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by: Claudie Glover


Claudie Glover
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J. Desmond

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J. Desmond
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This 25 page Class Notes was uploaded by Claudie Glover on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ARCH 3006 at Louisiana State University taught by J. Desmond in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see /class/222722/arch-3006-louisiana-state-university in Architecture at Louisiana State University.


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Date Created: 10/13/15
Architecture is the creation of empathetic forms which support and perhaps question the structures of belief and power in any given society as they shelter and ennoble people and their activities Legitimation social institution To facilitate and establish ways of interacting This is structures of belief and power Ex Frank Lloyd Wright39s work was often trying to legitimize the nuclear family Beliefs the perceptions of the natural world Often these are shared patterns of belief that underly our expectations What are these shared beliefs and how do they manifest themselves in our physical world Empathy languages of form Feeling physical feeling So much of what we do is related to where and how our bodies are in space Architecture regulates where you can go and how you feel when you get there and how you feel in relation to the other people there The structure of language is extremely complicated thing that sort of evolved over time We are just beginning to understand that each language has a structure that each speaker of that language understands implicitly More and More during this class we will be looking less at the building itself and more at the reasoning behind its spaces and placement of its walls Four basic periods 0 Renaissance and Baroque 15th century Neoclassical Reevaluation 18th century a Romantic Rebellion 19th century Modern Sythesis 20th century When Europeans landed in the new world their diseases decimated the native peoples As much as 80 But why wasn39t it the other way around People in North and South America didn39t have domesticated animals like horses or dogs In the Eastern world all of these animals were around and they had domesticated them and the diseases had jumped from the animals to the human population Also there were more societies in the asian continent than in the Americas because people could move horizontally across the land mass in asia This is not so in the Americas The americas are basically north south oriented and so when people travel to start new villages they often change climates when they move and are unable to survive Whereas in asia they just move horizontally in basically the same climate r o Amerigo Vespusi 39 O The Italian florence mapmaker that when he drew the land that Columbus discovered named it after himself Florence Italy 0 The Duomo Santa Maria del Fiore Designed by Brunelleschi He had lost a competition to build bronze doors for a church in Florence He lost to Gilberti He went to Rome and saw a city that was haunted by a society that came before them that was better than them Santa Maria was built and complete except the hole for the dome was much too big Nobody could cover it O O O O O Brunelleschi a 0 He perfects the perspective in buildings in drawings and people were quick to Brunelleschi submitted a plan and everybody laughed at him But years later nobody else had submitted a plan and they began to seriously consider Filipo39s plan They hired him and he began construction on the Dome of the Duomo a He had to invent machines to do work inside and outside of the dome He began whole hosts of new technology as well as successfully build the dome This city is beautiful and has several rivers bordering and flowing through it Italy was formed in the late 1890 s A very young country Since the WWI they have had 50 different governments Florence owes its position to history to a number of different things 0 It is a trade route And trade routes were increasing because Europe was coming out of the dark ages and was building huge gothic cathedral Florence and Sienna competed throughout the 15th century to be the premier trade center but Florence eventually won out Differs enormously from a medieval city o In the medieval the church was in the center The lord39s land was outside the walls and the people went out everyday to work it Medieval is typically irregular while florence is basically geometric Roman CARDO north south axis that is given by the gods Roman DECUMANUS the path of the sun in the sky These two things began the basic grid to build the city around The center of Florence still retains the grid in the original center of the city The roman bldgs are gone but the basic plans remain Piazza Senore and the Duomo flank the center of the original plan Original plans are always very tight and the church was probably built on the nearest open land which flanked the 39city39 at the time with the beginning government on the other side San Miniato al Monte Mini Saint in the Mountains Color in the facade White and green marble was placed on the building that really different from the building itself The outside and the inside are still considered to be two different ideas and architects didn t link the two together yet Has a very elaborate crypt and frescoes Was the most influential in the immediate region as far as color and style It completely influences the Baptistry in Florence o copy and repeat this concept earn Map of Florence and where all of the churches are Pazzi Chapel 0 O Brunelleschi had a certain space to work in and he builds the pazzi chapel and puts a layer of plaster over everything This layer of plaster hides the structure so that the viewer has no sense of the construction and the complexity of its architecture V if y GVYY XXV r Santa Croce v AAA lrkK in Ms u 0 v39 vvv yvvx l v r In a a t 3UUAJUUX aum Over the plaster he puts symbols and he puts a series of fake columns He also puts an entablature The room is divided into a series of bays and the center is the larger one There is four walls and so there is four center bays