HUMN GEOG AFR & ASI
HUMN GEOG AFR & ASI GEOG 1003
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mr. Jairo Will on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 1003 at Louisiana State University taught by E. Sills in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see /class/222732/geog-1003-louisiana-state-university in Geography at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Geography 1003 August 22 2012 Chapter 1 Europe 1870 s Landscape Lanschap Dutch when you look at an environment or landscape you look at human modifications of the landscape or how humans have changed the land It focused mostly on the Visual appearance 0 Natural 0 Human o Culturalareas that have evolved from the environment how where you live shapes who you are People in moderate climates were smarter colderless smart American Association of Geographers o Founded in 1904 0 Great Britain North Africa Australia have a lot of geography majors c Department of Geography and Anthropology LSU Founded in 1928 We have the 1 climate center in the nation 5 in general geography in the nation Geography is o The study of place and space 0 Studies the location and distribution of features on the Earth s surface 0 Things we can see that have direct human involvement 0 Studies human activity the natural environment and the relationship between the two 4 Main Subfields of Geography 1 Physical Geography 2 Mapping Science 3 Human Geography 4 Cultural Geography 1 Physical Geography 0 Natural processes occurring at or near the earth s surface I Climatology weather patterns over 30 years multiple year periods I Fluvial water I Geomorphology landforms how landforms change over time 2 Mapping Science 0 Technologydriven analysis of spatial data I GIS Geographic Information System I Remote Sensing I Satellite Imagery 3 Cartography The art and science of mapmaking Mapping Technology Satellite Images DEMS Digital Elevation Models What do the patterns textures and shapes visible in this image tell us about this place 0 Farming linear lines of agriculture apartments Suburb of Algiers Algeria Algeria was a French colony Human Geography 0 Spatial relationships of human and social activities I Population Studies I Economic Activity I Political Systems Human Impacts 0 Environmental Science 0 Hazard Analysis 0 Disaster Management Demographic data book map US Census Bureau book map Economic Impacts The Geography of a Recession from the New York Times 2008 Cultural Geography 0 Spatially examining a way of life held in common by a group of people I Behavior I Customs I Belief Systems I Material Items Geography is the study of spatial patterns in the human and natural world But geography is also about abstract space 0 No specific boundaries 0 Gender roles how men women and others are supposed to act in certain environments Celebrating ethnicity Remembering grief emotions war memorials Power who has the power and who does not August 24 2012 Regions Space and Place Region 0 A spatial unit or area that shares distinguishing traits as examples I Physical climate I Cultural language I Political states The textbooks define 12 regions around the world North America The Caribbean Australia and Oceania Latin America Europe The Russian Domain North AfricaSouthwest Asia It defines them by mostly weather IO U39IAWNA Cautions o No region is homogenous the same throughout 0 Regional borders are fuzzy o Often stereotypes either good or bad Three Region Types 1 Vernacular 2 Formal 3 Functional Regions 0 Vernacular regions exist only in the perceptions of the population vague and general I Tend to evoke a sense of place belonging or home I Often the most meaningful type of region I Often built with incorrect and inappropriate stereotypes South Northeast Northwest Acadia in Louisiana 0 Formal regionsdistinct boundaries constructed using one specific trait I Extent is generally not open for debate unlike vernacular regions I Examples of cultural formal regions I Political linguistic certain language and religious I Examples of environmental formal regions I Climatic physiographic vegetative Formal Region Mississippi River Drainage Basin 0 Functional regionsactivity or organizations based on economic design I Transportation and communication systems or economic associations connected to a nod I More dominance nearer the node central area Example AeroMexico Airlines Radio station signal range What is wrong with regions 0 They are highly subjective Critical thinking about regions What is the Bible Belt vernacular 0 Where is it located Louisiana most of Texas Florida Mississippi Alabama Georgia Kentucky Arkansas What is the Corn Belt more formal 0 Where is it located Indiana Nebraska Missouri parts of Illinois Ohio a lot of Midwest states 0 What data are available to delimit this Looked at corn yields to determine data Space separates geography from all social sciences Space 0 Space is a real phenomenon that mediates relations between objects I Types I Airspace I Public space supposedly open to everyone but not always I Outer space I Personal space different for everyone invading one s space cultural norm Gallery space place to observe art Office spacepurely for function to promote a product I Empty space space with nothing in it has no personality 0 Can be amorphous and tangible o Spaces can change Wide Open Spaces 0 West Texas Space is abstract and needs places and objects to give it definition We create space on a daily basis Places discrete physical entities distributed in space Entities become places when they draw our attention and we give them meaning Example of place Churches become places when filled with pews books etc and people start to make memories there Places have rules 0 Places for the basis of our reality 0 Human invention 0 Rules retain a place s meaning Being in place 0 If we know where we are then we know who we are Examples I We are in class we are students I We are in a casino we are gamblers Being out of place 0 Someone can out of place in a place I This can lead to despair or excitement I Examples I You re Cleopatra and it s not a costume party I Moving to a new city I Vacation Places create meaning for many individuals and they produce memories Death Valley 0 1924 0 92400 0 Earthquake game in 1988 Sense of place the subjective and emotional attachments people have towards specific places The identity of a place is very personal 0 Elicit a variety of feelings c We don t all see a specific place the same way August 27 2012 Population concepts Chapter 1 of Textbook Demography the quantitative aspects of human populations 0 The size structure and distribution of populations 0 Age health birth and death rates fertility rates Population Geography focuses on