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by: Ms. Jerry Mante


Ms. Jerry Mante
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J. Butcher

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J. Butcher
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This 29 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ms. Jerry Mante on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CMST 1061 at Louisiana State University taught by J. Butcher in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see /class/222694/cmst-1061-louisiana-state-university in Communication Studies at Louisiana State University.

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Date Created: 10/13/15
3 Areas of Communication Studies 3122012 43100 PM Communication Theory Communication theory is interested in communication within relationships or how individuals communicate with each other There are two general types of relationships relationships of circumstance and relationships of choice Relationships of circumstance are formed because our lives overlap with others in some way eg classmates coworkers teacherstudent salesclerkcustomer etc Relationships of choice are formed because we seek out and intentionally develop the relationship eg friends romantic partners etc In these communication acts communication theory examines the content element of the message what you are trying to communicate to the other person and the relational element of the message how you feel about the other person with whom you are communicating For example the messages I need that report by 5 pm and Would it be possible for you to get that report to me by 5 pm both contain similar content However the first statement is a demand while the second is a request Further the relational element indicates that the person who uttered the first statement has power over the other person while the person who uttered the question is equal to or has less status than the person to who the question is directed Communication theory also looks at the dimensions of relationships trust intimacy and power Trust is the degree to which we feel safe in disclosing personal information to the other person We might feel safe disclosing personal information to our best friend romantic partner or doctor but not so safe revealing that information to a casual acquaintance or a stranger Intimacy refers to the degree to which we can be ourselves in front of the other person and still feel like we will be accepted by the other person no matter what Power refers to the ability we have to get the other person to do what we want them to do eg If you are a parent you may hold the power in the parentchild relationship but your boss may hold the power over you at work There are many different categories within the larger area of communication theory Interpersonal communication examines the communication activity between two individuals such as best friends husband and wife mother and daughter etc Small group communication is interested in how individuals communicate in groups of 315 people such as committees work teams study groups support groups and families Organizational communication is primarily interested in how employees communicate within a work setting concentrating on such aspects as morale productivity and leadership Finally health communication examines communication within the healthcare system eg between doctors and patients nursing staff and health issues regarding elderly individuals It is important to note that these categories are not mutually exclusive Some overlap can and does occur For instance a communication act between a doctor and patient could be considered to fall within the category of health communication but it could also be considered interpersonal communication because it occurs between two individuals o communication with you and other where you have some type of communication relationships romantic friendship family o agent yourself o audience other o message verbalnonverbal used to detect lying o meaning content what we seedo o relational what does that tell us to the relationship Performance Performance highlights the social cultural and aesthetic artistic dimensions of the communication process In his book Folkore Cultural Performances and Popular Entertainments Richard Bauman defines performance as an aesthetically marked and heightened mode of communication framed in a special way and put on display for an audience In essence all communication acts are performative in nature We are always performing even though we may not consciously recognize that behavior as performance eg we perform the role of employee asking the boss for a raise However the most generally accepted definition of performance is the art of communicating a message to an audience via aesthetic or artistic texts There are three key elements of performance performer the human being text the written oral nonverbal or visual message and context the time and place of the communication act as well as the audience composition These elements coincide with the elements of the interactive communication process Just as there are different categories within the area of communication theory there are different categories or genres of performance Everyday Life performance examines how we engage in roletaking and roleplaying In other words it examines how we alter our physical behaviors and verbal actions to take on or play certain roles For example to play the role of waitress and individual would alter appearance by wearing a uniform behaviors