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by: Gaetano Price


Gaetano Price
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L. Hunt

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L. Hunt
Class Notes
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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gaetano Price on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CMST 2060 at Louisiana State University taught by L. Hunt in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see /class/222690/cmst-2060-louisiana-state-university in Communication Studies at Louisiana State University.

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Date Created: 10/13/15
CMST 2060 1252010 43600 PM Ancient Greek societies weren t allowed to have lawyers thus the need for rhetoric handbooks arose Plato was anti rhetoric Renaissance era of enlightenment rhetoric arose again Donald Bryant Rhetoric the art of using symbols to adjust ideas to people and people to ideas Dialectic polar opposite viewpoints 1 Rhetoric is plannedpurposeful o Rhetoric is seeking a specified response We re looking for persuasion 5 o Unintended rhetorical force a plan backfires 0 Your argument is too over the top and people go further in the opposite direction 0 Fear appeals smoking companies only work if it s mild 2 Rhetoric is audience centered o Addressing a specific public o Adapt message to fit audience within ethical boundaries 0 There are multiple ways to say the same thing o Try to be perceived as the same kind of person as the audience 3 Rhetoric reveals human motives o Look for what hasn t been said what s written between the lines o Language choices reveal motives o Burt self educated scholar predicted the Holocaust via Adolf s Mien Kemp 4 Rhetoric is responsive o Rhetoric shapes what we believe how we feel and what we think 5 Rhetoric usually seeks persuasion o Name calling is not persuasive o Persuade the audience toward the viewpoint of the rhetor 6 Rhetoric typically employs four resources with the use of verbal and nonverbal symbols o Argument the use of valid reasoning the construction of an argument o All men are mortal Socrates is a man therefore Socrates is mortal o Appeals evoke emotional responses or value commitments o Emotion makes people take action 0 Work in a factual realm and be committed to truth but there must be some ethical emotional appeal o Arrangement form 0 Some words don t make sense unless they re in the proper form 0 People can anticipate the conclusion of your speech before you get there 0 Sitcoms we can watch a new show and within a few minutes be able to predict how the episode will play out o Aesthetic beauty styling 0 Music and comedy are very persuasive Narrative Speech 1252010 43600 PM Make my story important instructive or entertaining Talk about something I have a great knowledge of and am comfortable with Give a set up or introduction before the story Common pitfalls o Practice live practice if possible o Keep the nerves at a manageable level use them to my advantage 0 Don t talk too fast 0 Use vocal pauses o Don t use fillers like you know umm uhh o Make eye contact but don t stare o Don t wiggle o Speak loudly but don t scream Molly Reed and Emily Perdue were two of my best friends in high school and the most remarkable girls I have ever met They loved other people with such passion and intensity and they loved God even more I wish there was some possible way I could convey just how incredible these girls were October 20 2006 The high school Molly Emily and I went to was having an away football game in Natchitoches I was going to ride with Molly and Emily and a few other friends but something came up and I decided to stay home I was cleaning up after dinner that evening when the phone rang It was my best friend Elizabeth She was crying and I could hear through the sobs a panic in her voice She could not get in touch with Emily and had heard rumors of there being a car wreck on the way to the away football game I remember the drive to the hospital and my dad bringing the horrifying news that three of the five girls in the car had died two of them being Molly and Emily My initial reaction after their deaths was to stuff my emotions as far down as I could to avoid responding to comfort others when I too was in need of comforting I was not ready to feel the guilt for not being in the car I was not ready for the pain I was not ready for the loss quotIt39s easy when we suffer loss for whatever it is that we lost to become the center of our life I had them and then they were gone And so there was this giant hole where they once were and it became all I could think about And what happened in the process was my whole life became what I didn39t have and I was losing out on what I did have I remember thinking that I could never forgive myself but I eventually came to the realization that guilt is not from God and I can t spend my life feeling that way Molly and Emily were created with a divine destiny They made an enormous impact during their short time here on Earth and even through their death Many people came to know Christ because of this horrific incident Like Molly and EmilyI was created for an extraordinary purpose and am called to carry out a great mission Their deaths radically changed my life I now strive to love God and others as they did and to recognize and seize the divine moments God places before me because I m not promised tomorrow All I am guaranteed is this moment What I need to do now is allow God to help me move forward from Molly and Emily s death so that I too can seize my divine moment Emotion 1252010 43600 PM Midterm Chapters 3 4 amp 9 Rhetoric cognitive model of an emotional reaction Four Aspects of Emotion o Inside changes 0 You don t have differing physiological changes occurring for hate verses joy o Non verbal communication of emotion o Verbal expression of emotion o Interpretation assign meaning to the emotion Our society discourages emotion o Worse for men than for women Physiological health Psychological heath Relationship health holding on to things causes an explosion later on Distinguish between a good and a bad emotional reaction o Debilitative emotional reaction blocks and interferes controls us 0 You re not as effective in expressing yourself to others 0 Not as effective in reading other