PUBLIC SPEAKING CMST 2060
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Emily Bergeron CMST 206042 Mr Jones October 2 l 2012 Do you ever wish that your favorite fast food restaurant had better deals to accommodate your empty wallet and poor spending habits What better restaurant to help with this than the all fresh Subway Because students have limited income and spending money if the Subway on campus offered student discounts then it would save LSU college students money make them more likely to frequent this establishment over others on campus and cause business to be more consistent at this Subway 1 First these discounts would save college students a lot of money a Even if the Subway offered the discount to be for only a certain sandwich with chips and a drink then the students would be more intrigued to order that meal deal By doing so the LSU student would surely save money and have a happy tummy b College expenses continue to increase every year and anything that can help to save these students some money should be done 2 Now that I have talked about how offering student discounts will save college students money now we will look at how these discounts will make students more likely to frequent this specific Subway a If the Subway on LSU s campus offered a discount for a 6 inch sub meal deal then more students will come to this Subway and not to one that is not on campus b Since students are always complaining about being broke this would help to lift the burden of paying for more expensive Sub sandwiches elsewhere 3 Now that we have looked at how discounts will make students more likely to frequent this Subway we will nally look at how these discounts will cause business to be more consistent at this Subway a More and more students will hear about the discounts and will go frequently to ensure that they are saVing money b As you can see this is a winwin situation because the customer and the businessman are both happy with the outcome of this affirmative action Conclusion Next time you re at the Subway on campus remember how good it would be to get that meal deal for a discounted price It would surely save you money help more people eat at this Subway and cause business to be more consistent here Subway Eat fresh and cheap Ch 1 The Five Canons l Invention the act of nding something to say atopic the most important a Topics of Invention 39 De nition providing a precise de nition of a situation object person place or action Division breaking whole terms into their constituent parts or combining into a whole iii Comparison comparisons of the topics on similarities and differences iv Relationship cause and effect or historical lineage v Circumstance most situational whether or not some future situation is possible or impossible vi Value dealing with the comparisons of the just and injust b Evidence i Testimony ii Examples iii Statistics c Writing the Thesis i Speci c Puppose expression of an interest in a particular goal 1 Kind of speech one is giving 2 The tvpe of audience receiving the speech 3 The occasion ofthe speech 4 The effect on the audience that the speech is suppose to have ii Thesis the speci c argument that seeks to achieve the speci c urpose 2 Arrangement the capacity to put things in order Introduction state purpose and establish credibility Statement of Facts provide an overview of the situation Division outline what is to follow and speci c main points M present arguments and supporting facts Refutation refute counterarguments Conclusion sum up claims and reinforce with emotional appeal lasting impression i Types of arrangement Chronological Geogpaphical CauseEffect ProCon Topical ProblemSolution 7 Comparative Advantage 3 m the lling out and forming of ideas in order to allow them to stand on their own and organize themselves as a coherent whole a Figurative Style provides short re ned effective parts of a speech that give clarity and power to speci c ideas or images Wop96x 0959 Trope gure of thought like a metaphor This bedroom is a pigsty l Tenor underlying message being conveyed 2 Vehicle how the tenor is embodied and expressed in a speci c gure John vehicle is like a lion tenor Figure gure of speech like an alliteration The day dawned to our deligh iii Meaning something that can relate that stands in a functional andor referential relationship to other things 1 Denotative literal meaning There are pirates in this water Connotative quot 39J39 J f quot J quot39 associated with the denoted context Increasing taxation is an act of piracy on this nation 3 Associative audience associates with the primary object of reference Who are you a pirate Friend saying to another with a parrot on his shoulder 4 Practical actual effect brought about by one s choice of language Pirates Shouted by a ship captain iv Context where the word gets meaning Concrete Words meaningful reference to speci c and readily identi able qualties or actions He is being punished to His father punished him b Formal Style overall tone of the speech i Grand style smooth and ornate arrangement of impressive words to move an audience presidential inauguration ceremonial eulogy Middle style more common words but puts them together into a more sophisticated form than normal speech graduation ceremony courtrooms church Plain style ordinary speech salesmanship discourse organizational events 1 Decorum represents what style is appropriate to a given situation 4 Memog the ability to memorize atext a Individual memory ideas beliefs etc that any particular speaker can use to construct the body of a speech b Public memog social knowledge 5 Delive addresses the way a speaker physically performs the speech hardest canon to master a Formtype of delivery i Manuscript reading every word of the speech from written word ii Memogg delivering the speech through memory only iii Impromptu speaking without preparation on a given subject iv Extemporaneous notecard speaking labeling key points N