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by: Ms. Jerry Mante


Ms. Jerry Mante
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T. Shaffer

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T. Shaffer
Class Notes
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ms. Jerry Mante on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CMST 3013 at Louisiana State University taught by T. Shaffer in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see /class/222692/cmst-3013-louisiana-state-university in Communication Studies at Louisiana State University.

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Date Created: 10/13/15
CMST 3013 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE Generic Convergence 0 quotSpace Odyssey and quotRosemary s Baby Stanley Kubrick 1968 0 Babies signify an ominous future I Both babies have strange eyes I Babies represent the past and the future of the United States I Babies usually symbolize new life happiness optimism for the future vulnerability innocence and carrying on a family 0 Vivien Sobcheck argues that these films prove that genre converge I Babies born at the end of the narratives I Represents a crisis in the American middle class late 1960s I Patriarchy vs paternity father rules and power over responsibility to the family s needs gt Patriarchy system where the man rules men s supremacy over his wife and children hierarchy in which we know where we stand gt quotThe Shining 39239 Patriarchy drove Iack crazy 39239 Converges horror and drama and past and present 39239 We have the utopic potential an the dystopic reality 39239 The nuclear family becomes a site of horror in the 1960s 39239 lack loses patriarchy and his lack of control drives him crazy twinsmirrors sign of doppelganger gt quotThe Exorcist 39239 No father figure so the priest tries to help the single mother 39239 Occurs during maturity gt quotRosemary s Baby 39239 The dad give his first born away in exchange for career success gt quotAmityville Horror 39239 A man marries into a family 39239 The house is a money pit 39239 The man has no control over the children I Absence can be equally as important no father I DisintegrationTransfiguration of the nuclear family how the family GENRES TIME SPACE Present 28 Days Later Are we the monster 0 Monster is a social metaphor Black woman and white man 0 A family slowly forms 0 Group of horses mirror this family idea 0 Patriarchy vs Paternity Chaos 0 People only interested in helping themselves 0 First infected person shown is a priest at a church I Church is not a safe place Iim s nakedness 0 Born into a new world 0 Film plays with gender because typically only naked women are shown in films Communication is important 0 39Hello I 39Hell alone I 39Hello relationship Artistry 0 Use of color 0 Music is joyful 0 Red gowns purposeful Ending 0 Not very dystopic Major West 0 Shows that we want to cut off all of the quotwesternquot nations to save our nation European Exploitation What is Eurocult 0 Designed solely to make money I Low budgets I Horror and sex commonplace due to budgetary constraints Very little if any artistic integrity I Exception novice young filmmakers getting their first film experience 99 are based on successful films usually American Law of diminishing returns as each successive film gets made in a subgenre quality suffers o 85 of films are 90 minutes or less Eurocult Subgenres Emerge O OO 0 Gothic I Have more gore than American gothic films 0 Giallo I Italian word for 39yellow I Stalker stasher film with a detailed plot 0 MondoCannibal I Flesh eating humans 0 Zombie o Nunsploitation I Evil nuns o Nazisploitation 0 Women in prison 0 Sexploitation o Werewolves Spain Lesbian Vampires France A Truly International Style of Filmmaking o A hodgepodge of culture and style 0 International distribution I Dubbing I Driveins and doublebills o Varyinglengths based on culture norms I The of the 39insert Kick Ass Advertising 0 Every film relied on a colorful dramatic advertising campaign that seldom had anything to do with the quality or even the storyline of the movie Dario Argento High Brow Exploitation o The most successful and critically acclaimed producer of exploitation I Called 39The Italian Hitchcock 0 Films have been positively reviewed and released by major studios o Achieved most success in the 1970s with a string of giallos referred to as quotThe Animal Trilogy 0 Sees film as a canvas uses color and sound to make a dramatic point Political Repression o The Spanish film industry was under complete rule of General Franco 0 Massive censorship of anything