HUMN GEOG AMER EURP
HUMN GEOG AMER EURP GEOG 1001
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History 1003 Study Guide Second Hour Exam BASICSBring a bluebook and two pens blue or black ink please Please note you must supply your own bluebook and you will not be permitted to write your exam in pencil EXAM FORMAT By and large the same as last time You will be asked to write two to four essay questions You will have limited choice As before you may bring in a single summary sheetimust be handwritten COVERAGE The exam covers all lectures given since Exam 1 You will also want to take a look at Moodle Topics 1214 which contain images and maps used in lectures that are not in the textbook as well as helpful supplementary m aterial HOW TO PREPARE FOR THE EXAM In this section of the course we have encountered a number of terms and concepts that have specific meanings in historical analysis often rather different from the way 21stcentury Americans use these terms in other contexts These terms include nation nationalism national self determination nationstate liberalism conservatism socialism romanticism racistnationalist politics mass politics You don t want to reduce your studying to a matter of memorizing terms but you should know these terms and be able to use them correctly in your essay answers Think not only about de nition but also about origin context and significance I recommend that you begin by studying a complete set of lecture notes Remember that these notes should also include outlines of speci c textbook material to whichI directed you in class Eg How was Napoleon both the heir and the undertaker of the French Revolution E g Compare and contrast the Industrial Revolution in Britain to the industrialization of Continental Europe Why did Britain industrialize first Why was the Continent slow to industrialize How did Continental industrialization differ from the British Industrial Revolution Then think about connections compare and contrast39 see what relates to what and whyTranslate lecture themes into essay questions and outline the answers eg What do we mean when we say The French Revolution set the agenda for 193911 and 203911 century politics in the West eg What did the first and second French Revolutions have in common How and why did they differ e g Why do some historians call the Industrial Revolution the MoreThanIndustrial Revolution eg What s the connection between liberalism and 19 century middleclass ideas about gender marriage and sex eg Why did the Liberal Revolutions of 1848 fail e g Bismarck transformed nationalismllfrom what to what and why eg What forms did mass politics take where when and wh NOTE These are just examples You should be able to come up with these types of questions for all the lectures Remember that you want to illustrate any point you make with specific historical examples WHAT ABOUT DATESAs before pay attention to chronology century and relationships of cause and effect Don t obsess about exact dates but yes you should know the approximate dates of the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the decades in which it spread across the Continent and you should know the significance of 17891815 1848 18701871 GEOG1001FINAL 12610 530 PM Lockett 2 Physical Geography a Climate along the eastern side varies midlattitude to midcontinental to polar i Latitude variety extremely important b Westside is very mountainous Rocky mountains change the climate because of their height mountains are so tall it captures precipitation i Highland along SierraNevada ii Dry climate all across Mexican border and most of Nevada iii In Cali Mediterranean climate c Two of the largest countries in the world i Canada is second ii US is third iii China is one in population and Russia is one in land area d In terms of population i 335 million not evenly distributed in the US 1 110 h of that in Canada it s too cold so the population is very condensed ii Region is highly urbanized 1 More than 80 live in cities not evenly distributed across the continent 2 A lot of empty land due to farming and ranching Great Plains ll Class a Class is a social and economic ranking and describes social class on how it is perceived and can be measured by certain attributes i Typically income occupation education and status 1 Notjust about income or money i Commonly there are three classes 1 High class wealthy and rich a In other countries the nobility 2 Middle class a In the US we understand it as working peoplefamilies who do reasonably well b Not so rich to where they don t need to work but they don t worry about being behind on payments 3 Lower class a The working class in the European countries b But however you think of it the working class involve the poor as well c Villianized and blamed for their poverty and radicalized i Treated as if their poverty was genetic Scholars think not and there is not a racial group to poverty but there is a strong correlation doesn t mean an agent of cause 1 Often children of poor parents remain poor not because of their genes because of their 39 and their 39 39 lack of 39 r I White Trashquot a The label white trashquot has a geography 39 Stems in the South Often usually in rural places Has a history started in the 1830s iv White trash is a term that originated from slaves that called white servants and farm workers v First was a category where the slaved people looked down on vi They were free but chose to be the work the slaved people had to do so they must be worse off than the other white people back in the day vii Today used in somewhat the same way 1 Category we use to define ourselves as above something 2 This category helps us solidify our middle class position a Class is a full continuum they bleed into each other no sharp division between each i You can rise through classes rags to riches but also fall from them viii A classist slur lt blames the poor for being poor rather than understanding the socialeconomic conditions that cause poverty like the industrial reconstructing of the country a ie so many blue collarjobs lost and service sectorjobs were poorly paid transition to the post industrial age where so manyjobs are lowpaying Ignores the social conditions that go with our wages a Poverty is a whole packagequot i Poor health due to lack of access to healthcare ii Poor diet inability to buy healthy food iii Bad education low tax revenue in an area less going to schools so schools are less funded and therefore not up to par quality wise b With poverty comes psychological stressworrystigma i The worry that you can t pay rent and will become homeless ii Can t pay bills iii How to make life better for their kids iv Stigma a blemished reputation of being poor 1 The blame of the poor for being poor 3 Jokes such as white trash exploit untrue stereotypes a But they re still used and still laugh N Poverty a In innercity urban areas and some rural areas and especially rural areas in the south and southwest b Disparities of income not only about money also linked to the ability to attend good schools i Schools in the us are often funded by property taxes in love income areas where property value were low if there s not enough money coming from those properties the school becomes low quality due to lack of funding c Poverty is linked to getting a good education and the ability to get good healthcare and racialethnic dimension whereas overall for Americans who live below the poverty line i 15 All Americans ii 25 African Americans iii 22 Hispanics d Although there is a large percentage living in poverty there are more millionaires i Seen an increase and has skyrocketed by 2009 by 16 injust one year to 8 million millionaires compared to 44 million who live below the poverty line e Rich and the poor and the middle class don t really interact intermingle with each other i In general middle class and wealthy have moved to the suburbs ii The poor remain behind clustered in neighborhoods where poverty is often universal and may be no other example 1 May not only have less money but also have less access and opportunity than other people who live in other parts of the same city Globalization of American culture a Fostered by TNCs as well b Idea of McDisneyfication c Criticized for spreading a commercialized version of American culture i How women should dressbehave or what roles they should have on society and the workforce ii In many cultures such images are seen as nontraditional and strongly negative d Many people fear that globalization will wipe out local cultures in the same way that colonialism has done before i However if you look at the world as we have it really hasn t happened 1 At first we know that these products clothing music food are often made localindigenized ii lndigenization adaptations of products to cater to the local environment 1 Can either happen with the company itself or the local people a ie McDonalds overseas Megalopolis VII VIII a Cities in the Northeast that are pretty close togethera cluster of cities that form a larger one i Boston New York area Cultural Mosaic vs Cultural Assimilation a We used to call the US a melting potquot but now it s typically called as a cultural mosaicquot ii Difference is really significant and the difference is assimilation 1 Becoming more like everyone else on purpose merging and conforming into the present culture but doesn tfully blend together 2 A melting pot blends together where as a cultural mosaic is a mosaic it s a larger picture made up of smaller different pictures but together it works Multiculturalism a The preservation of different cultures or cultural identities within a unified society as a state or nation Urbanization a Movingfrom rural to urban areas Counterurbanization a Moving from urban to rural areas Riot a A riot is a violent public disorder caused by a group or a crowd i lntention is to cause property damage or do physical damage to other people serious when they do happen and they are very unpredictable ii Always against the law iii One group against another against race or ethnic differences v Physical confrontations against the government 1 Police specific politian etc b Celebratory Riot sports riots i Small scrimmages between fans and the police ii Usually happens when the home team wins a celebration not done in anger Saints winning the Super Bowl c Communal Riot i Physical assaults between one group and its members against another group and its members ii In the US this group identification is often racialethnicbased 1 A race riotquot iii Mobsvigilantes delivering justice resulting in physical violence v lnvolving damage of private property using arsenals and whatnot v People are often attacked and their homes are targeted vi Examples 1 Chicago 1919 a African American got hit by a rock fell in the water drowned etc b Not a lot of racial segregation with the exception of the beaches c Riot lasted for six days 30 people died 2 Tulsa 1921 a Segregated at the time b African American male Shoe shiner public bathrooms were segregated so he had to go all the way up to a 5m floor to use the bathroom elevator operators white female Person at the first desk heard someone scream and dude ran out accused of rape c A mob went to Rolland the man s neighborhood Greenwood and rioted for 15 hours and destroyed 35 sq blocks over xx amount of homes leaving 39 people dead and 10000 people homeless d Commodity Riot i 1940s began to see these types of riots ii When local residents turn against symbols of power in their own community iii Were a result of unfair business tactics iv Local residents also turning against symbols of power firefighters city hall police etc v Looting more common and burning of businesses 1 Broke into stores and started stealing things 2 Men and women take different things a Men alcohol tennis shoes stereo equipment b Women toilet paper vi Riots occur in areas with high poverty high unemployment and areas of underemployment riots in general but usually commodity vii In the 1960s intensification of commodity riots 1 In 1967 alone US experienced 164 riots a 128 of those were considered major riots 2 1968 April MLK assassination a Mentality of these riots couple with antiwar protests viii The era of riots during the 1960s became known as the long hot summerquot XII Long Hot Summerquot all of the following are considered commodity riots a Tensions grew in Los Angeles blacks vs Koreans i Koreans were model immigrants they were business entrepreneurs 1 Began to start businesses in south central Los Angeles a They basically sold junk food and liquor because produce and the like were hard to find in those parts to sell ii They were often perceived as rude 1 When they return change to a customer people are used to being handed their change but Korean shop owners would usually place the money on the table for them to grab iii Example of a riot March 16 1991 800 Yajoon Empire Liquor altercation between two teen African Americans one being Latasha Harlins 1 Went in the back loitered didn t buy anything and attempted to leave but the owner accused them of stealing so the shop owner confronted them and the owner ended up pullinga gun to Harlin s head a There was a video of the event which only fueled more tension when leaked to the press iv Ice Cube s Black Koreaquot Pay respect to the black fist or we ll burn your store right down to a crisp v Another example March 3 1991 Rodney King 1 Reckless driving four cops followed him ended up turning into an 8mile chase with three people in the car the driver was Rodney King he was drugged up on something and began to act inappropriately towards one of the white cops who was female and married so once he started to make inappropriate advances all four cops began to beat King quite harshly 2 In 1992 the four white officers that had beaten King were not found guilty a Riots began to break out with the increasingly high racial tensions ii A third example stemmed from the King case Damian Williams and the LA Fourquot 1 At the intersection of Florence and Normandie a white truck driver was pulled over by the LA Fourquot and was beaten senseless a One of them threw a brick at his head and began to dance around him 2 Police were flustered and weren t sure how to react due to the increasingly dangerous violence so they had retreated and hid no law enforcement at this time thus more riots began to get out of control iii Rodney King Can t we all just get alongquot b Los Angeles 1992 riots broke out even more which were triggered by Kings court ruling i Heavy media coverage since then anticipating whenever riots would break out because they were so commonplace ii This was America s first multicultural riot no police were around to enforce the law 1 50 arrested were Hispanic what did they do It was kind of a random statistic because there were mainly issues between Koreans and black at the time XIII White Flight a Middleclass whites moving from the city to the suburbs XIV First Amendment a Speech assemble and petition the government b Gitlow vs NY 1925 i Ruled that the First Amendment applied to the state and local governments 1 Congress shall make no lawquot c Hague vs CIO 1939 i Ruled a ban on political meetings violated the First Amendment right to the freedom of assembly d March 3 1913 Women s Suffrage Procession and Pageant in Washington DC i Led to the women s right to vote 19m Amendment in 1920 XV Public Protest a A protest is a declaration of objection often in opposition to something i Was the US founded by protest Boston Tea Party and other events leading to the American Revolution XVI Ethnicity Ethnic Group a Ethnic group i A group of people with a common background in history who identify with one another ii Often as a minority group within society iii Doesn t necessarily mean nationality race b Most Americans across the US have roots in some other part of the world i 85 of the population identify with another country ii A nation of immigrantsquot iii There are more people in the US that consider themselves English here in the US than in England Irish here than in Ireland a nation of ethnic groups We are a pluralistic society a society of many ethnic groups that coexist 1 Always caused tension c History of immigration is tied to