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Politicl Communicatn

by: Ms. Jerry Mante

Politicl Communicatn CMST 4100

Ms. Jerry Mante
GPA 3.81

L. Hunt

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L. Hunt
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This 24 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ms. Jerry Mante on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CMST 4100 at Louisiana State University taught by L. Hunt in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see /class/222691/cmst-4100-louisiana-state-university in Communication Studies at Louisiana State University.


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Date Created: 10/13/15
kcNumber35 Rhetoric is the art of adjusting ideas to people and people to ideas through the use of symbols 1 Beebe amp Beebe the use of words and symbols to achieve a goal 2 Plato the art of winning the soul by discourse a Nominal world 3 Quintilian Is the art ofspeaking well 4 Kenneth Burke the use of words by human agents to form attitudes or to induce actions in other human agents The beginning of rhetoric 0 Prior to the 5 h century BC there did not exist a social system where the powerful elite did not rule 0 Classical Greece power given to the hands of people 0 Limited citizenry no women slaves or nonborn city state individuals 0 Study of rhetoric examined how persuasion can be used to get the quotcollectivequot to make a judgment about a public affair o Ideally rhetoric would be used to ensure to express the will of the people and the rights of individuals I Too often quotrhetoricquot was considered quotempty words or a quotmere rhetoric o The creation of rhetoric 1st time recognized o Corax deemed inventor of rhetoric I Doctrine of general probability lawyer in court 0 Way to craft argument to create probable doubt in the minds of listeners o Tisias student of Corax I Court room case over payment of debt The greek tradition 0 Present state of Greece 0 Citizens spoke in assemblies and legislatures and presented their own cases in court 0 Speech teacherscoaches were in great demand 0 Sophists wisdom bearer first speech teachers 0 Antiphon and lysias logographers wrote speeches for clients to deliver 0 Protagoras father of academic debate I Believed that both sides of the debate are necessary never can be of quottruthquot I Believed rhetoric could change perceptions so that humans would embrace quotthe good goal the just and the beautifu In 0 Gorgias first teacher to encourage quotflorid languagequotpretty speak o Believed people would be more persuaded by an embellished speaking style 0 Kairos llfitting timing appropriate use of rational argumentsoverwhelm the imagination o Rhetoric moves us beyond logic to provide imagery emotion and authority to enhance the believability of illusion o socrates train person to be a quotstatesmenquot o 3 qualities to be a great oratorstatesmen I Possess natural ability and desire I Ability must be practiced and experienced I Must be well educated 0 Civic virtue must be in all Plato 0 Absolute truth quotTquot founded in another world llnoumenal world I Perfect forms exist permanently I Senses are imperfect and thus our ideas and objects about the world are an illusion of reality I Socratic method lldialectic method of asking questions and answers to determine truth 0 Great tensions I Reason carry soul vs Senses distract soul I Inquiry vs persuasion I Reason vs emotion if we focus on reason we will be able to reach the noumenal world I lonl vs mass persuasion lonl there needs to be a connection 0 Writings I Republic ideal political state ran by a philosopherking I Gorgias condemned rhetoric as practiced by the Sophists 0 llA form of flattery intended only to pleasure the ears of listeners much like cookery pleases the palatequot I Phaedrus rhetoric ought not be practiced in the court room 0 True rhetoric reason can influence the minds of listeners wherever they may be 0 Doxa opinion affected b observation 0 Episteme philosophical inquiry lltrue knowledgequot Aristotle student of Plato but differed in belief of rhetoric o Pragmatic view in order to survive and prosper rhetoric needed to be integrated with reason 0 Politics must be adjusted to a given case o If knowledge or the path is unclear then rhetoric allows for truth to be beard recognized and understood by the public l 0 People can be persuaded to do good even if you cannot attain lltrue knowledge 0 Beliefs on rhetoric 0 Truth quottquot and justice can triumph o Instructive helps to make things known 0 Speaking to the occasion o Dialectic can lead to either side of a question 0 llRhetoric is as important to selfdefense as physical prowessquot 0 Classic definition 0 The faculty of observing in any given situation all available means of persuasion I Faculty mental abilitiescapabilities muscle I Observing to look atobserving to attending to I Situation every speaker is in quotsituationquot I Means of strategies I Persuasion ability to influence Rhetoric is a low budget pseudo science Pandering to the masses Rhetoric is amoral at best Situational ethic Plato s attack on rhetoric He uses rhetoric to attack it A