lt ii39 Ch 2 Genres of Public Speaking 1 Genre a coherent and recognized arrangement of elements that is appropriate to a certain occasion and creates the audience s expectation 2 Types of Speeches persuasion is involved in every single one ofthese speeches a Fquot 0 3 1 quot1 9 Pquot Ch 5 Ethos Introductiondisclose personal facts through narrative form in order to establish a productive and positive future relationship with the audience candidates for official positions rallying for support Identi cation invite diverse members of an audience to share a common identity that makes it possible for them to act as a uni ed group with common interests school pep rally Deliberation diverse group of speakers address a common topic in sequence in order to develop a suitible judgment on that matter by comparing different perspectives tumtaking court of law only speech that requires more than one speaker Solicitationpersuade a reluctant but deliberative audience to adobt some policy object process or attitude salesperson Commemoration moral judgments about and attribute values to particular people objects or events important to the audience in a way that alters or reinforces their longterm attitudes towards those things eulogy speaking in historical time Enrichment give entertaining instruction about objects events processes or concepts that promise to benefit the audience members lives in some way public lectures or paid seminars church based on the audience s interest Administration delivered by officials of a group to an audience whose presence in manditory in order to justify policy court Advocacy occur before sympathetic audiences and use explicitly persuasive techniques to challenge and change the recalcitrant beliefs etc or a larger public people in attendance are supportive reaches larger audience through media means Ethos l The capacity to in uence an audience based on audience s perceptions of the credibility and charaacter of the speaker in relationship to its own interests and N V L V values Relies on three things virtues one holds dear the practical wisdom to make decisions that resolve problems and the goodwill that expresses itself to help others Persona inherited ethos the actual reputation that the rhetor carries with them from past experience the rhetorical creation constructed ethos that a rhetor creates within the confines of a particular rhetorical text a b Apologist when speakers wish to rebuff attack by appearing the virtuous victim of an unjust accusation Agent speaks on behalf of some institution as a spokesperson of legitimate authority Partisan one who represents not a group or intistution but an ideology or ideal d personal character particularly as it relates courage commitment to action and a romantic attachment to an inspiring future 0 4 Evoked audience image that the rhetor constructs of and for the audience in order to encourage it to act according to that image 5 Identi cation strategy of creating a common bond with the audience by drawing parallels between the speaker and audience I was a farm boy myself 6 Distinction attempt to establish credibility by the possession of special knowledge a Special knowledge kind of knowledge one receives by learning technical discourse and procedures like attending a university b Unigue experience expertise one aquires by having been there or gone through tha 7 Polarization the strategy of dividing an audience into a positive us and negative them a Criticized audience the them group of antagonistic people to the rhetor s interest b Scapegoating placing all ofthe public s sins upon a largely defenseless group and then run out of town Ch 6 Logos Logos The use of rational arguments and evidence to persuade an audience of the reasonableness of one s position Based in the belief that human beings are rational beings with the potential to make decisions based on logic principles and evidence Ex Legally Blonde Courtroom scene Logical Reasoning o The use of inferences and proofs to establish relationships among propositions which warrant specific conclusions Reasoning consists of relationships between three things claims grounds and warrant Claims positions being advanced by speaker We should eat more healthy foods Grounds evidence to support claim Because we want to live longer Warrant bridge that connects claims to the ground through principle provision or chain of reasoning Eating healthy is a way to increase life expectancy Idea unsaid Types of Warrants o Generalization citing one or more specific cases to prove a general principle stereotype o Analogy comparing a similar situation to inform the judgment of a present situation Romeo amp Juliet compared to West Side Story 0 Sign using external indicators to diagnose or identify an underlying condition Increasing temp of the Earth is a sign of Global Warming o Causation using a causeeffect analysis to support a claim Because the birds are ying south the winter season is coming 0 Principle using a shared general principle to de ne a speci c case Fallacies on Logic 0 Represent not only the failure for a warrant to successfully bridge the claims and the grounds but a failure of construction so egregious that the whole argument fails o Described as distorted forms of normal reasoning that rely on exaggeration or misdirection to produce persuasive effects 8 Fallacies Either or Giving the audience a choice EX For the US or against the US Slippery slope Arguing that an idea will start a bad trend EX Black Caucus in 6 Bandwagon Joining a group while they are popular not thinking for themselves EX Buccaneers 4 Ad hominem Attacking the speaker instead of the argument EX She s dumb so her argument has no backing 5 False cause Claiming something which is false is the cause of something wrong EX Breathing causes Global Warming 6 Red herring Attempt to distract the audience away from the topic EX Look over there 7 Scapegoing Blaming something on a group and irradicating