that was detrimental to Spain was suppressed 0 Horror and sex was considered taboo 0 Change began slowly in the 1960s Paul Naschy 0 19342009 Professional weightlifter 0 Loved the 39Universal monsters Dracula the Wolfman and Frankenstein 0 Filmed in a variety of genres o Added gore and sex whenever possible Iess Franco The King of Exploitation Hugh jazz fan Rebellious hated the General Franco regime His earliest films highlighted the visual style His films had an assortment of genres horror scifi women in prison porno and comedy France 0 More reliant on culture than church Italy or political regimes Spain 0 Began its foray into exploitation with quotThe Grand Guignol o The French have never been fans ofviolence on film screens OOOO I Very little violent exploitation in the 1960s and 1970s 0 Exception Iean Rollin 0 Open culture regarding sexuality 0 Drawn to themes of sex vampires witches etc The Present and Future of Eurocult A new generation of filmmakers Much more violent Underlying political themes not so subversive Far more original than the United States I Now the United States is stealing 0000 High Tension Not a gore film 0 Metamorphosisnarrative Revisionist of Psycho possibly 0 Plays with conventions of the genre 0 More intellectual o All character archetypes contained in one character I Marie is the killer I Marie is the disguise I Marie is the lady in distress What is Gore 0 Gore the excessive display ofbodily organs in a state ofbloodied transition or exposure 0 Extreme violence to illicit a corporeal response nausea vomiting fainting etc Variations of Gore 0 Shock exploitation Splatter Gorno Torture porn Splatstick at Makes Gore Different From Other Subgenres Within Horror It selfconsciously revels in special effects of gore as an art from Focuses on the fear of the physical destruction of the body Lots of esh Lots of innards o Heavily image based When Did Gore Begin o 1963 often credited as the year that gore became its own subgenre within horror I Hershell Gordon Lewis made quotBlood Feast which is often considered to be the first gore movie 0 However isolated scenes of gore can be seen in horror movies prior to 1963 Un ChienAndalou O O O O W T 0000 0 Created by surrealist artist Salvador Dali and Luis Bunuel in 1929 I This is interesting because terms such as surreal spectacle and hyperreal are often used when describing contemporary gore 0 quotBlood Feast 1963 Director Hershell Gordon Lewis Promoted for its gore not its plot Filmed in 9 days for under 25000 Considered to be one of the first splatter films First colored gore film Exploited gore by sensationalizing it in the title the poster and the trailer The entire movie was focused on gore over plot prior to quotBlood Feast gore had not been seen in isolated scenes Hugely in uential and profitable but it was not mainstream marketed towards young people It created a template for the presentation of gore Not a Hollywood film Antitechnique due to a lack of money A lot ofpeople didn t like the film 0 AntiAesthetic and AntiTechnique Lewis Template 0 Lewis created a carnivalesque response to Hollywood hegemony by embracing what Hollywood rejected I Lack of plot I Lack of camera movement I Lack of uniform I Lack of uniformly synched sound I Lack of multiple camera use I Hand held cameras I Lack of convincing sets 0 quotDead Alive 1992 o AKA Braindead 0 Director Peter Jackson Credited for creating a new type of gore splatstick Strange storyline Focuses on being disgusting quotIt s comedy drama splatter sensitive love storyall those things Peter Jackson 0 quotA hilarious bout of carnage Time Magazine 0 What is Splatstick o Splatstick physical comedy that involves evisceration I It has so much gore that it becomes funny The Primordial World 0 Consists ofplants animals and beasts that evolved on the same planet as us 0 Unnerving creatures undiscovered animals 0 They outnumber us 0 Strange aquatic beasts 0 0000000 000 O 0000 o Mutation 0 Average animal that acts strangely o Prehistoric I Examples Lock Ness Monster and Bigfoot External threat 0 DependentAutonomous depends on the narrative Charles Darwin 0 We impose our will on nature but nature still decides the course of the world 0 We engage with the process of natural order I We are surprised takes us off guard I We battle against the creatures survival of the fittest Prime examples of Primordial World films 0 quotThe Creature from the Black Lagoon and quotlawsquot I Secular I quotlawsquot plays homage to quotThe Creature from the Black Lagoon I Intro music and visuals are the same I The first girls are similar Primordial