taking orders bringing food and drink to customers and language or manner of speaking using phrases such as would you like to hear our specials of the evening Cultural performance looks at performances within a community eg weddings football games Mardi Gras parades etc All cultural performances have certain characteristics in common They are scheduled set up in advance temporally bounded have a definite beginning and ending spatially bounded occur within a particular space such as a church stadium or festival ground programmed contain a structured program of activity publically coordinated people come together to collectively participate heightened aesthetically elaborate and reflexive reflect our social values II In Ethnographic performance an individual observes andor interviews a particular group of people prisoners hurricane survivors etc The individual then scripts those observations or interviews and performs them for an audience Storymaking is another type of performance which focuses on telling stories Within the genre of storymaking there is family storytelling stories family members tell to each other to keep their family history alive oral histories stories passed down orally over time usually involving a particular group of people 911 survivor stories slave narratives etc and personal narratives stories we tell about ourselves Finally the genre of Avantgarde performance sometimes called postmodern performance or performance art uses performance as an instrument of social change It is a rebellious type of performance that seeks to challenge the established social cultural or political order through shock provocation or disturbance o Looks at the aesthetics of communication How is it artistically constructed Don t care about relationshipsifI persuaded someone 0 Agent performer 0 message text o action example mardigras wedding anything that occurs in a cultural place o oral example oral narrative o visual example focus is presented on visual elements color movements living statues o written example plays o audience o spectators watch the performance but you also participate o watching a parade your watching but also participating o Meaning 0 Intentional when I create a performance I have a purpose Perceived the audiences interpretation of what they watched Symbolic occurs when using metaphors or symbolisms Emotional emotional response to what the audience watched O O O Rhetoric While communication theory focuses on relationships and performance focuses on the artistic nature of communication rhetoric explores how messages are created and used to influence and persuade public audiences The message can be a rhetorical act a live event such as a speech or a rhetorical artifact a printed ad newspaper article or photograph There are three primary elements of rhetoric First human beings create messages Second symbols are the medium for these messages Symbols can be words nonverbal behaviors or visual images Third the goal of rhetoric is to persuade andor influence the audience This persuasion can take the form of initiating action eg buy a particular product maintaining action continue to donate money to a particular cause formulating a belief get the audience to believe that something is true or false eg global warming is occurring alter perceptions change the way the audience thinks or feels about something eg antiwar slogans or to aid in understanding to help explain or clarify something eg explain why the government was so slow in responding after Hurricane Katrina In Aristotle s work On Rhetoric he distinguishes between two kinds of truths the truths of natural science those that can be scientifically proven and social truths those that are created by groups of people in society and are dependent upon cultural values Rhetoric is not concerned with the truths of natural science Instead rhetoric focuses on social truths These social truths represent what a group agrees to believe or accept as true Because many different groups exists within the same society there can also be different truths which exist simultaneously within that society eg prolife groups believe that abortion is wrong while prochoice groups believe that women should have the right to choose abortion if they desire Rhetoric is used to help each group prove its truth to others in the society This proof is based upon the credibility of the speaker sender or source of the message ethos the evidence and reasoning that is presented logos and through the use of emotional appeals pathos Thus the area of rhetoric is concerned with the persuasive nature of the communication act rhetoric o agent rhetoric o audience public not a personal relationship o message 0 argumentative rely on factsevidencereasoning o manipulative rely on emotion going to make my audience feel pity guilt anger to make them do something 0 example stjudes ads o meaning look at the practical outcome 0 Example are people buying the product If yes it was practical History amp General Communication 3122012 43100 PM Communication the imparting conveying or exchanging of information via spoken words sounds writing or visual symbols o Agent the individual who is seeking writing or behaving in meaningful ways Features of Communication 1 Communication is a process always on going 2 Communication consists of creating and responding to messages 3 Communication involves adapting to people and the environment o Communication changes environment and different people Visible Aspects of Communication 1 People 2 Symbols c all words are symbols but not