conversational world view Philosophy confuses action with motion burke Rhetoric is pluralistic a lot of paths that are still bound together Change vs stability Utility vs imagine Community vs controversy Community vs individualism Different notions of how we should distribute power Conflict is required for progress The fifth man Wells movie Confronting the issues in politics allows us to confront the problems in nature Ideology Grid group theory 0 Culturaltheory o MaryDouglas Blame and risk 0 Fatalist either blame or credit fate o Individualist doesn t matter 0 No group or external enemy 0 Blame is diffused into fate o Individualist blame luck blame incompetence blame will never fall under the competitive system 0 You screwed up but keep trying 0 Hierarchist never blame the system blame shifting 0 Systems fine 0 Deviants are screwing things up I Must be reeducate them I Labeled as unchurchedquot o Egalitarian blame the system 0 People are good systems cause the hardships Rossiter s political spectrum 0 Conservatism o respect the past 0 traditionalist o Liberalism o mostly satisfied with contemporary order 0 more experimental than conservatives 0 likes systems in place but like to tinker o standpattism o no change isn t inevitable 0 change should be resisted 0 now is better than everything past and future 0 radicalism 0 completely dissatisfied with the world 0 things mush change radically o fundamentally change the institution 0 peaceful protest 0 reaction 0 wants to revert 0 move back to an ideal past 0 present is unacceptable 0 change that is quotbackwardsquot thinking 0 revolutionary radicalism 0 system is diseased o the system is oppressive and dishonest 0 these are the bomb throwers 0 over throw the system by any means necessary 0 revolutionary reaction 0 replace the new age with the golden age 0 right wing bomb throwers o by any means necessary quotdeographquot Link between rhetoric and ideology o By Michael Clavin McGee 0 quotPhilosophy of Mythquot amp Question of Power 0 quotPhilosophy of Mythquot Kenneth Burke s rhetorical preference for the word quotideologyquot I The myth is ofa quotpublicquot and quotmass consciousness 0 Must become aware of the connection between the concept and the descriptions of mass consciousness o Burke wants to investigate the motives for using an ideology and how that creates the myth of being a politically free thinker I Synonym the concept of ideology is thought of as quotdogmaquot or quotdoctrinequot in political organizations 0 Human Beings amp Collectivity humans in a collective thinkact differently than in isolation I Collective is thought to have a quotmind of its ownquot 0 The collective is tricked when they think and behave into thinking that a llpublic mind or llpublic philosophy exist 0 The llsocial organism we exist in is a myth I Marx the only possibility of a quotmindquot lies in the individual qua individual physical human organism o Marx is concerned with how the quotgivensquot ofa human environment impinge on the development of a political consciousness o Marx amp Power Marx disagrees that llphilosophy of myth is an alternative to quotideologyquot I Power Marx was committed to the proletariat o Proletariat the upper class is seduced by a possessive quotideologyquot that persuades them to victimize and exploit the proletariat I Ideologies and myths we study are thrust upon us by brute force of power Ideology amp Human Condition 0 Ideology and persuasion McGee argues that the clearest access to persuasion is through the discourse used to produce it o Ideology in practice is a political language I Preserved in rhetorical documents I Dictates decisions and controls public belief and behavior 0 Political language manifests ideology 918 0 Language is characterized by slogans and a vocabulary of quotideographsquot o Ideographs are mistaken for technical terminology of political philosophy 0 Ideology has as much influence on the ruled as the ruler 0 Human condition human beings are presumed to react predictably and automatically 0 Social control is a control over the consciousness 0 Human beings are quotconditionedquot to a vocabulary of concepts Concepts function as guides warrants reasons or excuses for belief and behavior The quotstatequot insists on a rhetoric of control a system of persuasion presumed to be effective on the whole community I Ex Ideographs law liberty security McGee s Ideographs 0 Characteristics of ideographs 0 Ordinary language term found in political discourse 0 High order abstraction representing collective commitment to a particular but ill defined normative goal I Highorder ideographs world peace spheres of influence liberty freedom democracy equality I Ex USA 84 Russia differences in quotequalityquot t warrants the use of power Guides belief and behavior into channels that the community deems acceptable deographs are culturally bound but can change across cultures OOOO Conditioned amp socialized to the vocabulary of ideographs as a prerequisite for ll belonging to the society Political Structure 0 Campaign rule changes 0 1968 democratic convention o Fractured the balance in American political psyche 0 States should be pluralistic 