These four center bays rise higher than the flanking bays and the four arches of the center bays rise and bring your eye up and into the dome of the pazzi chapel The pilasters are used as a guide for the floor m bl The Pazzi Chapel is right next to Santa Croce 0 In the rear of the chapel are Giotto frescoes He was one of the individuals that was leading the way to a new sense of space and individuality Each of the characters in the frescoes has their own space but they all interact with each other It is much less cluttered than the traditional religious paintings San Lorenzo o Brunelleschi s first major church 0 Michelangelo39s stair are off of the cloister 0 Old Sacristy is a square room with one small square coming off the them The walls are plastered so that the masonry and the structure of the building goes away so that he can create a sense of space o The room is divided into three Very important in religious circles 1 San Lorenzo still doesn39t have its facade Still see the masonry and it IS an odd looking building on the front Basic module of the building is the square Everything is measured in the square that is used and everything is exactly that far apart according to the square created in the walkways Beautiful gray stone Very simple and doesn39t have all of the veins and things that typically marble has He wanted the stone and columns to be simply stone and columns He didn39t want them to serve in any design way or to draw the eye of the viewer He wanted to keep it simple The church is composed by using a series of gradiated pieces He establishes a base line Makes a column with an intercolumn dimension columns are the same distance away from each other as they are away from the wall this is the square that is used throughout the building The top of one arch as you get closer to the nave is the bottom of the next arch and so on A spatial ladder 11 O O O 0 San Spirito Has a continuous modular dimension that greets you at the door is described in the floor and continues to rise as you come to the dome and then the dome soars above you invoking the heavens Foundling hospital One can use architectural symbols to prescribe a geometry in space and have a cultural impact Annunciata O Grows up in front of the foundling hospital Evovles over the next 150 years u Ducal Square in Vigevano O O The first time someone make something like the annunciata on purpose Space of th city becomes very ordered Brunelleschi Recap of Ideas 0 O O 0 His work is in a way very predictable because of his use of geometry and modularity It is very simple plans ways of measuring but it is one the basic things that was established during the renaissance This sense of geometry is taken for granted today Separation between the architect and the building He came from the desire to be a sculpture He didn t come out of the building guilds He sold his labor in a way that was not typical in the medieval world He even invented machines to help build his then fantastic buildings The individual was emerging Very modern idea Use of perspective in drawing He was able to step back and generalize and understand the form of knowledge and to shape it on paper Took it out of the 3 d and could translate what he wanted on paper It was the ability to pre see and envision ahead of time what the building would look like Use of roman building practices Very important Difference between greek and roman is that the romans come out of a culture that was used to thinking about buildings in a different way They took parts of the greek bldgs and pasted it on their buildings This gave them a tremendous amount of different ways to build They were able to separate the symbolism away from the greeks and make it into a building Greeks did it because it had some grand meaning 0 Notion of who has authority How do you know that what you know is true or useful The turn to roman forms was useful but it was also seen as valid In italy they were surrounded by ruins of a glorious city that was better than they were Sooner or later they were going to get interested in it They started to give the knowledge of the romans authority in a way that it had not had That authority is a competitor for the authority of the church So now public buildings are starting to use the language that only churches had used until now Leon Baptiste Alberti O r O O Palazzo Rucellai Florence o Put a facade on some guys house It gave that guy a pretense of importance Before only the chruch and maybe a few public buildings had this architectural language Santa Maria Novella Florence 0 Made a facade for this building too He wants to give the church more and more order He wants to give the church a little more care a He wants to establish the authority of roman architecture and still retain the awe of a christian church He takes the geometry in concepts of modularity to control and regulate the facade He uses a circle in the center surrounded by the sqare San francesco Rimini Small italian gothic church Located about an hour below Venice on the coast He was asked to wrap and modernize and existing church by Baron Sigismondo Malatesta quotThe Wolfquot He meant this to be a testament to himself and his favorite mistress He was going to put his carcophagus on one side and his mistresses on the other side He died before his wife and she was having none of that so his plan failed a Pilasters impediments all have the look of being layed over the mass Another aspect is the way the mass is shaped and carved Arch of Constantine a Masonry can concrete construction that is very roman Applied over that is a finer stone with a discreet arch language the pediment triumphal arch etc wo He differentiates between the construction and the architecture or the ornament He treats these two steps of construction very differently 0 San Andrea Mantua s Builds it from whole cloth He doesn t have to deal with the parts of a traditional church in this building The entire church is presented as a roman temple because he doesn t need to work around the dome and other traditional things 0 He took away all of the decoration Interior Very volumetric and carved a o Alberti39s ideal City be ngakrcl nga Vinci 39 4 Was able to draw and express the world accurately on paper This kind of