ourselves one of perceived opportunity in this country and lack of opportunity in their homeland i There s a perception that something can be gained coming here to the US ii A large percentage of immigrants have always been poor 1 Poor people usually will take the chance to leave their homeland to come to the US for a better future what s there to lose a In contrast if they re successful in their motherland why would they leave it behind I2 XVII Urban Decentralization a Before 1888 there were small pedestrianhorse car cities due to lack of transportation b In 1888 electric trolleys were invented since they could go much faster than people and horses revolutionized how cities grow i They could travel faster therefore could live further away from work along the trolley lines ii Street car suburbs living in towns but would take street cars to work c In 1920s automobiles changed things again i Impractical handmade toys for the rich 1895 Stephens Duryea the primitive cars wasn t really using it for transportation ii By the 1920s there was a shift in automobiles and they became mass produced part of the transformation of consumer culture d Kelvinator that made cars fridges etc people wanted to buy stuff i Cars became desirable to have not only for rich people but the middle class wantedcould afford it as well e Automobiles helped expand cities allowing people to live further away resulting in the creation of edge cities an urban sprawl i Urban sprawl because it occurs on the edges of cities as it expands it swallows up potential farmland starshaped f Who are those people who are making these movesmoving into the sprawling cityP What s happening to the central cityP i Central city in most American cities are almost semiabandoned because people move to suburbs or rent out their old places ii Minority residence in the central cities these poor neighborhoods became high crime racially segregated and intense poverty iii Partly due to industrialization the neglected part of the city but we ve recently seen a process of gentrification Happening across all across the city 2 Process of displacement of lower income residents of central city residents with higher income residents 3 The rehabilitation of deteriorated innercity housing and landscapes 4 The development of highend amenities in certain innercity areas restaurants bars theatres stores etc XVIII Transnational Corporation TNC a Firm or corporation chartered with HQ in one specific country that does international business through an array of global subsidiaries i Increasingly tie the world economy down together ii As their wealth and power grow they rival the power of the country they operate in b They have their foundation in cross border trade i Wasn t until the IR that TNC became what they were today 1 They were able to muster colonial control over resources improve transportation technology mechanize manufacturing and use all of these to become giants in areas of heavy industry steel automobiles petroleum banking and trade itself ii In the 1900s there were already about three thousand TNC nearly all were based in Europe or the US c In 2000 the geography changed a bit based in the triad of countries Europe US and Japan i Of the 500 largest TNCs 445 were in the triad ii Of 1000 of the largest accounts of TNCs 80 of the world s industrial output d In many countries it s hard to any aspect of life that isn t touched by TNCs i Our automobiles clothes food manage money build our defense systems build out roads stores e Debate whether positive or negative or both i TNCs can have a huge impact where they operate 1 Createsjobs by the tens of thousands and when they open a subsidiary they often pay higher wages than local companies a Accused of poor working conditions and vastly lower wages than they would be paid in their home country 2 Can easy move their operations to another country Since the branches of the company represent a significant percentage of the workforce and the local economy of any given area the departure of a TNC can be devastating 4 When they are present they can provide increased tax revenue but TNCs also spend significant energy avoiding taxes a While cooperate profits have been growing corporate taxes have decreased meaning a higher profit overall b Shifting their assets all over the world many TNCs can get tax refunds by shifting their assets around 5 ccusing lax regulations in host countries and creating environmental disasters on purpose or accident those that could not tolerate those at home a Bope Hall killed sixteen thousand people and injured five hundred thousand people an infamous example of a TNC taking advantage of another county 6 TNCs and their products generate most gases responsible for global climate change and account for most of the world s toxic waste f Since profits favor efficiency it s true that TNCs favor the adoption of more efficient technology i Became the worldwide leaders in cleaning manufacturing 9 XIX Transnational Citizens Organization a Organization made up of people united around a cause not motivated by profit XX Nestle a Aggressiver marketing powdered formulas in developed countries as a modern way to feed infants i Giving away free samples to women in hospitals who havejust given birth b Powder infant countries work well in the developed world but where there were poor sanitary conditions if there s contaminated waterlack of sterilization the infant formula doesn t work well c In the developing world infant formula could take up 50 of a familys income who could have been fed for free by nursing i If you can t afford it you dilute it add more water to stretch it then that leads to malnutrition for the baby 1 More water less product ii Healthcare workers figured out that formula that was killing babies in the third world when they should have been alive and healthy 1 The formula wasn t poisonous but it wasjust how it was used more water less product i What could doctors do Nestle hadn t broken any laws and made a good product 1 The costs of the babies dying in developing countries were taken up by more than 100 private in over 60 countries a Had no legal reasons so they decided on a different plan on action INFACT XXI INFACT Infant Formula Action Committee a Boycott of all Nestle products b Worldwide when this boycott was launched people stopped using Nestle products and it became a huge public relations nightmare for Nestle all of their products c Nestle could not afford that reputation as baby killersquot no matter how large the company can be that rep could destroy the company d Forced Nestle to abandon the marketing campaign in the developing world e This boycott and INFACT were only the first of many since then one of the prominent aspects of globalization XXII Five Phases of Immigration in the US a It begins with European colonialism before 1820 i A small number of Europeans arrive along with enslaved Africans ii The English had the strongest influence and also other groups the Dutch French Irish Spanish in the West Germans iii Africans brought as enslaved outnumbered Europeans and profoundly shaped our culture 1 There was not an immigration perceived by greater opportunity b 18201870 i 1840s potato famine millions of Irish starved ii Ethnic and cultural differences from the English and whoever in the US caused tension with the new arrivals 1 Still lingers to this day sometimesjokingly stereotypes and St Patrick s Day celebration of their heritage a Overtime it eased 2 Tension was felt strongly during phase 2 because there was a large number of immigrants hundreds of thousands a Was drawn by opportunity c 18701920 i Rose even greater a million immigrants per year seen in every city a difference that was highly noticeable ii Source regions shifted once was Northern and Western Europe Irish but now mostly Southern and Eastern Europe Italians 1 Poland Russians Austrian Scandinavians Norwegians etc iii Were motivated to travel to the US by political strife in Europe call of opportunity widely available industrial jobs and farmland iv New wave of cultural tensions 1 Cultural practices that didn t appear to fit in and the newer immigrants were ridiculed v Today people of these ethnicities are a legacy d 19201970 i Marked by a significant drop in arrivals due to the Great Depression and World War II and the decision of Americans to handle the massive waves of immigration ii The US placed restriction of immigration including quotas for source countries 1 Couldn tjust come by the millions from one place anymore iii Response to the cultural and ethnic tensions because there were so many different people living here in the US e 1970Present i Huge number of immigration once again ii After regulations being so strict it was finally loosened been in the 80s and 90s increased political instability abroad iii iv v vi vii XXIII Once more dramatic shift in source regions mostly coming from Latin America and Asia Transformed the country once again creating new cultural tensions Issues we see now are not a new phenomenon just an updated version it s always been a part of the The older ways of immigrants shaped our country in its own way and now it ll shape our future in their own way Across all the phases we can see that immigrants from the same source countries often settle in the same stateneighborhood when they arrive you can see the geography in this 1 Once they do arrive and establish themselves they often send word to family and friends and soon more arrive maybe their other family members a They live near each other and cluster again becomes recognizable as immigrant groups due to their clustering ie Chinatown Globalization a Five Cultural Flows i ii iii v V People Migration forced tourismtravel Technology Sped significantly in the middle of the 20m century Media Images Internet largely influences this Finance and goods capital and commodities Money and the ability to earn money and goods and products around the world not everyone has the same stuff everywhere Ideologies Ways of thinking of the world and how to organize the world ie ways of governing political systems religious systems and economic systems b They are accelerating rapidly if these flows are is the world becoming the same everywhere Global homogenization c Increasing interconnectedness of people and places throughout the world through converging processes of economic political and cultural change Many things have become transnational or globalized d Many things have become global lt239EE v39 Business transnational corporations Environmental problems acid rain climate change Political problems wars refugees Social problems HIV AIDS Human rights justice Crime drug trafficking money laundering illegal weapon sales terrorism e Became apparent in the 1970s XXIV Fueled by three things 1 Transportation fast reliable and cheap 2 Information technology 3 Communications technology Sectoral transformation a Primary sector I2 Economy used be dominated by this sector until the late 1800s Those that extract resources from the land Involves agriculture farming amp ranching miningamp fishing and logging During the industrial revolution there was a shift into b Secondary sector lt 239 55 5 As the industrial revolution gathered steam and coal by the late 1800s more people were working in the secondary sector Turns raw materials into something else manufacturing Those who work in this sector are known are blue collar workers Jobs in steel mills autoworkers classic blue collarjobs By the 1900s this sector was dominant in the country 1 Surpassed agriculture and held this position for fifty years mid20m century Focused on the industrial core in the northeast and upper Midwest of the US 1 There was access to the raw materials they needed power generated by falling water and transportation along those rivers before railroads 2 Region known as a Rust Belt c Tertiary sector i Economy transformed again rise of the service sector of the economy ii Broad and varied sector 1 Broadly white collar work but service oriented professions a Retail restaurants clerical beauty salons transportation utilityelectrical health tourism jobs in education kindergarten or high school or college governmentjobs iii What happened 1 Service sector has been growing since the 1920s saw the rise of the consumer culture d Quaternary sector i Informationtechnology sector lT a su pport sector ii A dramatic rise in this sector and still rising started in the late 20 h century iii nyjobs related to the collection processing and communication of information 1 Publishing higher education who have a research role medicine researchers web developers data processing research amp development financing and development iv Aren t about making tangible products a profound shift into intangible products v Made the country extremely different and today the 3rd and 4m employ 30 of the workforce across the entire region and account of 75 of the economic output e Quinary sector 39 Managerial sector a smaller number of people CEOs of corporations Tiny percentage of the population but this sector are among the most powerful and among the wealthiest Because they can be identified as a group due to their leadership positions some people see them as a quinary sector their own sector May be a specialized part of the 3rd and 4m sectors North America now has a postIndustrial economy 1 Now in the information agequot or service economy whatever you make of it vi out of has 39 implications Workers in the economic core were highly unionized earn higher wages have great benefits Workers weren t unionized in the south so they didn t get paid high wages Manufacturingjobs moved overseas 1 2 3 4 Sunbelt states amenities were high warm 5 6 7 ltE39 Not a lot of people can be retrained to do different work Unemployment having a job that is not enough The shift away from manufacturing the US lost an additional 3 million manufacturingjobs XXV Gentrification a Who are the gentrifiers 39 Middle class or wealthy usually white Comparativer young Often single Yuppies 1 Emerged in 1980s meaning young urban professional v DlNKs 1 Dual income no kids DILDOs 1 Dual income little dogs only b When gentrification occurs rent goes up so property tax goes up meaning they can t afford to stay there i Reformed the city but caused some problems as people are displaced from central places all across the country ii Basically rich people moved in to the central city made shops and stuff only they had the privileges to shop at etc 239 EE S XXVI Acid Rain a Rain containing a mixture of we and dry material from the atmosphere usually acidic i It originates from both natural and humanmade resources b It can occur due to XXVll XXVlll XXIX XXX XXXII i Volcanoes and decaying vegetation ii Burning fossil fuels c Acid rain increases erosion of monuments especially limestone and marble Outsourcing a To purchase goods or subcontract services from an outsider supplier or source Spanglish a Refers to the blend of English and Spanish in the speech of people who speak parts of the two languages or whose normal language is different from that of the country where they live Prairie a Temperate grasslands savannas and shrublands biome based on similar temperature climates moderate rainfall and grasses herbs and shrubs rather than trees as the dominant vegetation type b Lands typically referred to prairie tend to be in North America i Encompasses the area referred to as the Interior Lowlands of the US Canada and Mexico 1 Includes the Great Plains as well as the hillier land in the east 2 Area that constitutes this area a North Dakota South Dakota Nebraska Kansas Oklahoma Montana Wyoming Colorado New Mexico Texas Missouri lowa Illinois Indiana Wisconsin and western and southern Minnesota 3 Central Valley of California is also prairie 4 Canada Manitoba Saskatchewan Alberta Maquiladora a Assembly plants near the USMexican border i 4000 plants 11 million employed from these plants ii They make things like auto parts electronics stereo equipment apparel fabric goes to them and they sew clothing then the finish product is sent to the US b Reason why they do this is because compared to the US maquiladoras have i Lower wages ii Benefits iii Fewer regulations c Maquiladoras createdjobs