people s emotions o Facilitative emotional reaction aids effective functioning o Helps you focus 0 Certain amount of adrenaline helps an athlete o Key variables that distinguish between the two intensity and duration 0 The more intense an emotional reaction the more debilitative o The longer the duration of the reaction the more debilitative Cognitive Model of an Emotional Reaction AE gt I gt C Activating Event Interpretation o What does that mean What just happened Consequences o Relative level of felt emotion behavioral outcome debilitative or facilitative Determine what the activating event is and if it is worth the emotional reaction Listen to selftalk and determine whether or not it is justified Replace it with more reasonable interpretations Get control of the behavioral outcome of the situation Don t suppress the emotion just take it to a more reasonable place The activating event is not what causes the reaction it s your interpretation There is no direct link between AE amp C Situational Background 1252010 43600 PM situational foreground time bound specifics of a problem situational background social cultural historical context Seven Aspects Public people that agree to work within certain parameters of legitimized institutions 0 Counter publics social protest movements Open society decisions are made in an open process everyone has the opportunity criticize and to attempt to persuade others but you have to be willing to be persuaded and criticized It s not a one way road Public Sphere physical and conceptual space in which public deliberation occurs 0 Physical space classroom in which I give my speech 0 Conceptual space our culture something that is not tangible people that all share concern over a particular interest they all share a space even though it s not physical Blogs virtual communities Status the center versus the fringe o Are we dealing with something around mainstream thought or are we talking about something along the edge 0 The people at the center who form the mainstream thought are the ones with status and influence Public opinion the percentage of people that hold certain views to be true 0 Public polling tends to over simplify issues Conventions norms habits unspoken laws Social knowledge deals with creating a reality conventional wisdom and practical judgment expressed in shared beliefs and honored values Situational Foreground 1252010 43600 PM Exogence imperfection marked by urgency Practical judgment Who is my audience Situated audience audience that is present in a particular time and place to hear a message Target audience who you want to hear your message Constraints obstacles that stand between us and attaining our goals 1252010 43600 PM Principles of Verbal Communication Language is arbitrary and symbolic o Human made 0 Symbol code 0 Triangle of Meaning or Semantic Triangle SYMBOL Symbolizes a casual relation gt THOUGHT OR REFERENCE Refers to other casual relations gt REFERENT Stands for an imputer relation gt SYMBOL You can t get from the symbol to the referent or vise versa directly 0 Meaning is in the mind not in words Structures how we think Language names reality Language is abstract 0 Abstraction ladder from concrete to abstract vehicle automobile car Chevy Aveo 0 Strategic ambiguity being vague CHARACTERISTICS OF LANGUAGE Oral speech is not the same as written language Oral communication is less formal Written language provides greater context than oral communication Slang Sexist or racist language Clich words that are worn out from overuse Profanity and obscenity Profanity is taking the lords name in vein Obscenity has to do with sexual or excretory terms catholic Non verbal behavior messages expressed by non linguistic means Paralanguage vocal non verbal behavior Verbal Communication vs Nonverbal communication Single channel can only say one word at a time Multiple channels Discrete has a clear beginning and ending Continuous ALWAYS on Deliberate Subconscious Clear Ambiguous nothing more than a clue not a fact can be read multiple ways Less impact More impact If there is a discrepancy between the two communications we more likely believe the nonverbal behavior Never script non verbal behaviors Exam 2 1252010 43600 PM Chapters 6 7 amp 8 Reason A rational of a different sort and type When something is put in an either or situation there is most certainly logical fallacy You can t narrow things down to two distinct options Nothing is either or While we have the natural ability to reason it s still a learned ability Values stand for stable ideas that give structure to our beliefs and guide our behaviors across a variety of situations Present act as goals something toward which we strive 0 Can be used to repel people Absent Practical uncertainty moral uncertainty Ethos source credibility exists in the mind of the receivers of the message It doesn t matter if the speaker is credible all that matters is that the audience thinks the speaker is credible Inherited ethos Form identifications by way of a common enemy CMST Final Ethos Credibility Represents this sense of public character that is recognized by an audience and influences their reception of the speaker s arguments The capacity to influence an audience based on the audience s perceptions of the credibility and character of the speaker in relationship to the audience s own interests and values Persona Persona Represents the constructed ethos that a rhetor creates within the confines of a particular rhetorical text Inherited Ethos The actual reputation that rhetors quotcarry with them because of an audience s acquaintance with past behaviour Personal Stories Narrations of one s life experience that provide insight into the speaker s practical wisdom virtue or goodwill Roles played by rhetors 1 Apologist speaker wishes to rebuff the attack including attacks on one s personal character as well as on one s position They do not actually apologize instead they correct the mistaken impression of the audience and seeks to clarify the essential rightness of his or her position righteous indignation 2 Agent speaks on behalf of some institution as a spokesperson of legitimate authority enthusiastic loyalty 3 Partisan represents an idea or ideal critical idealism Advocate a vision of society or politics or religion that is not yet real but might be possible with faith and