attitude and practice was revolutionary in its time In the 1000 years before this the church had convinced everyone that this world was not to be studied because truth was gained after death a This kind of observation was a radical thought in its day a Look at www leonardo let Jootg Compiled lots and lots of sketch books 0 Some are filled with sketches of architectural form and language It is the first time that we have something like this ever put on paper People had written down what they were doing but had never drawn the plans on paper and put the aspect down He wanted to put the ideal church to use Use of the circle and the square in the same building The square being the earth and the circle is in representation of the divine Humans are the only being that is able to touch or occupy both worlds Donato Bramante 0 Studied da Vinci o Templetto at S Peitro in Montori Rome Built on the site that the church suggests that S Peter was crucified 0 Down in the bottom of the tempietto there is a hole that they say if the cross of peter was place The hole and the top of the tempietto are on the same axis Axis Mundi It creates a hierophany Combination of hierarchy and epiphany The temple as it stands today was incomplete It was supposed to have a collonade in the shape of a square to complete the circlesquare dichotomy o This little building is all about suggesting the presence of a spiritual energy that ripples outward and is destined to change the world St Peters 0 Had been there for 1200 years and they demolished it This was the most central church in Catholicism Big decision The new one had been there for 500 years i 3 But this was not the original concept of Bramante A coin that was minted with an image of Bramante39s church when the foundations were begun I Had a large dome Referring to the pantheon and roman buildings which had been adopted by Christianity 39 A temple in the front with a dome Large towers flanking Drawings of bramante s were found I The outline of the old basilica can be seen and the huge new church This was a central plan church Watercolor of half of the church i is C I O REquot 339 Hz v e il The plan was basically a square with and inset square with yet another inset square 3 is very important in Christianity The can see a cross in the center and this is flanked on four sides with a cross and even further extended another set of crosses I You can see the same thing happening diagonally With the A squares and the crosses 39 It is meant to suggest a continuum of order from least to greatest I It was meant as you approached the front would eventually hide the huge dome and only the roman temple would be in front of you The minute you step just a few feet into it you almost get lost in the huge spacial maze Before when you stepped in the christian basilica or a gothic cathedral you knew exactly what was going on It led you directly to the center and to the dome The trasition of the square and the circle dome This is where the priest would stand as the inbetween for the divine and the earthly o The gothic cathedrals take it to a much more ornate level but in the most basic way the symbolism remains Hagia sophia begins in a square capped in a dome All over the world even in the orthodox the basic sybolism is the same Old st peters was very linear and was built on roman model Bramante39s was a very different kind of building That caused some trouble Pope Julius had hired bramante Then pope passed away and very soon after that so did bramante The new pope didn39t like the bramante idea For the next 100 years people fought over how they were going to do this Raphael extended the nave but he was not very interested in it Raphael was replaced by Peruzzi The building still has some of bramante39s complexity and multilayer 39 Peruzzi was supplanted by San Gallo He follows Peruzzi39s plan l and slightly keeps bramante39s plan but extends the front so that they could satisfy the common plan of the church 0 San Gallo constructed a small model of the church It was about 20 feet long and about 14 feet high 0 The rear was very layered and much more fussy than bramante s original plan and it doesn39t gradually grow like bramante39s but immediately jumps up to 3 stories He also uses all of these fussy little pieces 39 Michelangelo didn39t think of himself as an architect He was in town to do the ceiling Much of his architectural work like his sculptures and paintings is very muscular full of feeling and evocative In a way that alberti39s and brunelleschi39s work was not Michelangelo did not want to deal with the building fiasco and complained that he had been forced into doing it o O O a o O O O irvstzl O O O He greatly simplifys the bramante plan but still keeping with the central plan idea He does put a temple front on it to satisfy some but he keeps the round plan Bramante s plan was deemed to ambitious Michelangelo39s piers was much larger because they had determined at this time that bramnte39s plan would not be stable So mich put a whole lot more mass into the piers and the walls In mich39s plan you lose the third space that bramante had planned Nave was added Years later the facade was added Years later the court was added St Peter s The church was adopting this new idea of architecture The plans follow the notion that there could be a continuity of scale from the earthly to the divine There was a sequence of ideas that were followed Both with this particular bldg And with building over the centuries until we are up to this point with the new View of architecture This class will focus on the continuity of ideas St Peter39s Bramante and San Andrea of Mantua Alberti Bramante wanted size and the step up in size so that when you get closer to the building you can only see the first door and as you step inside you seem to experience a space that continues to expand and expand up to the heavens Mich and bramante was not writers and ourjob is to explore works That is ourjob in this class 39 Mich was finally able to condense the bramante design to make it feasible and it was added on to in the centuries following N and explain their 9 l39lhoni39a Bernini39s court in front of the church makes the facade of the church look even bigger than it is He distorted the