especially for women i They were able to send money back home internal migration people in the southern area are starting to migrate closer to the border because they are poorer Hersheys a 1890s people in America still never heard of bar or edible chocolate b Milton Hershey in 1893 saw chocolate at the World Fair and wanted to add chocolate to his candy business c First only made dark chocolate and coco powder because it s easier to make d Early 1900s his chemists were experimenting with a boiled milk and sugar mixture i They noticed when it was cooked the milk soured just slightly ii Then when you added coco it had a different flavor than the European chocolate e 1907 Hershey kisses chocolate exploded and women worked and created it i There are more than 18 million Hershey kisses made today f Before Hershey American chocolate companies operated locally but Hershey followed the model of the European companies i In Europe they marketed everywhere so that s what he did as well ii He began the national marketing of chocolate in the US iii He changed the places you could buy chocolate 1 Before Hershey you had to go to a chocolate store they weren t everywhere v He sold them at bus stops grocery stores newspaper stands wherever he could a Chocolate was added to military rations and some would save the chocolate sometimes to give to little children Leonidas g Lived in Brussells as well and started making pralines h He opened up a tiny shop Leonidas after himself i It was so small it wasjust sold out of a window but eventually expanded to shops all over Belgium i Today still a luxury chocolate but with a broad global reach of stores i 14000 stores worldwide Tahiti Columbia Vietnam Katar Camaron Dubai ii But it is only manufactured in Beligum not the same as they set a manufacturing elsewhere 1 It is strictly produced in Beligum j Chocolate is made from fresh butter and cream it was extremely perishable and fragile i Shipped by overnight express to stores all over the world in insulated containers XXXIII Theobromine a Chocolate contains large quantities of alkaloids called theobromine b Affects on the body are less intense than caffeine c It s a stimulant but not as strong as caffeine it s the theobromine i Dark chocolate undiluted darkest possible will contain the most theobromine ii Milk chocolate diluted the lighter it is will contain less theobromine d Chocolate isn t actually physically addictive but there are cravings and it s the combination of taste chemicals and nutrients i Contains magnesium copper which are typically low in women resulting in cravings because he body will crave what it lacks ii It may improve mood and some continue to think that it has aphrodisiac qualities XXXIV Cacao Plant a Grown on both small family farms and small plantation b It is a tree that produces a beanthe bean grows in pods that attach directly to the tree i It s a food substance manufactured widely in the US and is consumed globally ii It s also a chemical that has drug properties that have been mythologized and romanticized c Theobroma cacao the plant of the gods because its seeds are made into chocolate i It grows around the world but only within 10 degrees of the equator 1 It needs that hot humid climate for growth ii The top growing places include 1 Africa Ghana Nigeria Cote d lvoire 2 Americas Brazil and Ecuador 3 Asia Indonesia Malaysia d The tree produces a pod and in the plant there are seeds they stick directly on the trunk It s a short tree The trees or beans are embedded in pulp e To make chocolate you first have to ferment the pods natural process letting them rot and then cure the seeds and roast them 39 Process is done in factories In order to get good quality chocolate you have to roast them carefully Once roasted the clean kernels are carefully blended and ground into different products Cocoa beans are high in fat in cocoa butter which can be pressed out of the beans That fat is used as fine oil in cosmetics and soap 1 What s left after you press the oil out is called cocoa 2 Cacao is the plants and cocoa and chocolate is the product f The plant originated in the Amazon rain forest 39 From the Amazon the ancient Maya brought the bean to Mexico and established early plantation as early as 600 AD 1 Its most valuable use at that time was as coins The Aztecs in Mexico used it as well But neither group at chocolate they drank it they drank it in a drink they called quotbitter water 1 In their language Xocoatl that s where our word for chocolate comes from 2 They also call it Cacahuatl which translates to our word Cacao Aztec legend held that cacao seeds came with god on a beam of the morning star straight down from paradise They have legends about this and in their legends god showed them how to roast the bean and make a spicy drink 2 They believe they got wisdom and power from drinking the quotbitter water and that s really how chocolate got its name it came from this myth cacahuatl quotnectar of the Gods XXXV Unitary State a A sovereign state governed as one single unit in which the central government is supreme and any administrate divisions exercise only powers that the central government chooses to delegate i ie United Kingdom XXXVI Federal State a A type of sovereign state characterized by a union of partially selfgoverning states or regions united by a central federal government i The self governing status of the component states is typically constitutionally entrenched and may not be altered by a unilateral decision of the central government 1 ie The First Amendment amendments XXXVII North Atlantic Free Trade Agreement NAFTA a An agreement signed by the governments of Canada Mexico and the United States creating a trilateral trade bloc in North America i Came into force on January 11994 b In terms of combined purchasing power parity GDP of its members it is the largest trade bloc in the world and second largest by nominal GDP comparison XXXVIII Understand North America s affluence and its lack thereof a US is a region of affluence and abundance of wealth i Rich in minerals and metals fossil fuels and navigable waterways St Laurence Seaway is an example soil climate is favorable for agriculture and human amenities b The US is the remaining Super Power in the world i Highly affluent Region 1 Median income in 2005 42000 in the US and 32000 in Canada 2 World average is 5000 c Highest resource consumption in the world 39 Uses 25 percent of the world s energl US Highly pollutive generates five times more hazardous wastes than the entire European union US Despite the region s affluence and abundance that wealth is not shared by everyone 19 of Americans think that they re in the top 1 1 We think we re richer than we really are Social economic gap between the rich and poor has widened and is likely to continue 1 Largest income gap ever Census says its larger than ever since the records have been kept XXXIX Know about agriculture and farming in the region is it subsistence Where is it most productive a Population is less than 20 farmers I2 b Agriculture used to be dominant at one time in the US it was what everyone was doing at one point in time subsistence c In 1790 agriculture employed 90 of the workforce i With industrialization by 1880 that 90 dropped to 50 ii Today percentage of farmers in North America of that 20 only about 1 is in the US 1 Farm population have been falling recently in the US and Canada it fell by 23 by the second half of the 20m century d Farms are consolidated each individual farm is getting bigger and bigger as they combine with smaller and other farms around them i Farm population is dropping and the number of farms themselves are dropping ii Fewer than 2 million farms represent a 20 drop in farms since 1975 e Agriculture has become more mechanized 39 You need money to buy the machinery so you need to obtain more land to farm and make a living The old idea of a small farm family is endangered you need more and more land and machinery too farm successfully in the US But despite that they are still crucial to the US and Canada it sjust a smaller number of people doing it iv In 2000 in the US alone 216 billion dollars in sales Land use spread across the US agriculture remains dominant more than half or about half of the US land is farming and varies by region 1 Dairy in the northeast livestock in the West because its too dry to support other agricultures f Farming and ranching depends on the topography and soil of the region i We re no longer about subsistence agriculture it s about agribusiness ii The crops grown may not be food crops in the central part of the country is growing corn not for consumption but for the production of ethanol 1 Extremely efficient and successful lt iii In other words fewer people are farmers and ranchers and in nowadays XL Understand the advantages and disadvantages of assimilation for ethnic groups a Why to assimilate i To fit in and sometimes in order to succeed b Why not assimilate i Important to maintain their own culture ie language Maintain religion and cultural traditions Stores that sell specialty foods iv Schools that educate kids as they did back in the motherland iii Travel agents specializing in their said mother country 1 ie Chinatownrefuses to assimilate and can cause tensions but not are cultural iv They were recognizany different because they couldn t speak English it seemed as if they were clumsy and awkward making them look like they re stupid v Lingering stereotypes is where thesejokes come from c Has been a part of the US for centuries XLI Understand the history geography of chocolate from early use through the present day continuing from Cacao a Christopher Columbus i Discovered cacahuatl for Europeans hundreds of years after the Aztecs have been using it and found it after his forth trip ii Still used at coins the beans you could buy an Indian slave for 100 beans b Hernando Cortez showed up in 1519 when the Europeans really noticed the chocolate i He visited Montezuma the Emperor of Mexico at the time ii The soldiers used bitter water and saw the soldiers drank it and saw that they had the strength to walk around all day without food saw it as a valuable stimulant ii Cortez had his own beliefs about the bitter water consumed a bitter water drink and believed it was an aphrodisiac 1 Led to the belief that it was an aphrodisiac v 1528 the Spanish thought bitter water was bitter so they added sugar then it became popular with the Spanish belief 1 Began to cultivate it in their own colonies and wanted to introduce it to the other colonies 2 Hot chocolate because popular with the nobility and for 100 years it stayed secret the recipe 3 They planted trees so they can make the chocolate with their secret recipe v By the early 1600s the secret got out and spread all over Europe and immediately became an elite drink all over Europe 1 Led to the creation of chocolate houses all over Europe 2 Was the hit and chic fashionable thing to drink vi By the 1870s they began to add pressed coco powder to add to cakes and rolls and whatnot c Cacahuatl and the Industrial Revolution i Machinery made it very easy to increase the production of coco products and the demand increased ii European colonial powers started planting these plants all over the world everyone got into the act iii Soon it became cheaper then it became affordable to the middle class 1 No longer elite 39v Chocolate bar 1847 1 After eight years 1876 Swiss Daniel Peter perfected milk chocolate 2 He brought this invention and to the large Swiss company Nestle today the largest chocolate producers 3 Swiss chocolate is traditionally milk chocolate d Milton Hershey i Refer to notes e Chocolate Expansion i Luxury chocolate companies aren t TNCs they re still local only distribution is local 1 They rely on overnight shipping to deliver chocolate to stores nationwide a different kind of globalization ii Globalization is different for every company and industry f Jean Neuhaus g h j k Began his business is Beligum in Brussells selling dark chocolate in 1857 as a pharmaceutical 1912 Junior took over the business his son and Jean invented and perfected the first filled chocolates called them pralines bonbons 1 Sold in upscale stores Leonidas Kestekides Refer to notes Chocolate TNCs Most of the chocolate is produced by major TN Cs 1 Have been among the most innovated of TNCs leaders in innovation Nestle Swiss global corporation iii Mars US global multinational iv Cadbury British v KraftJacobs Suchard US French Kraft Jacobs Suchard i Third largest seller of chocolate globally and number one in Latin America and number two in Europe ii Largest food company in North America iii Second largest in the world and operate in 145 different companies and 113000 employees iv 61 brands the top 6 is worth a billion a year 1 Kraft Maxwell House Nabisco Oscar Mayer Post a All began separately v Kraft 1 Started as a cheese business and started byJacob Kraft 2 Eventually merged with all the other brands above 3 Also bought out Baker s Chocolate opened America s first chocolate factory in MASS and introduced it as a pharmaceutical vi Toblerone 1 Swiss chocolate that comes in a triangular shape 2 Recently acquired Cote D Or vii Kraft is no longer an independent company a part of Philip Morris 1 Sells the largest consumer products in the world truly a global megacorporation What happed to the tropical countries where it is grown I2 Ghana E During colonial times 1500 until 1950 cacahuatl farmers in Africa Asia and North America were paid very little or nothing at all because they were often enslaved or child laborers By comparison the workers in the European chocolate factors where cacahuatl was processed have always been well paid and make high profits Cacahuatl was shipped to colonial companies to be made into chocolate 1 The exploitation of the land and labor developing world The end of colonialism didn t stop that exploitation 1 Companies that were based in those countries England Holland France today continue to advantageous relationships with the former colonies a Pay poorly for labor and manufacture the chocolate in Europe 2 Not all contemporary chocolate relations are about exploitation Colonized by the British and was known as the Gold Coast Grew on plantations using enslaved labor and child labor 1 These practices tainted chocolate s reputation Today they grow some of the best chocolate in the world 1 40 of their export income come from cacahuatl and employs over 2 million farmers 2 Still exported to Europe to be manufactured into chocolate Traditionally in Ghana women had no right to own land 1 Land could only owned by men 2 Women took care of children and did subsistence farming and couldn t own the land they grew them on Turns out in Ghana you can cultivate cacahuatl in small amounts and in the same field as other crops 9 4 Women started planting cacahuatl trees inbetween their other crops small trees a They were added to add a cash crop to their subsistence farming which changed women s roles in Ghana b Fulfilling their traditional roles and doing the farming but also able to supplement family incomes c Once they started doing that men started giving women entitlement to land on a permanent basis Chocolate has been a great thing for women in Ghana 1 Created stability for their families Multistory farm 1 Crops of different heights together on a farm 2 Can increase biodiversity due to the variety of plants good for the environment a Monocrop vs multicrop ln tropical countries around the world growing cacahuatl is now seen as a way to preserve the rainforest protect biodiversity and empower the people viii In 1996 in Brazilian rainforest discovered a new species of bird living among the cacahuatl trees XLll Understand how the contemporary geography of chocolate both supports theories about globalization and brings new hope for equity in a globalized world a Started as a new world crop brought to Europe by Spanish explorers b Introduced first to the royalty and the elite c Slavery to harvest the crops then manufacturing and industrialization increased production i Brought down the prices so average citizens could enjoy it d From discovery by Europeans it was a globalized product i Today it is