effort 4 Hero individual who is willing to actively confront power in the name of helping others even if it means that great suffering might come upon herhim romantic courage Evoked Audience Attractive Image that the rhetor constructs of and for the audience Identification The strategy of creating a common bond with an audience by drawing parallels between the characteristics of speaker and audience Distinction Attempt to establish credibility by the possession of special knowledge andor unique experience that are superior to those of the audience Special Knowledge knowledge one receives by learning technical discourses and procedures knowledge you get from your university degree Unique Experience expertise one requires by having quotbeen there or quotgone through that Polarization Strategy of dividing an audience into positive us and negative them Criticized Audience group antagonistic to the rhetor s interests another political party Scapegoating all ofa public s sins are placed largely upon a defenceless group that is then run out of town Logos Rational Evidence Logos refers to the use of rational arguments and evidence to persuade an audience of the reasonableness of one s position Logical Reasoning This comes into play any time we use inferences and proofs to establish relationships among propositions that warrant specific conclusions Inferences the act or process of deriving conclusions from premises known or assumed to be true Aristotelian Inspired Model logical arguments consist of the relationship between three things 0 Claim primary position or conclusion being advanced by a speaker 0 Grounds supporting evidence for the claim 0 Warrant inferential leap that connects the claim with the ground usually embodied with a principle provision or chain of reasoning Algebraic Formula for WarrantsSyllogisms 1 Categorical All X are Y Z is X Z is Y 2 Hypothetical If X not Y If something is X then it cannot be Y 3 Disjunctive Either X or Y If X then not Y If Y then not X Fallacies represent arguments that when analysed in isolation do not quothold up in the sense of maintaining logical coherence Authority An argument from authority grounds a claim by attributing the source to an authority who is respected by the audience Example Quoting the bible drawing facts from American Literarture paraphrasing Dr Seuss to children Generalization Drawing a general conclusion about a class of people events objects or processes based on specific examples drawn from experience Overgeneralization anytime one makes too broad a leap from the particular to the general such that the warrant this X stands for all X s simply does not hold up Analogy An analogy warrants us to treat two essentially unlike things the same way because they share a vital similarity that is particularly relevant to the case at hand False Analogy either makes logically absurd or ethically dubious associations between two things that have very little relationship to one another such that the warrant quotwe can treat all X like we treat Y simply makes no sense an Sign warrants encourage us to believe in something that cannot immediately be seen based on the appearance of external clues or indicators Faulty Sign an appeal to an indicator that does not actually point to what the rhetor claims that it does Bandwagon variant on a faulty sign that it takes the form of the warrant the popularity of a thing is a sign of its value Causation Causation encourages us to accept or reject a course of action based on its perceived consequences False Cause occurs any time a casual argument is made that invokes a clearly incorrect or exaggerated casual sequence Slippery Slope argument that claims we must not make an even incremental step in a certain direction if we are to prevent a dramatic slide and decline into a terrible state of affairs Scapegoating argument that claims that the reason some undesirable state of affairs has come aout is because of the existence or actions of a particular group of people who are on the margins of society and are easy to blame Principle A principle is a universal law doctrine or definition that helps guide judgement in particular cases Stereotyping invites us to treat a diverse group of things as if they all were the same thereby reducing a complex population to a simple and monolithic entity Pathos Emotional Appeall Pathos persuades by producing an emotional response in an audience that makes it favourable to one thing and unfavourable to another Emotions dramatized feelings that orient us to things within our immediate environment that stand out as significant Attracting Emotions draw us closer to somebody or something love curiosity pity trust respect greed and obsession Repelling Emotions push us away from somebody or something anger fear shame guilt anxiety and disgust Amplification exaggerating something and making it larger than life so that it stands out as important and demanding of our attention Diminution reduces something pushes it back into the ground and makes it insignificant and trivial mp2 A utopia is a vision of a perfect event understood as a state of affairs vision of the perfect land Wasteland Wasteland portrays a horrific event or state of affairs that we either wish to escape or avoid it w Actions worthy of praise generate passionate commitment to cultivating these virtues m Vice is a strategy that repels us from certain concrete actions by making them morally offensive andor practically harmful Saint A saint is a person worthy of special attention praise and emulation both for its own sake as well as for our selfadvancement Sinner A sinner is portrayed in a negative light in order to make that person repellent to the audience do An idol is an object with attractive qualities that an audience seeks to possess preserve or use that object Abomination An abomination is an object that repels the audience to ignore shun discard or destroy it Eloguence Eloquence is a type of experience produced when an oration achieves the heights of aesthetic form in such a way that carries an audience beyond itself while simultaneously bringing illumination to the particulars of the audience s situation Chapter 5 Persona Something constructive performed selfidentity Everyone has an identitywe are expected to PERFORM our identity


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