perspective by making where you walk in smaller and he makes it bigger as you go along Carlos Maderno39s facade for the church He varies the spacing and changes all the rules of the pilasters He uses the roman temple in the front The interior This was set by the hand of Michelangelo It was built after he died but he had designed to space People did make a change and used colored and swirly marble Mich wanted a solid color because it would make you pay attention only to the space and make the space appear to be more pure Baldichinno Was added much later by bernini It was a small temple set over the grave of st peter a It is 90 feet tall and the experience is overwhelming Even the writing is 8 9 feet tall The dome Has been a huge impact on the skyline of rome o Mussolini opened up the street in front of the church all the way to the river and the dome dominates even more He wanted to affirm the ascendency of the italian people and have them to see the greatness of the dome almost like the nazis He wanted his people to be recognized as greater than other peoples Bramante s design a We don t have a lot of rederings The coin and the watercolor but we deha a 39 39 a young Dd unteste pasted from 39 hiir irkr min120V1078842863 e0r9cf43bcipngt It is called the school of Athens and it is set in the Bramantian church 0 He put Leonardo as Plato He put Michelangelo as Hericlitus Mich is also brooding and pouting because Leonardo was getting all of the attention Bramnate is depicted as Euclid making a plan of something And rafael put himself in the painting The only character that is looking directly at you Michelangelo He uses the muscles of humans to depict the force and engages the viewer in understanding what is happening in the painting 0 Campidoglio in Rome 0 When mich was first invited to participate in the building The scene was really ramshackle The old broken down senate building was there the tower was crooked and other things were cruddy in general He put a new facade on the existing buildings and he replaced the tower to center and staighten it and he also put a second building on the right at the same angle of the building on the left so as to create a complete space and experience He put a wonderful oval in the center of the court and seems to lead you to the campidoglio There is also a long large stair that leads you to the ensemble Coming up the stairs it looks as if you are coming up to a large single building because of the angle of the buildings and the stairs As you get up to the buildings you realize that there is three separate buildings The main buildings entry is raised to the second floor so that you can see it in the composition as you approach along the stairs The other two buildings are sort of overly expressed but that is only because you see them at an angle and they are setting up the main building Mich was thinking of the entire composition and not of each building individually The statue in the center of the court was saved because they thought it was constantine who was instrumental in Christianity Everything else was smelted down so as to reuse the metal more efficiently This is the building built by the emerging govt in rome in de ance of the church The large church off to the side is completely invisible when you are in the campidoglio This becomes the idea for many governments in the future Separation from the church was very revolutionary To have a secular government o It all sits on the southern end of the medieval development of the city San Lorenzo Florence o Still does not have a facade The library was built by laurent de medici Mich was contracted to design it There are two parts the place where the books are stored and the beautiful entry hall The entry hall Is two stories in height and that is expressed with the architectural detailing He violates every rule in the expression of excitement and power He distorted the entablature and he put the columns in a niche and pulled the wall out This suggests that the space is held up by the wall and not by the columns He breaks all the rules but very powerful nonetheless Brackets support the columns and you don39t even enter on axis with the stairs The whole room is meant to be overwhelming The Architecture of Andrea Palladio 0 Did a lot of work in venice e Lagoon created by the Po river It feeds a very fertile agricultural valley Venice grew up with a navy and essentially as a trading place The river was a connection between milan and constantinople 0 Published a book known as the 4 books of architecture It has not been out of print since he wrote it a The book is filled with pictures It was hugely influential because architects don39t like to read and because they could see what he was talking about a A new era had dawned in the way architects conceived the way a building was built One could learn for the first time how to make architecture by buying a book And many many people did He didn39t have just pictures of his buildings but also of many existing roman buildings They were very detailed and had measurements 0 San Francesco in Venice 0 All he did was add a facade Kind of like what alberti had done at St Mary39s He used the image of the roman temple as the primary representative icon of the church He has superimposed a larger temple over a lower but broader temple facade It was a way of adapting the unusual cross section of the basilican church He also uses the overstated michelangelo like accents 0 San Giorgio Maggiore in Venice You can see it across the grand canal from San Marco The large temple facade in the forefront and it overlays a secondary temple in the background The lower temple is more expressed in this church than in San Francesco It is a juxtaposition of scale and orders in an interesting way He carries this idea into the interior This is the first time someone does this The interior Stark white even stone Symbol of columns coming up and supporting the entablature and under that there is a secondary entablature 0 Il Redentore in Venice 7 Very elegant Here gets closer with the albertian San Andrea He brings the side aisles in a bit and throws another wing in there and it seems as if there is three temples all thrown together and it is a symphony of orders 0 As you climb