World films are about the battle but also about reproduction 0 We must know our place 0 In quotlawsquot the female is done away with right off the bat o Man s role is to protect 0 Show the human perspective of the battle 5 Categories of the Primordial World Threat 0 Giant animal that we are familiar with that for some reason is large 0 Attacking multiples o Humanoid beasts quotBigfoot quotCreature from the Black Lagoon and quotThe Descent o Abnormal humans deformity quotThe Hunchback of Notre Dame 0 Deadly plants quotThe Ruins and quotThe Little Shop of Horror Parallel world is what scares us it could happen in a split second Twilight Vampires o The vampire has resonated in film and literature because the vampire is the most sinister and yet humanlike evil creature in modern literature Vampires look and act like humans which allows them to live among us and trick us into becoming victims Popularity 0 In 2005 Little Brown Publishing released Stephenie Meyer s Twilight with an initial printing of 7500 copies 0 Author Stephenie Meyer got the idea for the books in a dream the dream is the infamous meadow scene in chapter 13 o Twilight s theatrical release grossed 350 million at the box office Twilight has been credited with rejuvenating the vampire genre and renewing interest in reading Academics O 0 Melissa Ames provides context to the Twilight phenomenon by comparing the Twilight texts to adult and young adult vampire narratives arguing that Twilight largely follows tradition with its message about gender and sexuality Natalie Wilson investigates how race is portrayed in Twilight I Her analysis centers on the Cullens and Quileute And she argues that Meyer s narrative is imbued with white privilege Carrie Ann Platt analyzes the gender and sexual politics present in the Twilight series and considers how the teth results in problematic messages about female sexuality Kathryn Kane examines how Meyer s vampires namely the Cullens deviate from the traditional narrative in which vampires are queer figures who disrupt society and must be contained I Using queer theory she argues that the Cullens are the anecdote to queer times reinforcing heteronormativity and conservative values Tricia Clasen analyzes Twilight s myths of romantic love I The myths she examines include the myth that true love is love at first sight that love is forever and unchanging that romantic relationships trump all other relationships and finally that true love requires the ability to communicate without words 0 Danielle s Take on Twilight O Focuses on images of Bella s bodyintransformation via the sexual body the birthing body and the transforming body Bella s change from human to vampire throughout the Twilight Saga to better understand anxiety about the inadequacy of adolescent female bodies that pervades American youth culture 0 The Sexual Body 0 000 00 0 Appearance I Objectification Theory being treated as a body or a collection ofbody parts valued predominantly for its use to or consumption by others I Selfmonitoring suggests that appearance monitoring which is present in selfobjectification can increase shame and appearance anxiety and diminish awareness of internal bodily states Fredrickson and Roberts 1997 Bodily desire and abstinence Desiring and initiating sex is risky Bella s uncontrollable sexual urges I Bella s sexually drive has to be controlled my Edward I Bella can t distinguish between sex and pain I Bella s experience of sexually pleasure is disembodied The erotics of abstinence makes abstinence sexy Vampires and humans usually can t have sex because the vampire will kill the human Vampires can t get pregnant because their bodies are unchangeable Bella wants to keep the baby but Edward doesn t 0 Pregnancy weakens Bella I Suggests that the female body is unable to have children 0 Edward transforms Bella into a vampire during labor because otherwise she would have died I As a vampire Bella is more aware of her body more attractive stronger and feels godly o The body is only capable of changing through violent interaction Twilight addresses the female teenage body by discussing that changes it goes through 0 Twilight represents the relationships between men and women very differently Basic Information 0 3 SubGenres of Horror Monsters plus a 4th added by Tracey o Vampires o WerewolvesDuelpersonalities o The thing with no name human qualities 0 Nature gone awry 0 Primary Characters 0 Experts usually heroes 0 Monsters with human qualities 0 Victims increased with time and type offilm o Threats 0 Supernatural Threat separate realitynot possible something