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by: Gaetano Price


Gaetano Price
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M. Applin

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M. Applin
Class Notes
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gaetano Price on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CMST 2060 at Louisiana State University taught by M. Applin in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see /class/222703/cmst-2060-louisiana-state-university in Communication Studies at Louisiana State University.

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Date Created: 10/13/15
Thomas Kelly Informative Speech Outline General Purpose To inform Speci c Purpose To inform the audience about the advantages and disadvantages of the legalization of marijuana Intro Recently a close friend of mine went out on a date with a beautiful girl My friend claimed she is quite relaxing and you will be on the ground rolling in laughter Her name is Mary Jane Hello my name is Thomas Kelly and I am here to inform you about the advantages and disadvantages to the legalization of marijuana Marijuana is considered the gateway drug but how much do we really know about this memorizing herbal essence I Basic background about the drug marijuana A According to The Office of National Drug Control marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States with nearly 17 million using it daily 1 12 and older reporting past month use and 374000 people entering an emergency room annually with a primary marijuana problem 2 National Survey on Drug Use and Health past month marijuana use among 12 to 17 year olds climbed 9 percent 11 Advantages to the Legalization A A CBS news poll found that more Americans now support legalization 1 Federal excise taxes collected on alcohol in 2007 totaled around 9 billion states collected around 55 billion Combined these amounts are less than 10 percent of the estimated 185 billion in alcohol related costs to health care criminal justice and the workplace in lost productivity B According to the White House there is 20 states that have legalized marijuana 1 California Colorado and more 2 According to Healthcare gov medical marijuana has madetremendous strides in the relieving of symptoms of chemotherapy 3 Recently the Advocate did an article on Georgia decriminalizing marijuana III Disadvantages to Legalization of marijuana The Office of National Drug Control Policy of Americaconsiders marijuana the most psychologically addictive drug 1 Marijuana use is associated with dependence respiratory and mental illness poor motor performance and impaired cognitive and immune system functioning among other A negative effects According to The Drug Policy of America marijuana intoxication can cause distorted perceptions difficulty in thinking and problem solving and problems with lea1ning and memory 1 Research has shown marijuana smoke to contain carcinogens and to be an irritant to the lungs Marijuana smoke in fact contains 50 70 percent more carcinogenic hydrocarbons than tobacco smoke Conclusion As we can see there are many advantages and disadvantages to the legalizing of marijuanaJust reiterate marijuana helps relieves symptoms of chemotherapy states are either decriminalizing or legalizing marijuana and it also helps in the taX revenues towards the United States Now again marijuana is the most psychologically addictive drug and causes a major impairment to the human body With all these advantages and disadvantages to the legalizing of marijuana its up to you to decide on to legalize such a strong substance or keep it illegal Thank you very much for listening Sources 1 2 3 httpwwde uoliCVm maquot 39 quot quot httpWWW quot 39 Vondc J yfactsl httpwwwcbsnewscom2741204 162664htm1 and mm C I II Final Exam Notes Visual Aids A Advantages 0 Makes speech more memorable o Helps establish authenticity o Improves credibility 0 Improve your delivery 0 Can add variety and interest to speech B Disadvantages 0 Can distract the listeners 0 Also distract the speaker 0 Can also reduce eye contact 0 Can hurt credibility if you do aterrible job 0 Takes time to prepare 0 Availability of equipment C Different types of visual aids o A person 0 Objects 0 Model a small scale to represent something bigger o Cutaway when you remove something so you can see inside of it 0 Graphics sketches and drawings 0 Map not too much detail 0 Photos don t pass around 0 Flip charts news print 0 Handouts recipes for classmates Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs Self actualization Esteem Lovebelongin g nuw r39 hum wupmyme V 39 1 2 rmtu lhe hunt lvcamv mupEquoty Physiological III IV V Language Style WP JUOUJCD Q 92 Important to understand the use of phrases It takes more words to say something than to write it Jerry Tarver Spoken language can affect the order of ideas Anastrophe the unusual arrangement of words or clauses within a sentence Rhythm deals with ow of words Figures of speech will connect sentences by emphasizing the relationships among ideas and be repeating key sounds to establish