up the large stairway the second and third seem to dissappear and you see the first temple more dominantly There is a trick of perspective to make it seem that the second and third are larger and bigger and further than they are a He also expresses the two layers inside These churches become the model for architecture through out europe because everyone at some point came through venice because of the location and the river His drawings in his book were extremely detailed a He is establishing system of measurement so that the buildings had a coherence and a continuity of proportion His drawings were working drawings This is the first indication of this kind of thing that we see The basilica in Vicenza c It became known as the Palladian style Two columns entablature broken by an arch two columns This created three spaces and it was repeated all the way around the building 0 He establishes a sense of modularity and regularity over a plan by slightly varying the distances between the colonnettes The Villa Capra known as the La Rotunda Near Vicenza You see the same front on all four sides He draws this building in his book with the plan elevation and a slice of the inside This house has become a model for buildings around the world o This villa is unusual because he usually puts the associated farm buildings around the villa and makes the whole area fit together Villa Emo near Vicenza This is the model for the sidewalks along LSU The arcadias Villa Badoer near Vicenza Villa Barbaro near Vicenza Rigorous use of symmetry Every piece of the building is given this sense of harmonious development One of the first times that someone thought to bring all the buildings in the estate under one hierarchial order There is a center and a clear group of parts and in each part there is a center with a clear group of parts iry The timonos in the greek sanctuary is that you are trying to protect yourself from the chaos of nature The greeks find a source and meaning of the chaos and open up a sacred precinct in architectural language It is the three part symmetry with the space in the center the two columns are holding up your world and protecting you from the outside world This happens in the horizontal and the vertical The stylobate raises you from the ground and the roof protects you from the sky o Gian Lorenzo Bernini 0 He did the arcade outside of St Peter s 0 Was a sculpture and often uses a richness in his effects on the buildings San Andrea del Quirinale Rome Quirinale is a long straight street very untypical in rome It steps back like an oval away from the straight line of the street and it has the oval stairs The height of it bursts from the ground very dramatically It has huge columns in the front and just inside the big columns there is a smaller pair of columns The body of the church is relatively small compared to the entry facade The plan of the church is one of the most remarkable The enormous stairway and entryway steps into this circular plan Usually you step into a church with a huge nave but this church is quite unusual There is a lot of natural light coming in from the hidden skylights This is an enormously tall church Taller than it is wide z Francesco Borromini 3 39 L 0 Compare to gian lorenzo bernini 0 Eventually committed suicide 0 San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane Rome if Enormoust tall The facade is heavily ornamented The entablature moves The whole facade of the church looks as if it is rippling This is very different from anything that we have looked at Over life sized saints use of ovals and a broken pediment at the top Inside is quite remarkable Several things are going on at once and you don39t recognize them until you look up The room is longer than it is wide but the altar at the end is squeezed in But on either side there is a sweep of columns and you are flanked by two other imposing altars on either side He is trying to give you and experience that had more pieces than you can rationally 1 resolve and put together in you mind The church has a contradictory experience There is a pushing out and a gathering in idea superimposed on each other The pushing and squeezing in the back barely fits the altar but there is also two very dominant altars on either side 0 St Ivo delle Sapienza The gateway of the academy is where you enter in with the body of the church in the distance The bottom story goes in the and the second story bulges out The whole thing is set within the arch of the entrance The whole thing is a symmetry of circles and arches o Giant order of pilasters that go up to the base of the dome St Ivo delle Sapienza These were buildings that were meant to be impressive They were meant to overwhelm You can see a simultaneous design stategies super imposed over each other These cannot be dissected easily They were meant to be experiential engines not to be dissected These are primarily interiors The scale is very difficult to get across It is important to see the variety of form the long axis that brings you in and gives you a look up 5 into the dome You have the long and expected nave of christian churches Original design called for a tempietto structure in the center but that was never built The building has great complexity there is so much going on and the resolution is in the appeal upward The plan is very novel The first three sided plan in our history He abandones the conventional basilican nave The plan is two triangles superimposed on each other One has the points curving inward and other has its points curving outward If a Mag 1 in 5 3 v Map of rome O munjQQQELQLLQQMDMQ Loaf1MDLHQmeZQpeaniir i There is two operating forms The irregular was this way because that is the way people were settling down There was no concious thought on how the design effects the way people live a The 3 straight streets Michael Desmond39s image gallery London 0 O Becomes a major player along with paris Sits on a stable plateau the first before you are at the ocean overlooking the river The east has low marshy ground but the west is busy Normal restrictions on building outside the city walls was not as big a deal in england as it was in the mainland of Europe The same rules didn39t apply because they had the wall of the ocean to