0 Ron Lee 0 Watergate was about power and information control Three major changes in how we deal with campaigns 0 What the primary says goes 0 The 1974 federal campaign act in place today 0 Limits on individual committee there is a cap on how much you can get to a campaign 0 Strengthen disclosure laws 0 Federal financing of elections Audience 0 The empirical audience has increased in size those who receive message 0 Instrumental audience key decision makers power changed in size and character 0 Primary voters gained power 0 Inventional audience audience conceived by rhetor follows instrumental 0 Constructed audience construction of the people that we are invited to inhabit is most important change Channel 0 Weakening of political parties campaigns and advertising 0 Media campaigns change quality of citizen contact with political figures 0 Media figures have become powerful intermediaries o Candidate messages increasingly marry visual with discursive Rhetors source of the message these become mutually reinforcing 0 Party reform new set of screening mechanisms 0 Had to make sure that someone was watching out for the views and ideals of the party 0 Party reform encourages candidates to adopt different political personae New rhetoric of populist narratives populism is any creed or movement basedrooted in the premise that virtue resides in the simple people who are the majority and in their collective traditions Joe the Plumber 0 Valorize the common 0 Demonize the excellent Images issues and virtues virtue moves from the bottom up 0 Image Ethos o Credibility 0 Issues Logos 0 Logic factual 0 Has become more visual image 0 How they overlap 0 Ronald Regan I Became a John Wayne figure Ethical consequences of post reform discourse pragmatic too 1 Rhetoric of victimage a Portrays a victim big evil corporation b Overly simple 2 Politics of resentment a Increased distrust cynicism polarization 3 Collapse of public and private a Public and private sectors become inseparable 4 Leader images a Tension contrasts the leader s image as either true or false b Productive or unproductive 5 Participation vs Influence a Not the same thing b Participation is favored by liberalist hard leftist What to do 1 Put the teeth back into political parties 2 Redo campaign finance reforms 3 Police the media a Issues of free speech Fisher 1985 Nature of a demagogue o Demagogue a leader with so few ethical standards that heshe will do whatever necessary to achieve hisher ends 0 They rely on popular appeal 0 Gaining and maintaining power 0 Antiintellectual o Adolf Hitler was the biggest demagogue of the twentieth century 0 Five basic elements of demagoguery by Fisher s book 0 Perceived crisis I A prerequisite of demagoguery I Needs an audience to perceive fear 0 Fear should be felt I The idea is created through a crisis 0 Problem seems to be without a solution I Thoughts become nonrational anything other than rational 0 Devil cause I Something that we can transfer scapegoat I Conspiracy I Complex problem 0 We don t want to hear it though I Random evils may challenge our view of a just world I If you can falsify the theory you kill it 0 Simple pat solution I The demagogue will provide an easy solution I Attractive easily implemented and easily doable 0 Basic virtues 107 I Identifies with all that is good I You never challenge the values of the audience I Ellule o Ritualization Ritualized appeals are important You do not examine things that you chant and repeat over and over Chants and slogans and call and responses songs costumes and uniforms Can transform perceptions of reality A sense of self esteem through others I Something that can be remembered and fun I Cloud critical thinking 0 Support out troops has become a demagogue starting back in the 90 s Media Bias 0 The majority of Americans believe that there is a bias liberal in media 0 No sound empirical evidence 0 What are the charges 0 More reporters are democrats I true 0 There is a leftist slant I Publishers and editors are mostly republican I If there is a slant why do we keep electing republicans if there is a leftist slant 19772009 0 The media criticize our leaders more than foreign 1014 0 The media is biased toward certain coverage styles 0 Opportunities presented by television as a medium 0 Narrative is necessary for it to work 0 Appearance vs reality good vs evil efficiency vs inefficiency unique vs routine little guys vs big guys 0 Never more than 2 side are cast into mutually exclusive terms 0 Suggested or predicted resolution 0 The motive just isn t there for the media biased Midterm 16 Burke amp Dramatisitc Criticism 0 Foundation of dramatism o Burke is about symbols and motives 0 Language a symbolic means of inducing cooperation in beings that by nature respond to symbols I Man the symbol using making and misusing animal inventor of the negative separated from his natural condition by instruments of his own making goaded by the spirit of hierarchy and rotten with perfection I Reality has actually been built up for us through nothing but our symbol system we are rhetorically constructed by our symbols 0 Burke is concerned with the llend product I Critics need to understand