all symbols are words o example symbols on word documents 3 Technology Invisible Aspects of Communication 1 Meaning o have to learn o example red light 2 Subjectivity 3 Learning Communication Modes 1 Visual messages sight 2 Auditory messages sound 3 Tactile messages touch 4 Olfactory messages smell 5 Gustatory messages taste The Interactive Communication Process o Message o Source Agent o Encoding how you want to structure a message Channel meansmedium of how your going to transfer the message 0 example how you are going to apologize Audience 0 intended audience 0 side stream listeners a person receive a message that wasn t intended for them Decoding where the person receives the message has to interpret or assign meaning to a message Feedback response to a message Noise interference or detraction 0 External 0 psychological come from inside your head day dreaming o physiological body migraines o organizational problem with the agent or sender of the message 0 semantic Context Environment 0 physical context where we are out location at the time of communicating o chronological context time time of day can impact communication 0 cultural context deals with the cultural backgrounds of the two people communicating with each other where a person is from will impact communication 0 social context deals with the relationship between the two people that are communicating romantic couple friends 0 Shared Meaning the receiver of the message receives the message exactly how the agentsenderintended it The ULTIMATE goal of communicating Agent Communication Theory The Self3122012 43100 PM Position A social label that tells people who we are what are duties and rights are and where we stand in comparison to others o Occupational Positions 0 labels used to identify what job we do example im a student o Family Positions 0 Labels that we use based on placement in the family 0 Example daughter son mother aunt younger sister o Social Positions 0 Anything that s not an occupational or family position 0 Example senior citizen girlfriendboyfriend democrat or republican multimillionaire RLle A set of expected behaviorsthat are associated with a particular position Roles offer behavioral guidelines how we are expected to behave toward others o Roles are Learned 0 We aren t born knowing roles 0 Learn through instruction observation o Roles are General 0 You cant buy a book on how to make guidelines o Roles affect Identity and sense of Self 0 New roles can feel awkward until they get used to it new parents 0 Role Rigidity occurs when you cant see beyond your role and you play it in every interaction army general interacting as a general at home c We play Multiple Roles 0 Role Repertoire consists of all the roles a person plays 0 Role Conflict Occurs when two roles are making opposing demands for you The Self When people ask who am 1 they describe personality traits and various roles they fill along with things they like and don t like about themselves o The Public Self o What others know about us o Private self 0 Part of us that we keep to ourselves Social Identity We conform to social expectations and norms Personal Identity We make our own rules we don t want to be like everyone else o Key to success is to balance social identity and personal identity SelfMonitoring We analyze and adjust our behavior depending upon the social situation like on job interviews o SelfAwareness o the ability to look at yourself as a unique person and to reflect on your feelings thoughts and behaviors 0 We are aware of things that effect our moodwantsdesires o Selfconcept 0 Your overall cognitive image who you are based on you beliefs and values o SelfRegulation 0 We can control our actions and responses 0 Example even if im in a bad mood I will act fine Ways of Understanding the Self o Narrative Self o telling stories that you tell about yourself to shape identity and to let others know who we are c Schemata Self very broad 0 listing all your qualities or characteristics o Behavioral Self 0 Come to know who we are by observing our own patterns of behaviors 0 Example big paper due in English c Relational Self 0 Looks at the type of person you are depending on the other people we interact with 0 Example acting different with different groups of friends Social Comparison Theory c We use others as measuring sticks to see how me measure up to another person affects self esteem Looking Glass Self c We come to know who are through the reflected appraisals from other people we use the comments from other people as a mirror as how we see ourselves Classical Theory of the Sel we re made up of multiple self s that combine to form your selfconcept o Physical Self characteristics of body talents skills o Spiritual Self thoughts feelings beliefs values o Material Self possessions style of clothing collect how apartment is furnished o Social Self personality interactions with others group membership social network Introvertextrovert SelfConcept describes who you are c Real Self your honest positive amp negative 100 accurate description of yourself o Ideal Self The person we would like to be The greater the gap with real self and ideal self the lower the persons self esteem SelfEsteem evaluates who you are whether you like or dislike who you are you reflect on you behaviors how you FEEL about your selfconcept o High selfesteem 0 Usually okay with their qualities and characteristics o Low selfesteem Audience Communication Theory The Other3122012 43100 PM The Otherthe recipient of our messages Social groups share a common set of