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by: Ms. Jerry Mante


Ms. Jerry Mante
GPA 3.81

A. Gratch

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A. Gratch
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ms. Jerry Mante on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CMST 3041 at Louisiana State University taught by A. Gratch in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see /class/222700/cmst-3041-louisiana-state-university in Communication Studies at Louisiana State University.

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Date Created: 10/13/15
CMST 3041 Final Exam Study Guide Chapter 5 vanGennep s rites of passage vs Tumer s ritual and communitas Symbolic vs literal 0 Van Gennep describes and explains the significances of Rites of Passage in three ways 1 Ordered in a typical recurring pattern separation transition and incorporation 7 of the individual from their environment marked by liminality and into a new groupstate then back into their environment respectfully 2 Transition as the stage that orients and enables the other two territorial passage which involve physical space that are not just symbols of movement 0 Sought to explain the structures that move people between life stages groups and social stations which safe travel is always about thresholds movement and territory 0 Turner built on van Gennep s liminal stage in the rite of passage to argue for a more encompassing notion of liminality the betwixt and between to include categories of people and public places Communitas is a sense of sharing and intimacy that develops among persons who experience liminality as a group and is considered to be 0 Normative characterized by we feelings a loyalty to the group 0 Existential differences in status are diminished and dissolved o Spontaneous shared ow of action and awareness not governed by outside rules How is culture semiotic o Geertz argues that culture is semiotic systems of meaning signification and symbol use are central to both patterned conduct and individual frames of mind Culture is a symbolic system unique to humans in which meanings are publicly shared and collective property of a group 0 human behavior is symbolic action 7 action which signifies Know the different approaches to studying culture 0 Four contemporary approaches to studying culture 1 Subjective approach focuses on beliefs attitudes and values held by individuals mental states 0 Culture conceived as mental constructions approach used to measure attitudes values etc Structural approach seeks out the patterns and rules that hold culture together structures 0 Looks for symbolic boundaries evident within a culture created in language and how the boundaries among cultural elements are maintained and changed Dramaturgical approach focuses on the expressive or communicative properties of culture social relations 9 N 9 o Seeks to explore the dramatic ordering of social life not as information but for the ways that rituals ideologies and other symbolic acts dramatize the nature of social relations 4 Institutional approach culture studied by structuralists to the moral order studied by dramaturgists to explore the organizations that constitute culture institutions 0 Require resources and in uence the distribution of these resources across members of their culture There is a fth critical model of interpretation and power caked the dialectical approach which studies culture as heterogeneous dynamic and contested 0 Approach accepts that human nature is probably both creative and deterministic relationship between culture and communication is both reciprocal and contested Huizinga s definition of play it s more important to remember what play does and is rather than the specific definitions he gives 0 Play is inde nable is the notion of fun that can t be reduced because of totality 0 Characteristics of play are play Voluntary freely chosen Steps out of real ordinary life and into a temporary sphere of activity with a disposition all its own a pretend world Creates its own limits of time and place become traditional if repeated Nothing is produced no material gains Creates its own rulesagreed by all and adhered by all Promotes secrecy and social groups N1 994 Homo Performansand the performance turn in the study of culture 0 Performance turn is enabled by 1 Van Gennep srites of passage 2 Huizinga s characteristics of play 3 Singer s characterization of cultural performance I Performances are legitimate objects to study and can also be the entry point for studying culture Performancecentered approach enables four features of culture to be highlighted l Processtransacted through performance 2 Play how cultural structures are changed in performance genres 3 P0eticsconstructedness of culture 4 Power viewpoints and voices which are articulated Turner sought to humanize the study of culture as performance by conceiving of humans as performers Homo performansselfperforming animal in which his performances reaveal himself to himself Dialogic performance and the responsibilities of studying and performing culture including the negative approaches Conqiergood outlined four performative stances or ethical pitfalls in studying and performing the other Dialogic Performance is a performative stance which struggles to bring together different voices world views value systems and beliefs so that they can have a conversation with one another Identity H Custodian s Rip Off Enthusiast s Infatuation 5 Sel shness Dialogical Super ciality E Plagiarism Performance Singles bar cruising g Skeptic s Cop Out Genume Curator s Exhibitionism 63 Cynicism conversation Sensationalism Q Stoney silence Tourists stare Difference I Custodian Rip off done so to preserve dying cultures I Enthusiast s Infatuation trivializes the other I Curator s Exhibitionism exotic and remote in order to shock audiences Skeptic s Cop Out members of dominant groups with privileged refusal o Characterized in four ways it falls between competing ialeologiesidentitydifference and detachment and commitment and brings them together while also holding themapart as an examination of identity and difference of our priori assumptions about culture as dialogue with performance with others that resist speaking to and for others as dialogue which performanceresistsconclusions begins conversation 1quot Equot Equot 5 Chapter 6 Progression from Enlightenment t0 modernity t0 post modernity ch 7 particularly in relation to the self and the notion of Truth 0 Enlightenment is the thought that what we present to the world is what we are I self is whole stable and fixed by means of reason because of a universal truth 0 Modernism is when you start getting into social psychology and what you present to people isn t just what you put on for the world I Pursuit of progress the objective rationality of science and consumerism 7 how is self a product of both others and society 0 Post modernismis the notion that there are external factors at play that determine who we are I Rejections of self grand narratives and referential language because who you are is always shifting De nition of a role 0 The notion of a role