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by: Shayna Jenkins Sr.


Shayna Jenkins Sr.
GPA 3.84

F. Wang

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F. Wang
Class Notes
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shayna Jenkins Sr. on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 1003 at Louisiana State University taught by F. Wang in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see /class/222737/geog-1003-louisiana-state-university in Geography at Louisiana State University.


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Date Created: 10/13/15
GEOG 1003 Lecture 1 1192012 61600 PM Geography in the Era of Globalization Reading Chapters 1amp2 What is globalization Globalization various countries working together spread of culture amongst people all over the world international business it s an ongoing processin business it could involve commodities and services especially in this recovering economy Worldwide processes of making the world more uniform integrated and interdependentthrough commerce communications and travel Multiple levels economic environmental cultural political o A disaster in one region could affect other regions in various ways Why now We have a big growing population Urbanization is playing a role in unity Political system has faced many changes Improvement of transportation telecommunication and network computer internet technologies Collapse of communism and rise of market economies Globalization 6 Trade 6 Specialization 6 Transportation model involving 2 or more firms towns or countries Characteristic 1 Increasingly more globally mobile capital Foreign direct investment FDImoney is needed so this is where capital comes inthe US is the number one country that attracts FDI after other countries like China India Brazil Argentina and other developing countries note that just 2 years ago China was 1 Development of Four Tigers South Korea Taiwan Singapore and Hong Kongthey became successful in attracting FDI Free trade zones amp exportoriented industrialization Flow directions core countries across each other or from core to peripheral countries African Poverty Failed international development policies Food policies o Land ownership Determinants of Poverty o Regional climate access to infrastructure energy sources government industrialization policy o InterHousehold SES land ownership demographic household size health o IntraHousehold gender male vs femaleheaded households education Climate change flooding and drought Lack of infrastructure Lack of energy supply Stateowned enterprises Ambiguous effect of household size Aids epidemic Impacts of high HIVAIDS o Low life expectancy o High dependent ratio o Healthcare cost Gender inequality Food Security Issues o Ever increasing demand 0 Change in diet o Limitations to increase food supply 0 Increase yields environmental costs degraded flavor and nutrition 0 Expansion of arable land o Maldistribution of food 0 Transporting food in developing countries 0 Loss of food in inadequate storage facilities 0 Lack of market regulations 0 Political unrest o Agricultural policies 0 Developing countries lack of organization and power representation in governments o Agribusiness vs familyowned farms Factors in Population Growth o Cultural value 0 Large family marrying young gender equity o Ethnic rivalries o lack of urbanization o Education o Counterforces 0 Migration death rate HIV o Demographic Indicators fertility Rate of Natural Increase o About 2 for most countries in the region 0 9 in S Africa 74 in Niger 0 600 in the US o a small increment means major ipacts 0 rule of 70 Chapter Outlines 1192012 61600 PM CHAPTER ONE Globalization increasing interconnectedness of people and places through converging economic political and cultural activities Regions that used to be distant are now connected through commerce communications and travelreferred to as socioeconomic structure being reorganized Do benefits outweigh the costs for globalization Economic activities are main force behind globalization but the consequences affect all aspects of land and life cultural patterns political arrangements and social development are all undergoing profound change Planet s physical environment affected too Financial decisions made worldwide alter ecosystems and have negative consequences for the world s climates oceans waterways and forests Basic patterns of world geography are being reorganized by global interconnections Converging Currents of Globalization o Major component of globalization economic reorganization of the world well integrated and truly global o The system has these attributes 0 Global communication that links everyone in all regions instantly 0 Transportation systems that can quickly transport by land air and sea 0 Transnational business practices that lead to global corporations Flexible forms of capital accumulation amp international financial institutions 24 hour trading Global agreements that promote free trade Market economies and private enterprises that have taken away statecontrolled economies and services free market now 0 O O O O 0 An abundance of planetary goods and services that have fulfilled consumer demand Economic disputes resulting in migration for a better life International workers who give this powerful economic force a human dimension Not everyone equally benefits from economic globalizationsome don t seem to benefit at alleconomic interconnectivity can economic vulnerability Globalization and Cultural Change 0 O 0 Economic changes cultural changescreates social tensions between traditional cultures and new outside globalizing currents radical Islamism doesn t exactly welcome westernization Fastfood franchises are changing traditional dietunhealthy and environmentally destructive expansion of cattle is destroying tropical rain forests Nonmaterial culture is changing too language Social values role of women human rights and nongovernment organizations taking stands Hybridization plays a part in spreading culture Globalization and Geopolitics O O 0 Globalization isn t restricted by territorial or national boundaries creation of UN step toward creating an international governmental structure in which all nations could have representationafter Cold War SU and east Europe joined the efforts amp they changed as a result Globalization has weakened political power of individual states amp strengthened power of regional economic amp political organizations Weak traditional power has even led to strong local and separatist movements Environmental Concerns o Transnational Firms do global business through international subsidiariesare disrupting local ecosystemseconomic globalization is worsening worldwide environmental problems too However it is only through global cooperation that these problems can be addressed o Social Dimensions 0 People are immigrating from all kinds of regions to other regions even if there are laws prohibiting them to do so 0 Criminal element is part of globalization drugs are a global commoditydrugs pornography and prostitution involved too Advocates and Critics of Globalization o Advocates say it s a great economic efficiency that will eventually result in