values and expectations about what behaviors are expected Socialization process through where we learn to be a member of a social group o Primary socialization teaches us our culture language values beliefs o Secondary socializationteaches us how to behave in ways that lets others know that we are members of a certain group social relationships relationships we have with others that are based on our public selves personal relationships relationships with others with whom we share more of our private selves Relational Prototxge ideal model of what our relationships should be like o Natural language label 0 The wordwords you use to describe a relationship best friend mother father neighbor o Criterial attributes o The characteristics or qualities that a relationship must have in order for you classify it into a natural language label 0 Example to be my best friend you have to be trust worthy o Communicative behaviors 0 Look at the behaviors that an individual engages in that demonstrate those particular criterial attributes 0 Example my best friend is trust worthy because they keep my secrets SelfDisclosure process through which we share more and more of our private selves with others o Social Penetration Theory 0 Breadth the numberrange of subjects your able to talk about 0 Depth the level of personally revealing information to what detail are you willing to go into on that subject matter Johari Window model used to talk about self disclosure changes according to circumstances by by Self Self OPEN ARENA BLIND SPOT FA CA DE UNKNOWN Open information that you know about yourself and that your willing to share with another person if your communicating with a waiter the open area will 00 be small Hidden information we know about ourselves but we don39t share that information with other people Blind information that everyone else knows about you but see it in yourself 0 0 Only way you become aware of a habit is by someone else telling you Once you become aware of it it no longer is a part of the blind area 0 Unknownundiscovered self information we do not know about ourselves and that other people do not know about us because it hasn39t been discovered Characteristics of SelfDisclosure Usually occurs in dyads pair 0 rare that you will disclose to large groups Usually symmetrical 0 When one person discloses information another person will Usually occurs incrementally 0 We disclose slowly and in slow amounts o Is relatively scarce we don t disclose every time we have a conversation Guidelines for Appropriate SelfDisclosure o How important is the other person 0 Romantic relation that you want to see progressclose friendship o Is the risk of disclosing reasonable 0 Am I willing to take the risk of telling my friend something purpose o Are the amount and type of disclosure appropriate 0 Matching principle Reciprocity when we are disclosing with another person we should try to match the type of disclose and the depth 0 Premature disclosure Issue with depth of disclosure you reveal information of way to personal nature way to early in the relationship 0 Flooded disclosure Problem with the bredth covering too many topics in too little time conversations with the elderly o Is it relevant to the situation at hand Situation constraintswhat is considered appropriate and effect communication depends on the situation o Situation includes the social and physical environment o Social environmentpeople and roles they are playing o Physical environmentsetting or place of the interaction 4 General Communication Styles Analytical reactive introvert not good talkers or listeners thinkingoriented more comfortable with tasks than people rarely share feelings and emotions Amiable reactive introvert not good talkers but great listeners relationshiporiented more concerned with people than tasks can be very opinionated but may not share thoughts and feelings Driver proactive extrovert great talkers but poor listeners actionoriented specific and to the point no idle chitchat tend to keep emotions to themselves Expressive proactive extrovert great talkers and listeners intuitionoriented very open with emotions and feelings can sometimes go off on tangents Most compatible communication styles 1 DriverAnalytical o neither like to talk about feelings 2 AnalyticalAmiable o neither are big talkers o neither like to reveal deeper thoughtsfeelings 3 AmiableExpressive o expressive are people person that like to draw out information from the amiable o amiable feels more comfortable taking to the expressive because they are less judgmental Least compatible communication styles 1 AnalyticalExpressive o analytical doesn t like to talk expressive will talk them to the ground 2 DriverAmiable 3 DriverExpressive o competition on who can out doout talk the other o expressive likes to go off on a tangent where the driver likes to talk with a purpose Conflictinterpersonal conflict conflict between two people Conflict Categories o Pseudo o Isn t really a conflict appears to be a conflict on the surface But is really just a misunderstanding o Simple o Occurs when individuals disagree on how to reach their goals two people disagree 0 E90 0 Can start as a simple or pseudo conflict becomes a personal attach Namecalling etc can cause damage to relationship Conflict Causes o Content Matters of fact o pseudo conflict about facts who stared in what movie o Individual differences Incompatible goals 0 EX what to do on spring break what color to paint walls o Scarcity of resources 0 Example lack of timespace can be an issue o Inappropriate