 0 Internal attitudes values beliefs 0 EXternal the obstacles out side ofyou 3 types of Ethos o Internalcredibility you have when you walk in the door the higher your source credibility the more the audience will pay attention to you 0 Sponsorship effect the people who sponsor the event will gain credibility o Derived occurs that occurs during the speech act based on 2 things 0 Content of the message all of how the audience will take you depends on the attitude of the message if attitude is favorable the speaker has an easier job If speaker and has unfavorable opinion the higher source of initial the easier job Homophily coming from the same group 3 type I Demographic age height weight I Background I Attitude sharing similar values and belief 0 Presentation delivery 0 Temperament 0 Terminal the ethos you have at the completion of speech 0 Agent Performer 0 Everyday life 0 Literary performance 0 Relationship between author speaker performer I Author teXt I Speaker In that teXt there are speaker that do something I PerformerThe performer or performers do something that show that text Dramatic Speaker 0 Who 0 High definitionLow definition 0 Characterization to understand we characterize I Biology most basic level or characterization I Physical includes any specific character weight height age I Social characters economic status I Disposition what is their personality mood I Psychological what are the emotional aspects likes or dislikes what makes this person mad I Moral where ethics come in shows character whether the person is honest What To whom did they say it 0 Audience 0 Self 0 Others When and where is the audience speaking 0 High definition a lot of clues Low definition not a lot of clues I Time location change 0 How 0 Language use and style 0 Tone o Attitude 0 Why motivation 0 Why is the speaker doing this The answers to these questions come in different forms 0 Certainties facts 0 Probabilities o Possibility hints sometimes through language use 0 Distortion when given a known certainty but decide to perform against it Avantgade performance thinks differently than the public 0 Merging of art in life revolt against art and the creative engagement behind it o Rejecting the norm art is also self re exive art is reality Avantgarde art 0 3 types 0 Happening involve audience participation 0 Body art gesture movement 0 Multimedia performance Ethnographic performance performer studies a group of people through observations and they script what they have seen and perform it 0 Its done to understand the people the experience and the groups values 0 Understand where they are coming from CMST 1061 Lyle Taylor SimoneauX 91212 Ways we understand ourselves 1Narrative Stories we tell and retell we create a persona PersonaMotives and beliefs about the world Cultural themes and images 2 Schemata How we organize our self concepts A lot depends on what we have experienced through socialization 2 types of socialization Primaryfamily of origin who are family social Class nationality Seconda1 y You learn how to be members of social groups Life ScriptThe plan you have for your life Identity Script You behave one way vs how you behave in front ofyour friends 3 Behavioral Self Our selfis described as the things we repeatedly do Self Perception Theopy You learn who you are through selfobservation By observing your behaviors after the fact Self fulfilling prophecy Something becomes true bc we act like its true 4 steps to this quot Belief I m going to fail math Act Don t study Belief comes true backs up belief Reinforcing we did bad we reinforce that theory MNNH 4 relational Self Re ected appraisals positive or negative feedback we get from others Looking glass self When we see others it s the selfwe get from other people specifically people we trust their opinions Social Identity How we conform to social expectations We present ourselves as one of the group Personal Identity Like that quotquot but we put our own spin on it How to fit in yet still stand out Self Monitoring How we adjust our actions in order to achieve a particular communication goal High self monitor Behave in ways your suppose to Low self monitor Behave how you want regardless of society Selwaareness I wouldn t schedule a 730 am class Self Regulation Our ability to control ourselves and actions Cont d from quot Social Comparison theory we compare ourselves to others to see how our talents abilites and qualities compare to theirs We use it to see quotHow were doing Like quotHow did you do on your test Communication Styles 1 Driver Highly assertive less responsive very task orientated like to be in charge control conversations When Buying a car you need a quotdriver personalityquot 2 Analytical s Low assertiveness low responsiveness More comfortable doing tasks than socializing Just want to do their job Don t want to think just do the job 3 Exspressives High Assertive High responsive Very open with emotions Use Signs tshirts and bumper stickers Political Campaign energetic Zack Corbin 4 Amiables Low assertiveness high responsiveness A high need for inclusion affection acceptance for others Use when trying to forge relationships Rhetorical Sensitivity 1 Noble self They will tell you how they think everything is going Crisis mode honest no sugar coating Doctor confident 2 Rhetorical Re ector They say what you want to hear High selfmonitors If you got bad news and are upset it s a good time for these Mquot guys they ll feel better 3 Rhetorically sensitive To think before you communicate Worried about yourself and the other person Self Disclosure Revealing personal information 1 Matching Principle Trying to match what the other person is saying Sorry you had a hard day I had an alright day I have had those days before 2 Premature Disclosure Reveal too much too soon First dates Problem is person thinks your creepy 3 Flooded Disclosure They tell you everything in one sitting Elderly 4 Rules ofself Disclosure 1 Make sure their appropriate 2 Begin with safe not risky 3 Disclose in small doses 4 Match when you can Style is as important as substance How you say as important as what you say 5 Save your specific disclosures How to resist 1 Don t be pushed Just say no 2 Be Indirect 3 Be assertive ifyou have to be U39l Quiz Friday Page 14 Social Penetration Theory A model of communication that shows how much and how deep info goes in relationships Breath Depth Used in Casual and Intimate Relationships Significance of Disclosure Types ofinfo we share Clich info share factsopinions feelings How to know how much to disclose 1 perception 2Match the Expectations 3 Quality ofinfo Dialectical Tensions 1Integration vs separation Do you want to be included or secluded eXternally IncludedSecluded Internal ConnectedAutonomous 2 Stability vs Change EXternally you want to be conventional but at the same time unique Personal and Social Identity Internally Like predictable appreciate novelty 3 ExspressionPrivacy EXternally you want to reveal info on your life but at the same time it s no body s business what do you reveal what do you conceal Internally Open closed Strategies to handle tensions 1Denial 2Disorciation 3Alternation 4Segment Compartmentalize the tensions your dealing with 5Balance 61ntegration 7Recalibration Adjust the way you look at it 8 Reaffirmation The Iohari Window Self disclosure and self awareness play a part in building relationships 4 Parts 1 Open we both know this likes dislikes 2 Hidden Things only you know don t want to tell them 3 Blind Info we don t see about ourselves that the other does They inform us 4 Unknown Info not known about you or the other person Open Blind Hidden Unknown
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