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by: Mr. Jairo Will


Mr. Jairo Will
GPA 3.75

K. Delong

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K. Delong
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This 45 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mr. Jairo Will on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 2050 at Louisiana State University taught by K. Delong in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see /class/222727/geog-2050-louisiana-state-university in Geography at Louisiana State University.




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Date Created: 10/13/15
Geography Chapter 4 372012 124800 AM Atmosphere and Surface Energy Balances Insolation at Earth s surface insolation input all radiation received at Earth s surface direct amp indirect o Transmission 0 Passage of energy through atmosphere or water Scattering diffuse radiation occurs when insolation is not absorbed but it is bounced in all directions like a prism at if lljllli3ll7l ii mull Lila diffuse radiationthe downward component of scattered light multidirectional shadowless light Rayleigh Scattering o shorter wavelengths greater scattering violetblue smaller mole o longer wavelengths less scattering redorange larger molecules C williluv39i i i39ii ul amp atmosphere is an open window to visible light exception is clouds o Atmosphere 0 Water vapor C02 ozone and UV produce heat in ozone layer o Earth s surface 0 Photosynthesis radiation converted to chemical energy 0 Oceans absorb most solar radiation 0 Emits long wave radiation 0 Temp increases Reflection occurs when insolation is bounced off surface without being absorbed or scattered o ex Mirror fl ul allil 39 nt of insolation available for ab i gmiyiiion c Refraction skull 39r39 t ii i J i swam o image near horizon light waves refracted by air at diff temps Chapter 4 Section 2 372012 124800 AM Albedo or brightness we 3 in Merriam inquot iii0 iiimm i5 gg i ihzvifieuiitixe riggii Hr v Clouds and radiation E i39iuifm wewiii m mam tiw intertropical xmii mg ii KV convergence zone rainforestsforests regiw item mgu Emma poutants increased reflectivity global dimming desert regions have less cloudsmore insolation Radiation B alance Fig 410 391 03936 0 Dimquot my 1 S Ei HTiiirm 75 Uh rm W1 m 0 v 1 H if i39 3H 1 i it um Specific Heat 0 Energy for raising temp o handle of pot shows conduction o water boiling is convection o as energy is added to water changes phase to evaporationlatent heat Conduction o thermal energy from high temp to low temp temp gradient o equalize temp differences 0 takes place in all states of matter specifically solids o conductivity of materials Convection o Takes place in matter liquids amp gases o Transfer energy by movement 0 Physical mixing 0 warm less dense airwater rises 0 cool more dense airwater descends Advection o Horizontal mixing The Greenhouse Effect a real greenhouse traps heat inside atmosphere absorbs heat energy L7 insolation 50 albedo 0 Most sw transmitted to surface 0 Lw detained absorbed amp reradiated Net 50 insolation reaches surface Net greenhouse warming 0 Low stratus clouds reflection of sw to space 90 albedo Jet Contrails condensation trails o high false cirrus clouds o higheralbedo than natural clouds contribute to warming 911 2001 o for 3 days no planes flew daily temp range increased contrails may decrease insolation Chapter 4 Section 3 372012 124800 AM More direct insolation consistent day length little seasonal variability energy gain in tropics to subtropics c at 36NS a balance btw gain and loss o sun low high albedo up to 6 months with no insolation energy deficit long wave flux to space 0 llw tilt Kiwi o takes time to warm up earths surface and air E j 1 y gig plh Hquotl yell x VJ lTlL i llU jl39ll if iii l39C39 39li l39l iw 33l1ll7 lf lcit Microcimates o local climates differ from surrounding areas 0 few feet to miles coastal marine areas urban areas in water sun can penetrate up to 130 feet Simplified Surface Energy Balance Net Radiation o SW insolation SW reflection LW infared LW infared varies with day length seasons cloudiness and latitude o Global Net R 0 Mean annual ground level o Global latent heat evaporation 0 Ocean gt land Radiation Budgets The Urban Environment Figure in book What can be done o roof color building materials water resources Some FACTS 80 of insolation lands on an ocean surface since water dominates the Earth s surface on land insolation affects only top few inches of soil in water sun s rays can penetrate up to 130 feet upper 30 feet of the ocean contains 4x the energy of the entire atmosphere rrlost in g A l m cm l meratm l mm in humid areas some energy used for evaporation In uence on Temperature Insolation is the single most important in uence on temp 1 Latitude E saw wast Insolation varies with solar altitude and time of year seasonal variation chap 2 Temperature max near equator always warm Temperature min near s latitude seasonal range 18 F 5537F smallest range why Mid latitude seasonal range 83F758 F Polar seasonal range 58F 4018 F Greatest amount of insolation is in the tropics 2 Altitude and Elevation E P P In troposohere temp decrease w altitude lapse rate ch 3 density of atmosphere decreases less heat absorbed and stored glaciers in the tropics nights are cooler daily temp range gt low elevations moderate seasonal change lt low elevations snow line winter