produced by transnational corporations some of the world s largest make chocolate but still produced by elite boutique chocolate makers e Grown on family farms and plantations where cacahuatl help women and children in underdeveloped countries a globalization positive f Crop that can be produced in the rainforest and may be one key in halting rainforest destruction and preserving global biodiversity g Globalization about the worldwide spread of ideas and products and continued presence of local ways of local cultures traditions etc lt S S TEST 3FINAL NOTES Chapter 14 Intellectual Property Trademarks copyrights patents Property rights often transferred for a fee License 0 Permission granted by owner to use intellectual property 0 Trademarks on clothing right to broadcast event 2 types of endorsements 0 Celebrity and expert 0 Tiger Woods endorsement for coke and golf clubs respectively Marks 0 Purpose identify properties I Can include shapes colors sounds and movements 0 Types I Trademark 0 Identify goods with the manufacturer 0 Nike s shoes Wilson footballs Lexus cars McD s burgers Service mark 0 Identifies service 0 McDonald s or sports agency IMG Trade dress I Includes trademark and the entire package of product or service 0 Golden arches Coke s bottle shape French fry holder Trade name 0 Identify business itself shorter name 0 GM and NFL Certification mark 0 Complying with standards 0 Good Housekeeping seal of approval Collective mark 0 Identifies with group 0 Boy scout badge 0 Federal Trademark Act 0 AKA Lanham Act most important trademark law Prevents nonowners from exploiting goodwill or recognition of existing mark Provides registration for trade and service marks Federal cause of action of infringement for federally registered marks Renewable forever as long as interstate commerce is still being used Protects trade names which can t be registered under this act OOOOO Protects even if mark isn t registered 0 State trademark laws 0 Provide exclusive rights within state 0 Even without registration users can seek relief under different remedies 0 Common law remedies 0 Amateur Sports Act 0 Recognized US Olympic Committee as governing body of Olympic sports in this country 0 Gave USOC right to use Olympic logo I USOC v American Media 0 Court ruled that magazine Olympics USA wasn t a violation 0 Trademark criteria 0 Distinctive fanciful arbitrary suggestive descriptive and generic I Arbitrary and fanciful ex Nike and Apple I Sports channel too generic of a name to trademark I Boston Marathon and MNF generic but distinctive able to obtain trademark 0 Ownership I Ownership is achieved pursuant to use I Plaintiff must establish that ownership provides priority protection 0 Likelihood of confusion I Plaintiff has to prove defendant s use of mark is causing confusion 0 Factors considered in likelihood of confusion I Strength of plaintiff s mark I Similarity between marks I Similarity of products or services I Actual confusion among consumers I Sophistication of buyers 0 Most common infringement includes llpassing offquot quotknockoffsquot 0 Boston Athletic v Sullivan of Smack Apparel 0 Service mark infringement Infringed BA s service mark and logo Trademark is BAA s most valuable asset enforceable A person would infer a relationship between BAA and shirts Defendant failed to meet burden of proof in showing that term was generic O O O o Argued that shirts from 1978 constitute prior usage 0 0 Did likelihood of confusion exist Yes 0 Was there a trademark infringement I Trial court says no appellate court says yes 111011 0 Bd Of Supervisors v Smack Apparel 0 Did universities color schemes logos and designs have secondary meaning I Color schemes are directed towards consumers may be protected as trademark if it identifies certain brand I Must have secondary meaning to be protected I Must proclaim source of identity and quality I KNOW 7 FACTORS pg 281 I Burden of proof must be claimed by plaintiffs schools I Court ruled secondary meaning was established I Denied making the consumers believe universities were affiliated 0 Did defendant s use of mark cause confusion among consumers Yes I Probable confusion I KNOW8 FACTORS of CONFUSION I Type of mark refers to strength of mark colors are strong marks I No dissimilarities Eight rule says impulse and inexpensive buys increase likelihood of confusion I Relied on drawing power I A showing of likelihood of confusion is sufficient usually I Ruled that likelihood of confusion exists I Smack must get licensing or discontinue use 0 Sued under Lanham Act Sports Illustrated magazine and Sports Illustrated bar 0 Bar in BR didn t want negative publicity after kids drank too much 0 Said they didn t think people actually thought it was affiliated but may have taken advantage of popularity of magazine 0 Cited unfair competition 0 Changed name to Sports Pinehurst Pebble Beach and Harbour Town 0 New development Tour 18 copied famous holes 0 Court ruled this was okay but replica of red and white lighthouse weakened the lighthouse s propensity to bring Harbour Town to a golfer s mind Champions Golf Club in Houston TX and The Champions Golf Club in Lexington KY 0 Texas obtained name first sued Kentucky wanted them to change name 0 Request was denied trial court found no consumer confusion ruled in favor of KY 0 Court of appeal reversed KY could only use Champion by itself and in singular term Oakland Raiders and NFL 0 Filed suit against NFL claiming its trademark had already been registered and other teams were given similar logos o Alleged NFL s action was a violation of its marks ESPN and CSPN o CSPN changed name after suit filed because of similarity 0 Wanted to exclusively host college sports llDawg Pound o Discovered by 2 defensive backs for Browns 0 NFL trademarked term and didn t want to share royalties o llDirty Birdsquot 0 NFL coined term sent cease and desist letters 0 llWho Datquot 0 NFL backed down 0 Univ of Georgia v Laite o Injunction upheld cannot sell bulldog beer 0 Dallas Cowboys Cheerleaders v Scoreboard Posters 0 Group of excheerleaders Texas Cowgirls posing in similar outfits o Cheerleaders wanted injunction 0 Dallas Cowboys v Pussycat Cinema 0 Debbie does Dallas wears similar uniformporno o Claimed no one believed that confusion did exist and that no one thought it was actually the DC 0 Satisfied confusion 0 Had to pay DC lost case 0 Reverse Confusion when a senior company copies off a smaller junior company 0 Harlem Wizards Entertainment v NBA Properties I Washington team wanted to change their name from Bullets to Wizards I Harlem filed injunction I Court ruled different nature of names prevented confusion and allowed NBA to use name 0 Las Vegas Diamondbacks v Arizona Diamondbacks I LV team wanted to prevent AZ from using name I LV would have to show it had llprotectable interest and consumer confusion would result I Court ruled against both counts I Both still able to use name 0 Beloit College I NFL wanted them to discontinue use of Buccaneers name college wanted to settle matter on field NFL backed down 0 Dream Team I Small company transferred rights for name to NBA for undisclosed sum 0 Parody 0 Cardtoons I MLB brought suit to stop sale of cards I Appellate court upheld court s decision ruled that cards could continue that no one thought the cards were official merchandise I Upheld under first amendment 0 Nike Inc v Just Did It Just Do It isn t a registered mark but is entitled to trademark protection Likelihood of confusion exists Difference couldn t be told from afar O O O o Argued first amendment selling as parody o Parody isn t defense for trademark infringement 0 Nike wins on infringement claims 0 Referenced other cases I Mutant of Omaha I Hard Rain Caf 0 Both cases showed likelihood of confusion I Jordache v Hogg Wyld 0 Found that logos were sufficiently different 0 Mike Stanard appealed case next year I Used parody defense he won 0 Disparagement o Lanham Act prohibits registration of marks that are scandalous disparaging or contemptuous o Bromber v Carmel Self Service 0 Sexually offensive chicken restaurant s slogan 0 Native Americans 0 Harjo v ProFootball 0 Filed suit to stop use of Redskins name 0 Washington team kept using but didn t have exclusive rights 0 Laches equitable defense that applies when there is a lack of diligence on the party bringing the action and prejudice to party asserting the defense 1115 SPEAKER NOTES 0 How to get an LSU license 0 Obtain a CLC o CLC is located in Atlanta o In 2002 CLC launched a hologram labeling system that is consistent with what the pro League uses 0 Licensortrademark ownerLSU o LicenseemanufacturerNike o Retailerbookstorebuys from licenses o Consumersbuy from retailers o LSU s standard royalty rate is 10 100unit o Profits of 1 mil n 0203 just under 3 mil n 0304 In 1011 under 55 mil 0 Protect promote profit 16 mil video games sold in 1011 148 105 in total royalties to LSU In re NCAA StudentAthlete Name and Likeness Licensing Litigation 0 Sam Keller v EA Sports NCAA CLC class action antitrust suit claiming video games make illegal use of player names and likenesses 0 Ed O Bannon v NCAA CLC class action antitrust suit seeking damages for use of former players images and likenesses in video content photographs and other memorabilia Growth categories 0 Children syouth apparel up an avg of 30 since 0203 0 Youth leagues can wear officially licensed LSU merch for their team 0 Women s apparel up 49 per yr since 0203 Cobranding 0 Strategic cobranding reinforces brand quantity 0 Nike and Pink 0 VS Pink 2008 Magalog shot on LSU campus and around BR 0 Magalog featured LSU products and facts distributed to over 2 mil People 0 Fall 2009 two cobranded programs launched with Disney 0 LSU was one of nine schools in the program for Walmart Newrevitalized categories 0 College vault 0 Class ring program 0 Housewarespersonal accessories 0 Home and recreation products License plates 0 26 annual fee 25 goes to scholarship fund 0 Generated over 2 mil since 1992 program inception o Nongenerating revenue in TX and Miss 0 Second TX plate released in TX in Sept 2010 generates 5 per plateyr for LSU Exclusivity o Balfour rings 0 Upper deck trading cards 0 Nike coaches products jerseys etc 0 EA Sports NCAA Football LSU in the marketplace 0 LSU logos are appearing more frequently on products in the marketplace 0 LSU retailers have made a commitment to carrying more products that represent the LSU brand LSUcom 0 50 retailers known as Tiger Tailers 0 Info on site 0 Resource for fans and licensees to locate prominent retailers Newsletters posted quarterly for ideas on new products Open lines of communication OOO Licensee list of approved companies 0 Enforcement form to report potentially unlicensed products 0 Enforcement 0 Dozens of cease and desist letters annually 0 Gameday enforcements o Lawsuits 0 Shirts may not be infringement issue 0 No solicitation policy on campus 0 Smack Apparel 0 Plaintiffs allege unfair competition under Lanham Act 0 Summary judgment in our favor 0 Didn t stop selling shirts o Smack held in contempt 0 112508 US court of appeals for fifth circuit affirmed La federal court s decision in favor of plaintiffs 0 6409 US supreme court denied Smack s petition for Certiorari 0 Hot market issues 0 Cannot use generic tags 0 History of logos and marks 0 Hired NY company to make symmetric logos interchangeable 1117 0 Right of Publicity intellectual rights 0 Right to promote from a name 0 Misappropriation o Unauthorized use ofa person s name or likeness Invasion of privacy Ex Elroy Hirsch and llCrazy Legs Shaving gel company had to discontinue use of name 000 Palmer v Schonhorn I Game had to discontinue use of golfer s names 0 Motschenbacher v RJ Reynolds Tobacco I Court expanded protection beyond name or likeness I His trademark was his car I Court prevented use of name on car promoting cigarettes 0 Ali v Playgirl I Likeness and name issue llThe Greatestquot under pic I Ruled infringement 0 Dennis Rodman I Company made shirts wtattoo sleeves his specific tattoos I Filed injunction granted 0 Franklin Mint I Tiger Woods I Had to quit making coins I Argued it was a communications medium such as a newspaper I Court disagreed issued injunction in favor of Woods 0 AbdulJabbar v GM Corp 0 GM used his former name Lew Alcindor to promote I GM had 2 defenses 0 He had abandoned name and fair use nominal o discontinued use for 2 consecutive years wno intent on continuing o Abandonment of name isn t good enough reason 0 Common law cause of action for appropriation of name or likeness may be pleaded by alleging 4 ELEMENTS o Defendant s use of plaintiff s identity 0 Appropriation of plaintiff s name or likeness to defendant s advantage commercially or otherwise 0 Lack of consent 0 Resulting injury I You have right to say how your name is used I Reversed judgment GM violated all 4 elements 0 News coverage exemption 0 Public interest 0 llMasters of Augustaquot painting 0 Pic of Tiger Woods 0 Claimed they didn t have permission to use name or likeness 0 Trial court ruled protection under 151 amendment because it was of public interest court of appeal affirmed decision 0 Namath v SI 0 On cover after Super Bowl 0 Used same pic years later 0 Lost suit against SI court said they could use photo to promote quality of magazine 0 Montana v San Jose Mercury News 0 Public interest After 4 h win artist s picture of him appeared on cover Montana sued lost Appellate court ruled again on 1st amendment OOO Extended from current events to past events 0 Newspaper had right to promote itself 0 Gionfriddo v MLB o Included names and statistics in programs 0 Plaintiffs alleged unauthorized use I Sought damages and injunction o Looked at prior cases 0 Baseball deserved constitutional protection granted 0 Public interest matter couldn t prove competing interest o In California right of publicity is common law right AND statutory right 0 Plaintiffs alleges baseball appropriated names and likenesses claimed 4 elements 0 Intellectual property on the internet 0 Fantasy sports I Usually just pay money to the leagues 0 CBC and MLB I MLB denied their request to use info I California law I Missouri law I Speech that informs is free speech 0 No risk of being misled because all players are included I Appellate court allowed CBC to continue I Supreme court hearing was denied I CBC s first amendment rights supersede players rights of publicity I Same thing happened with NFL I EA games pay royalties to all colleges Players sign agreement for NCAA to use names and likeness during and after careers 0 Domain names of celebrities o Unregistered names aren t covered 0 Chris Bosch court gives him domain names to return to players I Request granted Vala defendant didn t show in court 0 Cybersquattersquot obtain domain names in hopes of selling them for profit 0 Likelihood of confusion o Anticybersquatting Consumer Protection Act 0 NCAA and SMI I Sent cease and desist letters to site to stop use of March Madness name 0 Copyrights designed to protect original expression of ideas tangible form 0 Telecasts of games o Hoopla Sports sues Nike I Nike steals idea from Hoopla for allstar games I Nike wins I Copyright protects expression of idea not idea itself I Copyright laws do not extend to sports events 0 NBA sues Motorola Sports Track for sports updates 1122 0 Trial court ruled in favor of Motorola 0 Appellate court reversed Corporate sponsorships Ambush Marketing Nonsponsoring competitors 0 1996 Olympics in Atlanta I Pulled all merchandise 0 Jerry Jones sponsorships I Created his own sponsorships NFL filed suit Jones alleged antitrust violation I Jones was able to continue his individual marketing required payments to NFL though MLB and Yankees 0 Made deal with Adidas 0 MLB wanted it stopped Yankees claimed violation 0 Case was settled contract was canceled Buffalo Bills have first naming right 0 Protecting the facility and the sponsor from the negative exposure I Exposure exclusivity good will identity crosspromotional opportunities unlimited amenities for clients or employees tax benefits Potential problems 0 Broadcasts refusing to use name 0 Ex Lowes and Pepsi What is a tort An unlawful noncontractual injury to a person or his property What types of torts are there 0 