protect them for so long The affluent people of London begin to develop their own little settlement out on the west end of London because it is upriver There is no sewage system and they wanted fresh water Hampton Court Palace 0 The tudor style Hadden hall O Paris France 0 0 One of the early hybrid buildings The renaissance was coming in but england married this new style with their existing style and you see the odd buildings as a result of this Hardwick Hall a Very symmetrical and has a lot of windows London is very far to the north of the earth and they don39t have a long day or get a lot of sunlight so all of their buildings reflect this desire with a lot of windows and openings Longleaf House 0 Very busy roof structure because they are holding on the the medieval architecture and marrying it with the modern ideas of reaissance Was built on the site of a roman city Issed prVIou Fri ay They had a quiz and went through Paris Paris France 0 O O O O The concentration of money brought about innovation The first nation state to emerge 100 mile diameter around Paris is known as the isle de France It was a dense medieval city It was continuously occupied in the medieval and renaissance Palace structures that we look at are proof of the power and economic changes in French society Traditional pre modern cultures are places that have certain characteristics that we can generalize Urban migration for example 0 Characterized by Multiple overlapping cultural systems that mutually reinforce one another Cultural transformation The overlapping of the traditional settlement had to be unwoven and dismantled to some extent Capitalism had to have a chance to rise and that means that they would take labor from the guild systems and some of that would be done away with You begin to see a separation from work life and private life Place de Vendome ou de Louis Le Grand 0 This was inserted in the city That means that people39s property had to be taken away and given to someone else That took a lot of power o Today you can buy the 1000 dollar handbags there 0 The discreet urban statue areas 0 Pierre Patte map of Paris Statue Squares 1785 w There was a competition 7 for statue squares He r took all of the entries and drew them on the map as if they had all been built 0 He shows how the old city is built and how these open spaces could reshape the city This suggests the two different way of viewing the city and it is the first 39 gt time that we see PlaceVendomeSIatueSquare Somebody of 1 39 v how a whole city can be nomst My one idea and how you can reshape a city Old paris had crooked narrow streets Bridges were enormous economic investments In a walled city there is a lot of pressure to find places to build houses If you built a bridge that became an area to build houses When you walked on a bridge you didn39t even know pwwca that you were on a bridge because you couldn t see the river Also in UL the city there was animals and sewage and there was no sewage 5 P I system These medieval cities are very nasty fiANQRMZNm39L Network of walls are enlarged but they are always there somewhere wucepf39dp You begin to see the urban transformations Squares kind of pop up ewer and they begin to connect to one another At some point the powers that be get it And they finally start to connect these things on Laue purpose and they begin to plan out the city with more purpose They connected these squares with long straight streets Napoleon initiates a process of taking control of the city He makes maps of everything so that he can understand the most economic way of doing things I He pulls all the power together and establishes a civic structure d OVW Ma9 before he was overthrown I His nephew takes power and he continues what his uncle had Win Mil Uni0W started g A I The city was remade and torn inside out The working class A 9 W l Wmnfv W that occupied the center of the city was ousted and it was 39gentryfied39 The city was rationalized AW 4440 VV 53 I Napoleon set out to build a sewage system in the underground and it would be deposited downstream from the city so that the 39 DEW W in sulw 4M drinking water would be safe I He began a network of streetlights And House numbers for 9 VOW mail and so the tax collector could find you I Modular organized and homogenous concept of space This is W5 Plimsuos W40 an enormous thing that happens I Because the guild systems are almost gone and there is now Mr W WAle 5 5 public space who controls this and who has the power in these spaces Police came about Even today we are nervous when CMct My 39Jchuth 11A WW WWW to be W Gram mass dig lwt quot9 CW pitymew vv voco gwitim at Poul imp Pow police pull behind you in traffic even though we have done nothing wrong This is a cultural phenomena This is much more prevalent in US than in Europe This is because our cities were built after thiscultural phenoi K a 39 I i d 9 Kga ik X Aquot surf V 9 get a Napoleon III I He divided up the city and established territorial zones and he could control the city very easily With the new long streets that could reach across the city Police could move quickly Now that there is house numbers they could find fugitives and outlaws and their families very easily Police now had authority and people were beginning to respect that authority This is completely new The state now controls public space They control the streets I The city was opened up Instead of having your own little neighborhood that was insulated against the rest of the city there entire crowds of people that you didn39t know in your neighborhood There was a growing anonimity in the city The m slaton 0 BILL93 Poem we TM 0mm gh fgkg ogmg up abs r Jr mngVtvL am small neighborhoods where 39everybody knows your name39 are disappearing Capitalism is rising 39Wswll 9mm Mimi oleng 00 calmlb L mules mewWHO 39 1390 mp Powae 0 store Aumwlmng 0 7 A1215 0 Map of Paris 0 Discipline and Punish Michel Foucault You can use his descriptions of the first model prisons called the panopticon Which means see everywhere Circular building with one window in each cell so that each cell has light 0 Guard tower in the center would have a spiral stairway that had access from a tunnel in the floor The guard tower was always in shadow and the cells