snow gt summer melting fromch 3 normal lapse rate average cooling rate of64Ckm 35 F1000ft mountainous regions high elevation andes 13000 ft Alaska range 20000ft Greenland 5000 ft Himalayas 23000 ft figure 55 3 Cloud cover a 50 of earth covered by clouds albedo depends on cloud type moderates temperature lower daytime temp increase night time temp most variable part ofa the climate system 4 Land and water differences a b c Marine effects vs Continental Land heats and cools faster than water Evaporation Evaporative cooling as water evaporates it removes heat from your skin heat energy is stored in vapor cooling effect from ch4 d Transparency e Specific heat f Movement circulation Land does not move water moves Transports heat from tropics to high latitudes figure 58 621 g land is opaque h ocean is transparent photic zone light is transmitted avg 60 m 200 ft oceanography 200 m maX 300 m 1000ft more depthvolume to store energy than land water has higher specific heat more heat stored slower temp changes figure 57 i continentality temperature conditions more eXtreme land warms and cools rapidly marine temperature conditions more moderate water wearms and cools slowly i gulf stream moves warm water from the tropics to the higher latitudes moderates western europes climate 5 Local impacts microclimate a Urban heat island effect chap 4 Chapter 4 Lecture 9142011 74200 PM Key Concepts Transmission the passage of shortwave and Iongwave energy through either the atmosphere or water Scattering When insolation interacts with particles of dust and atmospheric gases redirecting radiation changing the direction of the light s movement without altering its wavelength Diffusion When clouds and atmosphere interact with insolation and the radiation reaches the earth as diffuse radiation Refraction When insolation transfers from one medium to another space to atmospheric gases or air to water that subjects the radiation to a shift in speed and subsequent direction and bends the radiation Mirage An image that appears near the horizon where light waves are refracted by layers of air at different temps on a hot day Reflection When energy bounces off a surface and back into space without being absorbed or doing any work Albedo The amount of reflectivity a surface or object has Absorption When energy is not reflected it is absorbed heating the surface In the process the temperature of the absorbing surface is raised thereby affecting the rate and wavelength of radiation from that surface Rayleigh Scattering A principle that relates wavelength to the size of molecules or particle that cause the scattering The law is The shorter the wavelength the greater the scattering and the longer the wavelength the lesser the scattering Chapter 4 Atmosphere and Surface Energy Balances Pt 1 Energy Essentials Earth39s Energy Budget Solar radiation varies Output from Sun Distance of Earth from Sun Daily Seasonally Latitudes Atmosphere functions as a filter Absorbs gamma rays xrays and UV rays Allows visible light to reach Earth s surface Energy Essentials Energy Pathways Short wave energy from the sun Long wave energy from the Earth Transmission Passage of energy through atmosphere or water Insolation at Earth s surface Insolation input All radiation received at Earth s surface direct and indirect Energy Pathways Insolation in the atmosphere encounters gases dust clouds and smoke 50 of insolation makes it to the earth s surface These particles can either Scatter Scattering Changing direction of light s movement without altering its wavelengths Absorb absorption The assimilation of radiation by molecules of matter The conversion of energy from one form to another Heats the Earth s atmosphere Reflect Reflection Insolation light is bounced off a surface without being absorbed or scattered Refract Refraction Change in speed and direction of light Scattering diffuse radiation Occurs when insolation is not absorbed but is bounced in all directions like a prism Scatter agents Dust pollutants ice cloud droplets and water vapor Diffuse radiation the downward component of scattered light Multidirectional shadowless light Rayleigh Scattering o Shorter wavelengths experience greater scattering ie Violet to blue smaller molecules 0 Longer the wavelengths less the scattering ie Orange to red large molecules Why is there a blue sky at noon and redorange at dusk and dawn At noon blue light shorter wavelengths most readily scattered That s what you see At low sun angles blue light is so scattered that it is eventually absorbed and only scattering of red light is visible Absorption o The retention of radiant energy by atmospheric gases dust clouds smoke converted into longwave or chemical energy Absorption raises temp of molecules eg in thermosphere and stratosphere 0 Without absorption of gamma xrays and UV life couldn t exist on earth 0 Atmosphere is an Open Window to visible light exception is clouds 0 Atmosphere Water Vapor C02 Ozone and UV produces heat in ozone layer 0 Earth Surface Photosynthesis radiation converted to chemical energy Oceans absorb most solar radiation Emits long wave radiation 0 Temperature increases Reflection o Occurs when insolation is bounced off surface without being absorbed or scattered ie mirror Albedo or brightness same shit different words 0 Expressed as a 0o percent of insolation reflected egreflective quality 0 Earth s average albedo is 31 Albedo and