Negligence most common 0 Intentional act 0 Can result in criminal action could be privatecivil What are the elements of a tort o A duty is owed defendant breached duty plaintiff is injured breach of duty is legal cause of plaintiff s injury 0 Ex pertaining to sports law physical injury 0 Was a duty owed by defendant to plaintiff Are there any defenses o Consent and assumption of risk 0 Ex know you will be hit and therefore injured Dilger v Moyles 0 Hit while playing golf Said he didn t see her Risk of being hurt is inherent OOO Lawsuit would deter golfers from playing o Etiquette does not equal duty o If tort exists hit would have to be intentional Mike Tyson 0 Bit off Holyfield s ear o If tort suit would have been filed Holyfield wins 0 Not an inherent risk of the games Crawn v Campo 0 Must prove intentional act Nabozny v Barnhill o Goalie kicked while offfield o Able to be awarded damages because of specific rule Bourque v Duplechin o Ran into Bourque broke jaw 0 Ball had already been thrown o Breached duty to play by rules 0 Plaintiff didn t anticipate injury Ginsberg v Hontas o Slid into base injured player s leg 0 No liability for defendant player assumed risk Staten v Superior Court 0 Skaters collide 0 Assume risk of being hit Lestina v West Bend Mutual Insurance 0 Instructor was hit by ball in tennis 0 Defendant was supposed to hit ball softly didn t 0 Plaintiff wins Hackbart v Cincinnati Bengals 0 Hit on back of head 0 Trial court says inherent risk 0 Appellate court says reckless McKichan v St Louis Hockey Club 0 Player hit offfield Sued player and club Countersued Dropped suits against each other club is sole defendant 000 Club is liable for players actions 0 Appellate says player assumed risk Liability of coaches schools and teams 0 Theories of liability I Failure to properly train warn or instruct Gathers Loyola player o Dropped dead after medicine dosage is reduced 0 Parents and school v doctor settlement reached of 26 mil Buoniconti and Citadel 0 Had neck strap actually more dangerous 0 Buoniconti settles for 800000 0 Defense proved Buoniconti had violated NCAA rule Besterv W Windsor Plainsboro o Allegedly abused by coach told to lose 10 pounds in 2 weeks 0 Led to longterm eating disorder 0 Plaintiff awarded 15 mil appellate court reversed decision in favor of defendant Zalkin v American Learning System 0 Hs football player injured appeallate court says assumed risk but not negligent supervision o Said he had to see doctor didn t coach told him to play anyway Woodson v Irvington Bd Of Ed 0 Track star recruited for speed made tackle after one practice injured 0 Coaches only concerned with winning 0 Plaintiff awarded substantial damages Mogabgab v Orleans Parish School Board 0 Exhibited signs of a heat stroke coach waited before receiving aid 0 Student died 0 Coach s conduct is found to be negligent Kruger v San Francisco 49ers 0 Failure to inform player that he risked a permanent knee injury by continuing to play was fraudulent concealment o Kruger wins 236 mil settled for sum of 1 mil Randy Shannon 0 Coach hit on head while visiting other school at game 0 Claimed school failed to protect visiting team from overzealous fans 0 Awarded 50000 Nova Univ v Katz 0 Cheerleader fell from stunt 0 Court ruled in favor of Katz Coyle v Parish of Jefferson 0 Player hit in face by baseball 0 Court ruled it as inherent risk Harvey v Oachita Parish School Board 0 Special protective gear neck brace duty to provide 0 Allow him to play 0 Defendents are liable 0 Coach should have known he needed brace 0 Didn t have extra brace during game after malfunction 0 Court ruled in favor that coaches breached 0 Coaches ridiculed player 0 No designation for monitoring 0 Negligent for allowing him to play without brace o Awarded money to Harvey Day v Oachita Parish School Board 0 Freshman player 0 Injured back while training then played games o Miscommunication 0 School had medical excuse to avoid activity 0 Dropped out of school developed mild depression gave up other activities 0 School is held liable Granted 50000 James v Jackson and Frederick Douglas Senior High School 0 Substitute conducting phy Ed Classes 0 James collapsed after heat exhaustion died 0 Teacher played in game rather than supervising 0 School is held liable 0 LA protects volunteer teachers if they have participated in safety classes and are not grossly negligent Product liability Brett v HillerichampBradsby Louisville Slugger 0 Consultants and LS had warned management injury may occur if bat wasn t detuned o Settlement reached Sanchez v Louisville Slugger 0 Protective equipment 0 Baseball bats o llAir Attack bat is unreasonably dangerous Premise liability and spectator injury 0 Reiderv McNeese State I Struck in the eye near ticket booth of baseball game I Had to prove 4 things 0 Baseball field was in care custody and control of defendant 0 Park had vice or defect which created unreasonable risk or harm o Plaintiff s injury is caused by defect 0 Defendant had knowledge of defect 0 Plaintiff recovers o McNeese is liable Assumption of risk in LA is not defense if signing waiver Florida Marlins 0 Fan hit between eyes by a ball thrown during warm ups o Awarded 27 mil 0 Gallagher 0 Cameraman injured 0 Players collided with him sustained injuries sued for negligence 0 Court held that he assumed risk 0 Van Dyke o Skier skied into warning sign he didn t see 0 Bennett v Hidden Valley Golfand Ski o Skier injured 0 Court holds skier assumed risk 0 Appellate court refused to hear resort s argument 0 Three forms of assumption of risk express implied primary implied secondary 0 Only implied primary exists here 0 Exculpatory Clause attempts to exempt a party from liability 0 May or may not be valid 0 Hard to enforce against minors o Shaner case didn t prevent minor from recovering damages 0 Contract is voidable upon minor s disaffirmance 0 Ex ice skating fall is own fault exempt skating rink s fault able to sue 0 Sharon v City of Newton 0 Court upheld student s waiver signed by father to participate as cheerleader o If permission slips were ruled invalid activities that may cause injury would be abandoned 0 Agreement to participate new trend instead of waivers 0 Educational malpractice 0 Ross v Creighton o Courts reluctant to recognize educational malpractice action 112911 Chapter 16 The Right to Play 0 Don t allow to play discrimination allow to play may get injured lawsuit 0 Factors to consider 0 Age nature of sport medical risk position and role of parent 0 Pendergast had one testicle wanted to play football school says no court says yes let him play organ can be protected not necessary for sport participation 0 Columbo deaf o Spitaleri one eye 0 Both prohibited from playing football 0 Kampmeier One eyed female athlete wanted to play noncontact sport won 0 US Constitution 0 Neeld v Amer Hockey League 0 Challenged league s policy banning oneeyed players 0 Court says it s a private matter no constitutional scrutiny 0 College players would have a claim because of state action 0 Legal issues of an athlete s right to participate in a sport 0 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act IDEA I Requires support services and accommodations for impaired students with special needs 0 Rehabilitation Act RA I The RA prohibits programs which receive federal funds from discriminating against a person with an impairment who is quototherwise qualifiedquot The RA applies to persons who 1 have a physical or mental impairment which substantially limits one or more quotmajor life activitiesquot or 2 have a record of such impairment or 3 are perceived as having such an impairment 0 Americans with Disabilities Act ADA I Expanded provisions of RA to include private employers and public facilities I 3 major titles under ADA I Private Employment Situations I State and Local Governments I Privately Operated Places of Public Accommodation 0 Physical Impairments 0 Nicholas Knapp I Heart problems collapsed I 2 doctors with school 2 doctors on Knapp s side I Trial court rules in favor of Knapps I Appellate court reverses decision school does not have to let him play 0 State ex rel Lambert v West Virginia State Board of Ed I Deaf athlete provided translator for academics not sports I Courts relied on IDEA it says equal opportunity for everyone 0 Gallaudet Univ I Deaf university football players credited with creating the huddle o Swimmers I Deaf swimmers watch pool surface blind have a tapper at end of pool 0 Mental impairments and age limits 0 Chad Ganden I Had learning disability didn t qualify for college sports because he didn t take required classes I Granted partial waiver classified as a quotpartial qualifier I Couldn t participate in sport but could practice for first year I Filed suit court upheld NCAA s decision 0 Sandison v Michigan HS Athletic Assoc I 2 disabled learning students ran track I Couldn t run their senior year because of age requirements I Trial court ruled in favor of students decision is reversed in appellate court I To be successful under RA law must prove 4 things 0 1 The plaintiff is quothandicappedquot under the law 0 2 The plaintiff is quototherwise qualifiedquot o 3 The plaintiff is being excluded solely due to the handicap o 4 The program receives federal funds I Could only prove 1 and 4 McPherson v Michigan HSAA o Diagnosed very early with learning disability 0 Ineligible to play sports after 8 semesters in hs 0 Limits level of athletic experience and skill o Diagnosed with ADHD and seizure disorder 0 Requested waiver not granted 0 Said it would alter nature of game if many students had waivers Washington v Indiana HSAA o Diagnosed later in life with learning disability 0 Wanted waiver to play 0 Court grants injunction allows him to play 0 Basketball improved confidence LHSAA rule 0 Ban on llhold backs 0 Schools are holding back students to enhance their athletic careers o Sanctions against coaches and principals who violate ban Bingham v Oregon School Activities Assoc 0 Student diagnosed with ADD had to repeat 10 h grade but met age requirement 0 Association denied request for waiver 0 Court ruled in favor of Bingham 0 Significant because player didn t offer any competitive advantage to the team Jones v West Virginia 0 Homeschooled children wanted to play in public school s events 0 Court says no it s a voluntary choice to home school your kids Brentwood v Tennessee Athletic Assoc o Statewide association incorporated to regulate interscholastic athletic competition among public and private secondary schools may be regarded as engaging in state action when it enforces a rule against a member school 0 Brentwood violated rule llundue influence in recruiting athletes put on athletic probation for 4 years couldn t compete 0 Brentwood sued association saying it was a state action and violation of 1st and 4 h amendments 0 District court ruled in favor of Brentwood o Appellate court reversed decision saying there is no single test to identify state actions 16 o Tarkanian 0 Supreme court found that NCAA was not a state actor 0 Indiana HSAA v Durham 0 After divorce student left private school for public school wanted to play sports at varsity level couldn t 0 Plaintiff asked to overturn IHSAA decision court granted injunction and IHSAA appealed o Appellate court confirmed decision 0 Johansen v LHSAA 0 Student moved to private school school allowed her to play sports 0 LHSAA got complaint told school to not let her play 0 Had to forfeit games she participated in 0 School appealed commissioner s hearing 0 Hearing was ultimately upheld o Plaintiffs later filed a petition seeking injunctive relief and damages 0 Court squarely held that quota student39s interest in participating in a single year of interscholastic athletics amounts to a mere expectation rather than a constitutionally protected claim of entitlementquot o Plaintiffs alleged she had an opportunity to play in college and this ruined that 0 Court says speculative and uncertain o Menard v LHSAA o Transferred schools his senior year 0 Ruled ineligible to play because there was no bona fide change in residence under LSHAA s rules 0 The trial court sustained the objection of lack of subject matter jurisdiction and dismissed plaintiffs39 action 0 Plaintiff had no procedural or substantive due process right to participate in football at the school 0 Professional sports 0 14 year old tennis star wanted to compete could only do so in 4 event 0 Parents threatened to sue WTA 0 RA an IDEA address right to participate in programs that receive federal funding professional sports do not 0 Out of court agreement reached 0 Casey Martin 0 Wanted to use cart for injured leg 0 Claimed violation of ADA because it s a commercial enterprise not private club 0 PGA lost case 0 Spectator rights 0 Some said ADA is unconstitutional if courts dictated how sports were played 0 Upheld on appeal 0 Seating and vision o ADA prohibits discrimination against individual based on disability should be able to fully enjoy a game 0 Wheelchair locations must be equal to 1 of seating capacity if more than 300 handicapped seats then they shall be dispersed throughout facility 0 Suit filed against Oakland outcome is unknown 0 Drug testing 0 Vernonia School District v Acton Athletes drug tested randomly weekly if positive 151 time 2nd test is given if positive 2nd time 6 week counseling or suspension for current and next season Seventh grader s parents refused to sign form allowing testing Court ruled in favor of school decision reversed on appeal Supreme court reversed appellate court s decision The Supreme Court cited 4 factors to consider on the issue The importance of the governmental interest I The degree of physical and psychological intrusion I The degree of discretion vested in the governmental officials I How well the procedure contributes to reaching the goal 0 Earls by Earls v Bd Of Ed 0 Court rules in favor of school 0 Decision reversed on appeal 0 Court says this is different than Vernonia because they showed compelling need to address problem Earl did not 0 Supreme court reverses decision saying it is not unconstitutional 0 Univ of Colorado 0 Supreme court struck down random drug testing policy 0 Religious Freedom 0 Players kneeling could be penalized 0 Filed suit against NCAA saying this was a violation of first amendment and free speech right 0 Hadley case soccer player didn t get vaccination because of religion court says this is okay 0 Walsh case students want to transfer to Lutheran school but can t participate in sports 0 Court upholds rule 0 Academic Rules 0 Biley case must have a c average to play courts uphold rule 12111 Chapter 17 Workmen s Compensation 0 Workmen s Compensation laws pertain to the obligation an employer owes to the employee for an injury the employee sustained within the course and scope of employment 0 Laws vary from state to state 0 Generally duty Professional athletes 0 Know states Green v New Orleans Saints dollar for dollar offset upheld in favor of Saints 0 Argued it s not a temporary occupation future payments shouldn t be offset Gibson v Lake Charles Ice Pirates 0 Team Challenges comp award for failure of player to wear face shield 0 Player wins College athletes 0 Not entitled to compensation not employees 0 Consequences of recognizing a student athlete as employee 0 Right to form labor unions and the right to worker s compensation Geography 113010 0 Public protests are effective catalyst for change without the use of violence 0 Suffragette march o MLK Jr 0 Civil Rights Act Voting Rights Act 0 Protests are okay on public spaces not private 0 Some public spaces do not allow protests Capitol Building White House etc o Riots vs public protests o Riots are illegal I Violent 0 Protests are protected by first amendment 0 Both happen in public I You can map where they occur Globalization 0 Cross border flows are happening all over the world slash today s world map 0 5 Cultural flows 0 People 0 Technology 0 Media images Finance and goods capital and commodities o Ideologies Is the world becoming the same everywhere Global Homogenization o Are cultures retaining individuality or are they becoming the same Globalization the increasing interconnectedness of people and places throughout the world