behaviors 0 Example person being rude to a waiter Resolution Strategies o Deferring nonassertive losewin o Competing aggressive winlose o Compromising nonassertive or assertive loselose o Collaborating assertive winwin 0 Both get what we want doesn t work with every conflict o Bridging assertive neither win nor lose 0 People agree on a 3rd option Non assertive you don t stand up for what you want 6 DESC Scripting for resolving inappropriate behavior conflict o Ddescribe the behavior you feel inappropriate o E explain to the other person how their behavior makes you feel o 5 specify what you would like the other person to do o C consequences Agent amp Audience Rhetoric 3122012 43100 PM The History of Ethics in Rhetoric The Sophists Protagoras o People were paid to teach people how to expresspromote themselves o Very wealthy o Deceptive reasoning you can argue either side equally o Relativism There was no one single truthtruth is relativetruth is whatever you want it to be Socrates disagreed with Protagoras o Believed there was one truth that existed o If you possessed a certain knowledge you should share with everyone for free Plato student of Socrates o Believed there was an ideal truth can obtain that truth through an ideal society 0 Take young boys and develop strength of the bodyathletic until they were 1314 0 Start to develop the mind through the study of philosophy o First to object from Protagoras on moral grounds o Not ok for advertisers to exaggerate not ok for politicians to lie o First to make ethics in rhetoric o Believed truth was obtainable only through knowledge Aristotle o Believed truth was probable but not absolute somewhere between the two extremes o Two kinds of truths 0 Truth of natural science anything that can be proved by science facts Rhetoric doesn t go along with truth of natural science only social truth 0 Social truth created by groups of individuals in a society Truths can change and can have multiple truths that exist in one society Logos facts evidence to support a claim Rhetorconscious instigator of social action o Conscious meaning the rhetor has specific interests and goals and intentionally makes use of the goals By instigator we mean a person whose actions cause other to think different ways By social action we mean that the effects of a rhetors discourse are determined by how they impact the behaviors of other people with respect to some public issue The agent of rhetorical discourse The Ethical Rhetor Present Day Ethics principles for acceptable amp unacceptable behavior guided by our societal value system your ethical value system is the basis for your communication ethics To have ethos a person must have virtrue practical wisdom and goodwill Directly influences the level of trust we place in certain speakers when they address important decisions Determined by the relationship one has to an audience the persuasive potential of the rhetor s character how trustworthy honest or reliable the audience perceives you to be happens over time can change depending on the group of people your speaking to o for the president people in your country could think you have great ethos where as foreign people dont 3 Types of Ethos Initial Ethos credibility that you carry with you before the audience even hears you speak can be based on past reputation or position 0 Studies Study that 3 people were speaking The most reliable person is the most credible the judge o Sponsorship Effect You credibility by the persons who are representing your arguments Getting a celebrity to sponsor your product Derived Ethos where your establishing credibility while your speaking Practical Wisdom Knowledge audience wants to know you know what your talking about Virtue being trustworthy and honest Goodwill perceived caring audience wants to know you have their best interest at heart Identification strategy where you try to form a common bond with the audience you want to show them that you are like them in some way Demographic homophily you have some social or physical characteristics in common same sex Background homophily you and the audience share the same like experience in some way Attitude homophily share the same values beliefs likes or dislikes Distinction speaker has certain training in areas he or she is speaking about Presentation speakers who appear more friendly good delivery skills in control of emotions are more credibly then introverts Terminal Ethos happens after speech has been made when the audience looks back and decides if the speaker is credible or not 0 O O O O 0 Persona the image that the rhetor creates of himherself for the purpose of persuasion means mask Creation of language fiction that the speaker wishes an audience to accept as real Ethos is a result of actions with actual people and persona is just an image May or may not be like the persona they are portraying You can always tell who the persona is without knowing anything about the rhetor When a speaker is unknown creating a persona is necessary to present a good first impression job interviews where as if the speaker is well known and respected there is no need for self promotion o Analysis of persona o 1 isolated interpretation of a particular text 0 2 examining how it generates or modifies a rhetors ethos o 3 by an interpretation of how it influences an audience to accept or reject a rhetors message Interests represent goals or purposes that require the agency of others to bring into being what change you want to initiate o Not just likes or dislikes they are likes and dislikes that