always had light The guard tower could instantly see any cell and prisoner without that prisoner being able to see him Prisoners didn39t even know if the guard was in the tower or not because they couldn39t s39ee him come and go because of the tunnel o These two images are at the same scale Paris is much larger Disclwmucq NAnwa ismanon I Eums comm l quot w quotk e leomnoai savwmwh Mm ipow ammo W6 icmss wawNSJ EALISW NW V06 r Mm39muw Cwmi 1 war A X MW6 4 ME WN W 39W39WW UN E N if 1 r U N lt 424quot 130 i 3 E lt r f 1 o Zaqmyzi gavj a Pow14Tf v0 0 London a waxer Ag Nam5 MWY79D a We warm TM OM OF zov IsZ 39QWWD nave of WW 39So f WM quot Veganma 6 w wquot WV Mm mow v emee 0 TIME 16 7 Lac0 0 CometWow 0quot POM clienblid moanwj VIMRates Wee ova 0 Map of London g aMmQ OWQH o On the left it looks very much like a medieval city the further right that you go it is more regulated and you can begin to see city blocks Covent Garden 16305 a Was speculated real estate Built around a church St Paul s Was supposed to be flanked on three sides by an arcade but only 2 sides were built o These g ll italia urches were the epitomy of modern in their day r o Is looking for the first the beginning of architecture l ngm i ViF wtl e He goes back to the Etruscan style which in the 7 i WW nab nipo mxt113aIladian books is the oldest w of WVon His client was concerned about the cost and it is said that jones told him that he was going to build him the 7 Eywovwnw Awlam rm Lawsmgz most elegant barn in england 0 His church was very simple a amyopb39 o The queen then asked him to come and build her a 0 L Mm Zapmm house 9 w wdij Tu wm b ueen39s House Greenwich are a The first very self concious neoclassical renaissagigg building in england It is very palladian because of its exactly measured dimensions It is ailing square galladign Elan a as a story 5 aircase and it is made out of very thin cut stone It has a beautiful tulip railing LAP106M164 The queen didn t want to look at the people on the street so he built the house over the street 0 9T gMamwf Clearly symmetriga and the symmetries are muft i p led V He had a lot of control a It represents a beginning of change in the way that architecture is done This is one of the first people we l mvm f can point to that we can say learned his way of building y yke from the palladian books Most people went and did a grand tour of the buildings and made their own W ficnfw sketches He learned just from the books W w His copy of palladian books have a lot of notes and emWig 1 everything in them Gwyn NW NW 1 Banqueting House Whitehall London o The first modern public building in england 3L was MM gar Parricg I N1 0 0 Christopher Wren 561 AW6HM3RL UMm Straddles the division between the renaissance and the baroque t lfl o 39 Taught at oxford when he was very young Parr In late 205 he was given the job of the royal surveyor of works we a H UAE Basically the royal architect of Mamaw Mpg c He designed over 50 churches m o In 1666 almost all of the center of the city of London burned A little shop caught fire and for 2 days the city burned The old St Pauls U burned quot Within 3 weeks the young and inexperienced Wren g presented the king r 39 3 with a plan of rebuilding the whole city Nobody had ever done that before a The plan was brilliant The residential streets were all sloping toward the river so that you had drainage and so that you had the cool breeze to ventilate The problem was that no one had the power to do this The other issue is that they didn t have any maps They couldn t tell where someone39s property was unless they dug up their house Basically the city was rebuilt on its own footprint But there was some of the first building codes Everyone was required to build in brick They did have to rebuild all of the 60 70 churches that were destroyed Over the following years he was commissioned and he rebuilt over 50 churches It was hard to make them all different and interesting but he accomplished it I He gave them all different appearances some of that is due to the available space They all had different shapes He gave each one a spire Most have italian architecture but he ran out of ideas and he started to use gothic architecture Like palladio did with the romans This was an important moment He had started the idea of inventing his own style His use of the gothic in an eclectic manner precedes the gothic revival St Stephen Walbrook London 7 o ay it is buried in the business district but it still has its h i u a 1 spire i The church itself is demure from the exterior Wubs Q A The entry leads up to a flight of steps The tower is prominent o v 39 The Interior IS a complete surprise 1va W WV 0 It Is concerned With sequence Go through the arch Du f 4 doorway up the stairs into another arch and further into wvhoOAt39 the dome yet another arch MAS c There is lots and lots of windows because london architecture is concerned with light because there is not o very much sunlight so far north oczmi owes N91 Love u The immediate stairway sort of brings you away from the street and you move into this large space The ceiling traces this very elaborate 8 sided cruciform shape The dome sits on this cruciform shape and it is unimpeded but surrounding it is a forest of columns which is similar to the busy life outside of the church o All of wren39s churches had to be cheap because the city didn39t have any money to rebuild with exuberance o Wren s churches are like a set design a All of his churches have a lower area of dark wood paneling It always V comes up to a certain level and gives way to the white plaster o St Paul39s Mosf View LMGWN i Modeled clearly after st peter s 39 dome in rome This is the model for our capital building I You see all of the albertian pieces here It has a juxtaposition of michaelangelo and albertian architectural 39 39 language I Wren39s first plan was very dynamic It was similar to st stephens and st peters but it didn39t quite meet the idea of those in power was v6 Lott The dome is so huge in comparison to the width of the nave and the length of the nave So it is sort of like two churches super imposed on one another Comb rm QWMV V W buk M 39 The structure of the building is very innovative He created a Z A 39 triple shell effect The dome you