through converging processes of economic political and cultural change 0 Many things have become transnational or globalized today 0 Business transnational corporations 0 Environmental problems air pollution acid rain global climate change crosses national borders Political problems refugees coalition forces fighting Social problems poverty famine medical problems Human rights issues justice Crime drug trafficking money laundering illegal weapons sales terrorism human trafficking 0 Globalization is a process that has been building for years 0 Became apparent in the 1970s 0 Really took off in 1980s 0 Fueled by 0 Transportation fast reliable cheap Ships trains planes 0 Information technology fast cheap powerful 0 Communications technology relatively cheap and easy to use Phone fax 0 O O O O o Transnational Corporations TNC O O GO A firm or corporation I Chartered with HQ in one specific country I Does international business I Through an array of global subsidiaries Increasingly tie the world together I Number wealth and power grow I Rival the power of the countries they operate in 65000 TNCs Some of their revenue is greater than the GDP of countries earn more than prosperous countries ex Norway Denmark Venezuela Cross border trade can be traced back to ancient trade routes I Silk Road I Roman trade route I Traced back to colonialism amp early European early trading Dutch East India Company British East India Company Hudson Wasn t until Industrial Revolution Europe in 1700s that TNC became what they are today I Colonial control over resources I Improved transportation I Mechanized manufacturing I To become giant companies in industry steel automobiles petroleum oil and banking amp trade itself By 1900 I 3000 TNCs almost all in Europe and US 1970 I 7000 1990 I 30000 I explosion 2000 I 63000 I Exponential growth I Had 821000 subsidiaries By 2000 I Based in Triad Europe US and Japan I Of 500 largest 445 based in Triad I 1000 largest accounted for 80 of world s industrial output I Tremendous impact on people countries places that they dodon t do business with Life based on TNCs I Cars and clothes Toyota GAP I Produce and process food I Manage money chase city bank I Build defense systems roads schools I Stores walmart home depot target I Supply images we get about the world Disney CNN Cox Communications I Suppliers of jobs we may or may not be able to have Ongoing debate about whether impacts are positive or negative 0 Jobs I Pay higher wages than local businesses I Been accused of creating poor working conditions and paying salaries that are vastly lower than they would be in home countries Spread into so many places they can easily pull out of a country if wages are lowerprofits higher somewhere else or if situation in that country are not productive 0 Can easily move operations Represent the local economy and employ a large chunk of workforce 0 Departure of TNC can be devastating I Provide increased tax revenues for the host countries 0 Try to avoid taxes work loopholes 0 Can get tax refunds by shifting their assets around I Environmentally TNCs have been accused of abusing lax regulations in host countries 0 Creating environmental disasters that would not be tolerated at home 0 1984 Union Carbide accidental chemical gas release killed 16000 people and injured 500000 people in India I Account for much of world s toxic waste I Since profits favor efficiency TNCs often favor adoption of efficient technologies 0 Some have become worldwide leaders in clean manufacturing 0 CulturalGlobalization 0 Also fostered by TNCs Heading for a singly homogenous globalized world McDisneyfication McDonald s opens new restaurant every 7 hours criticized for spreading American ideas around the world I Ex Women s roles how they should dress some are seen as strongly negative 0 Many fear that globalization will wipe out entire cultures I Hasn t really happened yet I Globalized products are often made locally indigenized adapted to the local environment I Adaptation can happen by the companies themselves or by the local people 0 Ex McDonald s 30000 restaurants 0 Sweden ski thru window 0 Serve kosher burgers lamb burgers in places that don t eat beef 0 Moscow cool to hang out at McDonalds when opened line was 2 V2 hours long became a hit place to take your date 0 Hong Kong in January 2011 Mc will be offering catered wedding packages I New meanings for the local as well as global new meanings for products I Clich instantaneous communication have made geography and space irrelevant 0 But not really 0 To run well McD s global strengths must be matched with local ones 0 Some of the most technologically sophisticated corporations report increase in the need for face to face interaction OOO 0 With globalization we have seen a new group of actors and organizations that emerged on the world stage 0 Began with rise of another group in 1970s o In 1970s 0 doctors around the world noticed that babies in developing countries who should have been thriving were dying o Swissbased TNC Nestle had invented infant formula in the 1860s o In 1970s Nestle has been aggressively marketing formula in developing countries as a modern way to feed infants 0 Gave away free samples to women in hospitals who had just given birth 0 Powdered infant formula works well in developed world but in places with poor sanitary conditions dirty water unsanitary bottles can be problematic 0 Also ifa nursing mother starts her baby on formula her own milk will dry up o If they don t have sanitary conditions and safe drinking water the babies get sick 0 People became hooked on formula formula was very expensive in developing world 0 50 of family s income to feed an infant who could have been fed by nursing o Diluted formula baby doesn t get enough nutrients led to malnutrition 0 Word spread 0 Cause was taken up by more than 100 different private orgs in more than 65 countries Had no legal recourse took different approach US groups INFACT infant formula action committee launched international boycott of all Nestle products Transnational citizen s Organization People stopped using Nestle products Nestle could not afford to have a reputation as baby killers Boycott forced Nestle to abandon marketing campaign in developing world Today there are tens of thousands of transnational citizens orgs represent many causes WWF Amnesty International etc 0 Globalization is a complex issue Exploitation Homogenization Has brought new linkages new ways of connecting local to global rather than just erasing the local 0 O O Geog Test 4 Tuesday October 19 2010 Latin America 0 Physical Geography 0 Colonia Impact on Latin America 0 Population Geographies in Latin America 0 Economic Geographies It is called Latin America because of the Iberian Influence of Spain and Portugal None of these countries actually speak Latin They speak languages that relate to Latin These are called colonial languages and they acknowledge what they share Physical Geography Central America is below Mexico and South America Middle America includes Mexico Central America and the Caribbean Latin America is everything colored in the map The legacy of colonialism here is vast 8 Lingering influences of colonials are critical in understanding Latin American colonialism Spain and Portugal were the colonizers These are legacies of colonialis 1 Dominance of Spanish and Portuguese languages These languages are no where native to these regions but they are still dominant 500 yrs after colonialism 2 Dominance of Catholithism brought by colonizers 3 Ethnic Identities as the result of 500 years of mixing of the Amer Indians with the Portuguese and African Slaves living in Latin Indians 4 Colonial model of Underdevelopment that prevails in the region They were forced to remain undeveloped because they are colonies 5 The Continuing pattern of single crop agriculture and the dependence on this One crop planted over a vast region This is in contrast to a diverse culture 6 Trade Connections with European mother countries former colonial powers rather than neighboring countries 7 Tremendously unequal land distribution This is a place where a tiny percentage of the population owns the vast majority of the land 8 Huge gap between the quothavesquot and llHavenotsquot This gap between the rich and poor is still growing today Physical Geography This is roughly equal in land area to the United States It is a latitudinal range It stems from the northern border of Mexico to the southern tip near the South Pole The western edge is all mountainous It is part of the pacific ring of fire It is a vast chain of mountains from Mexico Cierra Madre down to Central America The Andes The Andes are very tall they have 30 peaks over 20000 feet The highest is over 23000 ft in Argentina East of the mountains are called shields They are high plateaus Historically they are good for rich agriculture and good for populations In the green areas they are humid lowlands the Pampas and the Llanos MAP ON PG 127 The largest feature is the Amazon Basin featuring the Amazon River It covers much of Brazil and several other countries The River is navigable by ocean ship all the way up to Peru It is a river of global significance 20 of the fresh water coming into the oceans if from this river The basin is also the largest tropical rainforest There is tremendous biodiversity The Amazon basin only has 6 of the worlds land area but 50 of the world s species It is very remote for the most part The interior of the basin is home to some very undisturbed native cultures The Plata River basin drains from the south east The Orinoco River basin Pg 136 is in the north These river basins are not very highly populated This is very unusual Mainly rivers are highly populated Climate Climate varies big time in Latin America In the Center we have the Tropics Desert areas are around the western coast before the mountains The high mountains go down the West on the coast JUST LOOK AT MAP Altitudinal Zonation o Tierra Caliente 1 o Tierra Templada 2 Tierra Fria 3 Tierra Helada 4 Below 3000 ft it is the warmest This is the Tierra Caliente This is the lowlands with tropical rainforests There is tropical agriculture like sugarcane pineapples maze corn rice and cacao Animals vary like pigs cows chicken ect As air rises it cools and it gets colder Tierra Templada means temperate This is 3000 to 6000 ft This is where most of the early civilizations lived Crops corn beans squash coffee Animals Cattle This regions is good for subsistence crops and for cash crops plantation crops Between 6000 and 12000 ft is the Tierra Fria This is the cool lands They aren t icy frozen but they are cool Mid latitude crops do well here like wheat barley potatoes cabbage and onions At the top the Tierra Helada is the frozen lands This is above 12000 ft You can still grow some crops but they have animals like sheep alpacas and llamas This is very limited agriculture This region has variation in climate because of o Lattidue o Altitude People adapted to this climate Native people landed here probably 40000 years ago They developed vast urban civilizations before European development The native Indian population was quite high It s estimated that there were about 47 million AmerIndians living in this area The Aztecs centered on Tenochtitlan now Mexico City The Maya Central AmericaMexico nca Peru Colombia Argentina and Chile they were in the Andes Mts So three advanced civilizations were here Most of the Maya were gone by the time of Columbus It only took about 40 years for these civilizations to fall to European innovators once Columbus landed The reason was because the European nations had a very strong military They rode on horses The natives had never seen horses before They thought it was one creature They had gunpowder and guns They could shoot cannonballs from the water All of this leads to warfare and forced labor and starvation for the native peoples The big weapon in the European arsenal was accidental This was disease This whipped out the native people in this region Diseases like influenza small pox measles typhoid and syphilis These contagious diseases were accidentally spread and killed 90 of the population This is what enabled the European conquest so quickly With the dominance of the Europeans a global exchange of resources happened This was called the Colombian Exchange This was an immense biological swap of resources chiefly plants and animals They went to and from the new world back to Europe The Indian people suffered the most This lead to the dramatic transformation of both regions This is some of the things that changed 0 What Europeans took 0 Gold and silver I This enriched span and Portugal immensely o Crops I Maze com I Squash I Peppers sweet and hot I Vanilla I Pineapples I Avocadoes TOMATOES native to Latin America POTATOES Native to the Andes Mountains I TOBACCO became the world drug crop I CACAO Native to this region made chocolate 0 Things they brought to the region 0 Disease 0 Animals I Horses I Cows I Goats I Chickens I Pigs 0 Plants I Wheat I Rice I Sugar Cane from Asia I Coffee from east Africa I Bananas Native Americans were almost completely whipped out Europeans brought over massive numbers of Africans and late Asians The Legacy of Colonialism and Land Structure Most of the people live along the coast For centuries people in this region have lived on large estates on what is called the llEncomienda system This system is a land grant system that came with labor by the people who lived on it Like serfdom the natives were forced to work for the land owner on his fields but they did have their own little piece of land Also enslaved Africans worked as well This began the unequal land distribution This created two systems Latifundiathe entrenched practice of maintaining large estates Minifundia the small subsistence plots the peasants used As a result of these systems extreme poverty is still found across the region of South America Most often people think of this region as being rural but there are long urban tradition more than 1000 years old Cities are growing very fast In 1950 the region was 25 urban by 2010 it is 75 urban Primate cities are the big cities where one city is like 34 times bigger than any other in the country It will dominate the whole country People also move The biggest amount of movement is rural to urban People want to move into the cities Migrants settle in squatter settlements that are informal settings There are no roads or city services The houses are built by the residents Nobody has permits or planning Everything is sub standard ts usually crummy land on the edges of cities In also of cities more than half the population lives in these shanties Because of this a lot of these cities have been able to get help and become part of the city People who live in shanties work in informal sectors the provisions of goods and services without government regulation registration or taxation Most people are self employed Common activities are street vendors housing small workshops transportation services garbage pickers domestics cleaning and street performers Street vendors are the most physical Drug trafficking prostitution and money laundering are the other biggies that are illegal in the informal economy Examples of Squatter settlements o Favelas o Colonias o Barrios o Jovenes o Vanclios These are also known as shanty town Tuesday October 26 2010 Case Study Brazil About the size of the US a little smaller Economically it is a powerhouse It is a leader in the division between rich and poor it has one of the highest income gaps 65 of the land is owned by 2 of the people The richest 20 of the population own 26X more than the poorest 20 The ration is 261 Poverty is increasing right now not decreasing Brazil is different from Latin America It is Portuguese speaking not Spanish speaking because of Portuguese colonial roots The founders from Portugal got pushed by currents They were looking for goods and resources for the colonial mother country They didn t find a lot they wanted They did find a red dye made from a tree called brazil wood so they named it Brazil At first there was very little settlement Then that had the big idea of sugar They brought it into Brazil and started