exists outside of our natural world I Example King Kong 0 Secular Threat separate reality but possible exists in our natural world I Example Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde O 0 External Threat monster will get you externally you will meet a violent death I Example The Creature from the Black Lagoon 0 Internal Threat monster will get you internally threatened from within I Example The Exorcist o Autonomous Threat monster not created by humans physically or magically I Example Dracula and Alien 0 Dependent Threat monster created by humans as a result of human action created by the environment I Example Freddy Krueger 0 Categories of Horror 0 Narratives I Invasion unknown invades the known usually autonomous Invasion of the self Invasion of the home Invasion of the community Invasion of the world VVVV Knowledge there is a body of knowledge or expert a scientist that knows how to create a monster Metamorphosis conscious and unconscious self most complex narrative Individual Collective Social orderSocial disorder SanityInsanity NormalAbnormal HealthDisease Normal sexuality Abnormal sexuality VVVVVV CMST 3013 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE German Expressionism The Beginning of Horror 1895 beginning of horror films 1931 advent of horror Ancient Asians made intricate plays using shadows and light Jacob and William Grimm collected stories about stories with characters such as witches and werewolves In Paris after the French Revolution ended people used to gather in crypts to watch magic lantern shows Etienne Gaspard Robertson illusionist who used a lantern to produce horror shows Thomas Edison Execution of Mary Queen ofScotts 1895 o 1St special effect of decapitation The Cabinet of Dr Caliqari and Nosferatu o The Cabinet of Dr Caligari 19191922 0 Considered both an art film and an expressionist film 0 De ned horror genre as a technology of subjectivity o Dystopia a society characterized by madness murder witches mad scientists vampirism etc o The narrator Frances turns out to be the crazy one and made up the whole story in his head 0 Cesare is a harmless sleepwalker o Nosferatu 1922 0 First time in cinema that human and animal are superimposed o Dracula story 0 In uenced a lot of future creaturesmonster o The producer Grau is sometimes credited for the success of the film gt May have been a occultist gt May have had an experience with a real vampire gt The director Murmau thought that dialogue was cheap so he kept it to a minimum 0 Expressionism tendency in any art to distort reality for emotional effect 0 Values subjectivity ofthe artist over reality 0 Typically doesn t look realistic o Dystopiaemotional angst o 1920 After WWI the economy was in bad shape Film industry profited during the war then privatized after the war Germans exported films to make money and used that money to experiment Looked at lmmaking as an art more than as a craft Infused art into lm which created a certain mood lighting design costume makeup etc VV V o Auteurs directors that make things recognizable lm re ects the director s personal vision 0 Stages ofa genre 0 Primitive Stage conventions of the genre are just developing and the audience has yet to develop set expectations for the genre Classical Stage genre is at its peak of popularity the conventions of the genre receive their fullest expression and the audience knows what to expect Revisionist Stage genre films consciously question andor reverse the established conventions of the classical stage ofthe genre Parodic Stage conventions of the genre have become so stale and wellknown that they are laughable and ripe for parody o The Silent Film 0 lntertitles words that are written instead of spoken gt Narrators gt Objects newspapers books diaries etc gt Dialogue 0 O 0 Classic Monsters 0 17601820 gothic novels flourished o The masses enjoyed gothic novels 0 By the late 19th century the horror genre grew more popular 0 Dracula Frankenstein and Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde were the most popular novels gt Stephen King calls the monsters in these films the tale of the trio al 3 monsters are doppelgangers 0 Britain 0 Middleclass felt threatened by the workingclass thought that the workingclass needed to be repressed o Privatesphere and publicsphere distinction gt People felt that they had two selves gt Beast within mentality gt Struggled with good side and bad side gt Example Dr Jekyll feared his inner beast both selves were real and had real desires Middleclass lifestyle divides people into two selves Doppelganger two sides to the self gt One side