the spatial aspects of demographic data 0 Within a city of globally World Population August 19 2012 httpwwwcensusgovmainwww World s Population density number of people per sq mikm Highly concentrated Not evenly distributed across the globe More people live around the coast in the US India is pretty densely populated throughout Africa coast not really in the centralmiddle area south World Population Growth through History World Population Growth in Billions 0 First billion 1800 o 78 billion present only took about 8 years Population pyramid a graphic means to compare and represent age characteristics Industrialized nations that have healthcare Takes bar graph information and puts it into a pyramid of males and females MalesFemales 0 Less numbers at higher ages as people age there s less population Population pyramids used to look at changes over time USA 1960s Baby Boom huge increase in the birth of babies USA 1980s Less births women are living longer USA 2030 More equalized across all ages Sudden population changes like in 1946 in Germany More developed country represents high qualityoflife standard 0 Economic greater middle class 0 Environmental cleaner water 0 Human rights equality for all 0 Political representative government and fair elections more stable USA Australia Kuwait parts of the Middle East Lessdeveloped country represents a low level of human wellbeing as measured by economic social and biological indicators Often referred to as a developing nation in the process of becoming more developed Third World Third World countries that are regarded as less developed or economically depressed It is becoming an antiquated term because people are finding it derogatory Growth in More Less Developed Countries 0 Less developed by 2050 there will be a higher growth rate 0 More developed by 2050 will have a stabilized growth Less developed Like Nigeriais expanding More developed Like the United Statesis decreasing More developed Like Germanyis stable Projected population change 20052050 Most growth in Africa then the United StatesSouth AmericaMexico then Canada and Southeast Asia Greater population change in less developed countries Terms in demography Rate the occurrence of an event for a designated population during a given time frame 0 Demographers usually measure per 1000 individuals 0 Examples Divorce rate Murder rate Graduation rate Birth rate the number of live births per 1000 in a given population Death rate the number of deaths per 1000 in a given population Rate of Natural Increase RN birth rate minus death rate can be a decrease does not have to be an incuse This measure excludes inout migration Doesn t necessarily include people moving Death rates per 1000 0 Higher parts of Africa former USSR 0 Lower in the US Canada South America Birth rates per 1000 0 Higher in America 0 Lower in Africa RNI 0 Very high in Africa 0 Very low in the United States Total fertility rate TFR the number of births per woman in her lifetime 0 TFRs falling worldwide 0 Often 67 in poorer less developed countries 2 or under in wealthier ones TFR High death rate in Russia so low birth rate TFR Why do wealthier countries have lower TFRs More educated birth control lower infant mortality don t need as many kids for agriculture Frowned upon to have as many kids Woman are empowered have greater access to healthcare Children are expensive Education TFR Why do power countries have higher TFRs I Usefulness of children in traditional societies source of labor I Access to family planning I Is it readily available and if so is it affordable I Acceptance of family planning I Does the woman have the right to insist on it I Are there religious or government prohibitions I Low educational attainments among women I Few woman have the career goals that require postposing marriagechildren if women do have goals then they postpone marriagechild birth August 31 2012 Infant mortality rate deaths per 1000 live births within the first year of life Used to show how wellhow badly a country is doing 0 Often gt100 in poor countries lt10 in wealthier ones 0 Why have infant mortality rates decreased less in poor countries than wealthy ones Infant mortality rate a region s infant mortality rate gives insight into living standards that are based on 0 Health 0 Nutrition 0 Sanitation 0 Access to doctors clinics and medicine 0 Education 0 Housing enough room for people to live concrete vs dirt floors Highest infant mortality Africa Middle East Mongolia Papa New Guinea Infant mortality rate 2009 Angola 18021 Singapore 231 Very high Very low higher than the US Terms in demography Replacement rate a TFR of 21 o Achieves zero population growth ZPG 0 Why not a TFR of 2 I To replace people you have to have Xmore growth to keep a population growing Nation vs State Political Geography or Geopolitics world politics Political geography o Polis Greek for state plural poleis o How else does this word appear in English I Policy Police Metropolis I How about inhabited places I Minneapolis mniDakota for water I Indianapolis Indiana land of Indians I Annapolis Princess Anne in 17th c Won t be tested on cities 0 Political geography Study of the distribution of political phenomena in their areal expression I Primary unity of state is the state What is a State 0 An independent political unit with full sovereignty over a defined area I States as in countries Canada Mexico South Africa France Sovereignty is the exclusive right over the internal affairs of a territory and its people o In order to be called a State A State must be recognized by other such states in the world there are over 200 states What is a State Ex South Africa map picture Graphic from the CIA World Fact Sheet Political geography What is the difference between a state and a nation Nationa group of people with a common culture occupying a particular territory 0 Have shared beliefs ancestry customs languages and orreligion o Homogenous or like groups together Na on Ex The Cherokee Nation in the US 0 Within the United States but not their own state Ex Kurdish in the Middle East 0 Syria Turkey Iran and Iraq Nations 0 Not every nation has a state 9 these are called stateless nations 0 Examples Native American tribes Kurds Welsh part of the UK and Scots Nationstate o A politically organized area in which nation and state occupy the same space 0 Belonging to a national culture 0 Substantial degree of cultural homogeneity most people are of the same ethnicity practice the same language and religion and unity 0 An ideal type what countries wish to be 0 Rare 45 in the world 0 Stronger in theory than reality Nationstate example Japan located in East Asia Graphic from the CIA Fact Sheet Japan is considered an ideal nationstate