a pleasing rhythm o Anaphora repeating of same word or phrase at the beginning of successive sentences or clauses o Epistrophe involves repeating of a word or expression at the end of phrases causes or sentences 0 Alliteration repeating of initial sounds of a series of words 0 Antithesis involves the use of contrast to make a rhetorical point 3 research shows if you repeat something three times then the audience will remember it Use language to communicate rather than impress Avoid language that means nothing Obfuscation the use of obscure and confusing language that makes it harder to understand rather than clarify K Euphemisms inoffensive words or phrases substituted for better language L Jargon technical terminology make sure to define M Eliminate unnecessary words N Be direct avoid abstract 0 Don t exaggerate or use cliches P Follow rules of written language most of the time Q Avoid profanity and slang as a general rule R Use vivid language 0 Metaphors to understand one kind of thing in terms of another 0 Imagery vivid mental pictures 0 Similes create images as they compare two unlike things using like as Humor A It will make speeches more memorable over a longer period of time B Only use humor if you are funny C Laugh at yourself rather than at others D Knowing how to handle humor if no one laughs Delivery A It can affect your credibility as a speaker B Manuscript Speaking read speech to audience C Memorization of Speech certain occasions like a toast or winning an award D EXtemporameous Speaking research outline note cards and shooting for a conversation delivery style E Impromptu Speaking no control no note cards don t know topic VI How Sound is Produced Pitch highest and lowest of a sound Rate of Speed 120160 words per average per minute Interpret 300 words per minute Pauses usually from one topic to another Pregnant Pause builds up suspense Padding annoying verbal words where there should be a pause Dialect accents many different types all over the world Midwestern Speech most popular dialect 1 Articulation Problems the failure to produce the sounds of words properly usually just lazy J Mispronunciation the result of not knowing how to pronounce a word Hmommpowgt VII Persuasive Speech 6 min long 530 7 7 Orally site 5 sources Acknowledge the opposition Visual aids optional Works cited page with outline Make 4 persuasive aims TUFI39JUOUJCD 0 Adoption audience isn t doing anything so you want to adopt them to do something 0 Continuance audience is doing it and you want them to continue it o Discontinuance they are doing it and you want them to stop 0 Deterrence they aren t doing it and you want to make sure they don t start doing it VIII Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs A Types of Reasoning o Inductive generalizes through speci c examples and we draw conclusions from what we observe It moves us from speci c to the general in an orderly fashion 0 Deductive you draw conclusions based on the connections that will serve as premises I EX AB BC therefore AC I Syllogism often used in deductive reasoning IX Bonus 4 points A Custom of Toasting began with Vikings Norsemen and Greeks lifting up their glasses in honor ofthe GLds Chapter 6 Ethos Ethos Greek for quotcharacterquot the capacity to influence an audience based on audience s perceptions of the credibility and character of the speaker n relationship to their own interests and values Inherited ethos the actual reputation that a rhetor quotcarries with them because of an audience s acquaintance with past behavior Persona rhetorical creation constructed ethos that a rhetor creates of him or herself within the confines of a particular rhetorical text always tied to a specific discourse Personal stories narrations of one s life experience that provide insight into the speaker s character Form of delivery reveals character by using phrases words accents or gestures commonly associated with certain quottypesquot of person Four recurring personae o Apologist employed when the speakers wish to rebuff attack by appearing the virtuous victim of an unjust action 0 Agent speaks on behalf of some institution as a spokesperson of legitimate authority allows them to speak quotfor othersquot thus allowing them to quotstand up to opposition in the name of a community 0 Partisan one who represents not a group or institution but an ideology or ideal tends to thrive in heated debates in times of turmoil and upheaval when people are looking for new directions based on new ideas 0 Hero defined by his or her personal character particularly as it relates courage commitment to action and a romantic attachment to a vague but inspiring future may not have a coherent political vision or a workable idea but make up for these limitations by boldly striding into the unknown against all obstacles in the optimistic faith that things will work out in the end Evoked Audience attractive image that the rhetor constructs of and for the audience in order to encourage them to act according to that image partly fictional identity that usually oversimplifies the actual diversity and character