Absorption o Albedo controls the amount of insolation available for absorption High albedo More reflection Less absorption Less heat produced Low albedo Less reflection More absorption More heat produced Refraction Occurs when insolation light passes from one medium to another Air to water Density changes Temperature differences Changes speed and direction Rainbows light through raindrops Mirage Image near horizon Light waves refracted by air at different temperatures Key Concepts Convection A transfer of energy by vertical motion ie hot water rising cold water sinking Advection Horizontal convection ie cold fronts Radiation Energy that emits from a source Latent heat Heat energy that occurs in a substance change Earth radiation budget The amount of radiation the Earth gives off to keep itself in balance with insolation Cloudalbedo forcing An increase in albedo and reflection of shortwave radiation caused by clouds Cloudgreenhouse forcing An increase in greenhouse warming caused by clouds trapping outgoing radiation and reradiating back to the surface This lowers daily averages and raises nightly averages Greenhouse effect When longwave radiation is trapped by atmospheric gases and reradiated back to Earth s surface o Global Dimming The decline in sunlight reaching Earth s surface owing to pollution aerosols and clouds and is perhaps masking the actual degree of global warming occurring Clouds and radiation 0 Cloud albedo forcing Cools earth surface by reflecting energy back to space 0 Cloudgreenhouse effect Warms the surface by absorbing and re radiating energy Aerosols Effects 0 Volcanic eruptions Increased albedo Reduces temp Pinatubo reduced global temp 5 C 0 Pollutants Increase reflectivity Global dimming Global Dimming o Aerosols cause an increase in albedo Radiation Balance 0 Solar Energy input 100 0 Shortwave and longwave portion of the energy budget need to equal 100 o Clouds are the best source for reflection Heat Energy Transfer 0 Conduction Moleculetomolecule transfer 0 Convection Energy transferred by movement 0 Advection Horizontally dominant convective movement Latent Heat Energy for phase change Evaporationcondensation Iceliquid water Specific heat Energy for raising temp Radiation Energy traveling through air or space electromagnetic radiation Conduction Thermal energy from high temp to low temp temperature gradient Equalize temperature differences Takes place in all states of matter Solids Liquids Gases Conductivity of material Convection and Advection Takes place in matter Liquids Gases Transfer energy by movement Physicalmixing Warm less dense airwater rises cold more dense airwater descends Advection horizontal mixing Latent Heat Ice to liquid liquid to gas gas to liquid gas to ice Occurs at all phase changes The Greenhouse Effect A real greenhouse traps heat inside Atmosphere absorbs heat energy Greenhouse gases radiate LW back to Earth delaying the transfer of heat from Earth into space Bounces in between the surface and the clouds heating the Earth s system Jet Contrails Condensation trails High false cirrus clouds Higher albedo than natural clouds Contribute warming Duh Duhduh find out next week Key Concepts Latitude energy imbalance The overall energy budget of the earth is balanced but it varies at different latitudes Between 38 NS more energy is being received by the surface than is being expended conversely at the poles more energy is being expended than received This imbalance causes global winds and ocean currents Global Net radiation Final outcome of the entire energybalance process Daily radiation budget Microclimatology the science of physical conditions at or near Earth s surface Urban climate The variations of climate that occur over urban areas Net radiation Net after deductions from economics At NS a balance between gain and loss More direct insolation consistent day length little seasonal variability Energy gain in tropics to subtropics Sun low high albedo up to 6 months with no insolation Energy deficit Reading maps Also on Moodle 1 Where are the extremes locations highest and lowest values What is range between max and min 2 Are these extremes located on the land or ocean 3 Which is more influenced ocean or land 4 Is there a latitudinal effect 5 What is the geographical significance of these areas Vegetated or Surface Energy Budget o Microclimatology the study of physical conditions are the Earth s surface o Microclimates local climates differs from surrounding area Few feet to miles Surface Energy Budget Ocean 0 In water sun s rays can penetrate up to 130 feet Simplified Surface Energy Balance 0 Net radiation 0 Net R SW insolation SW reflection LW infrared LW infrared Varies with daylight seasons cloudiness and latitude Facts and Shiz o 80 of insolation lands on an ocean surface since water dominates the Earth s surface 0 On land insolation affects only top few inches of soil 0 In water sun s rays can penetrate up to 130 feet 0 Upper 30 feet of the ocean contains 4x the energy of the entire atmosphere 0 In deserts most energy goes in to heating the atmosphere 0 In humid areas some energy used for evaporation Chapter 4 Reading 9142011 74200 PM Key Terms Transmission the passage of shortwave and Iongwave energy through either the atmosphere or water Scattering when gas molecules redirect radiation changing the direction of the light s movement without altering its wavelengths caused by dust