is good and one side is bad gt Both sides have human qualities gt Examples zombies vampires and werewolves o 3 SubGenres of Horror Monsters plus a 4th added by teacher 1 Vampires 2 WerewolvesDuel Personalities 3 The thing with no name human qualities 4 Nature gone awry 0 1930s classic monsters OO o Dracula 1931 o Frankenstein 1931 o Freaks 1932 0 King Kong 1933 0 Primary characters 0 Experts usually heroes 0 Monsters with human qualities 0 Victims increased with time and type of lm 0 Threats 0 Supernatural Threat separate realitynot possible something exists outside of our natural world gt Example King Kong 0 Secular Threat separate reality but possible exists in our natural world gt Example Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde 0 External Threat monster will get you externally you will meet a violent death gt Example The Creature from the Black Lagoon 0 Internal Threat monster will get you internally threatened from within gt Example The Exorcist o Autonomous Threat monster not created by humans physically or magically gt Example Dracula and Alien 0 Dependent Threat monster created by humans as a result of human action created by the environment gt Example Freddy Krueger Some Categories of Horror 0 Narratives o lnvasion unknown invades the known usually autonomous gt Invasion of the self gt Invasion of the home gt Invasion of the community gt Invasion of the world 0 Knowledge there is a body of knowledge or expert scientist that knows how to create a monster 0 Metamorphosis conscious and unconscious self most complex narrative IndividualCollective Social orderSocial disorder SanityInsanity NormalAbnormal HealthDisease Normal sexualityAbnormal sexuality VVVVVV Dracula and Dracu 0 000 000 O 0 Frank O 0000 Val Lewton t 0 O O 0 000000 Frankenstein la 1931 Based on Bram Stoker s gothic novel Gothic in uences visible in the set designs Often referred to as America s first horror film lnternal threat monster gets you internally Dracula can control peoples minds Supernatural threat not possible in our reality Autonomous threat not created by humans Dracula is seductive victims are usually young attractive women The director Todd Browning lmed the movie as if it was a play enstein 1931 Based on Mary Shelley s gothic novel Expressionist influence Raised questions of moral responsibility Most famous makeup in movie history iconic Haze code morality code outlined what was and was not allowed in 1930s 1950s films gt The scene in which the monsterthrows Marie into the lake was originally cutout of the film because of the haze code gt The monster is misunderstood gt The audience has a hard time deciding who they want to live and who they want to die 0 the Rescue Val Lewton director The parody king Demanded complete creative control over his films Under RKO he had to produce lms that cost under 100k that were no longerthan 75 minutes and he had to use market tested titles Displace the threat by suggestion Rejuvenated horror genre in the 1940s Film noir no one was a good guy moral ambiguity Femme fatale a very attractive yet dangerous woman Walk builds up tension Bust an explosion of sight and sound that relieves the tension Anthropomorphism 0 chara O 0 chara O O Theriomorphism a form of personification that ascribes animal cteristics to humans Example wolf man Anthropomorphism a form of personification that ascribes human cteristics to nonhumans Greek word meaning human and shapeform We cannot see outside of ourselves as humans o Gives us control everything is like us 0 Charles DanNin Origin of the Species 1859 o Humans are at the top ofthe hierarchy o Humans and creatures evolved from the same thing share a common ancestor 0 Those that have survived and evolved did so through survival ofthe fittest and natural selection gt Natural selection is the means of the survival of life 0 Came into the public domain in the 1950s gt The book s idea became very popular 0 Humans were not created by god but by something else 0 DanNinism in film 0 King Kong 0 The Wolfman theriomorphism o The Creature from the Black Lagoon anthropomorphism 0 Atomic bomb 1945 new form of mechanized death 0 Americans appeared happy on the outside but were really terri ed 0 1950s 0 Horror lms showed what humans were afraid of by taking modern day threats and showing them indirectly gt Atomic Threat gt Outer Space Threat gt Communism Threat gt Primordial World Threat 0 Supernatural horror films are not seen very much in the 1950s because they are not a current threat 0 62 ofthe 1950s threats are external secular and autonomous The Creature from the Black Lagoon