of people listening to a speech often what a rhetor WANTS an audience to be rather than what they ARE Identi cation the strategy of creating a common bond with an audience by drawing parallels between the characteristics of speaker and audience 0 Persona of rhetor is aligned with the evoked audience Distinction the attempt to establish credibility by the possession of special knowledge the kind of knowledge one receives by learning technical discourses and procedures such as the knowledge one receives from attending university andor unique experience that are superior to the audience 0 Persona of the rhetor stands apart from the evoked audience Polarization the strategy of dividing an audience into a positive quotusquot and a negative quotthemquot in order to create unity through difference Diatribe a speech whose only function is to provoke an audience to selfreflection by directly attacking and ridiculing its most valorized conventions values attitudes and beliefs Chapter 7 Logos Logos refers to the use of rational arguments and evidence to persuade an audience of the reasonableness of one s position based on the belief that human beings are rational with the potential to make decisions based on logic principles and evidence Logistical Reasoning the use of inferences and profess to establish relationships between propositions which warrant specific conclusions Reasoning consists primarily of the relationship between three things Claim the primary position or conclusion being advanced by a speaker Grounds the supporting evidence for the claim Warrant the inferential leap that connects the Claim with the Ground usually embodied in a principle provision or chain of reasoning usually left unstated in the assumption the audience can quotfill in itquot for themselves by drawing from such resources as social judgment public opinion convention values beliefs or attitudes o Backing a reason used to justify the Warrant C Rebuttal acknowledges the conditions where the Claim may not hold 0 Quali cation admits to the degree of certainty or confidence that the speaker has in the Claim Generalization warrants drawing a general conclusion about a class of people events objects or processes based on specific examples drawn from experience Analogy warrants the comparison of two things that might not otherwise go together for the purposes of drawing a conclusion based on their sharing a similarity Sign warrants the diagnosis of some underlying condition based on the appearance of external clues or indicators similar to generalization insofar as it draws a general conclusion based on the analysis of particular things Causation warrants a practical conclusion based on the likely effects brought about by some underlying cause quotifthenquot statements Principle warrants judging the character of some particular object event or process based on a universal belief or definition Logical Fallacies represent not only the failure for a Warrant to successfully bridge the Claim and the Grounds but a failure of construction so egregious that the whole argument tumbles into the abyss EitherOr presents audiences with a stark choice by presenting two clear but completely opposite and incompatible alternatives based on excessive exaggeration of good and bad qualities removes any possibility of middle ground Slippery Slope fallacy exaggerates the series of inevitable and terrible consequences that will follow from performing some action Bandwagon form of argument that encourages an audience to do something simply because a majority of other people is doing it Ad Hominem argumentative strategy that undermines an opposing position by attacking the personal character of its advocates rather than the position itself attacks an opponent s ethos and makes the arguments of that opponent appear to lack credibility False Cause fallacy a strategy of attributing causes or effects based on one s immediate desires or fears rather than an objective study of the process Scapegoating fallacy occurs when the cause of undesired effects is attributed falsely to a marginalized group of people who are generally powerless to defend themselves Red Herring named for the use of a dead fish to throw dogs off a trail the attempt by a rhetor to distract attention from an issue unpleasant to oneself by focusing one s attention on something unrelated more sensational and more beneficial to one s selfinterest Non Sequitur Latin for l39it does not followquot a statement that has no apparent connection with the statement that came before or come after it Narrative Rationality a dramatic story that creates a desire in an audience and then fulfills that desire by describing the interaction among agent scene act purpose and agency 0 Narrative fidelity refers to how accurately a narrative represents accepted facts 0 Narrative probability refers to the coherence of the narrative as a story apart from the actual facts The most effective narrative from a rhetorical standpoint should have both high narrative probability AND high narrative fidelity One way of distinguishing logical reasoning from