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by: Gaetano Price


Gaetano Price
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Jean Edwards

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Jean Edwards
Class Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gaetano Price on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CMST 4119 at Louisiana State University taught by Jean Edwards in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see /class/222695/cmst-4119-louisiana-state-university in Communication Studies at Louisiana State University.

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Date Created: 10/13/15
Final notes Expression of Emotion Categorical theories propose that there is fixed number of basic emotions and each individual emotion us unique and is different from other emotions 6 basic emotions happiness anger disgust fear sadness surprise Dimensional theory propose there are common factors that underlie the emotions that we have labels for 3 dimensions come from a study of language 1 Dominance submissive 2 Pleasure unpleasant 3 Arousal non arousal Emotions are expressed primarily through the face communication of emotion 55 face 38 voice7words and only applies when there is a conflict bw codes and this formal applies to adults Young children do not follow this pattern they tend to rely on words more than they rely on face and voice Affect blends combo of emotions we combine surprise with happiness sadness with anger People who are unable to control their emotions we think there is something wrong with them In everyday life our face expression does not express emotion To know how a person is feeling we rely more on the words than on the face expression The voice Vocal ques 1 Speech rate how fast a person is talking words or syllables per minute Our impressions of people who talk really slow is they are un intelligent and less competent Faster speech within the normal rage is more creditable The average is 200300 syllable a minute 125 words per minute we want slower speech when we are unfamiliar with a topic or if the topic is very intiment Iquot PS 5quot Pauses response latency the time that it takes for one person to speak after the first person stop speaking Less than a second the average response latency Intensity loudness associated with credibly impressions dominance Talk duration how much a person talks we value talk people who talk more are perceived more positively than people who don t talk much at all Vocal type quality of a persons voice One type of voice is breathy voice quotmaralin Monroe voice sexy attractive for females Thin voice associated with weakness Nasal voice voice is associated with personality Speech accommodation theory conversational management When we are interacting with another person we make adjustments and integrate so conversation will go back and fourth Accent patter person speech is associated with social class and geography when we communicate with another person from a different group we either keep and emphasize or adjust our behavior 2 things 1 Convergence occurs when we adjust our speech so its more similar to the others persons speech example talking southern People are more likely to converge when they want efficient language and converge for social approval we want to other person to like us Concerns with Social norms enauthenticity seeming fake or going overboard Divergence emphasize our original speech patterns maintain your own speech style making a point Example the mother who correctly says something like quotacornquot hyper pronounce it occurs when we want to influence the other person to adapt to our norms when we are emphasizing the fact that we are from different groups north vs south Regulation of interactionrefers to how we use our nonverbal to manage turn taking in conversation and a lot of it is vocal que and gestures This is a skill people who are good at it are much more successful communicators we learn it in infancy Monday June 252012 Effects of Vocal Cues Vocal Cues Voice Speech rate how fast a person is talking iewordssyllables per minute o Faster speech within the normal range isperceived as credible o Syllables per minute 197324 0 WPM125250 0 Correlation between perceived rate of speech andperceived intelligence Texas had fastest speech Minnesota had slowestspeech It could be that there is no difference and justthat southern speech sounds slower eg drawing out vowels 0 Sometimes the context determines the desiredlevel of speech eg slow speech is preferred in weddings funeral intimatetopics Pauses many pauses are response latencies iethe time from when one person finishes speaking and when another begins 0 Usually there is about 13rd of asecond response latency between persons 0 When there is a long response latency usuallyan indication person is trying to figure out something Intensity loudnessassociated with credibilityimpressions of extraversion sociability dominance Talk duration how much a person talks 0 We value talk and people who talk a lot People who talk a lot are perceived as morepositive Vocal type characteristicsfeatures of aperson s voice 0 Several perceptions of personality based onvoice 0 Certain personality types tend to have certainvoices Speech Accommodation Theory Howie Giles conversationalmanagement When interacting with others we makeadjustments adapt our communication style He observed that several people in Gr Britain havevery strong accent patterns 0 Accent pattern is reflective of geographiclocation and social class 0 Observed what happens when two people withdif ferent accent patterns interact o Focused on paralinguisticvocalic behaviors We can adjust our behaviors or keep ourbehaviors ie convergence amp divergence 0 Convergence adjust speech so that it s moresimilar to the other person s speech They do it when they want efficientcommunication Do it for social approval eg forming rapportwith others Social norms must permit it ie The Queenwould never talk to coal miner in their dialect and vice versa Issues with authenticityperceived as faking it o Divergence emphasize our original speechpatterns Make a pointemphasize somethingour own accentpattern The mother who correctly says something tocorrect childshe hyperpronounces it Do it when we want others to converge with usalso do it when we emphasize where we re from in 39 39 39 39 r rather than interpersonal o r Regulation of Interaction The ability to regulate interaction is a skill Ta rget effects Mothers will changealter their voice for babiesusebaby talk We adapt our style to another person Depersonalization Chap 12 nonverbal behavior Immediacy the degree of directness and