the motives of every dramatic event 0 A motive why people do what they do I Humans see the world hierarchically and are motivated by that hierarchy o Burke s 4 h principle 0 Hierarchy people are motivated to llmove upquot in terms of position values knowledge and beauty llGoaded by hierarchyquot 0 Life is drama Rhetorical motive central to understanding why human beings are at the root symbolusers what they strive to do rise above self and what they have the potential to do rise up together Transcendence how good grand or noble can we move up amp beyond together 0 Burke s 5 h principle 0 Principles of dramatism o Dramatism provides a way to understand the social uses of language and how to encounter social and symbolic world of drama 0 Know the six principles focus on 46 I Hierarchy and symbolism 0 Know the concept of llRhetorical perfection and what hierarchy does I Rhetoric promises transcendence 0 Know the differences between hierarchy and transcendence I Rhetoric is fueled by the negative 0 Know the concepts of scapegoat victimage and mortification o Scapegoat the person group or idea that is treated as the incarnation of evil 0 llThe Eternal Jewquot o Victimage o Mortification 1016 Hierarchy I Rhetorical force how are messages created and how do they come across and what is the significance of the rhetoric o Motives o What are you taking away from the messages 0 Actors living out their lives speaking scripts to one another drama I The vocabulary of motives 0 Of human action I Drama isn t revealed until rhetoric exploits it I Dramatic action can change our behavior Burke argues that dramatic tension is at its highest when its small 0 Change is incremental I Hierarchy is a dimension how often how high Transcendence I The qualitative dimension I Provides the answer to drama I People can become better I Rhetoric can transcend someone so that they can do something with their lives I People want meaning in their lives I Evil is done at the behest of the transcendent rhetorical figure To believe is hierarchy to fight is transcendence I Methods of dramatism 0 Purpose of the pentad I Burke realized the success of speakers because of their ability to use dramatic techniques into rhetorical arena I Rhetoric and drama can inform one another to the motives one is using in their speech Need to study them together 1 Act what happened What is the action What is going on What action what thoughts a Ideology realism the lltaking formquot of something b Ex Inaugural address celebrates an induction into the presidency 2 Scene where is the act happening What is the background situation a Additionally provides the backdrop for quotvaluesquot b Ideology materialism the scene determines an inevitable a materialistic material outcome c Ex Inaugural address provides a specific time place location etc and president promotes certain values d The most focused on e The easiest place to find drama 3 Agent who is involved in that action What are their roles a Ideology idealism agent dreams of a better future b Ex Presidential inaugural address 4 Agency how do the agents act By what means do they act 1021 a Ideology pragmatism how to get things done b Ex inaugural address ties in appeals to emotion creditability logic delivery amp organization 5 Purpose why do the agents act What do they want a Features ends over means b Ideology mysticism c Ex inaugural address is the mystical ritual that confirms an election to the presidency d Hitler s Mein Kopf had a purpose e In a perfect world we would focus more on the purpose and not the scene 6 Are we able to understand who the person is and why they are doing it 7 How is the agent using the agency to make them not focus on llitquot 8 All five work together to focus on the drama Nov 9 h paper is due 1023 Four stages of a political campaign 1 Surfacing a A series of predictable of rhetorical transactions that are designed to severe some consumatory functions during the preprimary days of the campaign b People know who I can do they care c Trying to access credibility i Are we going to be able to raise money ii Organizationalstrength d Start lots of public speaking rubber chicken circuit food i Cheap food served at these events e Poling i To get a handle on the issues of the people f Campaign blueprint plan or method g Raise money 7 Sta rt to advertise i To define yourself to the public public persona ii Naming concept from propaganda once you give it a name that is what it becomes vermin i Notion of llDeath Taxquot j Purposes trying to look like we belong Does this person look the part k Gain voter expectations known for quotXquot l Initial media reaction m Mike Foster ad 1995 2 Primaries a America most original contribution to the art of democracy b Voters determine party nominees 1026 c Open process i Vote in either primary despite registration ii All candidates lumped together regardless of party affiliation 1 Louisiana d Closed process i Only vote within your party 1 You are only given the ballot for your party e Caucuses precinct meeting i Iowa f Party leaders hate primaries and caucuses i Want more influence from the party Have to fight within the family no one wins Candidates