huge sugar cane plantations In the mid 1500s it was a huge luxury to have sugar Brazils climate was perfect for sugar The Portuguese colonists didn t want to do the work on the fields themselves so they decided to enslave the native people Many of them fled inland away from where they were landing This cause a tremendous dieoff in brazils native population Why When they were enslaved they weren t treated well They werrent fed well they were beated they were overworked They resisted so they were killed in wars The biggest thing that killed them were European diseases So it was the introduction of sugar that triggered the quotgenocidequot in Brazil Its estimated that in 1500 there were 2 5 million natives living in brazil 500 years later the native population is only 200000 This is a staggering decline They hunted slaves these people were called Banderantes They moved further and further inland hunting the Indians to enslave them They ended up mapping brazils interior They started on the coast and moved in Most of the native population today is still in the interior because of the earlier encounters There was a problem using the natives for labor they kept dying There next big idea was African slaves This was the beginning of the Atlantic Slave trade This was a triangle trade Sugar from brazil back to Europe The money made from the sugar is what made it possible to do the triangle trading Manufactured goods from Europe went to Africa or America The geography of slavery is linked to the geography of sugar By the mid 19 h century there were 3 V2 million enslaved Africans brought to brazil against their will This was a huge chunk of the Atlantic slave trade Another aspect of this is Portuguese colonists in Brazil They were mostly men There were women but most of them were enslaved They didn t have the right to say no This led to a racial mixing of Portuguese with native and or African slaves So that means that the geography of race is linked with the geography of rape It was a systematic raping of enslaved women This is the cornerstone of Brazil s geography These rapes were ignored by the Catholic Church and the colonial government There is a spinoff to this Brazil does have a reputation of sexual promiscuity Like bitches on the beach in thongs Even pure pleasure has its roots in colonialism But Brazil didn t remain just a place of sugar plantations In the 17 h century there was the discovery of gold This opened up Brazil s central interior in an incredible gold rush This was a rush to get gold In 1690 it was estimated that there were not Europeans living inland of Rio After the rush there were like 500000 When the Europeans moved inward for gold this caused catastrophic consequences for the natives again Not only from diseases and slavery the mining tore apart the land these people depended on Then the African slaves were brought in to do the mining By the early 19 h century sugar cane production fell on hard times because there was too much competition from sugar companies in the Caribbean So the shifted to the high value crop COFFEE This is another imported crop It is suited to a higher elevation and cooler climates Like sugar coffee works well It a highly labor intensive crop So coffee worked well with slave labor Brazil gave its independence form Portugal in the 1820s then eventually ended slavery in 1888 When they ended slavery they were worried about what would happen on the coffee plantations So they had to find another source of cheap labor They recruited labor from Europe They were mainly southern Italians They were from the nonindustrialized parts of Italy Italy was agricultural and poor at that time They were willing to go to brazil and work They were offered a land of promise Many fled the poor Italy and took this opportunity to go to brazil Almost 1 million people came in about 10 years So the Italian population in brazil is mostly because of this Later another wave of immigrants came They were Japanese There was more than 1 million Today Brazil has a large brazilinJapanese population Today Brazil is the largest producer of orange juice concentrate The Yanomamo is a native brazilin group that still today lives apart from modern Brazil the cities They were almost untouched by the colonies The forests were so dense that colonialism never reached them Today they adhere to their traditional ways of life Napoleon A Chagnon wrote the book about the Yanomamo39 They are very different people who live in the Amazon basin The Amazon basin in our minds we think rainforests Amazonia only covers 6 of the worlds land area but it is 23 s of the world s plant biomass It is 50 of the world s species So anything that could seriously affect Amazonia could affect the world Amazonia is currently under threat There is a mass extinction It s a super production lush ecosystem that is extremely fragile They estimate 240 different species of plants per acre Why is it so productive t straddles the equator so it is hot rainy and moist They get a lot of sun They really don t have a winter This all translates to rapid plant growth Because it s hot and moist they have rapid nutrient recycling When the plants drop their leaves they decompose and are turned to nutrients quickly It s a region that has been barely touched by people Typically the people living there are natives like the yanamoto They are huntergatherers They practice shifting cultivation aka slash and burn agriculture They cut down small plots use them for a few years and then move spots They live in circular communities There is a low population density of Yanomamo They have very little impact on the ecosystem There are 3 different stories of vegetation This speaks to the diversity of vegetation There is highlevel midlevel and lowerlevel Microregional variation is why the forest is to fragile and diverse This means that the plants and animals adapt very specifically to little changes in climate shade rainfall etc Things that are fucking up the rainforest today There is tons of logging by Brazilian companies and international companies They are looking for pulp for paper and also exotic tropical hardwoods like Ebony Mining is also going on This is destructive to the forests Road cutting is also very detrimental to the forest Grazing and farming lands are also messing up the forest Turning the forest into monoculture agriculture one crop like sugarcane The forest is really not a productive place for farming It s because of the way it is productive The rainforest holds 90 of its nutrients in the plants and trees itself Only 10 of it is in the soil Another problem with rainforest soil is very fragile When you cut down the forest the rain can now beat down directly on the soil Many of the nutrients are water soluble and they wash away and then the soil itself washes away into the rivers and streams and clouds up the rivers and streams and that kills aquatic life So this conversion from rainforest to agriculture is not good for a long time It can only work for a few years When there is a small disturbance of the forest it can grow back but large ones can t grow back Why worry about that 8 thousand square miles are being lost a year 20 of Amazonia is lost in the last 40 years Global Climate change is caused in part by a buildup of C02 Both trees and plants remove CO2 from the air and turn it into oxygen So killing a bunch of the rainforest would increase our C02 problems Another issue is biodiversity They estimate that 140 plant species a day are eliminates from the world Most of our medicines originate from plants So having plants being wiped out like this could be detrimental Brazil has a land problem The poor don t have access to land they can farm So one program of the government is to give tropical rainforest lands to the poor for freequot Land without men for men without land is their slogan The Brazilians say that this is our land and we can do what we want with it Recently Brazil has started to preserve areas in the rainforests The llarc of deforestation is where the shit is getting bad This is an issue that the world is interested in There are many sides to this issue Thursday October 28 2010 The USMexican Borderlands Mexico is about three times the size of Texas with about 111 million The flag has an eagle on top of a cactus with a snake in its mouth The book talks about stark contrasts between the different regions The borders are very cut and dry Like Tijuana and San Diego The population divide isn t so stark thought About 15 of the people living in the US claim some sort of Hispanic identity So we have a shared culture that we can t get rid of Neoliberalism economic policies stressing 0 Early 1980s 0 Private Sector 0 Businesses not government 0 Market Driven 0 Letting markets set prices not government Neoliberalism economic policies stressing 0 Direct foreign investment 0 Few importexport restrictions 0 Much easier to do business in Mexico Mexicos GDP over time has risen considerably t spiked in the 1980s Mexico has the 12 h largest GDP in the world Unemployment in Mexico is 55 US is about 9 Underemployment is about 25 0 Part time 0 Low wage 0 Seasonal Maquiladoras Assembly plants near the USMexican border 0 They don t actually make things they put stuff together 0 Foreign investment 0 By the US mostly 0 Export to US 0 This is why its located around the borders 0 Trucks are what does the exporting 0 About 4000 plants 0 About 11 million people employed 0 They are making things like 0 Auto parts 0 Electronics I Stereos I speakers 0 Apparel Compared to US Maquiladoras have 0 Lower wages benefits 0 Fewer regulations 0 Makes environmental laws easier Maquiladoras 0 Created jobs especially for women 0 Sends money back home like from the rich north to the poorer south 0 Internal Migration 19292000 a oneparty state quotPRIquot 0 Corruption 0 Much like the soviet union 0 Drug trafficking flourished 0 To the US 2000 opposition party elected PAN o Vicente Fox 0 Power Vacuum 0 Filled by organized crime Today Felipe Calderon is the President 0 December 1 2006 0 He quotdeclared warquot on drug traffickers Under Calderon 0 He put 50000 soldiers on the streets 0 20000 federal police 0 Over 23000 dead because of drug wars The Mexican government conducts the largest illicit crop eradication program in the world They are the largest supplier of marijuana and meth to the US market 2007 yielded 15800 metric tons of marijuana and 18 metric tons of pure heroin 27 billion 90 of cocaine moves through Mexico Cartel a formal organization of producers and manufactures goods 0 Increase profits by decreasing competition 0 Territorial Cartels assassins o They vekilled o Journalists 0 Political Officials 0 Anyone Cartels Terrorists o Kidnapping o Torture 0 Murder 0 Bombings Cartels Paramilitary 0 Well Armed o Jets and helicopters o Speedboats o Submarines ATF Project Gunrunner 0 Weapons from US 0 80 Calderon government seen as hated occupiers 0 Corruption 0 Abusive o Distrust 53000 people detained since 2003 18 conviction rate La Familia new cartel since 2006 o Rolled five severed heads onto a dance floor 0 La familia does not kill for money kill women innocent people only just kill people who deserve to die They call this divine justice La Familia 85 of their business is legitimate o Publicsector constructing o Minimalls 0 Entertainment Local People don t call the police 0 Settles fraud 0 Settle Land dispute 0 Ended Loan sharking o Fines loggers for deforestation La familia moral Authority They beat people for 0 Public Drunkenness o Disrespecting mothers 0 Wearing baggy clothing 0 Dealing meth La Familia Social Support 0 Employment 0 Medicine 0 Tortillas o Rehab centers La Familia community Support Building things like 0 Auditoriums 0 Volleyball courts 0 Fiestas 0 Stage protests against the government La Familia neoliberal policies Drug production and distribution for export Ex Meth 0 Bulgaria 0 China 0 India 0 Netherlands 0 US Los ni ni 7 million adolescents o No school 0 No job 0 Ripe for cartel recruitment La Familia recruitment Two types of kids 0 Violent 0 Intelligent Narcocorridos Pop songs glorifying drug traffickers La familia recruitment 0 Government officials o Recovering drug addicts 0 Debt repayment o quotMulesquot Mule is someone who smuggles drugs across a national border 0 Small quantities Migrant smuggling the illegal entry ofa person into a foreign country of which the person is not a citizen 0 Consent between customer and smuggler Coyotes smugglers who facilitate the migration of people across the USMexican border 0 Well organized 0 Money to cartels 0 1500 to cross borders 0 5 billion year 2000 mile long border o It is very quotporousquot meaning it has spots with holes in it o 200 deaths per year from people trying to cross the border San Ysidro Ca 0 24 lanes 0 50000 vehicles 0 25000 peds Corrupt US border officials o 100 caught last 5 years 0 200 cases pending 0 US officials are bribed to let people in Tuesday November 02 2010 The Caribbean This area is also called the Antilles which comes from Antila which was a mythical island reference The West Indies The Carib Indians a One of the indigenous people to this area Figure 51 in book holler at it 4 different regions 1 Greater Antilles a 4 large islands 1 Cuba 2 Jamaica 3 Hispaniola HaitiDominican Republic 4 Puerto Rico b 85 of the Caribbean population 2 Lesser Antilles a Island Arc 0 Makes a horseshoe from Aruba to the Virgin Islands b Volcanic 3 Rimland coastal zone off the mainland a Belize and the Guiana s b Colonial c Plantation Agriculture 4 The Bahamas a 700 Islands b Many Uninhabited The Caribbean Region 0 gt European Influence o More than the surrounding areas 0 African Slaves 0 Then and now Legacy of colonial plantation agriculture 0 Rum 0 Made from sugar cane 0 Cigars 0 Coffee Many of the islands have changed hands over time see book Transnational Migration Livelihoods between home and host countries 0 Two way street 0 21st century Globalization Remittances money sent by migrants to their families back home Volcanoes and Earthquakes Same ole shit about plates sliding Active Volcanoes The Caribbean plate Hurricanes constantly fuck up the Caribbean The Caribbean is called the tropics because it is warm most of the time It has very little seasonal variation It is always moist warm and tropical At any time of the year it is nice there Caribbean Tourism Advantages o Increases economies of small islands 0 Encourages environmental protection Disadvantages 0 At the mercy of global economy 0 Capital Leakage gap between receipts and amount retained in region Mass Tourism developed in the 1960s 0 Disposable Incomes 0 Package Holidays 0 Jet airliners Bahamas mass tourism with cheap package holidays Cayman Islands Exclusive resorts and yachting marinas Wide Variety 0 Water Activities 0 EcoTourism 0 Cultural Free Trade Zones FTZ industrial Parts attracting foreign corporations 0 Duty Free 0 No govt tax on imports or exports 0 Tax Exempt 0 These areas are attractive DR Transition 0 AG sugar coffee tobacco o FTZ manufacturing 15 GDP DRFTZ o 541 exports to US 0 428 imports from US Offshore Banking a financial institution located outside the depositor s country of residence 0 Privacy 0 Taxation 0 You don t have to pay US taxes 0 Drug trade 0 Terrorism 0 Bahamas in 1920 Cayman Islands 0 50209 people 0 93000 companies 0 This is because it is a huge place for offshore banking o 13 h richest country in the world an average of 122100 a year per person Bermuda 19 of the people live in poverty Comparison Cayman 43800 Haiti 1300 Thursday November 04 2010 The Caribbean Jamaica At the end of WWII there was a conference called Bretton Woods JULY 1924 It was attend by several hundred delegates 44 were from the allied countries Its purpose was to get the delegates together to rebuild the international financial system From the conference came the International Monetary Fund IMF in Washington DC It includes about 187 different countries Its purpose is to facilitate international trade among the 187 countries It promotes sustainable economic growth The end goal being an increase in employment and decrease poverty in the world Jamaica in 1957 Jamaican Independence was made in 1962 With its newfound freedom they found