pollutants ice cloud droplets and water vapor Rayleigh scattering The shorter the wavelength the greater the scattering the longer the wavelength the lesser the scattering The color of the sky is explained by this When the sun is high overhead it experiences less scattering and oblique rays causing blue short wave to show in the sky When it sets the rays are more oblique causing more scattering so the Iongwave rays oranges and reds prevail Diffuse radiation the downward component of scattered light Refraction A transition of insolation that causes a change in speed and direction which actually causes a bending effect Refraction is the reason rainbows occur The light passes through a myriad of raindrops the raindrops refract the light and cause it to appear as a rainbow to the human eye Refraction also adds approx 8 minutes of daylight that we would lack without atmosphere It causes us to see the sun about 4 minutes before it actually hits the horizon and it allows us to see the sun about 4 minutes after it has set Mirage caused by refraction an image that appears near the horizon where light waves are refracted by layers of air at different temps on a hot day Reflection Energy from space bounces from a surface without being absorbed Albedo the reflective quality or intrinsic brightness of a surface 0 albedo is total absorption 100 albedo is total reflection CloudAlbedo Forcing An increase in albedo caused by clouds CloudGreenhouse forcing an increase in greenhouse warming caused by clouds Global Dimming The decline in insolation making it to Earth s surface Absorption the assimilation of radiation by molecules of a matter and its conversion from one for m of energy to another o Conduction molecule to molecule heat transfer 0 Convection when the physical mixing involves a strong vertical motion 0 Advection When the physical mixing involves a strong horizontal motion 0 Greenhouse effect When radiation is sent from earth s surface caught up in carbon dioxide water vapor methane nitrous oxide CFCs and other gases and is emitted back to earth warming the troposphere o Microclimatology Science of physical conditions at or near the Earth s surface 0 Net Radiation Net R the balance of all radiation at Earth s surface 0 Urban heat island an area that has on average both maximum and minimum temperatures higher than nearby rural settings 0 Dust dome A dome of airborne pollution Questions Answers tonight at 11 2 What would you expect the sky color to be at 50 km altitude Why What factors explain the lower atmosphere s blue color I would expect the color of the sky to be a darker blue or maybe a purple due to the lack of atmosphere With less atmosphere more shortwave visible light through which is the violets and darker blues The thicker the atmosphere the longer the wavelengths have to be to get through blue is just long enough to get through the atmosphere to us which is why our sky is blue 3 Define refraction How is it related to day length To a rainbowTo the beautiful colors of a sunset Refraction is the bending of light when passed through a certain medium Refraction actually adds approx 8 minutes to our day by refracting the light towards us about 4 minutes before the sun rises and after the sun sets It is the cause of rainbows because light is refracted through the rain droplets in the air to reveal the colors of the spectrum 4 List several types of surfaces and their albedo values Explain the differences among these surfaces What determines the reflectivity of a surface Asphalt 510 albedo It has little reflectivity because it is black so it absorbs almost all of the insolation that it receives Light Roof 3550 albedo It has moderate reflectivity because it is a light enough color to reflect some of the insolation but tends to absorb most of it Fresh snow fresh snow is a very bright white which accounts for the high reflectivity It absorbs almost no insolation 5 Using figure 46 explain the season differences in albedo values for each hemisphere Be specific using the albedo values given in figure 45 where appropriate In July the Southern Hemisphere experiences about 2448 albedo opposed to the Northern hemisphere s 6 Define the concepts transmission absorption diffuse radiation conduction and convection Transmission is the movement of radiation through certain energy pathways Absorption When a surface doesn t reflect but absorbs energy Diffuse radiation Radiation that is diffused due to atmospheric gases or dust particles Conduction Molecule to molecule transfer of heat 7 What role do clouds play in the EarthAtmosphere radiation balance Is cloud type important Compare high thin cirrus clouds and lower thick stratus clouds Cirrus clouds reflect almost no insolation but reradiate longwave radiation increasing the greenhouse effect Low stratus clouds reflect much of the insolation it receives and allows long wave radiation to pass through it to space Clouds provide albedo reducing the radiation that reaches earth 8 Jet contrail affect the Earthatmosphere balance in what ways Describe the recent scientific findings Jet contrails decrease maximums and raise minimums lowering the daily range 9 In what ways does the presence of sulfate aerosols affect solar radiation received at ground level How does it affect cloud formation They disperse radiation when interacted with it 10 What are the similarities and differences between an actual greenhouse