damage each other iv Unit rule 1 Use proportioned delegated allocation 2 Party leaders want it winner take all v Cash suck 1 More money when you have more than one running in the same party 1028 3 NominatingConvention a Speeches affect the level of discourse b Scripted 4 General election a Voters seek info about the candidate b We are seeing if the system is still working c Two step flow d Consummatory function we expect certain rituals like stickers flags Television advertising o 1952 beginning credited to Eisenhower Extra credit Narrative Fidelity Due wed 1030 Clear definition How it applies to poli comm Text and why the term was chosen What does it consist of Term citation body 112 Three types of political campaign tv ads 0 Ads extolling the candidates virtues 0 Man on the street ads Talking Head ads 0 Slogan ads 0 Benevolent leader ad llBig daddy 0 Functions I Reinforcing the base I Selfdefinition redefinition I Raise funds I Identify platform 0 Ads condemningattackingquestioning opponent 114 0 Attack or negative ads o It immediately carries a notion of being unfair dirty dishonest I Does not have to be I There are Legit ways to condemn or attack an opponent s position 0 Types of I Implicative with innuendo we are implying o Enthymeme logos but also involves ethos I Comparative o Juxtaposing o Seems to be the most legit o If you are sure that you are using factual info to construct the ad 0 We misrepresent our opponents position 0 Hard to run as president when you are a member of the senate because you have a voting record I Assault ad 0 Full assault on their motives and actions 0 Bad person evil 0 Place the opponent in an uncomfortable position 0 Place the opponent in a negative light make things worse 0 Drive up the opponents negatives 0 Democrats tend to dislike any type of negativity 0 Risk putting their own side against them 0 On the right there is no risk 0 llThey are cool with itquot 0 Ads responding to attacks or innuendos 116 0 They function to contain damage done by an attack or to reclaim the higher ground I Preemption o I know this is coming so I m going to address it first but maybe not fully frame it done in a mild way inoculation theory I Rapid response 0 James Carville amp Paul McGalla 0 They were able to have Clinton ready to respond quickly when an attack ad hit 0 You must respond 0 Don t respond because if you do you legitimize the attack Is Obama Hip Hope s president 0 Ludacris video 0 Paint the white house black 0 Called out the black voters 0 Obama distanced himself from this video because of calling Hillary a bitch and said that McCann should not be in a chair unless he s paralyzed 0 Grand master flash streets of NY 0 Sugar hill gang rappers delight first 0 Nas black president 0 Protect his life and wife o If he dies we die 0 When he wins will he remember where he came from Obama said that art should not only be a mirror but a headlight to see forward Issues of healthcare war and education Obama is different multicultural He is seen as a transcendent Change hip hop from the material things to becoming an agent of hope Have to question Obama s usage of hip hop once elected Hip hop is about knowledge for those who don t like cnn or fox news Forget about the labels is he doing good for my community Hip hop always has the authenticity and race Future how rappers talk about Obama if he does not address issues they think are important will we hear a backlash from rappers 1111 Polling o Ch7 0 Opinion poll 0 Socialized medicine o In US socialized is seen neg 0 Late 20 h century thanks to tech 0 Opinion polls People will answer accurately after they voted US is very diverse thus making polling necessary Surfacing Jackson Hole WY trip for the Clintons Schell pg 168 llthe candidates have long since learned that the path to power is far 0000 smoother if one gives the people what they already believe they want than if one undertakes the arduous business of persuading them to want something else Instruments of the utmost refinement have been designed to detect the faintest ripple in public moodquot 0 Crawford ranch was a prop for Bush W 1113 Polling cont 0 Opinion polls affecting public opinion 0 Rhetorical democracy Idealized from western thought 0 0 Form of gov with equal citizens everyone should have a say so everyone should have a vote 0 People guided by reason 0 Assumes that people will behave with good will I Communal interest above self interest 0 The quotunwashedquot will be more able to be persuaded 1116 Public opinion 0 Relied on what is the will of the people 0 Meaning has been compromised 0 Could be a pole Publicity principle authentic public 0 Should have access to opinion Free speech 0 Right to freely express oneself without sanction These two concepts together Public opinion is common understanding and judgment coming from Poling an individual s opinion the way they are presented there is a convergence out there x believe this Easy to manipulate the results of a pole Poles presume honesty People have equal access to info and interest in info The reformed and responsible citizen The opinion pole is a rhetorical device Illusion of quantification Crude dialectic thesis