intensity of interaction between two people The more immediate the communicators is the more positively the communication is decoded Touch is positive for example during a fight when you are making up the touch is powerful Equalibriam theory people seek an intimacy level that comfortable for them quotexpectancyquot refers to what is predicted to occur rather than what is desired context cultural norms for proximity relationship similarities liking type of relationship you have with someone will determine the expectancy Communicator characteristics age sex physical characteristics Valencing violating our expectations high reward communicator violate our expectations in a positive way example low reward communicator violate our expectations in a negative way Deception process where were conveying false information It is a social skill we learn to lie over time so children are really bad liars in general good communicators are good liars Its also a social skill in that we encourage people to lie Animals also engage in deception opossum play dead butterflies have the eyes on their wings Commission actively engaged in deceiving Omission let someone else believe a falsehood bc we want them too bc we know its not true Ex People act differently when they are lying then when they are telling the truth bc of 2 things that occur with deception l arousal when you have to lie you become more aroused you are more focused quot cognitive load observe greater mental effort when you are engaged in deception then when you are telling the truth you have to search your memory bank and come up with something else to say and come up with the lies that go along with it Detection of deception Demeanor bias some ppl we believe are more truthful than others Type 1 deception very mild the time duration is very brief Type 2 deception high stakes deception creates a lot of anxiety severe consequences you have to repeat the lie and come up with more lies over time Hard to see signs of type 2 deception people foam at the mouth dry mouth bit their lip having a clamey hand shake wrapping feet around chair licking lips Non verbal indicators of deception The voice you look for longer pauses both before and during the lie and higer pitch Smiling ppl tend to smile when the lie has been successful More hand movements more adapters and self touching the eyes more blinking and pupil dilation Sex differences in nonverbal behavior Codes physical appearance and attractiveness more important for women than men Women perceive other women in terms of their attractiveness more than men judge each other Body movements gestures women use more emblems women use more palms up gestures which conveys uncertainty Posture men have more expansive posture sit with their knees farther apart women keep close to themselves Responsiveness degree to which we adapt to our partner nonverbally Men don t adapt to their partners nonverbally Women adapt to male partners they don t adapt to female Female accommodates her role to adapts to the man s role Facial expression women are better decoders and encoders of facial expressions Women have more complete smiles they smile more than men A smile in women is almost base line so smiles in men are perceived more genuine bc men don t smile a lot so we think he s truly happy when he smiles When women smile it s not as genuine bc women smile all the time Women even smile when they are giving criticism Even in babies if the baby is smiling we think it s a girl Eye behavior women use more gaze and look more when they are speaking Proximises women have closer conversation distance then men and we approach women more closely and are more comfortable with other women approaching us Territory women more likely to yield space Men and women approaching each other on a side walk they women will move to the side not the man Touch famine behavior women give and receive more touch more positive interpretations of touch Voice and vocalic males have lower pitch voices even before puberty Women have higher pitch voice and when you smile it makes the voice more high pitch Exam review chap 8 Role of touch in non verbal communication Touch across the life span types of touch factors that influence the amount of touch the meaning of touch chap 9 Facial expression role of emotions 6 basics emotions conveying emotions facial management facial styles chap 10 Eye behavior gaze mutual gaze inverted gaze sex differences pupil dilation chap 11 Role of the voice characteristics rate and volume and conversational management speaker recognition vocal cues and personality chap 12 and 13settings of nonverbal educational settings immediacy cues expectancy violation theory adverstising the function of sex diff in advertising deception regulation of interaction sex differences power and status in chap cues in eyes or touch Faceism larger portion of the picture is the face Ex go through a bunch of pics through the news paper of presedintail candidates In lots of obama pics we see face and shoulders 60 is face is the fac ism score Picof Romney standing at podium is facism score is 20 The higher the facism score the more positive the representation of the person was Stimulus pic of emotions created by asking actors to pose facial expression we are really good at noticing acted facial expression not recognized very well in everyday life we don t really express emotion Prosody Word for vocal ques the vocalic part of speaking Tie signs chap 8 on touch touches we give to an intement friend or partner that we go in public like a hug hand and hand a hand shake Dimensions of culture 3 ways cultures differ from one another s Physical closeness latin American cultures are high cultures they stand close to each other 1High or low contact 2High or low context degree to which we all operate on the same assumtions with the same values and beliefs or are we heterogeneous in a high we all share same beliefs we don t have to talk much A low context we have to talk a lot explain justify bc the other person may not know our reason unless we explain it US is very low 3 Individualistic vs collectavlistic individually focus on the individual see them succeeding on their own hold them responsible for what happens draw attention to ourselves by clothing cars houses Collectivism is the community we down play our individualism we don t want to stand out Target effects chap 11 When you are speaking you will adapt your vocal cues to the person you are speaking too If you are talking to a baby or elderly people or people who are mentally impaired you would use a higher pitch voice and motherly style


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