and the gaseous atmospheric greenhouse Why is Earth s greenhouse effect changing 11 In terms of energy expenditures for latent heat of evaporation describe the annual pattern as mapped in figure 418 12 Generalize the pattern of global net radiation How might this pattern drive the atmospheric weather machine 13 In terms of surface energy balance explain the term net radiation NET R 14 What are the expenditure pathways for surface net radiation What kind of work is accomplished 15 What is the role played by latent heat in surface energy budgets 17 Why is there a temperature lag between the highest Sun altitude and the warmest time of day Relate your answer to the insolation and temperature patterns during the day Critical Thinking A C Chapter 5 Lecture 9142011 74200 PM Key Temperature The measure of the average kinetic energy motion of individual molecules in matter Heat The flow of kinetic energy from one body to another because of the kinetic energy between them Absolute zero 0 Kelvin The point when molecules stop moving completely Celsius A measure of temperature based on dividing the scale into 100 invented by Anders Celsius Fahrenheit A measure of temperature in which the scale was divided into 180 invented by Daniel G Fahrenheit Kelvin A scale invented by Lord Kelvin which starts at absolute zero thus making the measurement proportional to kinetic energy Mercury thermometer A sealed glass tube that measures outdoor temperatures Alcohol thermometer Same as the mercury one only this uses alcohol Thermistor A device that measures temperature by sensing the electrical resistance of a semiconducting material Daily mean temp Daily temp range Monthly mean temp Mean month temp Annual mean temp Annual temp range Sea surface temp SST Heat vs Temperature Heat energy of molecular movement along gradient Temperature average kinetic energy motion of molecules Heat measured in calories Raise temp of lg water by 1 C 1000 food calories 1 calorie Temperature Scales Fahrenheit F Celsius C Kelvin K Fahrenheit F Developed by Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit in 1724 German physicist Mercury in glass thermometer Water H20 at standard atmospheric pressure atm Freezemelt point 32F Boiling point 212 F 180 apart Used in USA and Belize Celsius C Developed by Anders Celsius in 1742 Swedish astronomer Also known as Centigrade scale Water H20 at atm 0 C FreezeMelt point 100 C BoilSteam point 100 C separate freezing from boiling points Used worldwide International System of Units SI Kelvin K Developed by Lord Kelvin 1848 British physicist Known as the Absolute Scale 0 K is Absolute Zero where all molecular motion ceases No negative values K C 273 100 K between meltfreeze points and boilsteam points Science uses this scale K proportional to Kinetic energy Conversions From C to F F 18 x C 32 From F to C C F 32 18 c From Kto C C K 27315 o From CtoK C 27315 Thermometers o Sealed glass tube Liquid heated cools it expands contracts Calibrations mark temp o Thermometers Mercury Hg in glass Hg becomes solid freezes at 39 C 382 F Warmer climates o Cold weather thermometer Alcohol in glass Solid at 112 C 170 F Cold climates Measuring Temperature 0 For official reading outdoors White shelters high albedo Louvered for ventilation 12 m above a grass surface shade Daily or hourly Temp Sensors o Thermistor Electrical resistance of semiconductor Resistance changes with temp Reports electronically o Thermocouples Bimetallic sensors AC thermostats First Order Weather Stations National Weather Service maintains the stations Hourly Daily summary statistics Most located at major airports Records Temperature and other variables NWS Cooperative Network Different stations that other agencies or groups maintain All the data is fed back to the NWS and they report it to the World Meteorological Station maybe Temp observations weekly activity The red lines are the daily temperatures Black lines are the average for the day Measures over a year The shaded redish area is a 30 year average Temp Determinations Daily mean temp Average of max and min for that day max min 2 Daily temp range subtract min from max max min Monthly mean temp average of daily mean temps Sum daily of days Annual Temp Range Difference between max and min of monthly means max min Annual Mean Temp Average of monthly means monthly temps 12 Temp Anomalies Anomaly Difference from a climatological mean 0 Mean monthly temp mean of each month for some period Climatology typically uses a 30year period Sea surface Temperature SST 0 Surface temp Buckets and thermometers Ships intake systems 020 meters below surface Buoy 1 m below the surface Satellite top 10 micrometers 0 Data back to 18505 Some applications Degree days Measures costs to heat or cool your home Heating degree day Below base temp of 65 F Cooling degree day Above base temp of 65 F Agriculture Growing degree day Growing season Crop dependent Corn base of 50 F Peas Base of 40 F Key Terms 0 Landwater heating differences Land cools faster than water and water takes longer to warm up 0 Evaporation When a substance changes from a liquid to a gas 0 Transparency Light is able to pass through Photic layer The area of a body of water that is illuminated o Gulfstream A current that carries water from North America into the North Atlantic Marine effect Describes locations that exhibit the moderating influences of the ocean usually along coastlines