prosperity for the whole world o Critics say it will largely benefit those already prosperous leaving most of the world poorer than before as the rich exploit the less fortunate o The ProGlobalization Stance o Enhance competition and generally make the global market place more efficient o Enhancing specialization creates more efficiency 0 Economic convergence world s poorer countries will gradually catch up with the more advanced countries believed to result from globalization 0 Those who isolate themselves from globalization suffer economically Sweat shops and poor working conditions in some poorer nations is somewhat encouraged o Critics of Globalization 0 Say it s not a natural process but a product of an explicit economic policy promoted by freetrade advocates capitalist countries multinational firms etc o Trickledown model isn t validated 0 think countries need more control over their industries than what globalization allows o argue it is simply unstable A Middle Position 0 It s unavoidable Argue the critics of the movement are an expression of globalization through activities like internet usage Diversity in a Globalizing World Globalization is making the world more uniform and homogenous Natives of different regions are generally determined to maintain tradition Without diversity the world loses one of the biggest characteristics of humanity Natural Population Increase Rate of Natural Increase RNI percentage of annual growth rate for a country or region Total Fertility Rate used to predict future growth synthetic and hypothetical number that measures the fertility of a statistically fictitious yet average group of women moving through their child bearing years Young and Old Populations o Youthfulness of a population about to enter their prime reproductive years common statistic percentage of a population under age 15 o Other end of age spectrum percentage of a population over age 65 Structure of a population which includes the percentage of young and old is presented graphically as a population pyramid Life Expectancy the average length of a life expected at the birth of a typical male or female in a specific countrygrouped with social indicators The Demographic Transition o The demographic transition model a fourstage conceptualization that tracks changes in birthrates and death rates through time as a population urbanizes Stage 1 characterized by high birthrates and death rates leading to a slow rate of natural increasethink of preindustrial Europe with plague because of a lack of medical understanding Stage 2 death rates fall dramatically while birthrates remain high producing a rapid rise in the RNIassociated with development of public health measures and modern medicine Stage 3 transitional stage in which people apparently become aware of the advantages of smaller families in an urban and industrial setting Stage 4 a very low RNI results from a combination of low birthrates and very low death ratesas a result there is very little if any natural population increase US Japan and most European countries are in Stage 4 Chapter 6 1192012 61600 PM SubSaharan Africa o Portion of the African continent lying south of the Sahara Desert o No common religion language philosophy or political system ever united the area o Boundaries o In the late 1800s the entire African continent was divided by European colonial powers imposing political boundaries that remain to this day 0 Some scholars say treat the African continent as one world region because the Sahara never formed a complete barrier between the Mediterranean north and the rest of the African landmasshowever N Africa is more closely linked to SW Asia culturally and physically o Environmental Geography 0 Very pretty colorful landscape 0 Poor soils persistent tropical diseases frequent droughts 0 Huge areas especially those in S Africa have great potential for agricultural development 0 Significant water resources biodiversity and mineral wealth abound 0 Most of southern and eastern Africa lies well about 2000 feet and sizable areas sit above 5000 feet areas referred to as HIGH AFRICA 0 LOW AFRICA includes West Africa and much of Central Africa 0 High plateaus have countries known for their cooler climates and relatively abundant moisture Steep escarpments form where plateaus abruptly end Victoria Falls 0 Much of S Africa is rimmed by a landform called the GREAT ESCARPMENT a steep cliff separating the coastal lowlands from the plateau uplands It begins in southwestern Angola and ends in northeastern South Africa creating a natural barrier to coastal settlement Drakensburg Mts Rise up from the Great Escarpment making coastal plains narrow and river navigation difficult with waterfalls and a lack of natural harbors o Rift Valley Zone 0 Soils Holds extensive area of mountainous topography in Ethiopia northern portion of zonedominant features are more like high plateaus intercut with deep valleys instead of actual mountains Also holds series of volcanic mountains south half of zoneincludes Kilimanjaro and Kenya E Africa is slowly being torn away amp will form a separate landmass years from now In East Africa the rift zone splits into two separate valleys each flanked by volcanic uplands Between eastern and western rifts lies a bowlshaped depression the center of which is filled by Lake Victoria Some of the densest areas of settlement are found amid the fertile and wellwatered soils that border the Rift Valley The Nile River originates in the highlands of the zone SubSaharan Africa s soils are relatively infertile because agents of soil renewal are lacking in the are Some of the most fertile soils are in the Rift Valley enhanced by volcanic activityfertile land is responsible for larger population because of agricultural reasons Alfisols soils with lots of iron amp aluminum are more fertile than other soils and found in wetter zones n Many farmers plan in drier areas like the Sahel even though they risk drought because alfisols are too moist 0 Tropical Forests The core of the SubSaharan is very moist Precipitation falls year round Conditions are constantly warm to hot Commercial logging and agricultural clearing have degraded the western and southern fringes of this vast forest but a lot of the northeastern part is still intact o Savannas Dominated by mix of trees and tall grasses in the wetter zones adjacent to the forest belt and shorter grasses with fewer trees in the drier zones Critical habitat for the region s large fauna o Deserts Tropical Africa is bracketed by several deserts Sahara Desert is huge Kalahari Desert isn t dry enough to be classified as true desert Africa s Environmental Issues o Desertification expansion of desert like conditions as a result of humaninduced degradation and deforestation are common in this region o Horn of Africa Sahel and S Africa are all prone to drought The Sahel and Desertification o Sahel emblem of humaninduced degradation when a wet period ended and 6 years of drought occurred The Sahel is an area of ecological transition between the Sahara and the wetter forests areas in the South Peanut crops have taken away the soil nutrients Overgrazing is damaging too


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