am emergent self draws from three things only humans create 1 Language human experience learned through interaction with others 2 Role playtaking on roles not oneself mother father doctor etc 3 Games understanding a constellation of others all playing by sets of rules maumulumg Cynical performance vs sincere performance 0 A cynicalperformance is a show for the audience while a sincere performance is a heartfelt and honest expression of to the audience which seem natural According to Goffman all communicative interactions can be approached as performances that move betweencynicism and sincerity to help explain the motives of individuals and the range of resources available to create the performance FrontstageBackstage 0 Front region behaviors have standards of politeness how to treat audience and decorum how to act in nonverbal ways and tend to treat each oter formally 0 Back regions are places where front region performers prepare for their roles where front region performances are knowingly contradicted hierarchies disappear formalities are dropped etc 7 still are maintained by rules of behavior 0 Ex Swinging door between restaurant kitchen and the dining room Rules of social performances ie how you know the rules when to follow them and when to break them 0 Successful team performances are composed of two relationship bonds of 1 Reciprocal dependence to maintain a given definition of the situation before an audience 2 Reciprocal familiarity formal relationship which team members are in the know 0 Accidents reveal the underlying rules and regulations of social performances which we take for granted or are unaware of The purpose of impression management 0 coined by Goffman to describe the constant negotiation between avoiding performance disruptions and possessing positive attributes as to how individuals create successful performances it is an art which the personality of the individuals the interaction created among individuals and the socialstructure of the context and culture all determine just how performance disruptions are managed There are five techniques used to manage impression management Dramaturgical loyalty act as if moral obligation of being a team member results in group solidarity 2 Dramaturgical discipline control of face and voice necessary poise Dramaturgical circumspection prudence foresight and care for performance re exive about choices 4 Protective practicesways to save the show when something goes wrong rescue others 5 Tactale1tness of cues of mistake impressions must counteract Stigma as performed interaction 0 Concept of stigma as thecentrality of performance Stigmais a special kind of relationship between attributes and stereotypes best understood in performed interactionnot stereotypic attributes E 0 Three categories 1 Physical deformities 2 Negative personality characteristics of badinappropriate behavior 3 Tribal stigmas based on race amp ethnicity Chapter 7 How post modernism responds tocritiques modernity 0 Its is a three prong attack on the reigning ideas of the Enlightenment period 1 Maintains there is no self that is whole stable and knowable to self and others self is fragmented multiple and shifting 2 Critiques grand or master narratives that describe explain and predict the world knowledge and truth are always local contingent historical and political 3 Critiques the View that language can represent the world through direct correspondences between words and the things they stand for I This approach to language deconstructs the ontoone relationship between words signifiers and things signified Performativity Project 1 choreography and scripts 0 Scripts memorized rehearsed and enacted in traditional theater are the starting places for interpretation and pait of an ongoing history of the theatre Choreography is the tradition of codes and conventions through which meaning is constructed in dance I Codes and conventions embody gender which re ects cultural vales that are structured embedded and practiced by individuals I Is a rich term for performativity bodies in movementsocial relationships etc Performativity Project 2 difference between mimicry and character and performative statements 0 Mimicry is the uneasiness we have about seeing difference displayed 7 it is not character 0 Character lives in the gap between the real person and an attempt to seem like that person speaks with eloquent authority Performativity Project 3 performance as staking 0 Building off the idea the performance is a complex interplay among faking making and breaking performativity adds a forth stance performance as staking o Opens up new possibilities for understanding identity as a claim to selfhood with agency to work with and against dominant structures and ideologies Chapter 8 Strategies vs tactics 0 Strategies produce tabulate and impose structural places of power institutionally structured power rules and regulations of institutions governments and organizations o Tactics use manipulate and divert those spaces bodily practices of real people that create space in between around and through these structures rules and regulations Dramatic vs epic theatre o Dramatic theatre works to create a reality that unfolds before our eyes and generate emotional identi cations between audiences and performers o Epic theatre works to create a criticaldistance among the world of the performance the performers and the audiences which audiences are encourages to evaluate the action as it relates to the world around the play 0 Dramatic theatre aims to entertain and to arouse emotion epic theatre appeals to reason and teaches the audience to think in new ways How is performance bound by social and historical contexts yet at the same time continually changing Critical consciousness vs real action 0 Critical consciousness is the right to think for yourself while delegating power to a spectator 0 Real action is that which the spectator becomes the performer and changes the action itself The limits of carnivalesque protest o Camivalesque protest carry ludic play elements of culture into the political arena and employ strategies of carnival to utilize humor to make very serious statements 0 the limitations camivalesque protest is that not all audiences ge the humor and critique offered 0 be careful with open ended playful techniques and if aimed at a general audience require a clear and controlled message that strategically fixes meaning Repressive power vs productive power 0 Repressive power is the power to silence wound and punish which is feared and has the potential to abuse the individual 0 Is I Power acquiredseized I Power is enacted amp enforced by law I Power divides people from top down I Power is locatedheld by in speci c groups I Power is oppressive o Productive power operates not by right but by teachnique not by law but by normalization not by punishment but by control 0 Is Power is not seized but exercised in relations Power is produced in and among relationships Power is not oppositional linked together in micropolitics Power relations are intentional but not invented Power is constituted


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