or on islands 0 Continental effect Refers to areas less affected by the sea and therefore having a greater range between maximum and minimum temperature on both a daily and yearly basis 0 Elevation vs altitude Elevation is how up the ground is altitude is just the reference to how high in the air something is o Lapse rate The rate at which temperature drops in reference to increasing altitude Influences on Temperature Insolation is the single most important influence on temperature a latitude b Altitude and Elevation c Cloud cover d Land and water differences Marine effects vs Continental e Local impacts Microclimate Urban heat island effect chap 4 a Latitude Insolation varies with solar altitude and time of year Seasonal variations Temperature max near equator always warm Temperature min near poles always cold Monthly Average Climatology U39 Tropics Always warm little seasonality average 80 F Subtropics seasonal range 30 F Mid latitude seasonal range 18 55 37 Mid latitude season arrange 85 75 10 F Polar seasonal range 40 25 F Altitude elevation In troposphere temp decrease with altitude Lapse rate Density of atmosphere Decreases less heat absorbed and stored Glaciers in the tropics Nights are cooler Daily temp range gt than low elevation Moderate seasonal range lt low elevation Troposphere Temperature Normal lapse rate average cooling at rate of 64 C km 35 F 1000ft Eg travel up a mountain or airplaneballoon what happens to temp c Cloud cover 50 of earth is covered by clouds at any given point Albedo depends on cloud type Moderate temperatures Lower daytime temp Increase nighttime temp Most variable part of the system d Landwater heating differences Evaporation The ocean gives off more energy than any other comparably sized object Transparency The water is transparent therefore it absorbs more energy Specific heat How much energy it takes to change the state of a material MovementCirculation Marine effect Maritime Narrow range along coastlines Moderate temp patterns cooler summers warmer winters Smaller seasonal range Continental effect Continentality More extreme temp Large seasonal range Land heats and coos faster than water Ocean is transparent o Photic zone Light is transmitted Avg 60 m 200 ft Oceanography 200 m Max 300 m 1000 ft 0 More depthvolume to store energy than land 0 Water has higher specific heat More heat stored Slower temp changes Latent Heat of Evaporation o Evaporative cooling As water evaporates it removes heat from your skin Heat energy is stored in vapor Cooling effect Movements Ocean currents 0 Land does not move water moves transports heat from tropics to high latitudes That s why Europe is cool Because they wear cool shoes The Gulf Stream 0 Moves warm water from the tropics to higher latitudes moderates western Europe s climate Marin and Continental Generally over continents marine Isotherms bend equatorward in winter summer Isotherms bend poleward in summer winter Key Concepts 0 Isolines A line along which there is a constant value o Isotherm The isoline that connects pints of equal temperature and portrays the temperature pattern Thermal Equator An isotherm connecting all points of highest mean temp 0 Annual temp range The range between 0 Sea ice 0 Wind chill 0 Heat index 0 Hypothermia o Hyperthermia 0 Western Pacific Warm pool 0 Ocean currents chapter 6 Global Temperature Patterns 0 Isolines From Greek isos Equal 0 Used to show geographical patterns isotherm Line of equal temperature 0 Interpolation to inset information between data points Generally milder winters due to more ocean than land Exception is Antarctica Arctic Sea Ice Changes 0 Melting sea ice is a positive Feedback Recorded Temperature Extremes 0 Global High 136 F 58 C Al Aziziyah Libya Sep 1022 0 Global low 1286F 892C Vostok Antarctica Jul 1983 0 USA High Death Valley CA 134F 57C in 1913 37 N and 178 feet below sea level 0 USA Low Prospect Creek Alaska 1971 81F Earth39s Temperature Patterns 0 January Temperature Map Thermal equator movement southward More pronounced over large continents 0 July Temperature Map Thermal equator movement northward More pronounced over large continents 0 Annual Temperature Range Map Continentality Temperature and the Human Body 0 We feel apparent temperature or sensible heat 0 Comfort level Water vapor in air Wind speed Air temp o Discomfort Highlow temp High very low humidity Low winds Heat Index 0 Correlates heat and humidity water vapor in air 0 More humid less evaporative cooling 0 Hyperthermia high body temp heat stroke which can be fatal Wind Chill 0 Hypothermia The body loses heat frostbit can be fatal if not treated Key Terms Chapter 5 Reading 9142011 74200 PM Vocab Temperature A measure of the average kinetic energy motion of individual molecules in matter Landwater heating differences land heats and cools faster than water Specific heat The heat capacity of a substance Daily mean temperature an average of daily minimum maximum temperature readings Monthly mean temperatures the total of daily mean temps for the month divided by the number of days in the month Gulf stream A stream that moves northward off the east coast of North America carrying warm water far into the North Atlantic Marine Effect also maritime Describes locations that exhibit the moderating influences of the ocean usually along coastlines or on islands Continental effect A contention of continentality refers to areas less affec4ted b