a person has an interest in promoting and putting into action and that require corporation from an audience to do so o Personal interest fondness for going to the beach one can do it independently of others and satisfy personal interest 0 When needles come on the beach I love my desire turns into public passion to advocate for environmental regulation 0 Because is now requires support from a public audience it becomes a rhetorical interest o Explicit interest 0 the goal that you want to accomplish what you want the audience to do 0 Should always be able to tell what it is 0 should and ought to statements o Hidden interest the rhetor may have that is not made public 0 propaganda Constraintsobstacles that stand in the way of succeeding o Rhetorical constraints obstacles that must be overcame in order to facilitate bother persuasive and practical effects desired by the rhetor 0 External objects process and events that may physically obstruct any productive action even if persuasion of an audience has occurred anything that might physically obstruct productive action Example if that spening project involves the building of a new rail transit system external constraints might be the hills that surround a city that must be tunneled thtough 0 Internal beliefs attitudes or values that has to be changed in order for persuasion to occur Example convincing a population to support a new spending project usually requires overcoming the skeptical attitudes of the public concerning the efficient of the government programs o Successful retors always consider all possible constraints before creating and delivering rhetorical discourse o Role type of external constraint when a source doesn t have to be person can be an institution prevents you from achieving your goal The Audience o For communication theorists the audience is not some out there but is someone with whom the speaker agent has a relationship for which both parties are responsible c We adapt out audience based on the situation out relationship with the other involved and our knowledge of those others o Audience particular other group of others with whom we are in relationship Types of Audiences o Target Audience specific audience the speaker wishes to address 0 Consists of those individuals who are capable of helping the rhetor achieve his or her goal o Empirical Audience 0 Any individual who is exposed to your message o Evoked Audience 0 Exists only hypothetically hypothetically identity that is being constructed by the mentor 0 We don t always have it o Criticized Audience Polarization 0 We don t always have it 0 Result of polarization 0 two groups of audiences set up to make something look better goodvs evil ex hard working American citizens vs illegal immigrants O O Agent Performance 3122012 43100 PM Everyday Life Performance the performer is a roletaker and roleplayer 4 Components of Performance of Social Roles o Belief in the Part 0 You have to believe in the role your taking on o Social Fronts 0 Setting Scenery and props you need to perform a role 0 Personal Fronts appearance and manner Uniforms dialog 0 Back Region Off stage private area 0 Role Sets All the other people who have to play their roles to make your role possible o Dramatic Realization o In the moment 0 Invisible or deliberately hidden Ex you don t see a teacher picking out videos to show in class o Idealization 0 Ideal of what your role should be 4 Types of Discrepant Roles o The Informer o pretends to be like the other performers to acquire destructive information o eg spies undercover police officers The Shill o pretends to be a member of the audience but is really a performer acting for the benefit of other performers o eg oldtime medicine shows audience member who pretends to be healed by the medicine o The Inspector o pretends to be an audience member but is acting in the audience s interest o eg secret shoppers restaurant critics quality control inspectors o The NonPerson 0 people who are treated by the audience as if they are not there ignored 0 eg people in service roles cab drivers court reporters photographers at weddings Personal Narrativesthe autobiographical stories you tell everyday a way for us to share our life experiences with others can be about anything o 7 Characteristics 0 The events you recount have already taken place 0 The events you recount are for the most part true non fiction The events in your story tend to reveal your personal values shares what you have learned or what insights you have gained The storytelling allows you to form a common bond with the audience the audience can vicariously experience the event You become a character in the stories you tell You characterize other people involved in the stories The narratives follow a basic structure 1 the set up 2 the climax 3 the conclusion Ethnographic Performancethe performer performs the other o tells stories of other people the performer is interested in a group of people that has something in common 0 example someone interview people from new Orleans after Katrina you tape the conversation if you interview 12 people you will perform all 12 Ethical Responsibilities o Since the performer is appropriating or becoming another s voice great care and respect are needed to be true to the other human beings and their storyies o The performer should carefully embody and evoke the other to enable the audience to come closer to the authentic experience of the other AvantGarde Performance 0 O O the performer acts as an instrument of social change the performer uses performance to