see on the inside the dome 01 5 you see on the outside and the dome th t is n that supports the cupula 39 39 Greenwich Hospital London Part of the naval academy of britain Before you get to the city from the river you see this first al Naval Hospital Opposite end from Hospital Not across river but across the city Built out of brownish red brick 39 Use of the palladian system He is adapting the villas to the large scale institutions Previously there was not these large beaurocratic institutions Now wren is making a style for these building There is a three part rhythm The center has a cupula Only the center has the finer stone and it brings you attention there The rest of the building is built in the red brick So he stayed within budget and still had a great presentation He sort of lays the foundations for city building and budgets and using the funds brilliantly to bring the attention to where you want it Only the details are built out of the more expensive materials ww wad Louww awedM Midterm Exam Review 0 Renaissance Space as concrete container Geomericalization anthropomophization Perspectival spac e New concept of a exible architectural language Positive space of the city Rhetorical and epistemological authority of the ancients 0 Moving architecture out of the guilds into the realm of art a Baroque o Movement and force 139 Interaction with context o Development of great systems and their political 39and religious expression Dynamic systemized spacial networks Neoclassicism and enlightenment a Search for other roots reason greece 0 0000 Campo in Siena Brunelleschi A notation for conceiving space A positive representation for geometrical space He uses orders to describe and lay out space First to himself and then to other builders gr o He has inventions and other people picked them up and 39used them because other people saw a use for them He pulled this whole process out of the guilds and into the fine arts He sort of codified the rules of perspectival space It was a visualization and a way to see and explore the world on paper One of the things brunelieschi does not do is deal with building mass He does have this idea of modularity and control39 see foundling hospital He is able to adapt the system of building and use it to build some of the most complicated buildings of today o In his buildings you are moving from the outside to the inside from the low to the high from earth to heaven 0 Palazzo Rucellai Florence and Palazzo Vecchio Florence o Bernini O Vecchio is a government building and the state want to find a way to represent itself to the public in a way that the church has been doing for centuries O Obvious roman presence stacking orders layering use of geometry in layering to present the idea of a whole or a part 0 Santa maria novella 0 San Francesco Rimini O Alberti 0 His buildings are very elusive to describe His definition of beuaty divide it into two pieces The mass The whole It needs pleasing satisfying proportions so that if you change anything it doesn39t get better Then you overlay this system of form to articulate and embellish If you removed the pilasters and you are left with a mass The face of the piers are contiguous with the face with the mass You can see the arcade and the piers and still read the whole You can see the part and the whole and still see the relationship with each other 0 Then he applies more layers of decorations San Andrea Mantua o Alberti 0 He does the same volumetrically He pulls the logic of the orders and pull them into the volume of the space You get the sense of the brunelleschi39s telescoping orders but you get them at the same time as the mass in the space You often have a presentation of two scales in a very subtle way 0 You get the three levels that you have at san lorenzo but at a new level of completeness Alberti39s ideal city 0 Related to the notion of a continuity of knowledge He goes so far to suggest that our cities can be a representation39of these ideas The round church can a have a ripple oeffect further and futher out 0 Leonardo da Vinci 0 He is thoroughly modern He must have been so far ahead in his day 0 His work does not have a distinction between art and science He knew it was about creativity and invention He didn39t build very much but he gives us a window into the thought process o Bramante o Tempietto and S Peitro in Montori Rome Important because it marks the place of Peter39s crucifixion He places a hierarchy Where the sacred enters this world and the effect ripples out 0 St Peter39s a Very much a diagram The mass is put together so that it suggests a continuity of scale In a very different way than the gothic cathedral had done Bramante plan is much more complicated a Palladio 0 II Redentore in Venice 0 Knows that there is a system Knows that it is something that you can learn He publishes a book Later a young stage designer buys a copy of the book and learns architecture Chris wren Drawings were so accurate This was completely unusual People saw that they could predict the future of this building It greatly increases the efficiency that we can operate They didn39t have to build it to see if they like it o In his four books he shows drawings of his own works and drawings of existing roman works He does not differentiate betweenhis and the romans suggesting that the glory of the roman world is at their fingertips c He was able to see the whole villa and its surrounding buildings as one design 0 Look at his villas villa barbaro st peter39s collonade Notions of seqence Michealangelo Work is very evocative o Campidoglio Ties to gether many architectural forms San Andrea del Qurinale Bernini o Juxtaposition and super position where the building seems to be doing more that one thing at one time Use of ovals stressing the vertical The experience is larger than life even though it is so compressed San Carlino 0 Borromini Rome Pope Sixtus V 0 Made the long straight streets His vision of rome as a pilgramage He tied together the pilgrammage destinations so that they were pieces of a whole Chateau de Maisons Paris 0 Francois Mansart O Adaptation and extension of the ideas from italy Look at Versailles Pierre Patte map of Paris statue squares


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