narrative rationality is to compare ideology to myth Chapter 8 Pathos Pathos refers to the use of emotional appeals to persuade an audience by putting them in a certain frame of mind that makes them more willing to act in one way instead of another Emotions related to rhetoric can be formed into attractive and repulsive orientations to four categories of things 0 People represent both individuals and groups Saint or Sinner 0 Actions refer to the conscious behavioral choices made by people Virtue or Vice 0 Events stand for timebound situations that have a beginning and end Utopia or Wasteland o Objects represent coherent and durable entities that tend to resist change and have on an 39 Idol or quot39 Utopia a vision of a perfect event is to use the power of an ideal to reveal the limitations of one s actual situation and inspire hope that future quotperfectquot events will occur Wasteland portrays a horrific event that repels an audience from current or future social conditions 0 Can be used to motivate to action by portraying one s current situation as so terrible as to be intolerable 0 Can be used to inhibit a path of action much as the Slippery Slope fallacy functions in logic Virtue attracts us to certain concrete actions by investing them with moral and practical value Vice a strategy which repels us from certain concrete actions by making them morally offensive andor practically harmful Saint portrays particular individuals or groups in a positive light in order to make them role models for other people to follow Sinner another person or group is portrayed in a negative light in order to make them repellent to an audience Idol the attempt to invest an object with such attractive qualities that audience seek to possess or preserve them Abomination the attempt to make an object seem so repellent that an audience ignores shuns discards or destroys it Chapter 9 Style Style a sense of aesthetic wholeness that carries with it a clear and powerful meaning is present when all of a speech s parts form together into a concrete whole in such a way that is fitting with the occasion and which carries an audience from expectation to fulfillment during the course of the delivery 0 As Figure is associated with the particularly eloquent turns of phrase examples or visualizations 0 As Form is associated with the entire feel of the speech experienced as a unified work of art Meaning stand in a functional andor referential relationship to other things 0 Rhetorical meaning thus represents how words gestures and actions acquire practical significance through the interaction of symbolic and situational contexts o Denotative meaning the quotlitera its contextual use Iquot reference of a word that is most universally associated with o Connotative meaning the emotional judgment of attraction or repulsion that is associated with the denoted object event process concept action or person 0 Associative meaning the spectrum of secondary denotative and connotative meanings that an audience associates with the primary object of reference 0 Practical meaning the actual effect brought about by one s choice of language Concrete Words words that refer to specific and readilyidentifiable qualities or actions in order to give an audience a more vivid experience of some thing or event Example a brief narrative or description that demonstrates the meaning of an idea through a specific case 0 Actual examples descriptions of real things that exist or have existed that happen or have happened 0 Fictional examples descriptions of events that are only imagined to have happened in the past present or future 0 Third person fictional examples describe the actions of other people as if they actually happened until usually revealing at the end that it is just a story 0 Second person fictional example which places the audience in a hypothetical situation that asks an audience to envision doing something Metaphor defines one thing by directly comparing it to something seemingly unrelated in order to imply that they share some essential underlying quality The meaning of a metaphor grows out of the interaction between the tenor and the vehicle 0 Tenor the underlying message or principle idea that is intended to be conveyed 0 Vehicle how the tenor is embodied and expressed in a specific figure 0 Meaning the interaction between the tenor and the vehicle Simile highlight a specific quality of a thing by explicitly comparing it to a like quality in something unrelated Rhythm in rhetoric is to compose words that when spoken and heard follow some kind of musical pattern that tends to build toward a conclusion Alliteration the use of words that begin with the same consonant sound Repetition the repeated use of a key phrase to begin a series of sentences whose endings vary Parallelism the repeated pairing of different usually opposing ideas in a rhythmic quotcoupletquot within the same sentence Antithesis when two or more similarly phrased but contradictory ideas are consecutively expressed in order to favor one over the other


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