and anthesis Big issue the idealized portrayal of participation is problematic Habermas common judgment First an opportunity to present your views Free speech Assuming audience someone to listen Second opportunity to have our views considered Third you must have opportunity to respond to views presented to you Fourth opportunity to access information Fifth access to media for dissemination We forge consensus on the basis on warranted consent Some end up with more rights than others Ethos tends to mute people 1118 Structure has an influence are voices are not equally heard Value clashes some will be irresolvable llDon t blame me I voted for Bushquot Before he even got into office Third big issue Trust is often corrupted by organized special interest We do not require agreement here We need to have competent citizens in civic conversations and trusting that it will be impactful for our ways of life You must have functional conflict for progress These subgroups tend to become competing groups and can undermine the entire process We are at all times persuading and being persuaded 1120 Political debates They are ritualized in contemporary America State of the union addresses Press CO nferences In many ways a new phenomenon Kennedy Nixon Debates Taft Hartley act took control of the senate and house after WW2 o Wagner act for workers 0 States have rights to work laws Nixon had performed well candidate saving his ass Checkers speech illegal gifts Kennedy won on tv Nixon won on the radio In the 1960 election close 0 The claim that the debates helped Kennedy win were dubious 1 Style of them 2 Needed and necessary 3 The import as in important 1976 Carter Ford 0 Organized by the league of women voters Is this ritual a debate or is it some sort of other spectacle o Spectacle 5 elements of a debate 0 Confrontation I They need to engage each other I EX Lincoln Douglas interrogated one another not since then I Glorified meet the press 0 Equal and adequate time I EX equal time yes adequate time no 0 Matched contestants I People that belong in the same ring I Usual done well now I Generally you have been through enough filters to match with the other contestant o On a stated proposition I Slavery for Lincoln Douglas I Broad category now 0 Gain an audience decision I Some sort of winner and loser I More polls than actual decision 1123 Debate strategies 0 Pre debate strategies 0 Should we debate I You can t escape the debates o Formats and rules 0 Every four years you will have a neg 0 Both sides will have a neg 0 Kerry Bush made sure that they were not filmed in the same shot because of the height difference Kerry is 6 6 0 Set up the debates I Down play the expectations I Impact I The expectations of your candidate 0 People think you did better than they expected because of the down play Raise the bar for the other guy 0 He can t live up to what you have said he can do Influence how the media will report later 2000 and 2004 Post things about their candidate Determine your target audience 0 Who are you targeting your crap to You should have your answers worked out During the debate 0 Issue strategies 0 You want to use your opening statement to set an issue theme I Focus this on an issue area and keep it narrow simple is better 0 Every question that comes will return to this issue theme I Target it back to your issue 0 Personification humanize yourself Identification 0 Must identify with your audience 0 Regan actor experience with leadership style Post debate 0 You want to create a massive surrogate effort 0 Prominent spokesmen everywhere 0 To aude you and demo grate the opposition 0 Must be ready to do damage control if your candidate screws up 0 Rapid response 1130 First effect noticed for debates 0 Increased audience 0 Highestnumber Second 0 Reinforced audience by the debate 0 They don t come in with an open mind and be converted 0 They already have an idea of their support Third 0 Limited number of voters shifted Fourth Help set the voters agendas Five 0 Increase voter knowledge of the issues Six 0 Modify candidate image Seven The debates tend to freeze the campaign Can work in advantage over one side 0 Works for the front runner Eight 0 Debates 0 Positive effect on people s views on government Different spheres such as public and private are suited to public business Public sphere is the domain of the probable No certain result Three steps Uncertainty and the grounding of this agreement The creative of uncertainty and the resolute creation of uncertainty Willing to encounter the other Discourse actions Argument practices into three spheres o Privatesphere o Interpersonal o Technicalsphere o Experts 0 Publicsphere o Publicappeal Two choices emerge in these three 0 Engage in arguments o Metaarguments o Distinctions between the spheres o Rationality vs situational and local standards 0 Tech introduces greater interdependence o Govt becomes an econ and tech business on a large scale 0 Fears were founded in the early 19 century Technological sphere cont 0 We feel that we need to rely on technological advances 0 Values come from humans not from tech 0 Tech is amoral


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