the sea and therefore having a greater range between maximum and minimum temperatures on both daily and yearly basis Isotherm and isoline a line along which there is a constant value that connects points of equal temperature and portrays the temperature pattern Thermal equatoran isotherm connecting all points of highest mean temperature It trends southward into the interior of South America and Africa indicating higher temps over landmass Specific heat the heat capacity of a substance Questions 1 Distinguish between sensible heat and sensible temperature 2 What does air temperature indicate about energy in the atmosphere 5 Explain the effect of altitudeelevation on air temperature What is air at higher altitudeelevation lower in temperature Why does it feel cooler standing in shadows at higher elevation than at lower elevation 6 What noticeable effect does air density have on the absorption and radiation of energy What role does elevation play in that process 7 How is it possible to grow moderateclimatetype crops such as wheat barley and potatoes at an elevation of 4103 m near La Paz Bolivia so near the equator 8 Describe the effect of cloud cover with regard to Earth s temperature patterns 9 List the physical aspects of land and water that produce their different responses to heating from absorption of insolation What is the specific effect of transparency in a medium 10 What is specific heat Compare the specific heat of water and soil 11 Describe the pattern of seasurface temperatures SSTs as determined by satellite remote sensing Where is the warmest ocean region on Earth 12 What effect does seasurface temperature have on air temperature Describe the negative feedback mechanism created by higher seasurface temperatures and evaporation rates 13 Differentiate between marine and continental temperatures Give geographic examples of each from the text Canada the United States Norway and Russia 14 What is the thermal equator Describe its location in January and in July Explain why it shifts positions annually 15 Observe trends in the pattern of isolines over North America and compare the January average temperature map with the July map Why do the patterns shift locations 16 Describe and explain the extreme temperature range experienced in NorthCentral Siberia between January and July 17 Where are the hottest places on Earth Are they nearer the equator or elsewhere Explain Where is the coldest place on Earth 20 What is the wind chill temperature on a day with an air temp of 12 C 10 F and a wind speed of 32 kmph 20 mph 0 9142011 74200 PM 0 Review for test Learn the isothermic maps from the book and moodle Review heat diagram DEFINITELY LEARN THE PLANETARY ALBEDO DIAGRAM Diagram for planetary albedo broken down 0 Solar energy Planetary albedo energy radiated by the Earth 0 Energy balance for the Earth on a planetary scale 0 Diffuse energy from atmosphere direct solar energy 45 Surface heat input 25 of insolation hits the surface directly 0 Reflected by clouds reflected by Earth s surface diffuse reflection and scattering by the atmosphere 31 Earth s abedoshortwave energy reflected to space know the more prevalent sources of reflection and radiation and absorption 0 Absorbed by clouds Absorbed by atmospheric gases and dust 21 atmospheric heat input 0 Longwave radiation from Earth s surface ongwave radiation from clouds and atmosphere 14 Greenhouse effect 0 Absorbed by ozone radiated by ozone 0 Energy balance for Ozone in the atmosphere 0 Many energy pathways occur in the earth system Which of the following do not change the shortwave radiation to ongwave radiation ie energy remains shortwave Diffusion reflection scattering the only one that does is absorption 0 The earth has several mechanisms for heat transfer Match the following Convective transfer air circulation Direct heat loss Longwave radiation from Earth surface Advection Horizontal convection Radiated from ozone layer Stratosphere It is a stratospheric process Latent heat Evaporation Sensible heat is heat you can fell that you can sense Greenhouse effect Longwave radiation reflected back to Earth s surface Activity Quiz 5 What month has the highest range of temperatures The lowest range Highest range October fluctuating temperatures Lowest Range July because it s always hot What is the lower dashed line on the annual plot Freezing point just for reference The higher one is at 90 for purely arbitrary reasons What day had the warmest day for January 2011 The coldest the 315t and 13 What is the Monthly mean temperature for Jan 2011 1 Daily average maxmin2 2 Sum of daily averages 3 Divide by of days 485 F How does Monthly mean temp for Jan 2011 that you calculated compare to the 30 year climatological average and range It falls within the 30 year average 9142011 74200 PM September 8I 2010 geography geodesy scientific method latitude and longitude open close systems great circles feedback systems time zones equilibrium dimensional analysis Geography 7 geography geo earth graphien to write 7 the study of the interdependence among geographic areas natural systems people and their activities over space 7 spatial science 7 geographers use maps 7 geography annalistic science 0 human geography explores human interactions spatially 0 physical g g r39 explores quot 39 Scientific Method 1 make observations 2 experiment 3 form hypothesis 4 test hypothesis 5 make a theory Open Closed Systems 