and The Blob o The Creature from the Black Lagoon 1954 o Secular separate reality but the monster can exist in the real world External Nature gone awry DanNin logic Kay gt Sexualized object of desire gt More comfortable in nature than her male counterparts associated with nature to be conquered Deals with relationships between humans and nature between men and women and between the characters Classic horror gt Closure the monster is vanquished gt Hero present 0 The Blob 1958 o Useless authority 0000 O O O OO 0 Life as a teenager Being a teen is a social construction not natural There wasn t teen years you were either little and in school or big and working Education was extended to include high school Teens aren t heard even though they are right and the adults are wrong The blob symbolized communism Openended question mark on The End at the close of the movie Film did not do very well when it was first released at traditional theaters but did really well when it was rereleased at drivein theaters VV VV Alfred Hitchcock The father ofthe modern horror film Directed 30 lms between 19301946 Came to America for more creative freedom Master of suspense psychological thrillers American gothic and female center gothic Americanized the gothic film genre Focused on the past and how it fell apart Auteur to the horror film genre legitimized the horror film genre 0 000 0 Frame for emotion gt Wide shot less emotion gt Close shot more emotion Camera is not a camera gt Plot is revealed visually camera moves around like a person s eyes would Dialogue means nothing Point ofview editing Voyeurism and The Gaze gt Voyeurism the practice of spying on people engaged in intimate behaviors such as undressing a sexual activity or some other activity usually considered to be ofa private nature gt The Gaze Laura Mulvey argues that cinema not only highlights woman s tobelookedatness but that is actually builds the way woman is to be looked at into the film itself Montage gives you control Characters must break clich Used humorto add tension gt Exploit trivial character traits gt Create situations of irony gt Surround drama with a happy setting gt Include a burlesque character O O gt Balance laugh and tension Suspense is information gt Surprise the director assaults with frightening things gt Suspense the director showstells the audience something the characters don t know then lets the tension build around what will happen when they find out gt Hitchcock s motto always make the audience suffer as much as possible MacGuf n gt MacGuf n a pointless object in the storyline that is only present to create suspense in the audience the side effect of building suspense How Norman Chanqed Evervthinq 0 Prior to Psycho the monster was the other unfamiliar and unlike us incomprehensible 0 000 0 European Other Dracula and Nosferatu Scientific Other Frankenstein Supernatural Other Cat People Primordial Other King Kong and The Creature from the Black Lagoon Extraterrestrial Other The Blob 0 Atomic Other Them 0 Prior to Psycho lms offered closure and security 0 O O O Ended by vanquishing the monster Conventions were predictable Good overcame bad lines were clearly drawn Identification and empathy were made simple 0 Psycho O O O O 0000 00 Rede ned horror genre Graphic nature The other is now the self Based on a novel by Robert Bloch about a real person named Ed Gein gt 3 lms have been made about Ed Gein Psycho Texas Chainsaw Massacre and Silence ofthe Lambs Threat is unexpected takes place on home turfsafe place Monster is familiar Monster was created in the same atmosphere as the victims Horror takes place in the places in which we reside normal everyday settings Tone Ambivalent Realism gt Moral and ethical realism is unattainable Identification and empathy are complex Audience is possibly guilty implicated Psycho gt By the script audience identify with the bad guy pull for himher gt By the camera point of view shots 0 Psycho 1960 0 000000 000000 Hitchcock s attempt to make a lowbudget exploitation movie A lot of people thought that the killer was the mother Norman interacts with his mother s body often Norman is very likable in the beginning ofthe lm MacGuf n police officer Interesting camera angles Movement into the secular monster gt Post 1960s most horror lms used secular monsters rather than supernatural monsters Victims were not necessarily good There is no hero in the film hero is not very important Internal and external threat Dependent created by his absent mother Metamorphism We all go a little bit mad sometimes


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