financial problems Now that England was gone they were no longer there to put money back into Jamaica And Jamaica didn t have enough money to do it themselves Almost 11 years after they became independent there was an Oil Embargo in 1973 Sometimes gas stations had gas and sometimes they didn t This profoundly affected the US Gas production got cut by 70 and over doubled the price This really hurt Jamaica as well They began taking out loans and couldn t repay them There were high interest rates The conditions to have the second loan from the IMF were to expand exports Farmers began to do monocropping This is where they would produce fruit for the global market They went from organic farming to where they would need to import shit to grow shit They were also subject to global competition They found that Central American countries could produce and sell bananas on the global market much easier than they could People from the world market were buying perishables based on aesthetic Jamaica s tomatoes were smaller than other peoples so that didn t work either They were also forced to import things too They tried to import powdered milk They were selling it in bulk The dairy industry went belly up because of this So Jamaica could feed itselfjust fine before they took out the loan They also became less self reliant because of this They became more dependent on other countries So today the Jamaica economy faces serious economic problems They face large scale unemployment and underemployment They have a merchandise trade deficit which means they are importing more than they are exporting They have a bad Debt to GDP ratio at 130 This means that all of the products that you can produce falls short of all the money that you owe This means that the government borrowed more than they can pay The one thing Jamaica does have is strong economic sectors GDP Remittances are very strong they account for about 20 Tourism is 20 The last thing they really produce for export is BauxiteAlumina at 85 The problem with the BauxiteAlumina industry is that you have to extract it and fuck up the land Jamaica doesn t produce any oil or any natural gas They consume 77 thousand barrels a day imported daily They do generate electricity but there is no way to export it There external debt is about 12 billion dollars t imports about 125 billion worth of stuff and exports like 45 billion China has one of the world s best economies right now because they export everything On Christmas day in 2005 somebody wrote about how shitty their situation is One export it has is cultural People are moving out of Jamaica sending remittances back They are taking their culture with it Bob Marley brought a form of music with him Reggae Jamaica is known as the Loudest island in the world Ska like a form of export 0 Dance music 0 Late 1950s 0 PreCursor to Reggae 0 Caribbean and US RampB 3 Types of people who listen to Ska Rude Boys quotrudiequot 0 1960s adolescents o Unemployed o Impoverished 0 Associated with delinquency 0 Working class England 0 Mixed pop and Ska 0 Black and white unity o Racial unity o Dressed in suits 0 To mock the upper class llThird Wave 0 US suburban 0 Mixed punk and Ska o Faster 0 Commercial 0 MTV and radio Hank Williams Jr NOT SKA Desmond Dekker S SKA Jamaica The Specials UK 0 Took Ska and added too it The Police UK No Doubt US More Jamaica exports are Olympic athletes 11 metals 6 gold Tuesday November 09 2010 Tourism Flows of people Tourism is a rather new phenomenon and it did not originally include people like us It began in the mid 1600s in Europe It was for Europeans traveling around Europe Tourism in those days until the mid 1800s 200yrs it was only for the elite Like top 1 In the beginning tourisms main focus was on the llgrand tourquot The idea was that the wealthy people of Europe would send their children 18early 20s to travel around Europe for a year They would see the sights and learn about cultures they would learn other languages and they would make connections with people The idea was that tourism was meant to be a broadening experience It was to help them build social networks for the rest of their lives This idea that travel is broadening is still in effect today We still believe that tourism is educational When we look at tourism today we see its no longer an elite thing It has reached down to the middle classes Now there are many more middle class people involved This change happened in the 19 h century This was a spin off the industrial revolution Middle class tourism began in England in the mid 19 h century with a firm known as Thomas Cook They are still in business booking tours They had a reduced budget model of the elite travel It was still largely within Europe but not as long or as expensive The llpackage tourquot revolutionized tourism The idea ofa package tour is that you travel with a group on an organized excursion Everything is arranged for you in advance by the tour organizer So in the 19 h century when he started it he did it for the same reason we do it today Because travel is challenging and people are afraid or hesitant to travel alone The package tour takes the hassles out of tourism It takes out some of the worries Because the package tour arranges everything for us it also insulates us from the places we visit We really have no interaction with the people we visit The package tour can be very insulating Even though the package tour originated in the 19 h century it didn t become a phenomenon until after WWII The post war affluence in the USEurope in the 20 h century is what made mass tourism important People of various income became involves with mass tourism in the 20 h century Tourism as we know it is only about So years old Tourism destinations have changed over the years as well At one time it was an exchange between countries USEurope The developing countries had no involvement but in the 19 h century when the middle classes began going to the places the elite were going the places they wanted to go changed They began to take the economic and cultural and political leap to visit the colonial outposts overseas This was not going to all parts of the colonial empires it was only the safe parts and for shorter periods They did begin t go to lldeveloping countries As late as 1975 only 8 of tourists from Europe and America went to Developing counties But by 1990 that number rose to about 20 Why the surge of interest For one agencies like the World Bank have encouraged tourism in developing countries It seemed as a good way to promote income for developing countries Today tourism is the world s largest service sector industry with over 3 trillion spent annually and over 650 million people Banks happily lend money to develop tourist industries in developing countries Developing tourism is seen as an incentive in developing countries So what is it that makes a place a good bet for tourism Geography is first and foremost Dramatic scenery is good Items of great cultural intrest are also good Also helpful is warm weather and sandy beaches Even perhaps oddly poverty is very helpful in the development of tourism Poverty can act as a magnet for tourism It has to be picturesque poverty Tourists in general want to see a technologically simple charming society where things are cheap They don t want to see famine or disease Tourism is seen as beneficial because it is seen as an alternative to the single commodity dependency of the colonial places Tourism replaces shit like bananas Big developments can come into small places because of the desire of tourism Tourism in the developing world has become a major industry From the mid 1980s on tourism replaces sugar as the top currency owner in the Dominican Republic Om some small carribean islands the number of annual tourists is greater than the number of residents on the island Some Caribbean countries have come to rely on tourism equaling about 80 of their GDP People try to cash in on tourism is different ways 0 Cuba is a popular destination for Canadians 0 Vietnam has been developing tourism in part to play off of the war They lead tours through old war places Other than that it s cheaper to go to developing countries here are some other reasons o In part it s the idea of difference at multiple levels People want to see different shit whether it be landscape culture or other shit They want to see new shit The phenomenal growth of tourism is only to level out that difference Tourists are drawn to places that are quotremotequot And their very presence changes that place 0 Particularly true about package tours I Experienced visually but not really in other ways I We as tourists don t expect to take big risks 0 Safe thrill but not big risks The experience of another place is so distanced that it is almost entirely visually 0 We may try to adapt and be polite the fact is the adaptations we make are really small We always find stuff that makes us feel at home when touring Some people argue that tourism has become a lltheme park experiencequot That you go experience the shit then go back to the hotel and do American shit Tourism is actually a lot more varied than that Kinds of Tourism 1 Beach Resort a A particular kind of tourism that you could call mix and match We could see this theme park culture The culture where the beach is doesn t really matter All you need is warm weather and sand Beach resorts around the world tend to look more and more alike b Some critics consider beach tourism a low level of tourism in terms of experiencing a culture The call it the McDonalds of tourism 2 Educational Tourism a This stems back to the origins of tourism with the grand tour The idea that tourism is educational or broadening i One kind would be the living cultural experience Learning about other cultures or discovering another culture ii Another would be the HISTORICAL culture 1 You would visit a dead culture or visit dead elements of a current culture You are exposing yourself to history You go there for what was there in the past Would like like visiting museums Iquot iii Third would be ECOTOURISM 1 This is cashing in everywhere This stems from our interest in the environment and our desire to benefit the places we visit rather than exploit it 2 It encourages local people to develop tourism in sustainable ways and to protect their environment 3 Sex Tourism a Huge big business in places like Thailand Many tours are set up for people to have sex with women or children What do tourists want to get out of a trip The transformation of the tourist This is the idea that a visit to another culture will transform you With this also comes the idea that tourism to the developing world can be a form of escape That we can escape the negative aspects of our modern civilization by going to places in the developing world that can be called exotic wild or even primitive The exposure to simpler people can transform the tourism It can hold those people to where we think they are It s tied to a desire to find a place that has been untouched by globalization and colonialism It is an attempt to deny history Sometime this search is referred to lltraveling back in time Like they are more primitive t ties into the old western idea that there is a hierarchy of people and those of us in the west are at the top Another concept is the idea of paradise This is also a very old notion in the west This goes all the way back to the biblical concept that heaven was once on earth Paradise has always been elusive So it s like this floating idea that maybe one day we can find it Its deeply rooted in European colonialism and exploration Geography 111810 0 Ethnic group 0 A group of people with a common background and history who identify with one another 0 Often as a minority group within society 0 Not necessarily a racial group 0 85 of Americans trace ancestry to another country 0 More quotEnglishquot people in the US than in England 0 More quotIrishquot in US than in Ireland by a factor of 131 0 Nation of ethnic groups 0 Pluralistic society 0 A society where many ethnic groups coexist 0 Has always caused tensions 0 Immigration 0 Perceived opportunity in the US contrasted with a perceived lack of opportunity in other countries 0 Large percentage of immigrants have always been poor I Take chance and leave home country because they have less to lose 0 Phases of immigration 0 Phase 1 began with European colonialism 18001820 I Small numbers of Europeans with African slaves arrive take over land from Native Americans I English Dutch French Irish Spanish Germans I Africans brought as slaves 39 39 r F were not39 quot 39 by perceived opportunities 0 Phase 2 1820 1870 I Less English more Irish 0 Potato famine poverty rampant in Ireland millions emigrated 0 Ethnic and cultural differences caused tensions linger to this day 0 Phase 3 18701920 I Numbers shift from thousands to millions I Many Italians immigrants Eastern and Northern Europeans Poles Germans Norwegians I Motivated by political strife call ofopportunity available farmland and industrial jobs in US I Ethnic jokes legacy of discrimination 0 Phase 4 19201970 I Significant drop in number of arrivals I Great Depression WWII I Massive waves of immigration were causing concern US placed restrictions on immigration initiated quotas 0 Phase 5 1970present I Huge growth in numbers loosening of immigration laws I Increased political instability abroad I Large numbers of Latin American and Asian immigrants 0 New immigrants often settle in the same neighborhoods 0 0 Send word to family families move and cluster together for support Become recognizable as immigrant groups 0 A nation of immigrants O O O O 0 Used to be a llmelting potquot Now a llcultural mosaic Assimilation becoming more like everybody else on purpose To fit in often to succeed Why not assimilate I Important to maintain culture mostly language I Maintaining religion cultural traditions I Threshold for stores that sell specialty foods schools oriented to educate kids in the ways of the old country I Often when groups don t assimilate they remain recognizably different cause tensions not necessarily helpful Lingering negative stereotypes about groups 0 White trash OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO Go to school with their kids Unemployed Live in trailers Cars on blocks in the yard Toilet in yard NASCAR Incestinbreeding Budweiser Rebel flag Lottery Wife beaters plaid flannel jean shorts Jerry Springer Lots of dogs Few teeth Poor hygiene Chewing tobacco Eat squirrels opossums Walmart K mart dollar store Larry the Cable Guy Jeff Foxworthy POVERTY I Class issue social and economic ranking I Based on perception of 0 Income 0 occupation 0 education 0 status I upper class wealthy nobles middle class working people who do reasonably well I lower class working class includes the poor White trash are villainized and blamed for their poverty treated as if poverty is genetic Is there a racial root to poverty 0 Scholars today think not 0 Very strong correlation though 0 Often the children of poor parents remain poor 0 Because of environment lack of opportunities White trash have geography o Began in the south in rural areas 0 Began in 1830s 0 Term originated as what enslaved people called white servants and farm workers looked down upon Were free but did slave work so they must be lower Term is still used in much the same way 0 Category still used to define ourselves as quotabovequot 0 Helps to solidify our middle class position Continuum in class system not clearly defined 0 Rags to riches you can rise within the class system but you can also fall Fear of slipping into lower class llClassist slurquot racial slur not to say that people labeled as white trash aredeserve to be necessarily on the bottom Blames the poor for being poor Takes everybody else out of responsibility rather than understanding social and economic conditions that cause poverty such as industrial restructuring of economy transitions between different sectors Poverty quotpackagequot 0 less access tolower quality of healthcare 0 lack of access to healthy food 0 bad education 0 psychological stress 0 stigma blemished reputation of being poor blame jokes about white trash are made at their expense and exploit untrue stereotypes