EX The Holocaust 8 Non sequitur makes no sense ND I VV LA V Ch 8 Pathos Pathos o Refers to the use of emotional appeals to persuade an audience by putting it in a certain ftame of mind that makes it more willing to act in one way instead of another 0 Works by showing not simply telling o EX 300 Final speech or calling Ted Kennedy the Soul ofthe Democratic Party Emotions o Orientation represents how we stand in relationship to a thing whether we are attracted to it or repulsed by it o A neutral orientation is where one has no stance representing the absence of emotion o Salience represents how strongly this emotion is felt within a particular situation Can have a liking of something but not nessisarly a salience to it Orientation o In rhetoric attractive and repulsive orientation can be broken into four categories people actions events and objects 1 People individuals or groups Democrats and Republicans 2 Actions conscious behavioral choices made by people 3 Events time bound situations that have a beginning and an end Spring Break 4 Objects coherent and durable entities that tend to resist change and have consequences on an environment A chair AttractionRepulsion People PositiveSaint NegativeSinner Actions PositiveVirtue NegativeVice Events PositiveUtopia NegativeWasteland Objects PositiveIdol NegativeAbomination Commemoration Speeches that make moral judgments about and attribute values to particular people objects or events important to the audience in a way that alters or reinforces their life long attitudes toward those speaking Is different from other speeches because it speaks to historical time in terms of remembering something or preserving it 0 EX Clip of Halle Berry s Oscar Acceptance Alan s Friendship speech in The Hangover Components of Commemoration 0 Value the abstract and universal concept honor is ultimate value 0 Subject specific and concrete thing September 11 person place thing etc 0 One of which must hold a specific significance for the audience 0 You might find a value first and then a subject matter to praise or find a subject matter and finds a value with whuch to praise it Strategies 0 Identification occurs when the speaker initiates a feeling that the speaker and audience share goals values memories etc Stories humor recognition of heroes renewal of group commitment are all ways to accomplish this 0 Magnification speaker highlights magnifies certain features of a person or event with the intent to fill the minds of the audience with specific values that are chacracteristic of the subject or event Some of these values may be overcoming obsticles superior performances pure unselfish motives or benefit to society Persuasion Persuasive Speaking read Ch 61 Different from rhetorical speaking in that you are not calling to action but just changing thoughts or attitudes Characteristics that Define Persuasive Speaking Reveal supporting material to enlighten listeners instead of explaining three options speaker would weigh them and urge support of one Informative speakers function as teachers persuaders advocate Informative speeches provides responsible knowledge and best interest of listeners V 2 3 4 Persuasive speeches ask for more audience commitment than do informative speeches 5 Leadership is more important in persuasive than informative speeches CREDIBILITY 6 Appeals to feelings are more appropriate in persuasive than in informative speeches Emotional appeals 7 The ethical obligation for persuasive speeches is greater than that for informative speeches Three tvpes of functions of Persuasive Speeches 1 Adjusting listener attitudes beliefs and values a Beliefs ideas we express about subjects that may explain our attitudes feelings toward them b Beliefs that rest of attitudes rather than on our values are often more shallow 2 Urging others to act a Listeners must see the necessity for action in personal terms 3 Answering opposing views a Address opposing arguments directly and discredit those arguments Specifically if your topic is highly controversial Process of Persuasion 1 Awareness a Demonstrate that the problem is important and show listeners how it affects them directly 2 Understanding a Listeners must be moved by your ideas and know how to carry out your proposals 3 Agreement a Listeners accept speakers recommendation and remember their reasons for doing so 4 Enactment a Where listeners not only accept what you say but they act on it They make a commitment 5 Intergration a Integration of new attitudes and commitments with the listeners previous beliefs Two TvpesFormats of Persuasive Speeches 1 Dispositional Persuasive Speech in uence listeners dispostion toward your topicbeliefs attitudes or values a Belief something we accept to be true or false even though it has not yet been or cannot be shown to be so Christianity b Attitude our tendency to respond favorably or unfavorably to something to like it or dislike it Favorability towards something I like baseball so if someone said baseball sucks I would form attitude towards them and their speech c Value deeply held concept about what is and is not good right and important with regard to conduct and existence Freedom 2 Actuation Persuasive Speech designed to in uence behavior move to action Arrangement 0 Dispositional O O O Refutative persuades by both disproving the opposing position and bolstering your own Comparative Advantage leads the audience to agree with you that one of two or more alternatives is better than the others Problem No solution focuses on the depth and breadth of the problem in order to convince listener that there is in fact a problem 0 Actuation O O ProblemSolution arranged into two main points where the rst point examines the problem while the second point presents a solution ProblemCauseSolution rst point articulates the problem the second analyzes the problem and the third point presents multifaceted solutions
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