7 open an exchange of energy with surroundings 7 closed no exchange of energy with surroundings o equilibrium input output 0 earth is an open system Eguilibrium and Time 7 dynamic trends overtime 7 steady state vary around an average Geodesy 7 the study of the shape of the Earth 7 Earth is an oblate spheroid 7 mean sea level surface geoid Latitude 7 lines that run eastwest 7 parallel lines called parallels 7 degrees northsouth 7 0 90 degrees NS 7 1 degree latitude 69 miles Important Parallels 7 Equator 0 7 Tropic of Cancer 235 N 7 Tropic of Capricorn 235 S 7 Arctic Circle 665 N 7 Antarctic Circle 665 S Longitude 7 lines that run northsouth 7 meridians 7 180 degrees EW 7 meridians converge at the poles 7 pairs of meridians are Great Circles Important Meridians 7 International Dateline 180 7 Prime Meridian 0 Latitudinal Geographic Zones 7 tropics 235 N 235 S 7 subtropical 235 N to 35 N 235 S to 35 S 7 midlatitude 35 N to 55 N 35 S to 55 S 7 subarctic 55 N to 665 N 55 S to 665 S 7 arctic 665 N to North Pole 7 antarctic 665 S to South Pole September 10I 2010 latitude cylindrical or mercator projection longitude conic projection time zones planar projection maps oval projection great circles map scale small circles GPS dimensional analysis GIS globe remote sensing Degrees Latitude and Longitude 7 any location latitude longitude Great Circle and Small Circle 7 great circle 0 each pair of meridians forms a great circle 0 intersect middle of earth Time Zones 7 time zones 24 24 hours in a day 7 360 degrees in a circle24 hours 15 degreeshour 7 time zones are about every 15 but vary along political boundaries Globe to Flat Map Problem 7 area vs shape 7 distortion vs scale Maps 7 globe only true representation of the distance direction area shape and proximity 7 flat maps distort either equal area or true shape depends on how they will be used Types of Maps 7 cylindrical projection 7 planar projection 7 conic projection 7 oval projection Great Circle Routes 7 shortest distance between 2 points in arch of the Great Circle 7 shortest route Great Circle Map Scale 7 ratio of the map to the real world Remote Sensing GPS 7 tools for geographers and scientists 0 climate weather 0 mapping 0 Earth science oceanography 0 military application 0 much more 7 aircraft and satellite 0 about 560 satellites o geostationary o polar 0 sun schronomous 7 global positioning system 7 24 satellites 7 used for navigation 0 aircraft 0 ships 7 latitude and longitude 7 tool for geographers GIS Geographic Information Systems 7 a computer system capable of capturing storing analyzing and displaying geographically referenced information 7 tool for geographers Key concepts 0 Geography 0 Scientific method 0 Openclosed systems 0 Feedback systems 0 Equilibrium Geography 0 Write about the earth 0 Study of geographic areas natural systems people and their activities over space I all interdependent spatial science use maps Spatial science 0 Ideas concepts systems in spatial frame I Meaurements distribution 0 What processes are creating these patterns Holistic science 0 Explores human interractions spatially o Behavioral economic political demography economics political science and more Scientific method 0 More of a circle not so much a flow chart Systems theory Flow of Energy Open system 0 nputoutput 0 Exchange of energy with surroundings Closed system 0 No exchange of energy with surroundings Equilibrium and Time 0 Dynamic I Trends over time Feedback systems 0 Positive I Increase temperature more water I Enhance greenhouse effect increase temperature 0 Negative I Increase temp increase number of clouds decrease temp Geodesy Latitude and longitude Great circles Time zones Dimensional analysis 0000 Geodesy 0 Study of shape of the earth I Oblate spheroid earth is wider at equator than at the poles I Mean sea level surface geoid Latitude 0 Run east to west lines parallel called quotparallelsquot o 1 degree latitude 69 miles I Equator tropic of cancercapricorn arcticantarctic circles Longitude 0 Run north to south meridians converge at poles Degrees run east to west 0 degrees Greenwich england Prime Meridian International date line 180 degrees OOO 0 Pairs called great circles Great circles 0 Divide the earth into equal halves and pass through the center Key concepts 0 000000 0 Time zones Maps Great circles Conic projection Planar projection Oval projection OOOOOOO Small circles Map scale Dimensional analysis GPS Globe GS Cylindrical or mercator Remote sensing projection Dimensional analysis 0 Convert from 1 unit to another I Key is units Time zones 0 150 every hour 0 Every 150 but vary along political boundries Maps 0 Globe I Only true representation of the earth 0 Flat map I Equal area and true shape distorted o Planar projection I Longitude converges o Conic projection I Equal area 0 Oval projection I Pacific ocean highly exaggerated Great circle 0 Shortest air route Remote sensing O 0 Tools for geographers and scientists I Climateweather I Mapping I Earth science I Oceanography I Military applications Over 3000 satellites I Geostationary 0 Telecommunications I Polarsunsynchronous orbits I Scientific uses Global Positioning System 0 24 satellites I Aircraft and ships I Longitude and latitude I Tool for geographers 0 Geographic Information Systems 0 Capturing storing analyzing displaying geographically referenced information


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