promote social political or cultural revolution the performer rejects traditional performance conventions plot and characters the performer draws freely on any number of disciplines and media body art poetry music dance painting video etc Audience in Performance 3122012 43100 PM Audience in performance refers to the group of individuals who have assembled to view or take part in a performance o audience can play a variety of roles Spectators v Spectators o Spectators passive audience members who simply view the performance o Spectactors part spectatorpart actor doing both watching a participating in some way 0 Found in cultural performance Cultural Performance o Limited time span o Cultural stage o Organized pattern of activity o Public audience o Aesthetically heightened o EX Weddingsbaby showers Ritualany practice or pattern of behavior regularly performed in a set manner Has integral audiences o EX weddings funerals communions religious practices o Characteristics of Ritual 0 Includes both words utterances and acts actions 0 Invariance fixed structure precise repetition and physical control Spectators Private action integral audience More serious in tone usually Related to central core of life or rite of passage Single in voice controlled meaning Festivala period or program of celebratory activities cultural events or entertainment o usually staged by a local community o offers a sense of belonging for individuals in that community 0 O O O O considered more pagan secular or recreational although may have religious roots examples Mardi Gras Strawberry Festival Film Festivals does not have to use the word festival to be a festival Characteristics of Festival 0 Occur at regulated calendric intervals Celebrates a unique aspect of the community Spectators Public action accidental audience More relaxed in tone Less rigid structure many alternatives for participation Multiple in voice and purpose experiments with meaning 0 O O O O 0 Accidental v Integ ral Audiences Accidental audience public audience that voluntarily comes to see the publically advertised performance 0 Plays and movies integral audience privatized group of people who come to the performance attends because they fell like they should doesn t mean they don t want to go usually invited not publicly open 0 weddingfunerals 0 don t pay to get in o more likely to know more people AccidentalAesthetic 0 traditional performance commercial production usually advertised AccidentalRitual o Observing an ritual but you are not part of it IntegralAesthetic 0 Traditional performance person who has received an invitation IntegralRitual o Rituals that are taking place that we are an important part of WHAT IS COMMUNICATION Definition Communication is the imparting conveying or exchanging of information via spoken words sounds writing or visual symbols Features of Communication 1 Communication is a process a Means communication is always communicating b You can39t not communicate 2 Communication consists of creating and responding to messages a Spoken verbal nonverbal written visual 3 Communication involves adapting to people and the environment Visible Aspects of Communication 1 People 2 Symbols a All words are symbols b Not all symbols are words 3 Technology Invisible Aspects of Communication 1 Meaning a The way we interpret things b We assign meaning 2 Subjectivity a Refers to the fact that words and symbols can mean different things to different people b Connotative meaning 3 Learning a Meaning is a result of learning b Learn to interpret symbols Communication Modes 1 Visual messages sight a Texts 2 Auditory messages sound a Alarm cloc 3 Tactile messages touch a Hot coffee 4 Olfactory messages smell a Biscuits cooking 5 Gustatory messages taste a Tasting bitter coffee The Interactive f 39 inn Process 1 Message a Idea you want to share with someone else 2 Source Agent a Person sending the message 3 Encoding a Have a message to send ex Apologizing agent has to send apology to friend rst need to encode the message decide how you want to construct the message what words b Word choices nonverbal behaviors 4 Channel a Medium used to transmit the message 5 Audience person receiving the message a Can also be heard by unintended audience and side stream listeners a Person receives the messages a How the audience responds to your message 6 Decoding 7 Feedback 8 Noise a Any distractions through the channel b Something you see or hear HH V i 1139 iv External deals with the environment Psychological deals with the mind ex Zoning out being stressed out Physiological something within the body ex Migraine hunger Organizational the fault of the agent or sender of the message ex Speaker is unorganized tells long stories tangents Semantic a breakdown in communication that39s usually due to a language barrier ex Unfamiliar word 9 Context Environment referred to as the environment four different types a physical context looks at the physical location of where you are at the time of communication and how that affects the amount or type of communication b chronological context how time can impact communication time of day c cultural context looks at cultural backgrounds semantic noise language barrier d social context looks at the social relationship between the people communicating friends interact differently than coworkers or boss and employee interact 10 Shared Meaning a Ultimate goal of any active communication b The message sent and received would be the exact same c No misunderstandings


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