HUMN GEOG AMER EURP
HUMN GEOG AMER EURP GEOG 1001
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Shayna Jenkins Sr.
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shayna Jenkins Sr. on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 1001 at Louisiana State University taught by C. Colten in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see /class/222735/geog-1001-louisiana-state-university in Geography at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Geography1001 October 4 2011 Chapters 8 and 9 Europe and Russia 85x11 scantron Iron Curtain boundary between the Soviet Union and states in Western Europe extensive system of barbwire fences Cold War period in time where there was a record of tension between Western Europe and Soviet Union extreme Russian Empire when Russia conquered various states Soviet Union empire fell apart different alliance of states grew in WWII when they took over many countries Russia broken union common states much less integrated than the old soviet states Bulkanization Geopolitical Tensions Many countries under Soviet rule began to escape eeing their countries and declared independence dissolution falling apart of the Union Russia simply didn t send in the troops and threaten people as they had before dismantling my movements By 1991 Russia saying there is no more Union Territories that maintained a certain alliance with Russia formerly a part of the Union Union imposed language economic reform etc many areas with troops housing of bombs after independence many of these things were left behind alliance created to maintain some type of control Tensions contrasting beliefs about what should happen with these countries Many times driven by religious ethic economic concerns Chechyna Within Russia largely Muslim population Consistently resistant to Russian Orthodox religion Distinctly not Russian people but rather Chechens During communist rule Chechens were forced to take on Socialist rule later declared their independence 1991 Wanted to hang on to this territory concerned about maintaining sovereigntypolitical control with this area near the Caspian Sea Russians invaded attacked in early 1994 because of nearby oil resources War of Independence 19941997 massive loss of life created further resentment Chechens more opposed to Russians Negotiation of treaty in 1997 put in leader treaty to pay Chechens 43cents per ton of oil economic solution didn t gain independence but could rebuild their economy 0 Armed gangs began tapping pipelines and stealing the oil selling it on the black market 1999 Second War of Independence Chechen rebels invaded a place Dagestan to the east but crushed by Russian troops 2005 Chechens took over a school demanding independence Russians crushed them again Georgia 0 Chechens unsuccessful in breaking away even after using terrorist tactics called themselves the freedom ghters Territory close to Chechyna near Black Sea independent territory adjacent to Russia 2008 Russia and Georgia on the verge of a major con ict 0 Georgia talking to NATO strategic value for pipelines 0 Proposed pipeline to route oil not owned by Russia to Turkey avoiding Russia altogether 0 Russia would lose money 0 Tensions heightened in 2008 when small territory within Georgia South Ossetia declared their independence from Georgia 0 Georgia sends troops into South Ossetia to reclaim land 0 North Ossetia was entirely in Russia they believed the people had the right to reunify with Russia Russia invades Georgia takes over northwest area mainly near Black Sea attempt to secure independence West NATO US was sympathetic to Georgia s claim but didn t become involved directly made statements in support but no military involvement Economic Indicators Table 92 Development Indicators Russia with much higher GNI Changing Economy Czarist O Socialism 0 Before 1917 peasant agriculture most citizens small scale farmers paying small portion of income to the state Czar pushing for industrial development and they began to follow European model of industrialization iron amp steel industries railroad textile manufacturer chemical industries etc Many people left on the economic fringes but gave rise to sentiment that solidi ed the revolution 1917 Marxist overthrew the czar and created a socialist Centrally planned economy 5 year goals for anything and everything production of products all planned by central govt No profrts state used amp consumed goods and any income went back to the state Because people weren t owners and weren t competing the state would provide many things retirement system education housing some level of economic opportunity provided Movement to large scale industry giant factories agricultural operations collective farms reassembly of lands collect acreage into one large area workforce into corporation Fundamental shift in peasant agriculture to collective rudimentary to large scale industry Industrial districts many near natural resources along Ural Mts enabled growth of iron amp steel industry Connection of massive rail lines linking cities and massive territories transporting resources goods and raw materials Russia sought Autarky wanted to be independent createsupply all raw materials didn t want to be dependent on Western countries fortunately they had an abundance of resources Few things Russia didn t have so they tried to gain international territories drove Russia to plant its in uence in other places Massive industrial system in Russia at the time of the fall of the Union somewhat antiquated not managed to modernize it all unable to maintainprovide adequate jobs to citizens or supply them with basic consumer goods led to great dissatisfaction unable to exclude media from West so people began to see how everyone else was living Russian people catching glimpses of what was going on beyond the borders people became dissatis ed Capitalism Declared end of Union Late 80s Political leaders putting in more open policies allowing people to grow private plots sell their things on the market opening of small restaurants could keep their pro ts modest Capital reform After 1991 gradual transition Perestroika which allowed Capitalist practices in economy 0 Market forces rather than the state shaping the course of all action 0 Plant managers given more freedoms they could make decisions on their own 0 Allowed for the first time in Russia poorly run companies to go bankrupt many of which were outdated and inefficient 0 People able to set up new business 200000 small businesses functioning and continuing to grow 0 Govt lifted control over prices allowed competition Initially great fear that items may be out of reach to people when prices were able to rise period of adjustment fear of not being able to survive Terrible infection which caused people to change eating habitsdiet Many people as Russia abandoned state control lost their jobs because there were fewer people needed to run the govt 18million people Considerable recovery in economy uneven but great wealth has been accumulated Privatization conversion of state owned to private merging of outside capital replacement of industrialized apparatus 0 Giant scale factories abandoned because no foreign investors interested shift in closing large factories but mergers of newer smaller industries Still an undercurrent of tension questioning capitalism many retirement accounts evaporating for eX Late l990s giant collapse in their currency they bought locally which drove domestic industry Unfortunate side effects tremendous surge in crime many people thought they should be more free than others 0 Growth in large black market system illegal activities 0 Flow of white slaves prostitution 0 As Capitalism began to get traction people saw other people making lots of money so mobs began to protect entrepreneurs for a fee some 3000 gangs 0 50 Russian economy controlled by criminal elements great criminal in uence Oil and Gas in Russia Abundant resource Huge proven reserves measured etc Allowing Russia to move from Socialism to Capitalism Most oil located in Western Siberia near Urals 60 billion barrels in reserves as of 2010 Russia now world s leading producer of oil Great consumption rate increased production over time 2009 exporting 7 million barrels a day US Net Importer vs Russia as Net Exporter Oil fueling Russia s economy Russian Natural Gas Russia as largest producer l7trillion cubic feet 1A of world s total Sendingexporting most to Western Europe Reserves much greater than other countries by far the largest Tension over how to export oil contributing to geopolitical conditions in Europe and Russia s relationship with Europe Pipelines to Europe Russian oil owing out to consumers in Europe Most prominent dimensions of Russia time is the inequity Wealth concentrated in a few hands more like the old czarist system with nobility Great wealth and then very poor regions huge gap Many people vast majority unable to make the leap into the Capitalist economy 39 39 rate of 39 39 quot suicide 39 J39 of economy inequity frustrating with the Capitalist economy those people look favorably on putting Socialism back in place where they at least had some guarantees retirement and set prices as examples Vision of Socialism taking care of everyone providing food housing unity
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